UXBRIDGE BROOK WATERSHED PLAN FEBRUARY 1997

					UXBRIDGE BROOK
WATERSHED PLAN

  FEBRUARY 1997
Prepared for the Township of
         Uxbridge

           By the

  LAKE SIMCOE REGION
CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The successful completion of the watershed plan would not have been possible without
and the participation of the members of the Steering Committee, Public Advisory
Committee, and the public who attended the Open-Houses or provided comments. The
Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority would like to thank the following for their
cooperation, support, and input throughout the study:

                              STEERING COMMITTEE
                  Susan Para, Township of Uxbridge (Chairperson)
                          Alex Grant, Township of Uxbridge
             Gayle Wood, Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority
               Steven Maude, Ministry of the Environment and Energy
                Victor Doyle, Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing
                     Ian Buchanan, Ministry of Natural Resources
       Michael Toombs, Ontario Ministry Of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs
                    Thom Sloley, Regional Municipality of Durham
                Nestor Chornobay, Regional Municipality of Durham
                          Thom Gettinby, Township of Brock
                          Alex Grant, Township of Uxbridge
                      Susan Palmer, Public Advisory Committee
                    William Heywood, Public Advisory Committee

                         PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE:
                             Gayle Wood, (Chairperson)
                                    Susan Para
                               Johnathan Gladstone
                                   Juliane Hanus
                                  Robert Harrison
                                 William Heywood
                                  Richard Hudson
                                     Faye Kerr
                                   Susan Palmer
                                  Jennifer Prentice
                                 Suzanne Redford
                                     Alan Wells
                                   Alan Williams
                Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study Team
             Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority
             Michael Walters,                  Tom Hogenbirk
             Reinie Vos                        Graeme Davis
             Geoff Peat                        Jeff Brimsmead
             Andrea Shragge                    Stefan Romberg
             Fred Dobbs                        Rick Grillmayer

                                Consultants

                      C.C. Tatham & Associates Ltd.


Special thanks to the summer students for their help throughout the project

             Kelly Holmes                      Joanna Parsons
             Kareem Reid                       Yvonne Shragge
             Shaffiq Somani                    Debbie Waelz
                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER                                                                                                            PAGE

Executive Summary..........................................................................................................I

1.0      INTRODUCTION
         1.1  The Watershed Planning Process...............................................................1
         1.2  The Uxbridge Brook Watershed Project Process........................................2

2.0      GOALS AND OBJECTIVES...................................................................................9

3.0      THE UXBRIDGE BROOK WATERSHED..............................................................12
         3.1  Resource Summary...................................................................................12
              3.1.1 Hydrogeology..................................................................................12
              3.1.2 Hydrology/Hydraulics and Erosion Potential..................................17
              3.1.3 Water Quality..................................................................................20
              3.1.4 Aquatic Environment........................................................................27
              3.1.5 Terrestrial Environment....................................................................45

4.0      MANAGEMENT ISSUES......................................................................................68
         4.1 Water Quality............................................................................................68
         4.2 Water Quantity..........................................................................................72
         4.3 Aquatic Habitat..........................................................................................74
         4.4 Terrestrial Habitat......................................................................................78
         4.5 Recreation and Aesthetic Amenity.............................................................81
         4.6 Subwatershed Management Issues Summary..........................................82

5.0      PROTECT WHAT IS HEALTHY...........................................................................103
         5.1 Existing Conditions..................................................................................103
             5.1.1 Official Plan Designs....................................................................104
         5.2 Constraint Analysis and Mapping.............................................................106

6.0      REHABILITATE WHAT HAS BEEN DEGRADED
         6.1 Best Management Practices....................................................................109
             6.1.1 Management Policies and Bl-Laws...............................................109
             6.1.2 Land Use Protection......................................................................111
             6.1.3 Remedial Projects and Programs..................................................112
         6.2 BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quality.........................................121
         6.3 BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quantity......................................125
         6.4 BMPs to Maintain and Improve Aquatic Habitat......................................127
         6.5 BMPs to Maintain and Improve Terrestrial Habitat..................................130
         6.6 BMPs to Maintain and Improve Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities......131
         6.7 Water Quality and Quantity Modelling of Land Use Scenarios...............133
             6.7.1 Water Quality Modelling................................................................133
             6.7.2 Water Quantity Modelling.............................................................149
7.0     THE UXBRIDGE BROOK WATERSHED PLAN
        7.1  Conclusions..............................................................................................154
        7.2  Recommendations...................................................................................159
        7.3  Summary of Recommended Capital BMPs..............................................184

8.0     IMPLEMENTATION............................................................................................191
        8.1  The Planning Process.............................................................................191
        8.2  Other Mechanisms..................................................................................192
        8.3  Timing and Funding.................................................................................194


LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURES                                                                                                        PAGE

FIGURE 1.0 Uxbridge Brook Watershed Map................................................................3
FIGURE 3.0 Groundwater Vulnerability Map.................................................................16
FIGURE 3.1 Floodplain Map.........................................................................................19
FIGURE 3.2 Water Quality Sampling Sites Map...........................................................23
FIGURE 3.3 Fish Sampling Stations Map.....................................................................30
FIGURE 3.4 Stream Temperature Site Map..................................................................36
FIGURE 3.5 Forest Resource Map.................................................................................47
FIGURE 3.6 Wetland Map.............................................................................................50
FIGURE 3.7 Environmental Sensitive Areas Map..........................................................55
FIGURE 3.8 Area of Natural and Scientific Interest Map...............................................58
FIGURE 3.9 Deer Wintering Yards Map........................................................................64
FIGURE 3.10 Aggregate Resource Map..........................................................................67
FIGURE 4.0 Subwatershed Map...................................................................................83
FIGURE 5.0 Constraint Map........................................................................................107
FIGURE 6.0 Location of Urban Sewwersheds Map.....................................................139
FIGURE 6.1 Phosphorous Loadings to Uxbridge Brook From All Sources.................145
FIGURE 6.2 Modelling Scenarios ................................................................................147
FIGURE 7.0 Location of Urban BMPs Map..................................................................185
FIGURE 7.1 Phosphorous Loading from Livestock Sources Map...............................187
FIGURE 7.2 Revegetating Uxbridge Watershed Map.................................................189
FIGURE 7.3 Priority Management Areas Map................................................................190


                                               LIST OF TABLES

TABLE                                                                                                          PAGE

TABLE 4.0        Water Quality Issues and Concerns.........................................................70
TABLE 4.1        Water Quantity Issues and Concerns.......................................................73
TABLE 4.2        Aquatic Habitat Issues and Concerns.......................................................76
TABLE                                                                                                 PAGE

TABLE 4.3    Terrestrial Habitat Issues and Concerns...................................................80
TABLE 4.4    Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities Issues and Concerns.......................82
TABLE 4.5    Key Issues in Subwatershed 1..................................................................84
TABLE 4.6    Key Issues in Subwatershed 2..................................................................85
TABLE 4.7    Key Issues in Subwatershed 3..................................................................86
TABLE 4.8    Key Issues in Subwatershed 4..................................................................87
TABLE 4.9    Key Issues in Subwatershed 5..................................................................88
TABLE 4.10   Key Issues in Subwatershed 6..................................................................90
TABLE 4.11   Key Issues in Subwatershed 7..................................................................91
TABLE 4.12   Key Issues in Subwatershed 8.....................................................................92
TABLE 4.13   Key Issues in Subwatershed 9.....................................................................93
TABLE 4.14   Key Issues in Subwatershed 10..................................................................94
TABLE 4.15   Key Issues in Subwatershed 11...............................................................95
TABLE 4.16   Key Issues in Subwatershed 12...............................................................96
TABLE 4.17   Key Issues in Subwatershed 13...............................................................97
TABLE 4.18   Key Issues in Subwatershed 14...............................................................98
TABLE 4.19   Key Issues in Subwatershed 15...............................................................99
TABLE 4.20   Key Issues in Subwatershed 16..............................................................100
TABLE 4.21   Key Issues in Subwatershed 17..............................................................101
TABLE 4.22   Key Issues in Subwatershed 18................................................................102
TABLE 6.0    Pollutant Loadings In Urban Stormwater.....................................................118
TABLE 6.1    Summary of Stormwater Runoff Best Management Practices.................119
TABLE 6.2    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quality........................................122
TABLE 6.3    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quantity......................................125
TABLE 6.4    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Aquatic Habitat......................................128
TABLE 6.5    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Terrestrial Habitat.................................130
TABLE 6.6    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities.....132
TABLE 6.7    Modelled Effectiveness of Best Management Practices.........................135
TABLE 6.8    Existing Stormwater Outfalls-Urban Uxbridge.........................................140
TABLE 6.9    Phosphorous Loadings from Livestock Operations.................................143
TABLE 6.10   Phosphorous Loadings from Cropland and Natural Soil Erosion.............144
TABLE 6.11   Summary of Phosphorous Loadings Based on Modelling Scenarios......146
TABLE 6.12   Peak Flow 1:2 years to 1:10 years............................................................152
TABLE 6.13   Peak Flow 1:25 years to 1:100 years........................................................153
TABLE 6.14   Regional Peak Flow Summary.................................................................153
TABLE 7.0    Resource Targets For Management Issues.............................................159
TABLE 7.1    Subwatershed 1 Recommendations.......................................................160
TABLE 7.2    Subwatershed 2 Recommendations.......................................................161
TABLE 7.3    Subwatershed 3 Recommendations.......................................................163
TABLE 7.4    Subwatershed 4 Recommendations.......................................................165
TABLE 7.5    Subwatershed 5 Recommendations.......................................................166
TABLE 7.6    Subwatershed 6 Recommendations.......................................................168
TABLE 7.7    Subwatershed 7 Recommendations.......................................................169
TABLE                                                                                            PAGE

TABLE 7.8    Subwatershed 8 Recommendations.......................................................170
TABLE 7.9    Subwatershed 9 Recommendations.......................................................171
TABLE 7.10   Subwatershed 10 Recommendations.....................................................173
TABLE 7.11   Subwatershed 11 Recommendations.....................................................174
TABLE 7.12   Subwatershed 12 Recommendations.....................................................175
TABLE 7.13   Subwatershed 13 Recommendations.....................................................176
TABLE 7.14   Subwatershed 14 Recommendations.....................................................177
TABLE 7.15   Subwatershed 15 Recommendations.....................................................179
TABLE 7.16   Subwatershed 16 Recommendations.....................................................180
TABLE 7.17   Subwatershed 17 Recommendations.....................................................181
TABLE 7.18   Subwatershed 18 Recommendations.....................................................183
TABLE 7.19   Uxbridge Urban Area BMP Capitol Cost Summary.................................186
TABLE 7.20   Rural BMP Capital Cost Summary............................................................191



                                         APPENDICES


APPENDIX A           Resource Factors & Sub-Components of the Environmental
                     Constraint Map
APPENDIX B           Fish Inventory of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed
APPENDIX C           Uxbridge Brook Watershed - Spot Temperature Survey, 1996
APPENDIX D           Wildlife
APPENDIX E           Water Quantity
                         Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                               Executive Summary
Introduction and Goals

In January of 1996 the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) commenced work
on a watershed plan for the Uxbridge Brook, as requested by, and in partnership with the Township
of Uxbridge. The watershed planning process uses drainage boundaries and embraces an
ecosystem approach, which recognizes that “everything is connected to everything else”.

The Uxbridge Brook Watershed has a total watershed area of 178 km2 upstream of its outlet into
Pefferlaw Brook. As it flows north from the Oak Ridges Moraine, the Brook crosses four municipal
boundaries, with the majority of its length within the Regional Municipality of Durham in the
Township of Uxbridge, and smaller portions within the Townships of Scugog and Brock and in the
Regional Municipality of York in the Town of Georgina. The underlying aquifers represent a
regionally significant groundwater resource, and the headwaters of the Brook support an important
coldwater fishery identified by the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) and the LSRCA.
Significantly, this upstream area will be under extensive development pressures in the future. In
recognition of the need for carefully managed growth to protect the area’s natural resources, the
Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan identifies resources, management issues, and recommends
development constraints and best management practices for the watershed.

The study approach consisted of five steps, as follows:
       1.     Creating an Organizational Structure
       2.     Background Review, Data Collection and Analysis
       3.     Establishing Watershed Goals, Objectives and Land Use Scenarios
       4.     Developing Constraints and Remedial Strategies
       5.     Selecting Management Alternatives, Establishing Evaluation and Monitoring
              Strategies.

The overall goal of the Watershed Plan can be simplified into two guiding principles to be used in
the development of a vision of balance between future urban growth and the environmental needs
of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed. These principles are as follows:

       !       To Protect What is Healthy, and
       !       To Rehabilitate What is Degraded.

The Uxbridge Watershed Resources

The watershed planning approach examines the physical, biological, and socio-economic
needs of an ecosystem to understand their interrelationships. Section 3.0 of the report
provides a summary of these resources and functions within the Uxbridge Brook Watershed.



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It provides the necessary information to diagnose the health of the watershed and identify any
ill effects associated with land uses and practices. Natural features and functions were
divided into five categories for detailed investigation. A very brief synopsis is presented
below.

Hydrogeology was examined in terms of surface-groundwater interactions, water budget, and
groundwater vulnerability. Three sets of aquifer systems were identified in the study area,
these being: I) an upper, unconfined aquifer; ii) an intermediate aquifer; and iii) a lower,
confined aquifer. The flow direction for all three aquifers is generally in a northerly direction,
with discharge from the upper aquifer towards the Brook. Many farms, rural homes, and
several municipal wells use the upper aquifer as a source of water.

Water balance (budget) modelling was used to determine the increases in surface runoff
volumes (and resulting decrease in groundwater recharge) caused by urbanization south of
Uxbridge and east of Wagners Lake. Based on the results, it is concluded that stormwater
infiltration facilities must be incorporated in these areas.

Stormwater runoff, spills from urban development, and some farming practices can carry high
concentrations of pollutants which can infiltrate into the ground. The results of the
vulnerability analysis indicates that over 80% of the watershed (sandy and sandy loam soils)
is highly vulnerable to groundwater contamination, with the most vulnerable areas located
south of Uxbridge and east of Wagners Lake.

Hydrology\Hydraulics: The hydrology of the watershed can be characterized as having
extremely low runoff volumes and high groundwater infiltration capability due to the high
distribution of sandy and sandy loam soils. Under normal dry summer conditions, 80-90% of
a rainfall event would be infiltrated leaving only 10-20% for surface runoff.

Flood lines for the Regulatory flood plain were established by the LSRCA in 1979, with flood
damage areas located primarily in the urban area of Uxbridge.

Water Quality: Surface water quality of the Uxbridge Brook is influenced by human land use
activities within the watershed. Analysis of water quality was assessed primarily for
conditions for aquatic life using the Provincial Water Quality Objectives and Guidelines
(PWQOGs) set by the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MOEE). Data was collected from
both private and public sector sources, and ranged through 1982-1994. A selection of
chemical, biological and physical parameters were evaluated. In general, water quality of the
Uxbridge Brook is quite high, and does not limit the aquatic ecosystem, however, three of the
parameters examined do exceed the PWQOGs, including: total phosphorus, ammonia, and
E. coli. Phosphorus is the most significant of the three parameters which could limit the
aquatic ecosystem.

Aquatic Resources\Habitat: An evaluation of the sensitivity of aquatic habitat in the Uxbridge


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Brook was completed in 1996 as part of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study. Data
collected included: fish community sampling, water temperature, and information on existing
aquatic habitat. The information collected was necessary to provide a basis for making
specific recommendations for aquatic ecosystem protection and rehabilitation.

A total of 18 different fish species were documented in the Uxbridge Brook Watershed during
the 1996 survey versus 20 in 1979. Species lists from both years include both cold and
warmwater species. Brook trout, a typical coldwater species, were sampled in the
headwaters of the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries in both years but were absent from the
lower reaches downstream from Wagners Lake.

Stream temperature data, was collected in July and August of 1996 at 28 sampling stations
in the watershed. A habitat mapping exercise was also undertaken to group similar reaches
of the Brook and tributaries. Generally, in the tributaries running through Uxbridge, the
headwater areas upstream of the town are of cold water quality, and support brook trout and
other sensitive aquatic species. All the ponds examined were found to degrade aquatic
habitat either by raising the water temperature, causing downstream erosion, or blocking fish
migration. Water temperatures on the main branch of the Brook provide cool to coldwater
aquatic habitat. Wagners Lake, and downstream reaches can be categorized as warmwater
areas. Some warmwater sport fish, such as To the west, the Leaskdale Creek system was
found to be of cool water and degraded cold water habitat.

Terrestrial Resources\Habitat: The forest communities of the Uxbridge Brook watershed are
extremely diverse and occupy 23.6 % (42 km2) of the land area within the watershed. A full
spectrum of forest community types exists, ranging from lowland swamp communities to
upland mixed and hardwood forests. One forested area, the Uxbridge Pine-Maple Uplands
has been identified as a provincially significant Life-Science ANSI (Area of Natural and
Scientific Interest. Four other locally significant Life Science ANSI were identified. Eight
wetlands have been documented in the watershed, using the OMNR’s wetland evaluation
protocol, and represent a total area of 11.3 km2. A range of wetland types, including
marshes, fens, bogs and swamps are represented among the documented wetlands. Several
of these wetlands are among the four biological ESAs and two hydrogeological ESAs that
have been identified in the Uxbridge Brook watershed.

At least 187 species of birds inhabit parts of the Uxbridge Brook watershed at some stage
in their life. A complete list of species considered in this report appears in Appendix C. A
number of areas within the Uxbridge Brook subwatershed provide valuable habitat for
waterfowl for such life cycle activities as breeding, moulting and staging. Deer wintering
habitat has been identified as an important function of mixed wood forests in Ontario. The
OMNR recognizes four deer yards in the Uxbridge Brook watershed, with a total area of 10.8
km2. The largest of these is located north of Wagners Lake and covers an area of 7.4 km2.
Data on other mammalian and herpetofaunal wildlife was compiled from a variety of sources
and is included in Appendix C. Plant life is very diverse within the watershed, with 43


       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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species that are considered rare or endangered.

Potential aggregate resource areas in the watershed include all lands that are situated on the
Oak Ridges Moraine. There are a total of 6.0 km2 of licenced aggregate pits within the study
area, which makes up 3.4% of the area of the watershed. There are also 19 abandoned
sites, of which 13 have been rehabilitated.


Management Issues

Management issues were identified for the entire Uxbridge Brook watershed by the Steering
and Public Advisory Committees, along with input from the general public, and are addressed
in Chapter 4.0. Specific issues and concerns relate to key natural processes and the
landscape ecology. Management issues were divided into five broad categories, and have
been briefly summarized below.

Water Quality: The data collected and reviewed for the Uxbridge Brook identified problems
associated with quality of surface water runoff. Specifically, the ability of the watershed to
retain nutrients (especially phosphorus), resist soil erosion, and trap sediment is greatly
impaired due to human activities including land development and agricultural practices.
Phosphorus and nitrogen are the two nutrients of concern within the Uxbridge Brook
watershed. Improvement of the Brook’s water quality will help to achieve the Lake Simcoe
Environmental Management Strategy’s goal of reducing phosphorus loadings to the lake by
25% (LSEMS, 1995).

Water Quantity: The key water quantity management issues identified within the Uxbridge
Brook watershed involve processes associated with groundwater recharge, discharge and
flood storage. Groundwater recharge and related discharge are linked to climate and
influence baseflow to the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries. Water infiltrating through the soil
recharges the water table and deeper aquifers maintaining water levels and controlling the
sub-surface flow patterns. This provides us with our drinking water while also maintaining
baseflow which is needed to support the aquatic ecosystem and provide water for wildlife.
Therefore, a balanced water budget is essential for a healthy ecosystem and our human
well-being.

Aquatic Habitat: Aquatic habitat provides an environment that is essential to the health and
survival of aquatic organisms. Valuable aquatic habitat has been defined as those providing
greater environmental complexity and having the greatest opportunities for food, cover,
species diversity, and productivity. Both warm and coldwater fisheries are considered
valuable within the Uxbridge Watershed. An example of a sensitive high value habitat would
be cold water areas supporting brook trout.

Terrestrial Habitat: Terrestrial Habitat refers to all lands within the Uxbridge Brook watershed


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that support native flora and fauna populations, and especially those areas which have not
been converted into urban land use. Other factors such as water quality/quantity and aquatic
habitats are affected by the health of the terrestrial environment. Specific issues include:
forest/species diversity; lack of natural corridors; unstable slopes; destruction of upland
forested areas; and the destruction of wetlands.

Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities: One of the goals of the Watershed Study is to create
a natural environment that is aesthetically pleasing to residents and visitors of the Uxbridge
Brook watershed, and to provide recreational opportunities to enjoy the aforementioned
environment. To meet this goal, it will be necessary to preserve the existing natural
environment and to reestablish degraded or aesthetically unpleasing areas using mitigation
and enhancement measures. Specific issues include: reducing the use of herbicides and
pesticides in park areas; garbage and debris dumped in valley lands; lack of a trail system;
and the destruction of natural areas due to recreational activities.

To provide site specific recommendations and address individual concerns, each of the 18
subwatersheds identified in the Uxbridge Brook was examined using the five key
management issues outlined above.


Protect What is Healthy and Rehabilitate What Has Been Degraded

Protect What is Healthy: Urban expansion represents the greatest threat to existing natural areas,
their functions and processes as they relate to the health of the Uxbridge Brook ecosystem. To
effectively protect these natural areas, an understanding of current land use and future
development plans is critical. This involves a review of the current Township of Uxbridge and
Durham Region Official Plans which outline the expectation for future population and land use.
Generally, the Region is responsible for broad planning responsibilities, and the Township looks
after local planning issues.

To achieve the “protect what is healthy” guiding principle of the watershed plan, a constraint
analysis was undertaken for the entire watershed area using a geographic information system
(GIS).
The constraint analysis identifies lands which should be protected from future development, and/or
where special conditions should be imposed during development to mitigate any associated
harmful impacts.

Constraints were developed using a variety of considerations, including:
!      Existing agency policies (regarding significant wetlands, stream corridors/buffers, flood/fill
       lines)
!      Ecological priority areas determined by the Steering and Public Advisory Committees (PAC)

!      A ranking and weighting system was completed by the PAC to prioritize 7 natural resource


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        types and land uses as they relate to the ecological integrity of the watershed. These
        resources were categorized as follows: groundwater resources, biological - aquatic,
        biological - terrestrial, agriculture, forests, human settlements, and mineral resources
!       Internal resource factors and official plan designations
!       Overlapping areas of constraint for each of the 7 natural resource/land use types.

The result of the constraint mapping exercise was a three-level delineation of the watershed,
showing areas of high, medium and low development constraint to allow the protection of the most
sensitive areas.

Rehabilitate What Has Been Degraded: Best Management Practices (BMPs) are “state of the art”
remedial works and practices that can used to address issues and concerns in the watershed and
rehabilitate what has been degraded. The following is a realistic range of BMPs which can be
applied within the Uxbridge Brook watershed.


 !       Disconnect Roof Leaders                      !       Naturalization and Reduced Pesticide
                                                              Use
 !       Septic System Replacement                    !       Reduction of Invasive, Exotic Species
 !       Household Hazardous Waste Disposal !                 Street Cleaning\Reduce Salt & Sand
                                                              Use
 !       Reforestation and Forest Management !                Manure Storage and Handling
 !       Retirement of Fragile\Marginal Land          !       Cropland Field Management
 !       Fish Habitat (Instream Cover)                !       Restrict Livestock access to streams
 !       Bank Stabilization                           !       Establish Buffer Strips
 !       Removal of Instream Barriers                 !       Urban Stormwater BMPs

Urban stormwater BMPs for water quality control function by providing a settling area for
contaminants, filtering out large particles and establishing an area where biological uptake of
pollutants can occur. These BMPs are quite diverse and can contain such elements as constructed
wetlands or wetponds, underground sand filters, infiltration trenches or ponds, oil grit separators
or something as simple as a roadside swale or ditch. Quantity control BMPs for urban stormwater
are, by comparison, fairly uniform and consist of a dry facility which fills up after a rainfall event and
then slowly drains out at a controlled rate. In many newer developments, quantity and quality
controls are provided in the same facility.

Best Management Practices were evaluated relative to the management issues and concerns
previously identified by the public, Steering Committee and Public Advisory Committee. The BMPs
were divided into five categories as follows:



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!      BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quality
!      BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quantity
!      BMPs to Maintain and Improve Aquatic Habitat
!      BMPs to Maintain and Improve Terrestrial Habitat
!      BMPs to Maintain and Improve Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities

Water Quality Modelling: A number of future growth scenarios within the Uxbridge Brook
Watershed were evaluated using methods adapted from a Water Quality Model developed by
BEAK Consultants Limited. The modelling efforts focus on phosphorus loadings to the Uxbridge
Brook since it represents the water quality parameter potentially most limiting to the aquatic
ecosystem. Furthermore, the remedial measures used to control phosphorus will also effectively
reduce inputs of other nutrients, sediment, bacteria, and metals.

Four modelling scenarios were evaluated and include:
      !       Scenario “A” - Existing Conditions “Do Nothing”
      !       Scenario “B” - Existing Conditions Implementing Rural and Urban BMPs
      !       Scenario “C” - Future Growth (Official Plan Designation) “Do Nothing”
      !       Scenario “D” - Future Growth (Official Plan Designation) All BMPs

Conservative estimates of the effectiveness of BMPs were used in the modelling analysis since not
all of the proposed measures are legislated. Achieving unlegislated, but recommended, BMPs will
require the cooperation of landowners. It is also possible that some phosphorus sources could
escape detection.

Phosphorus loadings from livestock sources were calculated using a model developed by the
Pollution from Land Use Activities Reference Group (PLUARG) of the International Joint
Commission. A 1996 survey of all the farming operations within the Uxbridge Brook watershed
detailed individual livestock operations and their manure storage and management practices. The
data was then used to estimate phosphorous loadings for each of the sub-watersheds.

Phosphorus loadings from cropland and natural erosion were estimated using the BEAK model,
which involves three steps:

       ! simulating hydraulic conditions and the generation of runoff over the lands’ surface,
       ! determining the amount of particle detachment and soil erosion occurring as a result of
         meteorological conditions, and
       ! quantifying the delivery of eroded material to receiving waters.

Summary of Phosphorus Modelling Results: The total annual phosphorus loading entering the
Uxbridge Brook from all sources is 5,446 Kg/y. Figure 6.1 illustrates the loading contributions from
individual components. Rural sources such as runoff from livestock operations and cropland soil
erosion are the two largest contributors accounting for than 53% (2887 kg/y) of the total load.
Natural sources are the next most significant contributor providing roughly 25% (1358 kg/y) of the


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total load. Urban sources account for the remaining 23% (1241 kg/y) of the total phosphorus load
with stormwater runoff being the largest urban source.




       Summary of Phosphorus Loadings Based on Modelling Scenarios
             Loading Component                              Modelling Scenario
                                                        Annual Phosphorus Loads (kg)
                                                        A          B           C           D
 Septic Systems                                       191          95         228         132
 Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)                         110         110         285         285
 Urban Stormwater Runoff                              940         810        1041         876
 Agriculture - Livestock                              1528        764        1528         764
 Agriculture - Cropland Erosion                       1359        680        1359         680
 Pasture\Fallow                                       559         559         559         559
 Forest                                               492         492         492         492
 Wetland                                              150         150         150         150
 Scrubland                                            157         157         157         157
 TOTALS                                               5486       3817        5799        4095

The guiding principles of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan are clear, “protect what is healthy and
rehabilitate what has been degraded”. If urban growth is allowed to continue without the
implementation of BMPs further degradation to the ecosystem is certain to occur. Therefore BMPs
must be implemented throughout the watershed not only to improve the health of the ecosystem
as it exists today, but to maintain it into the future.

Water Quantity Modelling:          The hydrology of the urban area in context with the watershed was
modelled using the OTTHYMO.89 computer model and a 12 hour storm event for the 1:2 yr. 1:5
yr., 1:10 yr., 1:25 yr., 1:50 yr., 1:100 yr., and Regional storm (Hurricane Hazel). Existing land uses
and future Official Plan designations in the urban and rural area were used to determine flows at
nine (9) flow nodes through out the entire watershed. Existing quantity control ponds were included
in the model along with Brookdale and Elgin Mill Ponds. The hydrologic modelling results can be
summarized as follows:

1)     The control of flows from future developments in the Uxbridge area to pre -



       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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                                                                                                  viii
       development levels along with providing 24 hour detention of the 25 mm storm
       event will result in peak flow increases in the Brook of between 5 and 15%
       downstream of the Town of Uxbridge with the greatest increase during a 1:2 year
       storm event.

2)     By providing an additional 15 mm of extended detention storage, the impact of
       development on downstream peak flows will be between 0-5% for all storms up to
       and including the 1:100 year event.

3)     Regardless of the quantity control provided there will be a slight increase in
       Regional storm flows downstream of the Town (<2%).


Watershed Plan Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions: In general, surface water quality is not limiting to the aquatic ecology, however
localized issues relative to high phosphorous loadings, sedimentation and bacterial contamination
do exist and must be addressed. A 30% reduction in total phosphorous loading is achievable under
present conditions if all BMPs are implemented. This will be reduced to 25% under the assumed
future growth scenario.

The cumulative impact of development in the watershed will result in an estimated maximum 4%
increase in peak flows downstream of Uxbridge. All new developments should comply with the
Oak Ridges Moraine Implementation Guidelines and incorporate infiltration BMPs except where
groundwater contamination is likely.

A viable cold and warm water fishery are still present in the watershed. Key management issues
involve; water temperature, sedimentation, a lack of vegetative cover, instream barriers, and
maintaining stream baseflow (groundwater discharge and recharge areas) . Opportunities exist
not only to maintain current conditions, but to restore degraded habitat through the implementation
of several urban and rural BMPs.

Generally, the terrestrial habitat and recreational and aesthetic amenities of the watershed are in
good condition. An appropriate percentage of natural areas exist including forested communities,
wetlands and old-field habitat, however some localized deficiencies exist within individual sub-
basins. Several of the key BMPs which improve water quality and aquatic habitat also have a
positive impact upon these factors. Establishing buffers along watercourses and reforesting
marginal farm land can provide habitat and linkages for wildlife and improve recreational
opportunities. It is also vital to preserve existing natural areas wherever possible to maintain the
values which exist currently.

Recommendations: Specific recommendations (or BMPs) are included for each of the 18 sub-
basins. Several involve the initiation of bylaws, changes to existing management practices,


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                                                                                                  ix
planning policies or guidelines, or education initiatives. While these do have associated costs no
attempt has been made to quantify them. BMPs which require capital works have been quantified
and divided into urban and rural.

A total of five urban BMPs are identified to address stormwater runoff at a cost of $468,000, or
$4,000 per kg per year reduction of phosphorous. Rural BMPs include site specific
recommendations including restricting livestock access (11 sites) and manure storage systems (14
sites). Establishing stream-side woody vegetation along 36 km of the Uxbridge Brook and its
tributaries is estimated at a total cost of $324,000. Reforesting 714 ha of marginal land is
recommended at a total cost of $1,701,000. These works will require a great deal of landowner
cooperation and a concerted effort from the LSRCA, the municipalities and other interested parties.


Implementation and Monitoring

Implementation: The Uxbridge Brook watershed is a dynamic and complex ecosystem. As land
use patterns and development pressures are continually changing to meet market demands,
policies adopted to implement this Watershed Plan must be sufficiently flexible to meet these
changing demands.

The Official Plan is the key document in the municipal planning process to implement the
municipality’s goals and objectives for land uses within its jurisdiction. Recommended amendments
to the Plan should be designed to:

!      Ensure that land use planning contributes to the protection, maintenance and
       enhancement of water and related resources and aquatic ecosystems on an
       integrated watershed management basis.
!      Maintain and where possible, enhance surface and ground water resources in
       sufficient quality and quantity to meet existing and future needs on a sustainable
       basis.
!      Ensure that all land use decisions promote water conservation and support the
       efficient use of water on a watershed basis.
!      Protect human life and property from water related hazards such as flooding and
       erosion.
!      Protect and maintain lakes and streams an natural and distinct ecosystems.
!      Seek the fullest participation in the water and related resource management initiatives of
       other agencies to develop a comprehensive and integrated water and related resource
       planning program.

In addition to the Planning Act, a number of other federal and provincial Acts may be used to
implement components of the Watershed Plan. The Township of Uxbridge and the Region of



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                                                                                                 x
Durham must develop a good working relationship with the appropriate Ministries to put the
Watershed Plan recommendations into action. Funding and community involvement programs may
also be available through these agencies to help defray the costs and to promote watershed
improvement projects. For example, the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority provides
funding through its Landowner Environmental Assistance Program (LEAP) for both urban and rural
BMPs, including, but not limited to: streambank/shoreline erosion, park naturalization, livestock
access restrictions, and manure and milkhouse washwater storage and disposal systems.

A commitment to the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan by the Township of Uxbridge, the Regional
Municipality of Durham and the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority will result in more
comprehensive review of new development proposals and will result in more consistent planning
decisions to ensure long term ecological sustainability in the watershed. It is recommended that
all the partners in this Plan adopt a five year implementation program. This will allow suitable
budgets to be established, and additional sources of funding to be developed.

Monitoring: With the health of the Uxbridge Brook watershed hinging on the implementation and
proposed effectiveness of the suggested BMPs, it is recommended that a monitoring program be
established, and that future urban growth be contingent on the results. Computer modelling
programs for water quality are an extremely useful tool for predicting environmental impacts
associated with changes in land use, but the most reliable method for monitoring environmental
health, and gauging the effectiveness of the BMPs is the collection of real data through field
observations and measurements within the watershed.

Community involvement and education is a key to achieving the management and monitoring goals
set out in the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan. If tied in to rehabilitation, enhancement and
monitoring programs, public awareness programs will help to obtain the maximum benefits for the
watershed initiatives.




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       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY

                                                                                               xi
1.0    INTRODUCTION:

1.1    The Watershed Planning Process

A watershed is defined as the land drained by a river and its tributaries. It is governed by a
process known as the hydrologic cycle. Water falls to earth, drains over and through the
surface soil and in doing so transports materials to lakes and rivers, or down into the ground.
This water and its related resources are essential elements necessary to sustain human, plant,
and animal life. Water is also used to support human activities associated with agriculture,
recreation, industry, energy production, waste assimilation, and domestic purposes to name
a few. Not surprisingly then, the protection of water and it’s related resources are of
paramount importance to our economic, social and individual well being.


The watershed planning process originated in the early 1990's out of public and government
concern for the protection and where possible improvement of our water resources. One of
the reasons that it has been so successful is that it uses watershed boundaries and an
ecosystem approach to planning. Ecosystems are described as “dynamic, interacting, living
systems: humans are part of them, not separate” (1992, Regeneration). The ecosystem
approach embraces the concept that “everything is connected to everything else”. It
recognizes that human land use activities can have significant impacts on our water resources
and subsequently the aquatic and terrestrial organisms which depend on these resources to
survive.


The advantage of using a watershed boundary for planning and policy implementation is that
the study area is essentially a water based ecosystem. Therefore, consequences associated
with future land use development in the watershed can be evaluated based on their cumulative
impact or effect relative to all natural resources contained within the ecosystem. This provides
municipal politicians and staff with the information to make more informed planning decisions



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                              1
and can streamline future land use approvals by immediately outlining regulatory restrictions
or other potential land use constraints upfront.


Another important added benefit of conducting a watershed plan is the involvement of interest
groups, a wide range of government agencies, and the public in the study process. This
cooperative approach allows participants to ensure their mandates or concerns are
represented and incorporated into the final plan. This means that municipalities and review
agencies will be basing future decisions on principles and values developed from within the
community. Finally, implementation of a watershed plan requires more than just environmental
decision making but a change in the attitude of the community. As a stakeholder, the
community can begin to adapt its behaviour and become environmental practitioners involved
in the protection and enhancement of the natural environment.




1.2    The Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study


The Uxbridge Brook Watershed is shown in Figure 1.0 and has a total watershed area of 178
km2 at its outlet into Pefferlaw Brook. The watershed does not conform to political boundaries
and the study area extends across four municipalities. The majority of the watershed is
located in the Regional Municipality of Durham in the Township of Uxbridge. Much smaller
portions are also located in the Townships of Scugog and Brock and in the Regional
Municipality of York in the Town of Georgina. The brook itself originates in the Oak Ridges
Moraine and flows in a northerly direction with the main branch entering the Town of Uxbridge,
and Udora, before joining up with the Pefferlaw Brook approximately 8.5 kilometres south of
Lake Simcoe.


The brook has long been recognized by the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Lake



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            2
                                     Uxbridge Brook Watershed

II
                                                                                                 Sunderland



                  P          Udora
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        rgin     W
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                                                                                                                                                      LEGEND

                                                                                                                                                      Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                                                                                      roads
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                                                                                                            XI                       km 1         0                                      5 km


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                                                                                                            47
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                                 7                                                                                                     Project:    Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                               y4
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                                                                                                                                                  Uxbridge Brook Watershed Map

                                                                                                                                     Data Source: MNR/OBM Maps            LSRCA GIS gp




                                                                                                  3
Simcoe Region Conservation Authority as supporting an extremely important cold and warm
water fishery. This is especially true in the headwaters area, where investigations have found
a healthy population of brook trout. Significantly, this upper area of the watercourse will also
be under extensive development pressures in the future. Estimates by the Durham Regional
Planning Department are that the population of the urban section of Uxbridge will grow from
an existing 6800 people to 11,000 people by the year 2021. The Durham Regional Official
Plan provides for a total of 10,000 to Durham’s northern areas (Brock, Scugog and Uxbridge
Townships), to be allocated by amendment to the Durham Plan, subject to completion of
Environmental Assessments and any required planning studies This growth if not managed
and planned properly in the context of the watershed could have a severe impact on the
Uxbridge Brook, and important natural resources such as the coldwater fishery could be lost.


The existing Uxbridge Brook sewage treatment plant , which provides municipal sanitary
sewage treatment for the Uxbridge urban area, is currently (1995) operating at 64% of its plant
capacity, and can accomodate a population eqivalent of 8,000 people. ( residential and non-
residential uses combined). The remaining plant capacity has been allocated to unserviced,
existing residential units, existing (unbuilt) registered lots and lots of record, and specific
development proposals within the Uxbrdige urban area.


In 1990, a Class Environmental Assesment (EA) was initiated by the Regional Municipality
of Durham for the provision of additional sewage capacity to service the Uxbridge. The
process revealed that a growing public concern existed for the protection and enhancement
of the natural environment in Uxbridge. In 1995, the Township of Uxbridge approached the
Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority to undertake a Watershed Plan, and in early
1996, the Watershed Plan for the Uxbridge Brook was initiated.


Due to uncertainty associated with provincial funding for the project, studies were delayed until



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                               4
the spring of 1996. This time was used to refine the watershed study Terms of Reference.
These were circulated to a number of provincial and local government agencies, local interest
groups and placed on file in the Uxbridge Public Library for the general public to review. The
Terms of Reference proposed a study duration of one year with the project scheduled for
completion by the end of 1996. In order to complete the integrated tasks required of a
watershed plan a study team comprised of Conservation Authority staff and consultants from
C.C. Tatham and Associates was assembled. The Uxbridge Brook Watershed study process
consists of five steps as outlined in the Terms of Reference:
              !      Creating an organizational structure to direct study activities,
              !      Conducting a background review and data collection, inventory
                     assessment where required, analysis and establishment of watershed
                     features and functions,
              !      Establishing and refining watershed goals and objectives, developing
                     analysis of land use alternatives,
              !      Developing watershed constraints, comparing land use scenarios and
                     evaluating remedial measures and control options,
              !      Selecting management alternatives, establishing monitoring and
                     implementation strategies.


Step 1 - Creating an Organizational Structure
The creation of an organizational structure was an important first step to ensure that the
appropriate stakeholders were involved in the study process. A Steering Committee was
created comprised of representative from the Conservation Authority, Township of Uxbridge,
adjoining municipalities and provincial Ministries of Natural Resources; Environment and
Energy; Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs; and Municipal Affairs and Housing. In addition,
public participation was also recognized as an essential component of step one. A two-tiered
organizational model was developed to facilitate public involvement with the creation of a
Public Advisory Committee to provide a detailed peer review of the project, and, the
scheduling of public meetings to allow residents to highlight specific issues and concerns
pertaining to the planning process.



          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            5
                        Public Participation - Two Tiered Model




Step 2 - Background Review, Data Collection and Analysis
Step two involved the background review of existing data, and the collection and analysis of
missing data pertaining to the location, status, significance and sensitivity of natural
environmental features within the watershed. It also established the ecological functions
associated with these resources and identified existing linkages in relation to both
environmental factors and socio-economic activities. Resource factors examined include:


       !      Agricultural resources,             !    Biological resources,
       !      Forestry resources,                 !    Mineral Resources,
       !      Surface water quality,              !    Groundwater resources,
       !      Watershed characteristics, !        Human settlement & communities,
       !      Infrastructure.
A detailed description of the individual resource factors and their sub-components is provided



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            6
in Appendix A.


Step 3 - Establishing Watershed Goals, Objectives and Land Use Scenarios
The next exercise in the watershed planning process was to establish watershed goals and
objectives along with the development of proposed land use scenarios.               This was
accomplished through a series of meetings with both the Steering and Public Advisory
Committees to refine the goals and objectives outlined in the Terms of Reference. This
included the identification of management issues and an open-house was held to solicit the
general public opinions and concerns. As a result, a set of guiding principles were established
for the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan.         These principles incorporated the previous
watershed goals and objectives which were then further refined to address individual
management issues.


During this same period, various land use scenarios were established based on proposed
growth estimates for the major urban area the Town of Uxbridge. These scenarios involved
the application of various models to estimate the reduction in phosphorus loading associated
with the initiation of urban stormwater runoff Best Management Practices (BMP’s).
Agricultural land use practices were also modelled to identify its contribution towards water
quality degradation and qualify the potential reductions in contamination as a result of
improvements in agricultural tillage practices and manure management.


Step 4 - Developing Constraints and Remedial Strategies
The fourth step of the watershed plan focused on the production of a constraint area maps
using a geographic information system and the development of remedial action plans to
address management issues on a sub-basin scale. Constraint analysis was conducted to
identify lands which should be protected from future development and\or areas where special
conditions should be imposed during the development process to mitigate associated



          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             7
impacts.


The development and evaluation of remedial measures and control options was wholly
dependant on the previous exercise of defining management issues. The evaluation of
remedial measures and control options was conducted to consider addressing as many of
the management issues as possible for each sub-basin within the watershed. Conflicts
between practices were identified when evaluating and selecting remedial options. This
included the consideration of technical requirements, cost and feasibility or effectiveness.
Step 5 - Establishing an Implementation and Monitoring Strategies
The fifth and final step involved refining the constraint areas, selecting remedial alternatives
and control options, and establishing both the implementation strategy and a subsequent
program to monitor the watershed’s health relative to the implementation of the plan. This final
step included a review by all participating agencies, and the public prior to the production of
this report and its proposed adoption by the Township of Uxbridge.




           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                               8
2.0    GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


The goal of the Uxbridge Watershed Plan as stated in the study Terms of Reference is as
follows:

                 To maintain and enhance the health and quality of the
                 Uxbridge Brook and its ecosystem by developing a
                 strategy to ensure that impacts associated with future
                 and existing growth within the watershed are minimized
                 and that existing land use activities degrading the
                 ecosystem's health be identified and addressed.




This goal can be achieved by meeting the following objectives:


1)     Involve all partner agencies and the public through active participation in and
       support for watershed planning.

2)     Integrate disciplines, policies, mandates and requirements of all agencies and
        interests.

3)     Identify the location, area, extent, present status, significance, function and   sensitivity
of     the existing natural environment within the watershed.

4)     Identify the location and type of development constraints within the watershed.

5)     Identify sources of surface water contaminants from agricultural, urban,
       rural and natural areas and areas where there is a potential for rehabilitation and
       enhancement.

7)     Evaluate potential impacts on water quality and on the natural environment
       associated with future development in the watershed.

8)     Identify remedial measures and control options to reduce pollutant loadings
       entering Uxbridge Brook from existing developments. Evaluate these based
       on costs and reduction achieved. Recommend appropriate measures



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                                 9
      including preliminary design and associated costs.

9)    Produce a strategy to prioritize remedial options based on a benefit/cost
      analysis. This implementation strategy is to identify roles and responsibilities of
      all involved parties and timing of works and programs to ensure that the plan is
      implemented.

10)   Develop a strategy to rehabilitate and enhance existing areas that adversely
      impact on the brook.

11)   Develop a strategy to minimize and eliminate where feasible the impacts of future
development on the brook.

12)   Provide directions for the maintenance and expansion of natural corridors for
      open space and wildlife usage.

13)    Establish a plan by which the management of the watershed can be done in
       conformity with the Lake Simcoe Environmental Management Strategy (LSEMS),
       the Oak Ridges Moraine Strategy, the Durham Regional Official Plan and   Provincial
Policy Statements.

14)   Outline requirements for monitoring programs and information updates as well
      as facilities recommended by the plan.

15)   Provide technical information that will assist in the design of community plans
      and the design of subdivisions.

16)   Provide specific recommendations with respect to recharge and biological
      Environmentally Significant Areas.

As the study evolved and the Steering and Public Advisory Committees became more directly
involved it was suggested that the goal statement should be simplified into two guiding
principles. These are:

1)    Protect What is Healthy
      Protect the ecosystem of the Uxbridge Brook. Specifically to,

      !      protect water resources and ecological functions
      !      protect natural linkages that still exist in the Uxbridge Watershed.


          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            10
b)     Rehabilitate What is Degraded
       Restore damaged resources within the watershed. Specifically to,

       !      restore the brook and its tributaries by initiating remedial
              projects, through education, and community involvement,
       !      improve water quality,
       !      restore degraded habitats,
       !      enhance existing wildlife and recreational areas by establishing
              linkages and connections,
       !      involve the community, take responsibility for the Uxbridge Brook.

These two simple principles provide a vision for the future of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed
that everyone can identify with and understand.   People must begin to regard the whole of
the watershed as home and realize that their activities, however minor they might seem, may
have broader consequences to ecosystem health. This is especially true when you consider
the number of people living within the watershed and the cumulative impact they could have
by planting a tree, picking up garbage, or by disconnecting a downspout. While the large
capital remedial projects may get the headlines we cannot discount the enormous benefit from
the countless smaller projects undertaken by individuals.


The continuing human tendency to try and master nature by altering the landscape to fit our
needs must stop and efforts taken to preserve ecological functions and process associated
with the natural landscape. This will be accomplished through proper planning and design of
the future urban landscape to achieve a balance.        This means establishing a balance
between future urban growth and the needs of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed.




           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         11
3.0    THE UXBRIDGE BROOK WATERSHED


The watershed planning approach examines the physical, biological, and socio-economic
needs of an ecosystem to understand the interrelationships that exist between them. The
natural features and functions of the watershed are therefore the controlling factors in the
determination of future economic development. The following section provides a summary
of these resources and functions within the Uxbridge Brook watershed. It provides the
necessary information to diagnosis the health of the watershed and identify any ill effects
associated with existing land uses and practices.


3.1    Resource Summary
Natural features and functions of the Uxbridge Brook watershed were divided into five
categories for detailed investigation including:


                     !       Hydrogeology
                     !       Hydrology\Hydraulics
                     !       Water Quality
                     !       Aquatic Resources\Habitat
                     !       Terrestrial Resources\Habitat

The following is a summary of the findings including a brief description of field methodology,
sampling locations and collected data used to evaluate the watershed.


3.1.1 Hydrogeology
The hydrogeologic characteristics of a watershed can be ascertained based on a knowledge
of soil types, bedrock geology, bedrock topography, aquifer systems, groundwater flow nets
and directions, recharge and discharge patterns. It is these characteristics that determine
how much rainfall infiltrates into the ground, how much water is available for stream baseflow
and the amount of water that reaches deeper aquifers. The hydrogeology of the Uxbridge


          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           12
Brook watershed was studied in detail by the consulting firm C.C. Tatham and Associates
using existing data along with mapping produced as part of the overall Watershed Study. The
existing data base was then compiled to:


1)        Determine the existing surface - groundwater interactions for the study area.
2)        Perform a water budget analysis for existing conditions and future land uses, based
          on official plan designations.
3)        Conduct a groundwater vulnerability assessment to determine the potential
          for groundwater contamination from urban and rural pollutant sources.


Surface - Groundwater Interactions
Three sets of aquifer systems were defined for the study area, these being the upper,
intermediate and lower aquifer. The upper aquifer is a sand and gravel layer that is generally
unconfined and can be up to 25 metres thick. Flow is northerly in nature with discharge
towards the brook. This aquifer is generally located above 259 metres above sea level (asl)
and serves as a source of water for many farms and rural homes. Municipal wells 1 to 4 in
Uxbridge extract groundwater from the lower aquifer.


The intermediate aquifer is located between 244 and 259 metres asl and consists of fine to
medium sand with locally cemented gravel. It is up to 27 metres thick but in some locations
may be absent or combined with the lower aquifer. Groundwater flow patterns generally follow
those of the upper aquifer. Recharge occurs from the upper aquifer along the moraine heights
and discharge occurs by upward flow to the upper aquifer and streams along the moraine
flanks.


The lower aquifer consists of sand and gravel deposits up to 20 metres thick and generally
located between elevations 198 to 216 metres asl. This aquifer is confined and has similar
flow characteristics to the upper and intermediate aquifers. Recharge areas for all three



             Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
             LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           13
aquifer complexes include areas from outside of the watershed boundaries; specifically, the
headwaters area of the Beaver River from the east and the headwaters area of the Pefferlaw
Brook to the west.


Water Budget
The term “water balance (budget)” refers to the assumption that the total amount of water in
the system over a year’s time balances out. This can be expressed as follows:


                     P=RO+AET+I+B+A+/-)s+/-)g
 Where:              P      = Precipitation
                     RO     = Surface Run off
                     AET    = Actual Evapotranspiration
                     I      = Interflow
                     B      = Base flow
                     A      = Supply / Abstraction
                     )s     = Change in soil moisture storage
                     )g     = change in groundwater storage


The total average annual precipitations at two weather stations within the watershed are 776
mm/yr and 800 mm/yr. The estimated mean actual annual evapotranspiration is estimated
at between 471 and 520 mm/yr. Using the values of 800 mm/yr P and 520 mm/yr AET results
in a value of 280 mm/yr being available for groundwater recharge and surface run off. Based
on an analysis of stream flow data of the Uxbridge Brook at Uxbridge and the Pefferlaw Brook
downstream of Udora, the annual run off estimates would range between 50 and 106 mm/yr.




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         14
To summarize, of all the precipitation that falls on the Uxbridge Brook watershed in an average
year, approximately 35% is available for groundwater recharge and surface run off. This
further breaks down as the following averages: Ten percent (10%) of total precipitation
becomes surface run off and twenty five percent (25%) of total precipitation is infiltrated into
the ground as groundwater recharge.


The water balance model was used to determine the increases in surface runoff volumes (and
resulting decrease in groundwater recharge) caused by urbanization south of Uxbridge and
east of Wagner Lake. For the south end of Uxbridge, the increase in run off ranges from 26
to 121% compared to existing conditions. For Area 13 (east side of Wagner Lake), the
increases range between 18 and 55%. Based on these results, it is concluded that
stormwater infiltration facilities must be incorporated in these areas.


Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment
Stormwater runoff and spills from urban development can carry high concentrations of
pollutants which can infiltrate into the ground. In addition, some farming practices can also
cause increases in pollution loading to the groundwater, especially in areas with high
groundwater tables. The vulnerability of groundwater to contamination depends on such
elements as soil types, water table elevation, contaminant concentration, and
confined/unconfined nature of the aquifer. The results of the vulnerability analysis indicates
that over 40% of the watershed (sandy and sandy loam soils) is highly vulnerable to
groundwater contamination. The highest area of vulnerability is located in the sandy soil areas
south of Uxbridge and east of Wagner Lake (Figure 3.0).




           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             15
                             Groundwater Vulnerability Map

                                                                                       Sunderland


                            Udora




                                       18




                                                                                                                       LEGEND
                                       Leaskdale
                                                         17           16                                              Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                                                      roads
                                                                                                                      rivers
                                   12              Wagner Lake   14   13                                              subwatershed boundary

                                                                                                      Groundwater vunerability level
                                            15                                                                         low vunerability
                                                                                                                       medium vunerability
                                                             10                                                        high vunerability



                                       11                                                                                       SCALE

    ford
                                                       7
Sand .                                                                                                km 1        0                                       5 km


                                          6                                                 Hwy
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                 is D
                     rive                                                                                         Figure 3.0
              Dav
                                              Uxbridge                     8       9

                              1
           Roseville   .                               5

                                                                                                3
                                                                               4

                                                                           2

                                  47                                                                 Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                              y
                            Hw
                                                                                                                Groundwater Vulnerability Map

                                                                                                      Data Source: C.C. Tatham & Assoc.    LSRCA GIS gp




                                                                                       16
3.1.2 Hydrology/Hydraulics
Watershed Hydrology
Watershed hydrology refers to the runoff characteristics of a drainage basin under various
rainfall and snow melt conditions. Factors influencing the amount of precipitation that is
converted into stream flow include: soil types (permeability), soil moisture content, topography,
ground cover, urban and rural land use practices, and the amount of impervious area.


The hydrology of the Uxbridge Brook watershed was analysed using the computer program
OTTHYMO.89 and rainfall data from the Toronto - Bloor Street weather station. The
OTTHYMO.89 computer model was developed by the INTERHYMO Centre under Dr. Paul
Wisner and is derived from the original 1973 HYMO model by J. Williams and R. Hann. Given
the amount, distribution and duration of a specific rainfall event coupled with data on land use,
soil type, slopes and impervious areas, the model will predict the estimated peak flows at key
locations within the watershed.


As part of this analysis, the watershed was divided up into 18 major subwatersheds, ranging
in area from 0.5 sq. km. up to 28.7 sq. km (refer to Figure 4.0).        Some of these major
subwatersheds were further divided up in to smaller areas for more detailed modelling
purposes. Peak flows were determined at key locations for storm events with frequencies of
1:2 year, 1:5 year, 1:10 year, 1:25 year, 1:50 year and 1:100 year. In addition the Hurricane
Hazel type storm (Regional event) was also modelled.


In order to have confidence in the accuracy of the model, it is important to calibrate the model
such that predicted flows are similar to those experienced in the creek during actual rainfall
events. This calibration has been previously done in the following two reports.



1)Marshall Macklin Monaghan Hydrology Report - Pefferlaw-Beaverton River Watershed


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                              17
Study - 1985.

2) Cumming Cockburn Limited Hydrological Analysis - Flood Relief Study of the Town(ship)
of Uxbridge - 1982

These previous studies generated calibrated flows for Uxbridge Brook based on MOEE Flow
Station No. 02EC101 (1971-1982) that was located on the brook just north of Main Street in
the downtown core. In addition, predicted peak flows were compared to those derived from
using the Index Flood Method. This method employs the streamflow data for all natural or
quasi-natural flow in a given area. This streamflow data can then be used to estimate peak
flows for ungauged watersheds.


The hydrology of the watershed can be characterized as having extremely low runoff volumes
and high groundwater infiltration capability due to the high distribution of sandy and sandy
loam soils. Under normal dry summer conditions, 80-90% of a rainfall event would be
infiltrated leaving only 10-20% for surface runoff. On a yearly basis, surface runoff would
comprise approximately 10% of the total precipitation.


Hydraulics
The current extent of the Regulatory flood plain is shown on Figure 3.1. These flood lines were
established by the LSRCA in 1979 based on work completed by Marshall Macklin Monaghan
Consulting Limited. Flood damage areas are located primarily in the urban area of Uxbridge.
The flood plain on the main branch of the Uxbridge Brook is generally well defined and located
in the valleys upstream of the Town of Uxbridge. Downstream, the flood plain broadens
significantly due to the flat nature of the lands in this area. In the vicinity of Udora, the flood
plain becomes more confined again due to the valley shape and channel configure.


As previously mentioned, the majority of the flood damage area is located in urban Uxbridge.



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                               18
                                           Regulated Floodplain Area

II
                                                                                                         Sunderland



          I
                                Udora




                                                                                                                                                               LEGEND

                                                                                                                                                              Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                                                                                              roads
                                        Leaskdale                                                                                    WP
                                                                                                                                 ck T
                                                                                                                              Bro          P
                                                                                                                                    gog
                                                                                                                                        TW                    rivers
                                                              VII                                                               Scu

                                                           Wagner Lake
                                                                                      orn
                                                                                            ers                                                               township boundaries
                                             VI                              o   ria C
                                                                         Vict
                                                                                                  XIV                                                         Regulated flood plain area
                         V
      IV

                                                                                                        XIII



                                                                                                               XII
                                                                             Uxb

                                                                                      Scu
                                                                                ri

                                                                                          gog
                                                                                  dge

                                                                                           TW P
                                                                                      T
                                                                                     WP




                                                                                                                     XI                                                 SCALE


                                                                                                                                               1 km       0                                 5 km

            d                                                                                                             X
      d fo r
San
                                                                                                                     47
                                                                                                                 Hwy
                                                                                                                               IX
                                                                                                                                                              Figure 3.1
                         rive
                     is D
                  Dav
                                                       Uxbridge
                                                                                                                                    VIII

                                                         l Rd
                                                             .8                                 VII
                                                     iona
                                                  Reg                                                                                  VII

                    ev   ille
                Ros                                    V
                                        IV

                     III
     II




                                      47                                                                                                       Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                  y
                                Hw
                                                                                                                                                              Floodplain Map
                                                                                                                                                 Data Source: MNR/LSRCA Mapping   LSRCA GIS gp




                                                                                                               19
A 1983 Flood Relief Study by the consulting firm Cumming Cockburn Limited (CCL) looked
at this flooding problem in detail. This study concluded that a severe flood hazard under the
Regional storm condition exists for lands adjacent to the main branch of the Brook, especially
between Elgin Pond and just downstream of Brock Street. This flood hazard is due to the
presence of a long culvert which encloses the brook between Pond Street and the north limit
of the parking lot, 100 metres north of Brock Street.


The CCL study recommended that an emergency overflow culvert be constructed on top of the
existing culvert to provide the required capacity. The cost of this work in 1982 dollars was
estimated at approximately 1.0 million dollars with a benefit cost ratio of 0.99.


3.1.3 Water Quality
The surface water quality of the Uxbridge Brook is influenced by human land use activities
occurring within the watershed. The hydrologic cycle, referenced earlier, describes the
process whereby water running over the surface of the ground or through the soil transports
chemicals in suspension or solution into surface waters. Any assessment of water quality is
dependant upon the purpose for the analysis and the parameters measured. These
parameters and their acceptable levels can differ greatly depending upon whether the water
quality objectives are measured for human health concerns or for those related to aquatic
health. The Ministry of Environment and Energy (MOEE) have set objectives and guidelines
for water quality related to human health and the suitability of waters for aquatic life known as
the Provincial Water Quality Objectives and Guidelines (PWQOGs).


An assessment of the condition of the surface waters of the Uxbridge Brook was undertaken
primarily to obtain an understanding of conditions for fish and aquatic organisms. Human
health issues associated with the brook are extremely limited. The brook although not used
as a source of drinking water is however used for body contact recreation with bathing beach



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                              20
areas located at Elgin Pond and Wagner Lake.


Water quality information for the Uxbridge Brook was available from a variety of sources
covering a 12 year period from 1982 to 1994. Sources providing water quality data used for
analysis included the MOEE (1982-1994), the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority
(1986-1988), and SENES Consultants Limited (1991,1994). The most comprehensive data
set was provided by the MOEE and was available for 2 sampling sites, the location of which
are depicted in Figure 3.2. Historical water quality data were also available from previous
studies completed by the Authority from 1986 to 1988 but were limited to nutrient and bacterial
analysis. The water quality work by SENES Consultants Ltd. represents the most recent data
available and was added to the database for further review. Water quality parameters
evaluated during the watershed study include:


       Chemical Parameters
       ! total phosphorus                           ! chloride
       ! filtered reactive phosphorus               ! mercury
       ! nitrates                                   ! sodium
       ! nitrites
       ! total khjeldal nitrogen
       ! ammonia
       ! phenols

       Biological Parameters         Physical Parameters
       ! E. coli                     ! conductivity
       ! Fecal streptoccus    ! turbidity
       ! Psuedomonas aeruginosa      ! suspended solids
                                     ! pH, alkalinity



In general, water quality of the Uxbridge Brook is sufficiently high enough not to be limiting to
the aquatic ecosystem; however, it is not without problems. Three of the parameters
examined do exceed the PWQOs including Total Phosphorus, Ammonia, and E. coli. Water


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                              21
                                 Water Quality Sampling Sites

                 E 01
                     8   .
II            MOE
                                                                                                                   Sunderland



          I                       Udora




                                                                                                                                                                           LEGEND
                                                       SW11..                                                                                                             Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                               SW10

                                                                                                                                                                          roads
                                      Leaskdale                                                                                                WP
                                                                                                                                          ck T
                                                                  .   SW9
                                                                                                                                       Bro      TW
                                                                                                                                                  P                       rivers
                                                                                                                                            gog
                                                         VII                                                                             Scu
                                                      Wagner Lake                                                                                                         subwatershed boundary
                                           VI
                                                                SW7    .                                  XIV
                                                                                                                                                                          township boundary
                             V
      IV                                                                                                                                                          .       Water sampling site
                                                                                                                 XIII



                                                                                                                        XII
                                                                                                                                                                                   SCALE


                                                                                                                              XI                       km 1           0                                   5 km
                                                                                               &
                                                                                           SW5 014
                                                                                           MOE
                                                                                               .
San
   dfor
       d
                                                                            .   SW6
                                                                                                                                   X
                                                                            .
                                                                  SW4
                                                                                                                                                                      Figure 3.2
                                                                                .     SW3
                                                                                                                                        IX
                                                           Uxbridge                  .   SW2



                                                                                                                                             VIII
                                                                                                       VII

                                                                                VI                                                              VII
                                                                                                         &
                                                                                                     SW1 032
                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                     MOE
                      eville                      V
                   Ros
                                      IV
                         III
     II




                                                                                                                                                      Project:    Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study

                                                                                                                                                                 Water Quality Sampling Sites
                                                                                                                                                       Data Source: MOEE, Senes, LSRCA     LSRCA GIS gp




                                                                                                       23
temperature was also identified to impact on the coldwater fishery but will be discussed in
detail under Section 3.1.4, Aquatic Resources. Phosphorus is the most significant of the
three parameters identified which could limit the aquatic ecosystem. High counts of E.coli
bacteria do not impact on the aquatic ecosystem but will reduce recreational opportunities
associated with beach areas.


Total Phosphorus
Total Phosphorus (TP) is a measure of the presence of the nutrient which is capable of
promoting excessive amounts of algae growth. The overabundance of algae can result in the
reduction of available oxygen for fish and other forms of aquatic life. The process whereby
phosphorus stimulates excessive algae and aquatic weed growth resulting in the loss of
available oxygen is referred to as eutrophication.


In the natural environment phosphorus moves through the ecosystem in a cycle which can be
altered by changing the availability of phosphorus within the system either by changing the
lands ability to bind phosphorus or by adding (or removing) phosphorus. Results from the
monitoring indicate that land use changes and other human activities have disrupted this cycle
within the Uxbridge Brook watershed resulting in an overabundance of phosphorus.
Phosphorus enters surface waters directly from rainfall, groundwater recharge, or in surface
runoff.


The PWQOG for Total Phosphorus for rivers is 0.03 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L in lakes.
Concentrations above these levels will result in the nuisance growth of algae and other aquatic
weeds. Figure 3.2 depicts the station location of sampling sites evaluated and the agencies
responsible for collecting the data. Many of the sites overlap, this was done to provide a
longer period of record so that data could be compared over time.




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            22
Exceedances
Total Phosphorus concentrations at both MOEE station No. 03-0077-032-02 (corresponds
to SENES station SW2) and No. 03-0077-014-02 (corresponding to SENES station SW5)
were observed to exceed the PWQOG 54% of the time based on the MOEE data from 1982
to 1993. Due to the limited number of samples collected by SENES, the percent exceedance
was not calculated. However, all stations sampled by SENES, with the exception of SW9, did
record Total Phosphorus concentrations above the PWQOG of 0.03 mg/L. The exception,
station SW9, can be attributed to Wagner Lake which is acting as a phosphorus sink, settling
and accumulating particulate phosphorus and cycling soluble phosphorus. Results from work
completed by the Conservation Authority within the Town of Uxbridge (1986-1988) also
recorded exceedances for all stations however the percent exceedance was much lower with
the worst case reported at station BR of 24%. This suggests that phosphorus inputs to the
brook have increased over time.


Concentrations
The concentrations of Total Phosphorus measured at the two MOEE stations ranged from a
minimum of 0.005 mg/L at Station 032 to a maximum of 0.48 mg/L at Station 014.
Concentrations of Total Phosphorus were observed to follow a seasonal trend within the
Uxbridge Brook, generally exhibiting lower concentrations during winter months with maximum
concentrations recorded during the spring. This trend can be attributed to increases in
surface runoff which traditionally occur in the spring as a result of snowmelt and rainfall
washing sediment and organic particles from the frozen ground. Concentrations from SENES
data ranged from a low of 0.019 mg/L at station SW1 (corresponds to MOEE 032) to a high
of 0.078 mg/L at station SW2 located immediately downstream from the Town of Uxbridge.
As would be expected, SENES found that Total Phosphorus concentrations were observed
to increase within the main branch of the Uxbridge Brook as the water flowed downstream;
thus reflecting the cumulative impacts associated with urban and agricultural inputs. This trend


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             24
continued until reaching Wagner Lake which as was mentioned earlier, acts as a phosphorus
sink and reduces concentrations approximately in half. Beyond Wagner Lake station
concentrations at SW10 increase reflecting new inputs (primarily agricultural) entering from
the surrounding lands.


Esherichia coli
The PWQOG use the relative numbers of the bacteria Esherichia coli (E. Coli) as a health
indicator to determine whether surface waters are safe for body contact recreation. A
geometric mean count of 100 E. Coli per 100 ml based on a minimum of five samples is
considered of significant concern to warrant posting waters unsafe for bathing. The use of E.
coli as an indicator bacteria was initiated in 1994 to replace the use of Fecal coliform.
Studies found that among bacteria of the coliform group, E. coli is considered to better
represent the presence of harmful pathogene Fecal bacteria.


Unfortunately, results for E. Coli were limited. Until the recent change in the PWQOG the
MOEE had not been routinely sampling for E.coli at its two water quality monitoring sites.
However, information was available for Fecal Coliform of which E.coli is part. Past monitoring
conducted by the Conservation Authority under the Clean Up Rural Beaches Program include
analysis of both E.coli and Fecal Coliform. From this data, the ratio of E.coli in Fecal Coliform
was established (approximately 80%) and was used to extrapolate E.coli populations from
data for Fecal Coliform. This examination of Fecal Coliform and existing E.coli data provided
enough information to develop a clear understanding of bacteria hot spots within the
watershed along with potential source areas to be addressed.


Exceedances
Actual exceedances of E.coli were recorded at all the Authority sampled stations with the most
notable problem occurring at Elgin Pond. Elgin Pond is used for body contact


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                              25
recreation by local residents but due to the high bacteria counts the beach area is consistently
posted for most of the summer periods. Sources of bacteria contributing to the beach posting
include; stormwater runoff from the surrounding urban area, and most importantly waterfowl
which inhabit the pond throughout the year (CURB, 1989). It was determined during the CURB
studies that the waterfowl are “probably the single most significant contributor to beach
postings” (Rural Beaches Impact Study, 1988).


Using the extrapolated Fecal Coliform results exceedances of E.coli would have been
reported at all of the stations monitored by both SENES and MOEE. Populations at station
SW1 and SW2 immediately downstream from the Town of Uxbridge exhibited the highest
counts of more than 3,800 organisms. Potential sources include those previously mentioned
along with inputs from illegal cross-connections between sanitary and storm sewers. E.coli
counts drop dramatically past site SW3 along the rest of the Uxbridge Brook until past Wagner
Lake where populations again increase dramatically. Station SW10 recorded a maximum
count of approximately 3,200. This increase can be attributed to agricultural inputs draining
into the main branch of the river from the Leaskdale tributary and possibly from septic system
sources from Wagner Lake and Leaskdale.


Wagner Lake is the only other large body of water used for body contact recreation and while
estimated E.coli populations entering Wagner Lake are low future consideration must be
given to local inputs within the drainage sub-basin. The results observed at SW10 indicate
that the sub-basin including Wagner Lake maybe a source of contamination. One of the
potential sources within the sub-basin are septic systems which are used for private waste
disposal. An inventory conducted in 1988 did find evidence that some of the septic systems
had failed (Rural Beaches Impact Study, 1988). Given the time which has elapsed since the
original survey the possibility of further failures occurring within the sub-




           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             26
basin are high. Further investigations such as dye testing or excavation of suspect systems
was not within the scope of this study but should be considered as part of the rehabilitation
efforts.


3.1.4 Aquatic Environment
An evaluation of the sensitivity of aquatic habitat in the Uxbridge Brook was completed in
1996 as part of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study. Data collected included: fish
community sampling, water temperature, and information on available aquatic habitat. The
information collected was necessary to provide a basis for making specific recommendations
for aquatic ecosystem protection and rehabilitation.


Small stream fish community sampling was completed using a Smith-Root Model 7 Backpack
Electrofisher. Most species sampled were familiar to the trained field technicians performing
the survey. Any fish which could not be evaluated in the field were retained for identification
in the laboratory using keys provided in Freshwater Fishes of Canada (Scott and Crossman,
1973).


Historical and new stream stations were evaluated through a qualitative survey methodology
designed to document the presence or absence of various species, particularly coldwater
habitat indicators such as sculpin (Cottus sp.) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).
Quantitative surveys were also completed at several stations using the single pass
methodology documented by Stockwell and Jones, 1994. Information regarding the fishery
in Wagner Lake was collected by interviewing local residents.


Stream temperature was evaluated using two different techniques. Changes in temperature
between different reaches of stream were evaluated using a roving spot temperature survey.
Sampling days and times were determined by the criteria outlined by Stoneman and Jones


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           27
(1993) in their rapid temperature assessment methodology. Stream temperatures were also
evaluated at several different stations using continuous monitoring thermometers called
“Stowaways”. Stations where continuous monitoring thermometers were utilized were a
subset of the spot temperature stations.


“Like reach” habitat evaluations were documented using stream gradient, adjacent riparian
vegetation and predominant land use criteria.


Uxbridge Brook Fish Sampling
A total of 18 different fish species were documented in the Uxbridge Brook Watershed during
the 1996 survey versus 20 in 1979 (Appendix B). The species lists from both years include
both cold and warmwater species. Brook trout, a typical coldwater species, were sampled
in the headwaters of the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries in both years but were absent from
the lower reaches downstream from Wagner Lake. Brook trout are a sensitive species with
a low tolerance for warm water temperatures. Thus, the presence of this species is
considered to be an indication of high quality coldwater habitat. Sculpins are somewhat more
tolerant of warmer water temperatures, but are still a good indicator of marginal coldwater to
coldwater habitat.


Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a typical warmwater species, were present in
1996 but not in 1979 and appear to have colonized the Uxbridge Brook watershed in the
intervening 17 year period.     Although brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) were sampled in 1996 but not in 1979, this does not necessarily
indicate that these species have only recently colonized the Uxbridge Brook system. The
stations where brown and rainbow trout were sampled in 1996 had not been surveyed in
1979.




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           28
Various minnow species such as pearl dace (Semotilus margarita), blacknose shiner
(Netropis heterolepis), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and bluntnose minnow
(Pimephales notatus) were sampled in 1979 but not in 1996. This discrepancy occurred
because these species were documented in 1979 from stations downstream from Wagners
Lake, which were not sampled in the 1996 survey. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui),
which were sampled in 1979, were also captured in a station downstream from Wagners Lake
which was not sampled during the current survey.
Brook trout were documented in the Main Branch of the Uxbridge Brook upstream from Elgin
Pond in the 1979 survey at Stations UX12, UX13 and UX14 (Figure 3.3) and during the 1996
sampling at Stations UX13 and UX14. The presence of young of the year, older juvenile and
adult brook trout indicated that this relatively undisturbed stretch of stream provides functional
spawning, early rearing and adult habitats for this species. Older juvenile and adult brook trout
were also sampled in the Uxbridge Brook downstream from Elgin Pond in 1979 (Station
UX11) and in 1996 (Stations UX19 and UX9). Young of the year brook trout however were
not present downstream from the dam. Suitable brook trout spawning habitat and associated
groundwater up-welling may be unavailable downstream from Elgin Pond. The presence of
older juvenile and adult brook trout downstream from the pond may occur as a result of
recruitment of young of the year fish produced upstream from Elgin Pond.


Brook trout were sampled in two distinct reaches of the Uxbridge Brook downstream from
Elgin Pond. Brook trout were present between the Elgin Pond Dam and the confluence of
Tributary #2 (Station UX19) and at station UX17 on the second sampling date. Oxygen
supersaturation below the dam outfall may permit brook trout to survive even though summer
temperature conditions are marginal for this species at this location. Brook trout were also
sampled adjacent to Sandy Hook Road on the Main Branch (Station UX9/MNR2)
in early July when two large adult specimens were captured. It is interesting to note that this
station was sampled in August of 1996; however, no brook trout were sampled on this second


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                              29
                                               Fish Survey Stations

II
                                                                              Sunderland
                             UX1
                                      UX2
          I                   Udora




                                             UX3




                                                                                                                               LEGEND

                                                   UX4
                                                                                                                               Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                   UX5      Leaskdale                                                                          roads
                                                                                                        WP
                                                                                                   ck T
                                                                                               Bro      TW
                                                                                                           P                   rivers
                                                                                                     og
                                                                                               S cug
                                             Wagner Lake
                                                                                                                               subwatershed boundary
                                      VI
                                                    UX6                                                                        township boundary
                                                                        XIV
                     V
      IV                                                                                                                         Fish sampling site
                                      Leaksdale Creek
                                                                            XIII
                                                                                                                       1 Tributary # for fish study

                                                                                XII                                                        SCALE
              UX25
                                                                                                                km 1       0                                      5 km
                                                                                      XI

        d
                                                               4
    dfor
 San                           UX24                     UX31   UX7                         X                                   Figure 3.3
                                                                      5
                                                          MNR2
                                                                                    IX
                               UX23                      UX10 UX9
                                                    UX30        UX29
                                                                UX28 & MNR1
                                                                UX11
                                                        UX18    UX17                   VIII
                                                        UX26      UX19
                                                             21
                                                           UX      UX13
                                                                    MNR3                  VII
                                           UX22         3                 UX14
                                                        UX27        UX15
                      ille
              R   osev                             UX20                         Main Branch
                                                             UX32     1    UX12
                                                    UX16
                    III                                        2
     II




                                                                                                               Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study

                                                                                                                            Fish Survey Map
                                                                                                                  Data Source: MOEE,Senes, LSRCA   LSRCA GIS gp




                                                                       30
survey. Stream temperatures during the July sampling were much cooler than ambient
temperatures during the August sampling period. Marginal summer stream temperatures in
the Uxbridge Brook adjacent to Sandy Hook Road may force brook trout into local coldwater
refugia including spring seepages and possibly to locations at the mouth of Tributary #3.
Cooler spring and fall temperatures permit brook trout to range freely and take advantage of
the abundant food supply available in this portion of the Uxbridge Brook.


Brook trout were not sampled in any survey stations between Road 8 and Sandy Hook Road
during the 1996 field season, but were located downstream of Road 8 at Station UX11 in
1979. Temperature conditions in this reach of stream may have been adversely affected by
urban stormwater impacts in the centre of the Town of Uxbridge. The quality and temperature
of stream flow entering the Main Branch of the Uxbridge Brook from Tributary #3 may have
improved habitat quality for brook trout at Sandy Hook Road (Station UX9/MNR2).
Alternatively, infiltration of precipitation on the undeveloped parcel of land east of the sewage
treatment plant may support localized groundwater discharge into the Uxbridge Brook
upstream from Sandy Hook Road resulting in an improvement in brook trout habitat
conditions.


Brook trout were not sampled in the Uxbridge Brook adjacent to Davis Drive (Station UX8)
although the presence of sculpins at this location indicates that this reach of stream provides
coolwater if not coldwater habitat. The presence of largemouth bass and yellow perch (Perca
flavescens) indicate that summer temperatures at this station may be marginal for brook trout,
however local groundwater seepages may provide thermal
refugia. The 1996 field crew reported signs of angler activity (discarded fishing line and
worm containers) at Station UX8. Assuming that brook trout were the target species (other
species present tend to be very small), this information indicates that brook trout may be
available at this site during the spring months when temperature conditions would not restrict


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                              31
their distribution. Marginal brook trout habitat conditions may extend from Davis Drive
downstream to Wagners Lake where residents reported having caught brook trout at the
stream mouth during the spring. Summer temperature conditions in this low gradient reach
however may confine brook trout to isolated groundwater seepages which provide thermal
refugia.


The presence of brook trout was documented in three Uxbridge Brook tributary streams.
Anecdotal information indicated that brook trout were also present in Tributary #5 although
access to this reach of stream could not be obtained for fish sampling. In general, brook trout
were located in headwater areas where stream habitat impacts from urban development were
less evident. As urban land use impacts accumulated further downstream, brook trout were
incrementally eliminated from these small stream systems.


Tributary #1 provides high quality coldwater stream habitat which has been relatively
unaffected by human land use impacts. Only brook trout and sculpin were sampled in this
small stream environment (Station UX15). Due to stable flows and low siltation Tributary #1
provides excellent brook trout spawning/nursery habitat and may be an important source of
young brook trout recruits into the Main Branch of the Uxbridge Brook.


Tributary #2 contains brook trout in the headwaters adjacent to Concession 6 (Station UX16)
and in a culvert plunge pool further downstream at Station UX32. But, this tributary has been
heavily impacted by human land use further downstream as it enters the Town of Uxbridge.
Sampling further downstream near the confluence with the Uxbridge Brook (Station UX21)
revealed a fish community dominated by tolerant warmwater species
such as creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), common shiner (Notropis cornutus), white
sucker (Catostomus commersoni), largemouth bass and yellow perch. The presence of 14
sculpins and one young of the year rainbow trout at this station however indicates that


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            32
marginal coldwater temperature conditions are still present and that this reach of stream could
potentially be rehabilitated as healthy coldwater habitat.


Brook trout were present in the headwaters of Tributary #3 at Concession 6 (Station UX20).
A diverse fish community including sculpins, blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), northern
redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos), creek chub, fathead minnow(Pimephales promelas), brassy
minnow (Hybognathus hankinsoni) and white sucker was documented at this station. The
distribution of brook trout in Tributary #3 extends downstream to the urbanized fringe of the
Town of Uxbridge (Station UX26). Brook trout were absent from the sample collected
adjacent to Road 8 (Station UX18) although the presence of sculpins indicates that marginal
coldwater conditions may be present at this location. In the lower reaches of Tributary #3 at
Road 1 (Station UX10) the fish community was dominated by warmwater species such as
creek chub, pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) and yellow perch, although sculpins
were also fairly abundant. It is interesting to note that brook trout were sampled at UX10 in
1979. The absence of brook trout in the 1996 sample indicates that coldwater habitat
conditions may have deteriorated recently at this location. Fisheries technicians noted
erosion at Station UX10 characteristic of urban stormwater impacts.


Brook trout were not sampled in Leaskdale Creek (Stations UX22, UX23, UX24, and UX25),
although the volume of baseflow observed in this stream system indicated that it could
potentially be rehabilitated as a productive coldwater stream habitat. The presence of
sculpins in the middle reaches of the Leaskdale Creek (Station UX24) provides an indication
that marginal coldwater habitat conditions may occur in some reaches of this
stream system. Other species sampled in the Leaskdale Creek included creek chub,
common shiner, longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), fathead minnow, brassy minnow,
white sucker and brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans). Most of these species are tolerant
of warm summer stream temperatures and heavy siltation. Rural land use in the Leaskdale


          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            33
Creek Watershed have probably contributed to stream habitat degradation.


In addition to native brook trout, two other introduced salmonid species were sampled in the
Uxbridge Brook watershed. Rainbow trout and brown trout were both sampled in the Uxbridge
Brook between the Elgin Pond Dam and the enclosure further downstream (south of Road 8).
Rainbow trout stockings had been previously documented for Elgin Pond, however no
reference to brown trout stocking could be found for the Uxbridge Brook watershed. Unlike
the case for brook trout, stream habitat below the Elgin Pond Dam seems to provide suitable
spawning/early rearing habitat for rainbow trout and brown trout. Both young of the year
rainbow and brown trout were sampled at Station UX17 in the Town of Uxbridge upstream
from the underground tunnel. Given the presence of adult brook trout further downstream
adjacent to Sandy Hook Road, it is surprising that the more tolerant brown and rainbow trout
were not sampled in this vicinity. Environmental factors (e.g. temperature, water quality) which
limit the availability of brook trout between Road 8 and Sandy Hook Road may also be
responsible for preventing brown and rainbow trout becoming established downstream from
Road 8.


Stagnation and warming of stream flow in Elgin Pond provide habitat for warmwater species
such as largemouth bass, pumpkinseed sunfish and yellow perch which were not sampled
further upstream in the headwaters of the Uxbridge Brook (Stations UX13 and UX14).
Warmwater species were documented not only in the pond itself (visual observations), but
also in the Main Branch of the Uxbridge Brook further downstream
between Elgin Pond and Davis Drive (Stations UX19, UX17, UX11, MNR1, UX9/MNR2 and
UX8 respectively). Successful spawning of largemouth bass, pumpkinseed sunfish and yellow
perch in Elgin Pond may result in the recruitment of young fish into the stream environment
downstream of the Elgin Pond Dam.




           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            34
It is interesting to note that largemouth bass were not documented anywhere in the Uxbridge
Brook Watershed during the 1979 fisheries survey.         In contrast largemouth bass were
observed in Elgin Pond and sampled at 5 stations on the Main Branch of the Uxbridge Brook
(UX8, UX9, UX17, UX19, UX28) downstream from Elgin Pond in 1996. It is likely that the
expansion of the range of largemouth bass in the Uxbridge Brook Watershed resulted from
an unofficial stocking of this species into Elgin Pond.


Residents of Wagner Lake reported that largemouth bass were present in the lake and
supported a significant sport fishery. These observations were confirmed by subsequent fish
sampling in 1996. Other species reported to be present included smallmouth bass, northern
pike (Esox lucius), pumpkinseed sunfish, rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), yellow perch,
brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), white sucker and various minnow species. Local
residents had observed both brook and rainbow trout being captured near the mouth of the
Uxbridge Brook in previous years.


Uxbridge Brook Temperature Assessment
Summer stream temperature data collected in July and August of 1996 in the headwaters of
the Uxbridge Brook was characteristic of coldwater stream habitat and abundant groundwater
discharges (Appendix C). Temperatures in the headwaters at Station UXT2 (Figure 3.4) were
cool even though flows upstream were relatively exposed to solar radiation in a wetland
environment. Maximum temperatures were somewhat cooler further downstream at UXT3 and
were even colder at UXT4 located only a short distance
upstream from Elgin Pond. The cold temperatures at this location may be attributed to
shading from overhead canopy and groundwater rich discharge from Tributary #1 (UXT4a)
entering the Main Branch. The maximum stream temperature recorded for Tributary #1 was
an extremely cold 12.8 oC.




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                        35
                    Stream Temperature Monitoring Sites

II
                                                                                             Sunderland
                          UXT24

          I                 Udora




                                                                                                                                                 LEGEND

                                    UXT21
                                                 UXT22                                                                                          Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                            Leaskdale
                                                               UXT23                                                                            roads
                                                                                                                                                rivers
                              UXT20              Wagner Lake
                                                                   UXT26                                                                        Stream temperature
                                 VI
                                                                                                                                                   monitoring site
                                                                                     XIV
                    V
      IV

                                                                                           XIII



                           UXT19                                                                  XII
                                                                                                                                                         SCALE



                                                                                                        XI                     km 1         0                                    5 km

                           UXT18
       d
                                                                   UXT28
   dfor                      UXT17
San
                                                                    UXT27
                                                                                                             X                              Figure 3.4
                UXT16                                                 UXT13                                      IX
                                                           UXT12

                                                                                UXT6A
                                                                      UXT6
                                                           UXT11                                                      VIII
                                                  UXT6B                              UXT5
                                                            UXT7
                                                UXT10                       UXT4
                                                                                                                         VII
                                                                                       UXT3
                                                           UXT8              UXT4A
                 eville                             UXT9
              Ros
                                                                                           UXT2

                  III
     II                                                                                       UXT1




                                                                                                                               Project:    Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study

                                                                                                                                          Stream temperature site map

                                                                                                                                  Data Source: LSRCA surveys      LSRCA GIS gp




                                                                                      36
Stream temperature data indicated that warming in Elgin Pond is currently having a strong
negative impact on temperatures in the Uxbridge Brook below the Elgin Pond Dam. In an
“instantaneous” spot temperature survey conducted on July 17, 1996, stream temperatures
increased by 3.8 o C from 16.5 o C upstream from Elgin Pond (Station UXT4) to 20.3 o C
downstream from the Elgin Pond Dam (Station UXT5). An even greater temperature gradient
was documented for these two stations on August 14 when temperatures increased from
14.7 oC at Station UXT4 to 20.1 oC at UXT5. This data indicates that Elgin Pond has a
significant negative impact on summer stream temperatures in the Uxbridge Brook.


It is unclear whether or not the stream temperature difference documented above and below
Elgin Pond was characteristic of top or bottom draw discharge conditions from the Elgin Pond
Dam. The bottom draw structure installed on this dam by the Conservation Authority was
operational.   However, field observations following the temperature assessment work
indicated that flow from the bottom draw was negligible and that the majority of discharge from
Elgin Pond was exiting the dam from the top of the spillway. Given this observation and the
magnitude of the temperature gradient documented above and below the pond, it is
reasonable to assume that the temperatures sampled in the summer of 1996 were typical of
primarily top draw conditions at the Elgin Pond Dam.


Summer temperature conditions in the Uxbridge Brook were relatively stable between the
Elgin Pond outfall and Road 8 (Stations UXT5, UXT6a and UXT6 respectively) and were
characteristic of marginal coldwater habitat conditions. Documented summer stream
temperatures declined however between Road 8 (Station UXT6) and Sandy Hook Road
further downstream (Station UXT13) from 20.0 to 18.2 oC respectively on Aug. 14, 1996. Cold
water discharging from Tributary #3 may have moderated stream temperatures in the
Uxbridge Brook at Sandy Hook Road below the tributary confluence. Stream temperature in
Tributary #3 at Road 1 (Station UXT12) was documented at 16.4 oC on Aug. 14, 1996 which



          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            37
was colder than adjacent reaches of the Main Branch of the Uxbridge Brook on this date.


Data collected on the Main Branch at Davis Drive (Station UXT28) indicated that
temperatures at this location were similar to or only slightly warmer than at Sandy Hook Road
(Station UXT13). The stream temperature at Davis Drive was recorded at 19.7 oC on July 24,
typical of marginal coldwater habitat conditions. Due to flat gradients on the Uxbridge Brook
downstream from Davis Drive, stream temperatures are probably characteristic of cool or
warmwater habitats between Davis Drive and Wagner Lake. Cold tributary inflows (e.g.
Tributary #4, Station UXT 27) and groundwater seepages may however provide summer
temperature refugia which could sustain local brook trout populations in this reach of stream.


Temperatures in the Uxbridge Brook downstream from Wagner Lake were typical of
warmwater habitat conditions, probably as a result of solar heating and stagnation of flow in
the lake environment. For example the stream temperature of 29.5 oC recorded for the
Uxbridge Brook above the confluence of the Leaskdale Creek (Station UXT22) on July 24,
1996 (Appendix C) was much warmer than the upper maxima normally tolerated by coldwater
species. Stream temperatures recorded for the Uxbridge Brook in Udora (Station UXT24)
were slightly cooler than above the confluence with the Leaskdale Creek,
but within the range normally associated with warmwater habitat conditions. This temperature
data is consistent with fish sampling data collected in 1979 which documented a warmwater
fish community in the Uxbridge Brook between Wagner Lake and the Pefferlaw Brook.
Species sampled in this reach of stream included smallmouth bass, pumpkinseed sunfish,
yellow perch, white sucker and a variety of minnows; all species typical of warmwater habitats.
It is interesting to note however that sculpins, species which are normally found in coldwater
and marginal coldwater stream habitats, were sampled in the Uxbridge Brook near Udora in
1979.




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            38
Stream temperatures in the Uxbridge Brook tributaries indicated the presence of both cold
and warmwater habitats. As indicated previously, water temperatures in Tributary #1 (Station
UXT4a) were extremely cold and typical of small well shaded groundwater rich streams which
provide excellent brook trout spawning habitat. Discharge from Tributary #1 into the Main
Branch of Uxbridge Brook probably plays in important role in maintaining high quality
coldwater stream habitat conditions.


Water temperatures in the upper reaches of Tributary #2 were typical of coldwater stream
habitats (Station UX16). However, warming in Electric Light Pond (ELP) resulted in the
degradation of coldwater habitat conditions further downstream. In an “instantaneous” spot
temperature survey conducted on August 14, 1996, stream temperatures increased by 4.3 oC
from 17.7 oC upstream from ELP (Station UXT8) to 22.0 oC downstream from ELP (Station
UXT7). A temperature reading of 22.0 oC was also recorded on the same day further
downstream on Tributary #2 above its confluence with Uxbridge Brook (Station UXT6b).
Perhaps due to its much smaller baseflow, discharge from Tributary #2 did not seem to have
a significant negative impact on summer stream temperatures in the cooler Main Branch of
the Uxbridge Brook (Station UXT6).


As was the case with Elgin Pond, it is difficult to determine whether or not the temperature
gradient documented above and below ELP was representative of top-draw or bottom
discharge conditions. Although ELP has been equipped with a bottom draw structure,
LSRCA staff observed that the majority of discharge in the summer was coming from surface
flow over the concrete spillway located at the top of the dam structure. Further observations
made in November confirmed that this is the case. Perhaps accumulation of debris has
restricted the function of the bottom draw structure incorporated into the ELP dam. Given this
theory, it seems reasonable to assume that the 4.3 oC temperature change documented for
Tributary #2 above and below ELP was associated with top-draw conditions.



          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           39
Temperature conditions documented in the headwaters of Tributary #3 at Concession Road
6 (Station UXT9) were characteristic of marginal coldwater stream habitat conditions. A
stream temperature reading of 19.1 oC was recorded at this location on July 18, 1996. Fish
sampling data collected at this location also indicated the presence of marginal coldwater
habitat conditions as both coldwater and warmwater species were captured. The observed
presence of an on-line pond immediately upstream from Concession Road 6 may account for
the degradation of coldwater habitat conditions at this site relative to other headwater
locations in the Uxbridge Brook Watershed (e.g. UXT 4a).


A stream temperature of 20.3 oC was recorded for Tributary #3 at Road 8 (Station UXT11) on
July 18, which was slightly warmer than at Concession Road 6. This data indicates a gradual
warming of summer stream temperatures moving downstream from the headwater areas. It
is interesting to note however that stream temperatures in this tributary seemed to recover
further downstream at Road 1 (Station UXT 12). On August 14 stream temperatures in
Tributary #3 declined from 22.4 oC at Road 8 (UXT11) to 16.4 oC at Road 1 (UXT12). Even
given the slight difference in the time of sampling it would appear that


stream temperatures recovered significantly in the downstream half of this tributary system.
It is interesting to note that brook trout were sampled in Tributary #3 at Road 1 (Station
UX10/UXT12) in 1979 but not during the current survey in 1996. Further sampling should be
completed adjacent to UX10 to confirm that brook trout have in fact been eliminated from this
reach of stream. Based on stream temperatures alone, the lower reaches of Tributary #3
should be able to provide brook trout habitat.


Stream temperatures documented for Tributary #4 at Davis Drive (Station UXT27) were
typical of marginal coldwater stream habitat. A reading of 19.0 oC was documented at this
location on July 24, 1996. The presence of sculpins at UXT27 (UX7) documented in 1979



          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                          40
further supports the contention that Tributary #4 provides marginal coldwater habitat. It is
interesting to note that UXT27 appears to have significant baseflow even though smaller
contributing branches observed further upstream from Road 1 appeared to have extremely
small volumes of flow. This information suggests that Tributary #4 may receive a significant
amount of groundwater discharge between Road 1 and Davis Drive.


Water temperatures recorded throughout the Leaskdale Creek system indicated the presence
of coolwater or degraded coldwater habitat conditions and generally ranged from 23.0 to
24.7 oC The only exception was a reading of 21.8 oC documented at UXT17 located on the
Leaskdale Creek at Concession Road 4. Within the scope of this survey it was impossible
to determine whether or not the degraded coldwater stream temperatures were the result of
a lack of shade (due to riparian zone degradation) or a lack of groundwater inputs.


A water temperature reading was taken for Tributary #6 which enters the mainstream from the
east side between Wagner Lake and Road 13. The temperature recorded in the lower
reaches of this tributary at Station UXT23 on July 17, 1996 was 26.0 oC which is


characteristic of warmwater habitat conditions. It has not been determined whether or not this
warmwater tributary is typical of small streams entering the lower reaches of the Uxbridge
Brook or conversely if some small coldwater tributaries exist in the lower half of the watershed.


Habitat Mapping - Like Reach Assessment
Six distinct reaches of “like habitat” were documented for the Main Branch of Uxbridge Brook.
Habitat quality of the tributaries and the Leaskdale Creek were also considered.


Reach #1 - Headwaters
Moderately high gradient groundwater rich first order streams combine in the headwaters of


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             41
the Main Branch of the Uxbridge Brook. The resultant second order stream flows through a
wetland complex adjacent to Road 23. Further downstream the Uxbridge Brook enters a
small on-stream impoundment called Brookdale Pond. This stream section is a composite
of short like reaches rather than a stretch of homogenous habitat. Groundwater rich rivulets
discharging off the Oak Ridges Moraine consolidate to provide excellent coldwater stream
habitat on a small scale in the headwaters of the Uxbridge Brook. This provides excellent
habitat for brook trout and sculpins.


Reach #2 - Upper Reaches (Brookdale Pond to Elgin Pond)
Abundant groundwater discharge and shading provided by forest cover are characteristic of
this reach of stream. Cold summer stream temperatures and stable stream flows result from
this blend of characteristics. This stretch provides the best coldwater stream habitat on the
Main Branch of the Uxbridge Brook (superior habitat exists on Tributary #1). Abundant woody
debris provides excellent instream cover. Sand bed loading seems to be a dominant
characteristic of this reach of stream and has probably been accelerated due to human land
use and development activities. Sand deposition is currently covering


gravel and rubble substrates which would previously have provided spawning habitat and
appropriate cover for stream invertebrates. Locating the source or sources of excessive sand
loading into this reach of stream is the first step involved in rehabilitation of this stretch of good
habitat.


Reach #3 - Elgin Pond to Davis Drive
This reach of stream contains some excellent physical habitat for coldwater species but
summer temperature conditions are marginal in terms of coldwater habitat. Warmer
temperatures may be resulting from urban storm water inputs and/or stagnation and warming
that occurs in on-line ponds. This reach also exhibits other characteristics of a degraded



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                                  42
system with an increase in litter and a number of non-native fish species including brown trout,
rainbow trout and largemouth bass.


Reach #4 - Davis Drive to Wagner Lake
This low gradient stretch of stream is characterized by fine substrates like sand, silt and
gravel. Although summer temperatures are marginal in terms of coldwater habitat, tributary
inflows and spring seepages may provide localized coldwater refugia within this reach. A
significant amount of instream warming occurs over this reach as the stream is exposed to
solar radiation as it flows through a large wetland system.


Reach #5 - Wagner Lake to Road 32 East of Udora
This reach of stream provides warmwater habitat for a variety of aquatic species. Flat stream
gradients (<0.1%) throughout this stretch strongly determine habitat characteristics. Sediment
and sand substrates predominate while gravel, cobble and boulder substrates are generally
absent. Channel morphology is dominated by flats with some pools associated with outside
stream bends and woody debris jams. This stream reach is moderately suitable for
supporting top predator species such as northern pike and


largemouth bass. Due to a lack of rock substrates, this stretch of stream has a limited
potential for supporting smallmouth bass.


Reach #6 - Road 32 East of Udora to Pefferlaw Brook
A series of on-line dams has created a string of small impoundments connected by flowing
water sections. Habitat in the impoundments is probably suitable for largemouth bass,
northern pike, pumpkinseed sunfish, and a variety of minnow species. Higher gradient
sections of stream characterized by rock substrates provides suitable habitat for smallmouth
bass between the impoundments in this reach.



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             43
Wagner Lake
An intensive investigation of habitat characteristics was not completed for Wagner Lake in
1996. However, a survey of Wagner Lake residents did provide some information regarding
the quality of the aquatic habitat. Local residents reported the maximum depth of the lake was
23'-25'. Water clarity was described as “moderate” and dependent on boat traffic. No rock
shoals were reported to be present in the lake, however several areas of marshy shoreline are
used by bass as spawning habitat. Aquatic plant species reported to be present in Wagner
Lake included cattail, bulrush, coontail, pondweed, duckweed, white water lilies and blue-
green algae. Residents reported seeing snapping turtles, bullfrogs and leeches in the near-
shore areas of the lake.


Tributaries
The most pristine coldwater stream habitat available within the watershed exists in Tributary
#1. This small tributary supports populations of brook trout and sculpins over its entire length
and contains gravel and cobble substrates that are suitable for invertebrates and fish
spawning. Coldwater habitat is available in the headwaters of Tributaries #2 and #3, but the
quality of habitat becomes increasingly degraded in the downstream urbanized


reaches of these streams. Tributary #4 and #5 are marginal coldwater streams that may have
insufficient base flow in their headwaters to support coldwater communities. Tributary #6 is
a warmwater stream that may be representative of the tributaries that do not originate on the
Oak Ridges Moraine Physiographic Unit. Leaskdale Creek is likely a degraded coldwater
system that has suffered due to clearing and subsequent agricultural land use. Temperatures
on this stream indicate that it is presently still a coolwater stream.


The quality of the aquatic resources of the Uxbridge Brook are currently at a crossroads,


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             44
especially in terms of maintaining quality coldwater stream habitat in this system. Due to its
tremendous groundwater richness, the Uxbridge Brook has been able to sustain some
coldwater habitat stretches in spite of incremental impacts from historical land use practises
associated with urban, rural residential and agricultural development.              Tremendous
degradation and isolation of coldwater habitat has occurred however and will continue unless
steps are taken towards rehabilitation. A comprehensive program of pond management,
erosion control, instream rehabilitation and future development control will be required in order
to retain and restore Uxbridge Brook’s unique character as a high quality coldwater stream
in an urban environment.


3.1.5 Terrestrial Environment
A wide range of terrestrial habitats can be found within the Uxbridge Brook Watershed,
offering a variety of habitats for wildlife, providing resources and recreational opportunities for
humans and maintaining the aesthetic and biological quality of the watershed as a whole.
Much of the data in this section was culled from pre-existing data sets compiled previously by
the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation
Authority (LSRCA) and other agencies. This data was verified and supplemented by field
reconnaissance (ground-truthing) in the summer of 1996 by LSRCA staff. The following is a
summary of these resources.
Forestry Resources
The forest communities of the Uxbridge Brook watershed are extremely diverse and occupy
23.6% (42.0 km2) of the land area within the watershed. The location of forest cover in the
watershed is illustrated on Figure 3.5. A full spectrum of forest community types exists within
this relatively small area, ranging from lowland swamp communities to upland mixed and
hardwood forests. For the purposes of this study, the different forest communities were
initially delineated using air photos, mapping from OMNR and Landsat imagery. This was
followed by field reconnaissance in places where the community type was in doubt and to


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                               45
                                        Forest Resource Map

                                                                  Sunderland


                             Udora




                                                                                                               LEGEND
                                        Leaskdale
                                                                                                              Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                                              roads
                                                                                      hip
                                                                                   wns
                                                                              k To     nship                  rivers
                                                                          Broc     Tow
                                                                                 g
                                                                           Scugo
                                                    Wagner Lake                                               subwatershed boundary
                                                                                                              Forested areas




                                                                                                                       SCALE


                                                                                                1 km      0                             5 km




San
   dford
     .                                                                                                        Figure 3.5
                                                                           47
                                                                       Hwy

                      rive
                  is D
              Dav
                                              Uxbridge




           Roseville   .




                               y
                                   47                                                          Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                             Hw
                                                                                                          Forest Resource Map
                                                                                               Data Source:
                                                                                                                               LSRCA GIS gp
                                                                                               MNR OBM Maps


                                                                  47
determine dominant species assemblages.


Many of the wetlands in the study area, are dominated by lowland conifer forests. In some
areas these swamps consist entirely of eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), or the
cedars may be in association with other species such as tamarack (Larix laricina), black
spruce (Picea mariana), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and
the poplars (Populus sp.). Other lowland communities in the watershed are predominantly
comprised of lowland hardwood species such as the poplars, white birch (Betula papyrifera),
white (American) elm (Ulmus americana), and black ash (Fraxinus nigra). A more detailed
discussion of the area wetlands will follow in the next section.


Forest communities that have developed on lands following disturbance events are common
within the Uxbridge Brook watershed. Most of these locations are areas that had formerly
been cleared for agricultural purposes and have subsequently been allowed to return to their
natural state. Such early successional communities appear as scrubland and are dominated
by typical pioneer species including the poplars, white birch and eastern white cedar. These
species are commonly associated with shrubs such as hawthorn (Crataegus sp.), common
buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), dogwood (Cornus sp.) and mountain maple (Acer
spicatum). As the ecosystem begins to age, the tree
species (poplars and birch) will begin to form an open canopy woodlot in which there is ample
space between individual trees. Another common option for recently disturbed sites and
retired agricultural lands is the creation of a conifer plantation such as the Durham Region
Forest. There are 5.7 km2 of conifer plantations in the watershed; an area which comprises
11.5% of the forested lands in the study area. The plantations are generally a monoculture of
pine (Pinus sp.) or spruce (Picea sp.) which offers little wildlife habitat initially. As the conifer
forest matures, more shade tolerant hardwood species are able to develop in the understorey
and will eventually become the dominant species in the canopy creating a more diverse


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                                 46
habitat for wildlife. This process is often hastened in managed forests by permitting selective
logging to thin out the canopy trees and provide a window of opportunity for the understorey
species to gain dominance.


In upland areas that have advanced beyond the early successional stage, the composition of
species is primarily determined by the density of trees and thus the amount of sunlight
received by the understorey. In a young forest where the canopy is partially open, a mid-
tolerant association of species will develop. In a forest of this designation, a wide variety of
species may be associated, where sugar maple (Acer saccharum), beech (Fagus
grandifolia), red oak (Quercus rubra), black cherry (Prunus serotina), white ash (Fraxinus
americana), white birch, basswood ( Tilia americana), ironwood ( Ostrya virginiana) and white
pine (Pinus strobus) would be the most common species. Gradually the canopy of the forest
will become more developed and dense, and shade tolerant species will begin to dominate
the forest community. As the canopy becomes more closed and less light reaches the forest
floor, the shade tolerant species are able to dominate the understorey and will eventually enter
the canopy and become the dominant species. Shade tolerant forests are typically dominated
by sugar maple with beech and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). A variety of other
species will generally be present in limited numbers depending on a number of factors. These
factors include, but are not limited to: past land


management practises and land use, the soil type, the moisture regime of the soil, exposure
to wind and edge effects, the slope angle and the orientation of the slope.              These
assemblages will eventually form what is considered an old growth forest. For the purpose
of this study, old growth forests have been designated as a forest stand that has not been
disturbed for greater than 100 years. Old growth forests offer the most diverse upland
communities for wildlife.




           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             48
Wetlands
Within the Uxbridge Brook Watershed, eight wetlands have been documented using the
wetland evaluation protocol developed by the OMNR. The evaluated wetlands have a total
area of 11.3 km2 and comprise 6.4% of the total watershed area. The location of these eight
wetlands is shown on Figure 3.6. It should be noted that there are likely additional wetland
areas within the study area that have not been evaluated for various reasons (eg. the area of
the wetland is less than 2 ha, and thus does not meet the criteria of OMNR’s Wetland
Evaluation Protocol).


The Victoria Corners Wetland is located approximately 1.5 km northeast of Wagner Lake and
extends in a northeast direction. The size of the wetland is 25.8 ha and it is a locally
significant wetland (class 7). The dominant vegetation communities in the wetland are a tall
shrub swamp with eastern white cedar, speckled alder (Alnus rubrum), balsam poplar
(Populus balsamifera) and black ash as the dominant species and a number of marsh
communities that are dominated by emergent vegetation. This wetland has a low level of
biological diversity compared to the other larger wetlands that are located within the
watershed.


The Uxbridge Bog is a small 11.7 ha wetland that is located immediately to the east of the
Town of Uxbridge. It is considered a locally significant feature as it is a class 6 wetland. The
majority of the wetland is a treed bog with species such as tamarack, black spruce (Picea
mariana), white birch and willows (Salix sp.) with small pockets of marsh that contain sedges
(Carex sp.) and grasses. The condition of this wetland is somewhat degraded due to the
presence of an adjacent golf course from which there would be inputs of nutrients, a lack of
buffers surrounding the wetland and isolation from other forested areas because all natural
corridors have been destroyed. Nevertheless, this is an important resource. Treed bogs are
considered rare in southern Ontario and this wetland is considered a very distinct ecosystem


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             49
                                            Wetlands

                                                         Sunderland

                            Udora




                                                                                            LEGEND

                                                                                           Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                           roads
                                                                                           rivers

                                          Wagner Lake                                      Wetland areas




                                                                                                      SCALE


                                                                         km 1          0                                5 km




    ford
Sand                                                                                   Figure 3.6
                                                                   47
                                                               Hwy

                     rive
                 is D
              Dav
                                       Uxbridge



           Roseville




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                              y
                            Hw
                                                                                            Wetland Map
                                                                                Data Source: MNR OBM Maps     LSRCA GIS gp



                                                        50
within its surrounding environment. The lag pond (or moat) that surrounds the bog is valuable
waterfowl habitat that supports a large number of mallards (Anus platyrhynchos) and
Canadian geese (Branta canadensis). A variety of plant species, such as the round-leaved
sundew (Drosera rotundifolia) and Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), that are unique to
the acidic, nutrient poor conditions which are characteristic of bogs can be found within the
small area of this wetland.


Approximately 4.5 km south of the Town of Uxbridge there is a second bog in the watershed,
known as the Utica Bog. This 51.6 ha wetland is located on the Oak Ridges Moraine and is
shared by both the Uxbridge Brook Watershed and the Nonquon River Watershed to the east
(only 9.8 ha of this wetland are located in the study area). This locally significant, class 6
wetland is in a considerably more pristine condition that the Uxbridge Bog. It is part of a large
tract of continuous forest cover and thus provides superior wildlife habitat. The bog community
is vegetated with a variety of grasses, willows, red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) and
indicative bog species such as round-leaved sundew and Labrador tea. This wetland also
contains a large marsh community dominated by grasses and cattails as well as some small
pockets of swamp where willows dominate the vegetation.


The Leaskdale Swamp extends to the west from the village of Leaskdale and is designated
as locally significant (a class 7 wetland). It is a relatively small wetland covering only 20.1 ha
and has coniferous, deciduous and tall shrub dominated swamp communities and several
marsh communities. In the swamp communities, one can find eastern white cedar, red maple
(Acer rubrum), balsam poplar, willow and tamarack. The swamp communities are dominated
by sedges and cattails (Typha latifolia). The diversity of habitats within this wetland is low
compared to the larger wetlands in the watershed.


The Sandford Wetland Complex is located east of the village of Sandford and extends north


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                               51
and south along the Leaskdale Creek. Although, at 149.6 ha, it is considerably larger than the
above wetland, the Leaskdale Swamp is still considered a locally significant (class 5) wetland.
As well, there are a wider variety of vegetation communities within this wetland and it is
comprised of a number of well connected distinct wetland pockets. The majority of the
pockets are dominated by tall shrub and/or coniferous swamp communities, but there are a
few small areas with marsh communities. Eastern white cedar and various species of willow
dominate the swamps where black ash, tamarack, black spruce, white elm and red maples
are other common tree/shrub species.


At 472.3 ha the Lower Uxbridge Brook Wetland is the largest wetland that is entirely within the
Uxbridge Brook Watershed. This feature extends from the outlet (north end) of Wagner Lake
to a point just southeast of the village of Udora. It is a provincially significant, class 1 wetland
that is dominated by coniferous and deciduous swamp communities with some pockets of
marsh habitat. The dominant species contained in the swamp ecosystems are eastern white
cedar, white birch, black spruce and black ash. This large, relatively undisturbed tract of
wetland serves as habitat for a wide variety of wildlife including several rare species,
waterfowl and deer. The large size reduces edge effects on forest dwellers that live towards
the centre of the wetland and shun the forest edges. Research conducted on interior species
of birds has shown that there are two types of


interior forest dwellers. These are: species which nest at a distance of 100 m or more from
the forest edge and species that nest 200 m or more from the forest edge (Ecological
Services Group, 1996). Having this large area of undisturbed habitat is critical for many
species. Also, the wide variety of vegetation communities in this area creates a high level
of environmental complexity which provides a wide variety of different types of habitat.


South of Wagner Lake, the Upper Uxbridge Brook Wetland extends south almost to the Town



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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                                                                                                 52
of Uxbridge. It is also a provincially significant wetland that is 281.1 ha and was designated
as class 1 by the OMNR in their wetland evaluation system. The only physical feature
separating the Upper Uxbridge Brook Wetland from the Lower Uxbridge Brook Wetland is
Wagner Lake. Both the east and the west sides of the lake are well treed and provide
corridors for wildlife to move between the two wetlands. This is especially true for the less
developed west side of the lake. Thus, the two wetlands are able to function as a continuous
stretch of habitat with a relatively low level of disturbance in the middle at Wagner Lake. In the
Upper Uxbridge Brook Wetland, vegetation is primarily comprised of coniferous swamp
communities with eastern white cedar, balsam fir and tamarack. Other prevalent species
include: white birch, black ash and elm.


The Uxbridge Brook Headwaters Wetland Complex is located to the south and southwest of
the Town of Uxbridge where it covers an area of 159.6 ha. It is considered a significant class
1 wetland, and serves a critical ecological function within the watershed. This wetland, which
is comprised mainly of coniferous and deciduous swamp communities, offers stream cover
and contains a large ground water discharge area which supports a naturally reproducing
coldwater fishery in the headwaters of the brook. The dominant tree species within the
wetland are eastern white cedar, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), elm, balsam fir and
balsam poplar.


A ninth wetland, the Upper Pefferlaw Wetland Complex #1, is located to the west of the study
area. Although a very small portion of this wetland (less than 1 ha) extends across the
watershed boundary into the study area (this wetland is located in the headwaters of the
Pefferlaw Brook and also supplies a small amount of water to the Uxbridge Brook system),
it will not be considered in detail in this report.


Environmentally Significant Areas


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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                                                                                               53
In 1982, Ecologistics Ltd., prepared a study for the LSRCA to locate and document the
environmentally significant areas (ESA’s) within the Lake Simcoe watershed. This study was
designed to identify and record the most important natural environments in the watershed. For
details on the criteria used, design, methodology and results of the study please see the ESA
Report (Ecologistics, 1982) available from the Conservation Authority. Four Biological ESA’s
are located in the Uxbridge Brook Watershed for a total area of 9.54 km2 (or approximately
5.4% of the watershed area). The location of these four ESA’s is indicated on Figure 3.7. A
fifth and sixth ESA are designated because they are considered to be of hydrogeological
significance within the watershed.
The Uxbridge Creek ESA (ESA #A45) is located in the lowlands to the north of Wagner Lake
covering an area of 405 ha. The boundaries of the ESA essentially correspond to the
boundaries of the Lower Uxbridge Brook Wetland plus an upland buffer surrounding the
wetland. The area includes a small graminoid bog and an extensive tract of relatively
undisturbed swamp forest containing 20 documented rare or endangered species. The
edges of the stream are well vegetated and the channel is in its natural state. This site
represents the middle section of a larger system of continuous forest/wetland habitat that
extends north from the Town of Uxbridge to the Village of Udora where it connects to the
Pefferlaw Brook Wetland Complexes, Pefferlaw Brook ESA, Zephyr Creek ESA, and Mud
Lake ESA. Connections with the Beaverton River ESA to the east also exist.


Containing the Upper Uxbridge Brook Wetland and adjacent upland areas, the Wagner Lake
ESA (ESA #A47) covers an extensive tract of relatively undisturbed habitat extending from
the southern edge of Wagner Lake to a point just north of the Town of Uxbridge. It covers an
area of 476 ha and represents a diverse range of habitat types including the marshy southern
shore of Wagner Lake, extensive areas of mixed swamp forests, wet sedge meadows, upland
and mesic hardwood forests and areas of old field succession. The complexity of this habitat
allows the area to host an unusually high diversity of wildlife with 226 species of plants and



          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           54
              Environmentally Significant Areas


                                              Sunderland



              Udora




                                                                           LEGEND

                                                                           Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                  Leaskdale
                                                                           roads
                                                                           rivers

                                Wagner Lake                                Environmentally Significant
                                                                                    Areas




                                                                                    SCALE


                                                            km 1       0                                   5 km




                                                       47
                                                                           Figure 3.7
                                                   Hwy

       rive
   is D
Dav
                              Uxbridge




                      47
                  y
                Hw                                          Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                                             Environmentally Significant Area Map
                                                            Data Source: LSRCA/MNR          LSRCA GIS gp




                                              55
vertebrates observed while field crews inventoried this ESA. Eight of these species are
considered to be rare or endangered. The Wagner Lake ESA is also a part of the extensive
interconnected areas of wildlife habitat discussed previously.


The Southwest Tributary of Uxbridge Creek ESA (ESA #A48) covers a considerably smaller
area (only 15 ha) than the other ESA’s and is located 3.2 km southwest of the Town of
Uxbridge. This is the only one of the four Biological ESA’s in the study area that does not
contain a portion of an evaluated wetland. Instead, the significant feature of this area is the
stream itself which is one of the headwater areas of the Uxbridge Brook. The creek is only
1.1 metres wide at this location and the bottom substrates are primarily sandy with gravel
areas located at the downstream end of the ESA. The significance of this site is that brook
trout are known to spawn on the gravelly substrate at the downstream end of the ESA
(Ecologistics, 1982). The significance of this area, as opposed to other headwater tributaries,
is questionable since field work done in the summer of 1996 suggests that brook trout spawn
in several other reaches of the headwaters. It is extremely unlikely that the extent of brook trout
habitat and spawning areas has expanded since the ESA report was prepared in 1982.


The 58 ha Brookdale Lake ESA (ESA #A49) is located 2 km southeast of the Town of
Uxbridge and is located on the Oak Ridges Moraine Physiographic Unit. It is largely
comprised of bottom lands, including portions of the Uxbridge Brook Headwaters Wetland
Complex and floodplain areas along the main branch of the Uxbridge Brook where dense
lowland cedar thickets may be found. Other vegetation communities present include adjacent
areas of upland hardwood forest and old successional fields. The stream originates in a
marsh area and flows north through areas of dense tree cover to the southern end of
Brookdale Lake. Brook trout redds are located on gravelly substrates immediately upstream
from the lake. Seven rare plant species and two provincially uncommon bird species are
located in this ESA, and were found primarily in the old successional fields on the western



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                               56
edge of the site.


The Pefferlaw and Uxbridge Infiltration Areas (ESA #B6 and #B7, respectively) have important
hydrogeological functions within the Lake Simcoe watershed. The area covered by these
ESA’s includes most parts of the Oak Ridges Moraine Physiographic Unit that are located in
the study area. These infiltration areas contribute to the groundwater quantity and quality of
the Oak Ridges Moraine aquifer complex. There are also many discharge areas associated
with these two ESA’s. Groundwater is discharged from the moraine aquifers to maintain the
quality and quantity of stream flow in the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries. In the headwaters
and localized downstream pockets of stream habitat where there are significant groundwater
seeps, the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries are able to support populations of coldwater fish
species, including brook trout.


Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest
In the Uxbridge Brook Watershed there is one Life Science Area of Natural and Scientific
Interest (ANSI), the Uxbridge Pine-Maple Uplands. This feature is located south of the Town
of Uxbridge and has an area of 88.2 ha (Figure 3.8) . The Uxbridge Pine-
Maple Uplands is a relatively mature white pine-sugar maple-white birch stand that is


estimated to be approximately 80 to 100 years old. To the west and southwest, the ANSI
grades into a predominantly deciduous forest (Lindsay, 1984). To the north, it is bordered by
land that has been cleared for agricultural activities and a number of private residences. A
section of reforested land known as the Durham Region Experimental Forest is located to the
east (across the 6th Concession Road). The southeast extremity is adjacent to Lafarge
Aggregates, a large construction materials extraction operation.


The Uxbridge Pine-Maple Uplands is included as a Life Science ANSI for several reasons.



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             57
Area of Natural and Scientific Interest

                                  Sunderland



  Udora




                                                                LEGEND

                                                               Uxbridge Brook Watershed
     Leaskdale
                                                               roads
                                                               rivers
                 Wagner Lake
                                                               subwatershed boundary

                                                               Area of Natural and
                                                                Scientific Interest




                                                                          SCALE


                                                km 1       0                                     5 km




                                                          Figure 3.8
            Uxbridge




                                               Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study

                                                                 ANSI Map
                                                   Data Source: MNR OBM Maps      LSRCA GIS gp




                                58
At the time that the ANSI Report by Lindsay (1984) was created, the Uplands were considered
to be the best example of a mature, indigenous pine-dominated forest observed on the Oak
Ridges Moraine. Field reconnaissance in 1996 indicates that pine has become a less
prevalent component and that hardwoods (mostly sugar maple and white birch) have become
the dominant species through the process of natural succession. Some may view this
process as undermining the integrity and diversity of the habitat, but it is merely an example
of an ecosystem aging naturally. The Uplands are well connected to large tracts of forest on
the Oak Ridges Moraine to the south, west and east creating a large area of continuous
habitat and acting as an important corridor for wildlife.


Records indicate that some areas in the western end of the feature have been selectively
logged in the past, but the overall integrity of the woodlot is considered to be good (Lindsay,
1984). Field reconnaissance in 1996 revealed the presence of abundant deadfalls within the
area, especially in the northeast portion which is adjacent to agricultural lands and thus is
vulnerable to wind damage. Many of the observed deadfalls may be the mature pines being
replaced, through natural succession, by the hardwoods which are increasing in abundance.
Wildlife habitat in some areas is somewhat degraded due to increased edge effects in
northern areas adjacent to the agricultural lands and in
the east which borders the Durham Region Experimental Forest which is essentially a
monoculture forest with little habitat value. The Lafarge Aggregates operation to the southeast
would have a number of adverse effects on the forest as outlined in the ANSI Report by
Lindsay (1984).


Wildlife - Birds
A bird inventory for the Uxbridge Brook Watershed was compiled using the checklist
developed by Henshaw (1993) for Durham Region. Additional information was obtained from
the OMNR and Long Point Bird Observatory on certain species that were deemed to be the


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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                                                                                            59
most significant. The total number of bird species observed by Henshaw in Durham Region
was 346. Of the 346 species, 171 were observed to be breeding in Durham. For the purpose
of this study, it will be assumed that 187 species of birds use parts of the Uxbridge Brook
Watershed at some stage of their life. 187 is the number of species that are considered
abundant, common or “uncommon; (but) not very difficult to find” (Henshaw, 1993). This
number does not include species that are considered “scarce; not encountered daily, found
with difficulty or very locally” (Henshaw, 1993). A complete list of the species considered in
this report is included as Appendix D.


Data regarding the location of heronries (heron nesting sites) was obtained from the Long
Point Bird Observatory in the form of the 1990-91 Ontario Heronries Inventory. No heronries
had been documented in the study area by this source, but the presence of several
unconfirmed heron nesting sites were reported by local birders. Henshaw (1993) reported
that great blue herons (Ardea herodias) commonly breed in Durham Region, and that green
herons (Butorides striatus) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) breed
periodically. Records in the OMNR Wetland Evaluations indicate that herons are breeding
in the Victoria Corners Wetland, the Leaskdale Swamp, the Sanford Wetland Complex and
the Lower Uxbridge Brook Wetland.


The location of red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) nests are also recorded by Long Point.
Protocol outlined by the North American Breeding Birds Survey is used to document the
location of these birds by utilizing a number of birding routes. Although no routes are located
within the study area, 3 nests were reported on Route #15 which is situated west of Uxbridge
near the village of Ballantrae and no nests were found along route #27 near the village of
Zephyr. It is likely that the inhabitants of the Ballantrae nests use habitat in the Uxbridge Brook
Watershed for feeding or other activities. According to Henshaw (1993), breeding red-
shouldered hawks are scarce in Durham Region with an estimate of only 11-50 breeding pairs


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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                                                                                                60
in the region. A nesting site was documented in the Lower Uxbridge Brook Wetland by the
OMNR Wetland Evaluation System.


In the study by Henshaw (1993), it is stated that osprey (Pandion haliaetus) breed rarely in
Durham Region as there are estimated to be less than 11 breeding pairs in the region. The
presence of osprey was documented within the Wagner Lake Environmentally Significant
Area (Ecologistics Ltd., 1982). As well, osprey were observed in the Upper Pefferlaw River
Wetland Complex #1 in 1986 by OMNR staff. Although only a small portion of this wetland is
within the study area, it is likely that these birds would use habitat within the Uxbridge Brook
Watershed as well.


Waterfowl Habitat
Due to the wide range of areas inhabited by song birds, no habitat description was included
or mapped for this study.       However, waterfowl species have more specific habitat
requirements that can be readily identified and described. A number of areas within the
Uxbridge Brook Watershed provide valuable habitat for waterfowl for such life cycle activities
as breeding, moulting and staging. Any wetland which contains areas of permanent open
water will have an environment suitable for use by waterfowl. According to Ducks Unlimited
Canada, waterfowl also require upland habitat on the perimeter of the
wetland which is defined by a distance of approximately 100 metres from the wetland-upland
boundary (Steel, personal communication).


The Uxbridge Bog, east of the Town of Uxbridge, is used for both breeding and staging (that
is, areas used as migratory stop overs). OMNR staff evaluating this wetland in 1987
estimated that between 300 and 400 Canadian geese and a similar number of ducks
(presumably mallards) were using this wetland at the time of site visits. The Victoria Corners
wetland is known to be a breeding ground for waterfowl. Habitat is available and waterfowl


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             61
have been observed using the Upper and Lower Uxbridge Brook Wetlands, the Uxbridge
Brook Headwaters Wetland Complex and the Utica Bog. Although the exact nature of the use
of these wetlands is not specified in the wetland evaluations, it is likely that they are used for
feeding, breeding and possibly for staging. It is unlikely that these locations are being used
for moulting. The Leaskdale Swamp and the Sanford Wetland Complex offer little waterfowl
habitat, but it is likely that waterfowl use the stream channel which flows through each of these
wetlands. Although it is largely outside of the study area, it is worth noting that the Upper
Pefferlaw Wetland Complex #1 offers a diverse variety of habitat. Feeding, breeding, staging
and moulting are all known to occur at this location.


Other sources of waterfowl habitat includes a number of man-made ponds within the study
area, including Elgin and Electric Light Ponds in the Town of Uxbridge. Intense use in these
areas has created concerns that the waterfowl may be having a negative impact on the water
quality in downstream areas. Populations of Fecal coliform need to be analysed above and
below ponds with large waterfowl populations (especially Elgin pond which has a very large
resident population).




Wildlife - Mammals
No field surveys were undertaken to document mammals within the Uxbridge Brook
Watershed. Instead, a list of mammal species using the watershed for some portion of their
life cycle was constructed from a variety of sources. A complete list of these species has
been included as Appendix D.


Deer Wintering Habitat
The availability of wintering habitat for white-tail deer is an important aspect of mixed forests
in Ontario. Within the Uxbridge Brook Watershed, there are four deer wintering yards that are


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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                                                                                              62
recognized by the OMNR with a total area of 10.8 km2. The locations of the four deer
wintering yards has been indicated on Figure 3.9. The largest one is the Wagner Lake Deer
Yard which is located north of Wagner Lake and covers an area of 7.4 km2. Other deer yards
include the Sanford Deer Yard located northeast of the village of Sanford, the Leaskdale Deer
Yard located northwest of the village of Leaskdale and the west end of the
Vallentyne/Sunderland Deer Yard located southwest of the Town of Sunderland.


The OMNR has defined the deer yards based on traditional use of these areas for cover and
winter browse. Winter cover consists of dense stands of conifers such as hemlock and
eastern white cedar (Bennet, personal communication) that have a closed canopy (ie.
approximately 70% canopy cover). The closed canopy prevents the loss of heat at night and
the dense forest with associated shrub and brush vegetation protects the deer from cold
winter winds. The minimum ideal size for winter cover habitat is 0.8 to 2 ha (depending on the
size of the population using the habitat and the shape of the forested stand) with a minimum
width of 90 metres (Thomas et al., 1979). Areas that are suitable for winter browse are open
areas or early successional forests. These conditions often result following an environmental
disturbance such as a forest fire, logging or in old
agricultural fields that have been allowed to naturalize. Alternatively, browse habitat may be
available in open spaces created by a natural meadow or a marshy section of a wetland. In
these areas, deer will feed on the twigs of young trees, shrubs such as dogwood and soft
maples or the foliage of cedars. It should be noted that the use of deer yards is not as
common in Southern Ontario as it is in Northern Ontario. Due to the relatively mild climate of
the study area, deer only congregate in wintering yards during the most severe winter
conditions (Bennet, personal communication).


Wildlife - Herpetofauna
No field surveys were undertaken to document herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians) within



           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           63
    Deer Wintering Yards

                                      Sunderland



Udora




                                                                     LEGEND

                                                                    Uxbridge Brook Watershed
        Leaskdale
                                                                    roads
                                                                    rivers
             Wagner Lake                                             subwatershed boundary
                                                                     township boundary

                                                                      Deer wintering yards




                                                                             SCALE


                                                    km 1        0                                   5 km




                                                                    Figure 3.9

                           Uxbridge




                                                   Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study

                                                                Deer Habitat Map
                                                           Data Source:
                                                                                     LSRCA GIS gp
                                                           MNR OBM Maps




                           64
the Uxbridge Brook Watershed. Instead, a list of herpetofaunal species using the watershed
for some portion of their life cycle was constructed from a variety of sources. A complete list
of these species has been included as Appendix D.


Rare Flora and Fauna
Within the Uxbridge Brook Watershed, 43 species that are considered to be rare or
endangered have been observed at various locations. The precise location of the observed
species is not described or indicated on maps contained in this report, but it has been
incorporated into the constraint mapping exercise. This information is considered to be
classified information and is not available to the public in order to protect these species and
their habitat. A complete list of rare species has been included as Appendix D. It should be
noted that these inventories should not be considered to be complete. Rare species generally
occur in small populations and are often very difficult to locate. These lists can be expanded
in the future as additional field work is done for other projects in the study area.




Aggregate Resources
Aggregate resources includes building materials that are extracted from the earth such as
sand and gravel. Information regarding the location of aggregate resources within the study
area were supplied by Durham Region, York Region and the OMNR (Figure 3.10). The total
area of licenced aggregate pits within the study area is 6.0 km2, which represents 3.4% of the
total area of the subwatershed. There are also 19 abandoned sites within the subwatershed,
but the total area for these locations was unavailable and thus is not presented in this report.
Of the 19 sites, 13 have been previously rehabilitated, while five are considered to be a low
priority for rehabilitation and one is considered to be a medium priority for rehabilitation.
None of the abandoned pits in the study area were considered to be a high priority for
rehabilitation efforts. Potential aggregate resource areas in the Uxbridge Brook watershed


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
           LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             65
                        Aggregate Resources

                                                   Sunderland



                    Udora




                                                                                 LEGEND

                                                                                Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                roads
                        Leaskdale
                                                                                rivers
                                    Wagner Lake
                                                                                subwatershed boundary
                                                                                 township boundary

                                                                                Aggregate extraction sites

                                                                        Abandoned aggregate sites
                                                                                medium priority rehab
                                                                                rehabilitated
                                                                                low priority rehab

        d
   dfor
San
                                                                                           SCALE


                                                                 km 1       0                                      5 km




                                                                           Figure 3.10

           eville
        Ros




                                                                Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study

                                                                           Aggregate Resource Map

                                                                   Data Source:MNR/Durham Maps      LSRCA GIS gp




                                                  67
include all lands that are situated on the Oak Ridges Moraine.




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                 66
4.0    MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Management issues were identified for the entire Uxbridge Brook watershed by the Steering
and Public Advisory Committees, along with input from the general public obtained during a
public open-house. Specific issues and concerns relate to key natural processes and the
landscape ecology. Management issues were divided into five broad categories.
                     !       Water Quality
                     !       Water Quantity
                     !       Aquatic Habitat
                     !       Terrestrial Habitat
                     !       Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities

Within each category individual watershed functions and relationships are considered to
determine which are impaired and to identify the management activities responsible.


4.1    Water Quality
The data collected and reviewed for the Uxbridge Brook identified problems associated with
quality of surface water runoff. Specifically, the ability of the watershed to retain nutrients
(especially phosphorus), resist soil erosion, and trap sediment is greatly impaired due to
human activities. In addition, the availability of pollutants has been greatly increased due to
the direct addition of these nutrients from human land use activity.


The issue of water quality is of prominent concern because of the connection to the aquatic
ecosystem and recreation and aesthetics amenities. Good water quality means a healthy
aquatic ecosystem and unrestricted use of the waters for recreational purposes. Another
important consideration is the impact that the Uxbridge Brook watershed has on the larger
ecosystem of Lake Simcoe.        The Lake Simcoe Environmental Management Strategy
(LSEMS) has established a goal of reducing phosphorus loadings to the lake by 25%


          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY




                                                                                            68
(LSEMS, 1995). Improvement in the water quality of the Uxbridge Brook will also help
enhance the overall water quality of Lake Simcoe.


Nutrient retention refers to the storing of nutrients by the landscape within the soil and
vegetation. Phosphorus, and to a much lesser degree nitrogen, are the two nutrients of
concern within the Uxbridge Brook watershed. Phosphorus is found in abundance in the
natural environment but as previously mentioned is bound tightly in natural systems within the
soil and plants. Nitrogen is also abundant in many forms and in a healthily ecosystem is
readily converted into a gaseous state which keeps concentrations at a level which does not
impair water quality and the aquatic environment. It is when these processes are altered that
potential problems within the ecosystem occur.


Nutrient retention is greatly affected by human land use activities within the Uxbridge Brook
watershed.    Alterations to the natural landscape associated urban development and
agriculture increases surface runoff thereby reducing the land’s ability to retain nutrients. This
occurs as the additional water travelling over the ground’s surface erodes nutrients and
sediment, which are deposited into surface waters draining to the Uxbridge Brook. This
results in an overall increase in nutrient export and the impairment of water quality.
Soil erosion and sediment trapping processes, like nutrient retention, are directly linked to
land use activities. Soil erosion is the process where particulate matter is dislodged and
transported away. Sediment trapping is the exact opposite process, whereby these particles
are retained and deposited. These natural processes occur continuously through-out the
watershed.


The availability of nutrients, sediment and other pollutants is another significant factor


           Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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                                                                                              69
contributing to the degradation of water quality within the Uxbridge Brook. Human activities
in both rural and urban areas are responsible for increasing the amount of pollutants which can
be made available to enter surface waters. The applications of chemical fertilizers, pesticides
and herbicides to facilitate the growth of crops or lawns is one example. These nutrients, if
not managed properly, can become an additional source of contamination contributing to
water quality degradation. Specific issues and concerns relating to these key processes are
listed in Table 4.0. The issues identified relate to land use or management activities while
concerns identified describe the subsequent impact on water quality.


Table 4.0      Water Quality Issues and Concerns

             ISSUE                                        CONCERN
 Urban Development

 Soil Erosion and Sediment        Construction activities involve the removal of vegetation and
 from Construction Activities     topsoil from building sites exposing the surface to wind and
                                  water erosion washing nutrients and sediment into the
                                  Uxbridge Brook.

 Urban Runoff from New            Stormwater runoff from urban areas contains sediment,
 Development                      bacteria, nutrients and other contaminants harmful to the
                                  Uxbridge Brook. Urban runoff can also contribute to
                                  streambank erosion due to increases in stream flows from
                                  upstream development.

 Runoff from Existing             Most of the Town of Uxbridge was built prior to 1991 and
 Uncontrolled Urban Areas         does not have stormwater quality control. As a result these
                                  areas contribute large amounts of sediment, bacteria and
                                  nutrients polluting surface and groundwater
             ISSUE                                        CONCERN




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Illegal Sewer Connections     Improper cross connections from residential, commercial,
                              and industrial areas discharge untreated waste directly into
                              surface waters contributing high concentrations of bacteria,
                              nutrients and other pollutants.
Sanitary Sewage Disposal      Sewage treatment plants (STPs) routinely discharge effluent
                              to watercourses. This effluent although treated still contains
                              nutrients which can negatively impact on water quality.
Industrial and Household      Spills and the deliberate dumping of chemicals into storm
Chemicals                     drains still occurs within the Uxbridge Brook watershed
                              resulting in degraded water quality.
Private Waste Disposal        Many residences or cottages within the Uxbridge Brook
Systems                       watershed are serviced by septic systems. If these systems
                              are not properly maintained they can fail contributing to
                              ground and surface water pollution.

Lawn Chemicals- Improper      Homeowners often apply fertilizers, pesticides and
Application of Fertilizers,   herbicides without regard for the environment.
Pesticides, Herbicides
Road Salt and Dust            These chemicals routinely are washed into surface waters or
Suppressant                   into the ground contaminating ground water.
Agriculture
Livestock Access to a         Livestock trample streambanks and defecate in the water
Watercourse                   contributing to water quality pollution, streambank erosion
                              and fisheries degradation.
Milkhouse Washwater           Dairy operations routinely wash their milkhouses twice daily.
Discharge                     Some farms discharge this washwater directly into streams
                              degrading water quality.
Runoff from Manure Storage, Stormwater runoff from inadequate manure storage,
Feedlots and Manure         feedlots, and manure spread fields carry bacteria,
Spread Fields               sediments, and nutrients into the Uxbridge Brook impacting
                            the resource.

          ISSUE                                       CONCERN



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                                                                                        71
 Agriculture\continued
                                  Stormwater runoff from cultivated fields can cause erosion
 Runoff and Erosion from
                                  and wash soil particles, nutrients and pesticides into the
 Cropland
                                  Uxbridge Brook.
 Application of Fertilizers,
                                  Over application of chemical and natural fertilizers
 Pesticides and Herbicides
                                  concentrates nutrients and increases the potential for surface
 on Agricultural Lands
                                  water contamination. Improper application of herbicides and
                                  pesticides is also of concern.
 Application of Industrial and
                                  The spreading of industrial and sewage sludge on
 Sewage Sludge on
                                  agricultural lands can increase soil fertility and improve soil
 Agricultural Lands
                                  structure. Unfortunately, winter application of sludge is still
                                  allowed even though frozen ground conditions promote runoff
                                  in the spring.




4.2    Water Quantity
The key water quantity management issues identified within the Uxbridge Brook watershed
involves processes associated with groundwater recharge and discharge and flood storage.
Groundwater recharge and related discharge are linked to climate and influence baseflow to
the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries. Water infiltrating through the soil recharges the water
table and deeper aquifers maintaining water levels and controlling the sub-surface flow
patterns. This provides us with our drinking water while also maintaining baseflow which is
needed to support the aquatic ecosystem and provide water for wildlife. Therefore, a
balanced water budget is essential for a healthy ecosystem and our human well-being.


Maintaining groundwater recharge and discharge while changing the landscape is one of the



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                                                                                             72
most important considerations of a watershed plan. Land use activities can significantly
interfere and interrupt the water balance affecting the quality and quantity of groundwater
recharge and discharge. For example, the loss of infiltration associated with hardening
surfaces can seriously reduce groundwater recharge thereby affecting baseflow. The
construction of trunk sewers for conveying stormwater runoff or sewage can disrupt
groundwater discharge by channelling water and interrupting baseflow. Increased water
demand from human consumption can also lower the groundwater table effectively reducing
baseflow. Furthermore, the resulting changes in the hydrology of an area can cause flooding.


From these examples, it is clear that the natural process associated with the hydrologic cycle
must be maintained despite whatever changes are proposed within the watershed.
Furthermore, areas which have been degraded need to be restored and\or enhanced where
possible. Specific issues and concerns identified to be influencing water quantity within the
Uxbridge Brook watershed are listed in Table 4.1.


Table 4.1      Water Quantity Issues and Concerns

             ISSUE                                       CONCERN

 Flooding
 Construction in areas prone     This can increase flood levels upstream and downstream
 to flooding.                    and cause an increase in damages caused by flooding.
 Increase in Stream Flows        Frequency, duration and extent of flooding can be
 Due to Upstream                 increased by development.
 Development.
 Increase in Stream Flows        Tree removal can increase the volume of run off due to the
 Due to Deforestation.           reduction in evapotranspiration and interception.

             ISSUE                                       CONCERN



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 Altered Base Flow                Describes reductions in baseflow to streams due to volume,
                                  location, routing or timing of groundwater inputs adversely
                                  affected by urbanization and water taking directly from the
                                  stream. During the dry summer months, reduced base
                                  flows in watercourses can impact on aquatic habitat and
                                  downstream water users.
 Reduction of Infiltration in     Existing direct roof leader connections drain impervious
 Urban Areas.                     roof areas which drain directly to the stream via a storm
                                  sewer, will result in increased run off volume and reduced
                                  infiltration.
 Loss of Recharge Discharge       Loss of groundwater recharge and discharge. Urban
 Areas                            development can significantly reduce groundwater recharge
                                  and impair discharge.
 Increase in Stream Flows         Increased stream bank erosion. Frequency, magnitude and
 Due to Upstream                  duration of peak stream flows can be increased by
 Development.                     development which can result in streambank erosion.
 Rapid Fluctuations in            Significant increases in stream flow due to on-line ponds
 Stream Flow                      and dams. Flood waves can be caused by breaches of
                                  man-made ponds and beaver dams.


 Water Conservation -             Excessive use of water during dry summer months will have
 Excessive Water Use              an impact on base flow.


4.3    Aquatic Habitat
Aquatic habitat provides an environment that is essential to the health and survival of aquatic
organisms.     Valuable aquatic habitat has been defined as those providing greater
environmental complexity and having the greatest opportunities for food, cover, species
diversity, and productivity. An example of a high value habitat would be cold water areas
supporting brook trout.




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The condition of sensitive aquatic habitat, such as habitat supporting coldwater fish species,
within a system is a good indication of the overall health of the environment. Functional
coldwater habitat cannot exist without suitable water quality/quantity and a healthy terrestrial
ecosystem (ie. adequate forest cover to provide shade, cover and food for aquatic
organisms). Any human activity that negatively affects water quality/quantity or the terrestrial
ecosystem will have an effect on the health of aquatic habitat.


For example, when land is cleared for development soil erosion is accelerated. Sediments
along with nutrients and any contaminants that may have been adsorbed by the soil particles
are transported by overland flow following a rainstorm event. The water quality of the stream
receiving these inputs (in this case, the Uxbridge Brook) will be compromised by the
increased sediment, nutrient and contaminant loads. In turn, aquatic ecosystems are affected.
Sediments are deposited on gravel, cobble and rock substrates which may serve as prime
habitat for invertebrates or as spawning beds for fish; excess nutrients may increase primary
production within the system which could have an effect on the amount of dissolved oxygen
available to aquatic fauna; and some contaminants (ie. toxins) are able to bio-accumulate in
the food chain and cause behavioural and reproductive problems in top predators (such as
salmonids).


In keeping with the watershed plan’s vision, there is a need to protect and to enhance existing
aquatic habitat. Achieving this objective requires the protection and enhancement of this
resource, associated with other management issues already discussed such as water quality
(nutrients, sediment) and quantity (recharge and discharge areas). Specific issues and
concerns identified to be influencing aquatic habitat within the Uxbridge Brook watershed are
listed in Table 4.2.


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                                                                                            75
Table 4.2      Aquatic Habitat Issues and Concerns

             ISSUE                                     CONCERN
 Lack of Stream Cover
 Vegetated Buffers             Instream warming. A lack of overhead cover exposes the
                               stream to increased direct sunlight and results in higher
                               water temperatures stressing coldwater fish
                               species.

 Reduced Refuge for Fish       Natural instream debris, especially woody debris, provides
                               cover for many species of fish. Cover is needed for
                               feeding, hunting, avoiding predators and resting. A lack of
                               debris causes habitat to be less desirable for many
                               species.
 Overland Flow Into Stream     Buffer areas surrounding streams act as filters for pollutants
                               and nutrients being carried in overland flow. Wetlands,
                               forest, and scrubland are especially effective filters. Without
                               adequate buffers, a stream can become polluted and
                               nutrient enriched.




 Bank Erosion/Stabilization    Where stream banks have become eroded, public and
                               private lands are lost, private property is damaged and the
                               stream receives an increased sediment load. In extreme
                               cases, problems such as channel widening and decreased
                               sinuosity occur.




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Sedimentation
Quantity and Transport      The sediment load of a stream is impacted by both bank
                            and instream erosional processes. Bank erosion was dealt
                            with above. Instream erosion depends on water velocity,
                            which in turn depends on the gradient and sinuosity of the
                            stream. Heavy sediment loads can have negative impacts
                            on the quality of aquatic habitats.


           ISSUE                                   CONCERN

Destruction of Habitat      Excessive sedimentation can result in the destruction of
                            spawning habitat. Deposited sediments cover the gravel
                            substrate that is required by many fish species for
                            spawning. If excessive sedimentation occurs following the
                            spawning period, eggs may be buried and will suffocate.
Confined Channels           Confined channels are an obstruction to stream flow and
                            thus can create flooding hazards. As well, confined
                            channels result in altered stream flow characteristics,
                            increased erosion at outlets, and a reduction in the
                            quality of aquatic habitat.
Instream Barriers
Beaver Dams                 Beaver dams impede stream flow and thus cause a
                            flooding hazard. Dams also are an obstruction to fish
                            migration.


Private dams                Private dams (and dams on public lands) also cause
                            flooding hazards and are an obstruction to fish migration.




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 Ponds
 On-line                           On-line ponds create a variety of problems. There are
                                   flooding problems associated directly with the ponds. They
                                   are a barrier to fish migration and cause downstream
                                   warming. Algae often creates an aesthetic problem.

                                   Off-line ponds cause downstream warming. Algae is often
 Off-line Pond Without             an aesthetic problem.
 Bottom Draw


             ISSUE                                          CONCERN

 Groundwater                       The loss of groundwater recharge and discharge areas will
 Recharge and Discharge            negatively impact on baseflows of streams. Discharge
 Areas                             areas provide summer refuges for cool and cold water fish
                                   species.
 Bioconservation Introduction      The introduction of non-native of exotic species can have
 of Exotic, Non-Native             significant impacts on existing organism. For example,
 Species                           introducing Brown Trout into a Brook Trout area could result
                                   in the loss of the Brook Trout population due to competition
                                   and predation.




4.4    Terrestrial Habitat
Terrestrial Habitat refers to all lands within the Uxbridge Brook watershed that support native
flora and fauna populations, and especially those areas which have not been converted into
urban land use. Other factors such as water quality/quantity and aquatic habitats are affected
by the health of the terrestrial environment. For example, increased erosion from terrestrial
habitats will have a negative effect on water quality and the quality of aquatic habitat available.




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Areas that provide a high level of environmental complexity have been identified as the most
valuable terrestrial habitats. High environmental complexity includes elevated levels of
productivity (primary, secondary and tertiary), increased species diversity and provides
greater opportunities for organisms to obtain sufficient food and shelter. Wetlands and old
growth forests are examples of valuable terrestrial habitats with a high level of environmental
complexity.


Wetlands can be considered the most important link between terrestrial and aquatic
environments. The plants in wetlands act to filter sediments and nutrients from overland runoff.
These nutrients, as well as carbon from the atmosphere, are stored for long periods of time
in the tissues of the plant and often become incorporated into the organic soils or peat of the
wetland when the plant dies. Forests and scrubland also provide buffers for watercourses, but
are not as efficient as naturally occurring wetlands. Also, compared to upland communities
wetlands generally have a superior level of plant and animal diversity. Communities such as
dense conifer swamps provide important winter (thermal) cover and browsing areas for many
animals from small song birds to white-tailed deer.


Forested areas are invaluable for preventing soil erosion, promoting the retention of soil
moisture, providing valuable habitat for wildlife and facilitating groundwater recharge in some
areas. Old growth forests provide particularly diverse habitat and a large number of unique
niches for a variety of plants and animals. The larger number of associated standing-dead
trees provides nesting areas for birds and small mammals that utilize hollows in trees.
Deadfalls and debris on the forest floor provide additional denning areas for mammals that
do not climb trees.




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But, to optimize the use and productivity of the terrestrial habitat available within the Uxbridge
Brook watershed, it is essential that adequate linkages between large areas of undisturbed
habitat are available and maintained. For example, many species of birds require large
expanses of forested habitat where edge effects are absent in order to nest. Such forest
dwellers may require minimum distances of up to 200 m from the forest edges to avoid feral
predators or cowbird nest parasitism. Other animal species which do not require such large
areas of continuous habitat, instead require several types of interconnected habitat to
complete their lifecycle. For example, some species that require upland forests for most of
their lifecycle require wetlands for breeding and rearing their young. These different types of
habitat need to be connected by forested corridors to permit the free movement of the
animals. Where such corridors do not exist, mitigation measures may be required to
reestablish suitable linkages.


To successfully address the above issues, valuable terrestrial habitats identified within the
Uxbridge Brook watershed will need to be protected from future development and enhanced.
Specific issues and concerns identified to be influencing terrestrial habitat within the Uxbridge
Brook watershed are listed in Table 4.3.


Table 4.3      Terrestrial Habitat Issues and Concerns

             ISSUE                                         CONCERN
 Forest\Species Diversity          Loss of forest species diversity and loss of habitat.
                                   Indigenous flora and fauna can be adversely affected by
                                   changing land uses.
 Lack of Natural Corridors         Isolation of natural habitat areas restricts the movement
                                   and utilization by wildlife.



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 Unstable Slopes - Slope          Loss of vegetation can result in slope instability, loss of
 Stabilization                    wildlife habitat, and cause erosion and sedimentation,
 Destruction of Upland            Loss of forest in upland areas results in reduced water
 Forested Areas                   infiltration, increased erosion and lost wildlife habitat.

 Destruction of Wetlands          Wetlands play a vital role in the watershed by improving
                                  water quality and providing wildlife habitat.




4.5    Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities
One of the goals of the Watershed Study is to create a natural environment that is aesthetically
pleasing to residents and visitors of the Uxbridge Brook watershed and to provide
recreational opportunities to enjoy the aforementioned environment. To meet this goal, it will
be necessary to preserve the existing natural environment and to reestablish degraded or
aesthetically unpleasing areas using mitigation and enhancement measures.


Future degradation of the natural environment due to recreational activities must be controlled.
Litter from human activities can create problems in valley lands as well as upland areas. Many
items that are often carelessly discarded by humans can be dangerous to wildlife (eg. plastic
bags and rings from beer cans) and may impair the natural function of ecosystems (eg. old
tires dumped in streams can alter flow patterns). Many recreational activities, such as the use
of recreational vehicles, can compromise the integrity of natural areas if proper care is not
taken. Such activities must be restricted to areas where damages will be minimal.


The way in which passive use park areas are managed needs to be addressed. Landscaped
parks with manicured lawns can create water quality problems, and affect aquatic and
terrestrial organisms which depend on the brook as habitat or a source of drinking water. It


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                                                                                                81
is understood that high impact recreational activities associated with playing fields do require
these areas to be well maintained. However, the over application of chemical fertilizers and
lack of stream buffers adjacent to streams in these areas can be problematic. Naturalizing
recreational areas and establishing buffers especially in stream corridors will enhance
opportunities for passive recreational use while providing environmental benefits. The
establishment of these areas also provides an excellent opportunity to get schools, service
clubs and other community groups involved in the protection and enhancement of the local
ecosystem.


Table 4.4 outlines the most important issues and concerns that were identified regarding
human recreation and aesthetic amenities.


Table 4.4      Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities Issues and Concerns

             ISSUE                                        CONCERN

 Park Maintenance - Use of Inappropriate use of pesticides and fertilizers in parks
 Herbicides and Pesticides contributes to ground and surface water contamination.
 Garbage and Debris Dumped The garbage and debris can impair natural form and
 in Valley Lands           function of valley and stream corridor and is unsightly.
 Lack of Trail System             Safe pedestrian access into valleys and other natural areas
                                  is desirable.
 Destruction of Natural Areas Use of recreation vehicles in sensitive areas
 from Recreational Activities can harm vegetation and disturb soils on sensitive sites.


4.6    Subwatershed Management Issues Summary
As part of the study methodology, the Uxbridge Brook watershed was divided into 18 discrete



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                                                                                             82
subwatersheds depicted in Figure 4.0. Individual subwatershed units for all intensive
purposes function as small watersheds. Using subwatersheds allowed the data collected to
be more manageable and provided a more detailed analysis and site specific
recommendations. Using the management issues identified, each of the subwatersheds were
assessed and individual concerns identified. The following tables summarize the results and
describe existing problems within each of the 18 subwatersheds.




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        Subwatersheds

                                                     Sunderland



Udora




                18



                                        16                                          LEGEND

                                                                                   Uxbridge Brook Watershed
    Leaskdale
                      17                                                           roads
                  Wa
                    gn
                                                                                   rivers
                      er
  12                     Lak
                            e
                                14
                                   13                                              subwatershed boundary

             15


                            10

                                                                                              SCALE
        11
                       7                                           km 1        0                                     5 km



         6
                                    8                                          Figure 4.0
                                            9
                  Uxbridge
 1
                      5

                                                       3
                                        4
                                    2


                                                                  Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study

                                                                               Subwatershed Map
                                                                     Data Source: LSRCA & OBM Maps    LSRCA GIS gp




                                                83
Table 4.5      Key Issues in Subwatershed 1
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                 ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality       C    livestock access to a watercourse
                           C    runoff from manure storage, feedlots and manure spread fields
                           C    runoff and erosion from cropland
                           C    application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on agricultural
                                lands
                           C    application of industrial and sewage sludge on agricultural lands
                           C    unbuffered watercourse

      Water Quantity       C    alterations of groundwater recharge and discharge areas

      Aquatic Habitat      C    lack of vegetated buffers
                           C    instream barriers
                           C    ponds
                           C    alteration of groundwater recharge and discharge areas

     Terrestrial Habitat   C    destruction of upland forested areas




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                                                                                                    84
 Re                                                             C
  cr                                                            d
 ea                                                             u
 tio                                                            m
  n                                                             pi
 an                                                             n
  d                                                             g
 Ae                                                             of
  st                                                            g
 he                                                             ar
 tic                                                            b
  A                                                             a
  m                                                             g
 eni                                                            e
 tie
  s




Table 4.6      Key Issues in Subwatershed 2
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                           ISSUE / CONCERN




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            LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY




                                                                85
Water                                                                                           C
Quality                                                                                         soil
                                                                                                erosion
                                                                                                and
                                                                                                sedime
                                                                                                nt from
                                                                                                constru
                                                                                                ction
                                                                                                activitie
                                                                                                s
                                                                                                C
                                                                                                urban
                                                                                                runoff
                                                                                                from
                                                                                                new
                                                                                                develop
                           ment
                           C      runoff from existing uncontrolled urban areas
                           C      industrial and household cleaners
                           C      private waste disposal systems
                           C      lawn chemicals
                           C      road salt and dust suppressant
                           C      runoff and erosion from cropland
                           C      application of agricultural fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides
                           C      unbuffered watercourse

     Water Quantity        C      construction in areas prone to flooding
                           C      increase in stream flows due to upstream development
                           C      altered base flow\reduction of infiltration in urban areas
                           C      loss of recharge and discharge areas

     Aquatic Habitat       C      lack of vegetated buffers
                           C      instream barriers
                           C      ponds - water temperature
                           C      alteration of groundwater recharge and discharge areas
                           C      sedimentation

    Terrestrial Habitat    C      introduction of invasive, exotic species

Recreation and Aesthetic   C      lack of a trail system
       Amenities           C      garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




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Table 4.7      Key Issues in Subwatershed 3
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                  ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality         C   soil erosion and sediment from construction activities
                             C   urban runoff from new development
                             C   runoff from existing uncontrolled urban areas
                             C   industrial and household cleaners
                             C   private waste disposal systems
                             C   lawn chemicals
                             C   road salt and dust suppressant
                             C   soil erosion from cropland
                             C   unbuffered watercourse

      Water Quantity         C   construction in areas prone to flooding
                             C   increase in stream flows due to upstream development
                             C   altered base flow\reduction of infiltration in urban areas
                             C   loss of recharge and discharge areas

      Aquatic Habitat        C   unbuffered watercourse
                             C   instream barriers (Beavers, logjams)
                             C   ponds - temperature
                             C   sedimentation

     Terrestrial Habitat     C   introduction of invasive, exotic species
                             C   unstable or erodible slopes

  Recreation and Aesthetic   C   lack of a trail system
         Amenities           C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands
                             C   lost opportunity - beach postings
                             C   park maintenance - use of herbicides and pesticides




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Table 4.8      Key Issues in Subwatershed 4
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                  ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality         C   private waste disposal systems
                             C   road salt and dust suppressant
                             C   unbuffered watercourse

      Water Quantity              No Concerns

      Aquatic Habitat        C   unbuffered watercourse
                             C   instream barriers
                             C   ponds

     Terrestrial Habitat     C   introduction of invasive, exotic species

  Recreation and Aesthetic   C   destruction of natural areas from recreational activities
         Amenities           C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




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                                                                                             88
Table 4.9      Key Issues in Subwatershed 5
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                 ISSUE / CONCERN

      Water Quality       C     soil erosion and sediment from construction activities
                          C     urban runoff from new development
                          C     runoff from existing uncontrolled urban areas
                          C     illegal cross-connections
                          C     industrial and household cleaners
                          C     private waste disposal systems
                          C     lawn chemicals
                          C     road salt and dust suppressant
                          C     soil erosion from cropland
                          C     livestock access to a watercourse
                          C     runoff from manure storage, feedlots and manure spread fields
                          C     application of agricultural fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides
                          C     application of industrial sewage sludge on agriculutral lands
                          C     unbuffered watercourse increases erosion




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    Water Quantity         C   construction in areas prone to flooding
                           C   increase in stream flows due to upstream development
                           C   increase in peak flows due to deforestation
                           C   altered base flow
                           C   reduction of infiltration in urban areas
                           C   loss of recharge and discharge areas
                           C   rapid fluctuations in stream flow due to on-line ponds and dams


MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                  ISSUE / CONCERN

    Aquatic Habitat        C   lack of cover - unbuffered watercourse
                           C   instream barriers
                           C   ponds - temperature
                           C   alteration of groundwater recharge and discharge areas
                           C   confined channels
                           C   sedimentation

   Terrestrial Habitat     C   introduction of invasive, exotic species
                           C   lack of natural corridors
                           C   unstable or erodible slopes
                           C   destruction of upland forested areas
                           C   destruction of wetlands

Recreation and Aesthetic   C   lack of a trail system
       Amenities           C   destruction of natural areas from recreational activities
                           C   park maintenance - use of herbicides and pesticides
                           C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




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Table 4.10     Key Issues in Subwatershed 6
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality       C    private waste disposal systems
                           C    road salt and dust suppressant
                           C    livestock access to a watercourse
                           C    runoff and erosion from cropland
                           C    application of agricultural fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides
                           C    application of industrial and sewage sludge on agricultural lands
                           C    unbuffered watercourse

      Water Quantity             No concerns

      Aquatic Habitat      C    lack of vegetated buffers
                           C    instream barriers
                           C    ponds

     Terrestrial Habitat   C    introduction of invasive, exotic species
                           C    lack of natural corridors




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                                                                                                     91
 Recre
 ation
  and
 Aesth
  etic
 Ameni
  ties




                        C     garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




Table 4.11   Key Issues in Subwatershed 7


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MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                  ISSUE / CONCERN

     Water Quality         C   private waste disposal systems
                           C   livestock access to a watercourse
                           C   runoff and erosion from cropland
                           C   application of agricultural fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides
                           C   application of industrial and sewage sludge on agricultural lands
                           C   unbuffered watercourse
                           C   road salt and dust suppressant

    Water Quantity         C   Iincrease in peak flows due to deforestation
                           C   rapid fluctuations in stream flow due to on-line ponds, dams

    Aquatic Habitat        C   instream barriers
                           C   lack of vegetated buffers
                           C   ponds - temperature

   Terrestrial Habitat     C   lack of natural corridors

Recreation and Aesthetic   C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands
       Amenities




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Table 4.12     Key Issues in Subwatershed 8
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                 ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality       C    soil erosion and sediment from construction activities
                           C    urban runoff from new development
                           C    runoff from existing uncontrolled urban areas
                           C    industrial and household cleaners
                           C    private waste disposal systems
                           C    lawn chemicals
                           C    road salt and dust suppressant
                           C    unbuffered watercourse

      Water Quantity       C    construction in areas prone to flooding
                           C    increase in stream flows due to upstream development
                           C    altered base flow\reduction of infiltration in urban areas
                           C    loss of recharge and discharge areas

      Aquatic Habitat      C    lack of vegetated buffers
                           C    instream barriers
                           C    ponds - water temperature
                           C    alteration of groundwater recharge and discharge areas
                           C    sedimentation

     Terrestrial Habitat   C    introduction of invasive, exotic species




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                                                                                             94
 Recreatio                                                                                      C
  n and                                                                                         lack of
 Aesthetic                                                                                      a trail
 Amenitie                                                                                       system
    s                                                                                           C
                                                                                                garbage
                                                                                                and
                                                                                                debris
                                                                                                dumped
                                                                                                in valley
                                                                                                lands
                                                                                                C
                                                                                                destruc
                           tion of natural areas from recreational activities




Table 4.13      Key Issues in Subwatershed 9
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                     ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality       C       soil erosion and sediment from construction activities
                           C       urban runoff from new development
                           C       runoff from existing uncontrolled urban areas
                           C       industrial and household cleaners
                           C       private waste disposal systems
                           C       road salt and dust suppressant
                           C       runoff from manure storage, feedlots and manure spread fields
                           C       runoff and erosion from cropland
                           C       application of agricultural fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides
                           C       unbuffered watercourse




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                                                                                                        95
    Water Quantity         C   construction in areas prone to flooding
                           C   increase in stream flows due to upstream development
                           C   increase in peak flows due to deforestation
                           C   altered base flow
                           C   reduction of infiltration in urban areas
                           C   loss of recharge and discharge areas

    Aquatic Habitat        C   lack of vegetated buffers
                           C   instream barriers
                           C   ponds - temperature
                           C   alteration of groundwater recharge and discharge areas

   Terrestrial Habitat     C   lack of natural corridors
                           C   unstable or erodible slopes
                           C   destruction of upland forested areas

Recreation and Aesthetic   C   lack of a trail system
       Amenities           C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




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                                                                                        96
Table 4.14     Key Issues in Subwatershed 10
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                  ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality         C   livestock access to a watercourse
                             C   runoff from manure storage, feedlots and manure spread fields
                             C   runoff and erosion from cropland
                             C   application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on agricultural
                                 lands
                             C   application of industrial and sewage sludge on agricultural lands
                             C   unbuffered watercourse

      Water Quantity         C   rapid fluctuations in stream flow due to on-line ponds and dams

      Aquatic Habitat        C   lack of vegetated buffers
                             C   instream barriers
                             C   ponds

     Terrestrial Habitat          No concerns

  Recreation and Aesthetic        No concerns
         Amenities



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                                                                                                     97
Table 4.15   Key Issues in Subwatershed 11
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                              ISSUE / CONCERN

      Water Quality     C    livestock access to a watercourse
                        C    runoff from manure storage
                        C    runoff and erosion from cropland
                        C    application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on agricultural
                             lands
                        C    unbuffered watercourse

     Water Quantity           No concern

     Aquatic Habitat    C    lack of vegetated buffers
                        C    instream barriers




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                                                                                                 98
                                                                 No
                                                                 co
                                                                 nc
                                                                 ern




     Terrestrial Habitat

  Recreation and Aesthetic      No concern
         Amenities




Table 4.16     Key Issues in Subwatershed 12
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                            ISSUE / CONCERN




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     Water Quality         C   private waste disposal systems
                           C   road salt and dust suppressant
                           C   livestock access to a watercourse
                           C   runoff from manure storage, feedlots and manure spread fields
                           C   runoff and erosion from cropland
                           C   application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on agricultural
                               lands
                           C   application of industrial and sewage sludge on agricultural lands
                           C   unbuffered watercourse

    Water Quantity         C   increase in peak flows due to deforestation
                           C   rapid fluctuations in stream flow due to on-line ponds and dams

    Aquatic Habitat        C   lack of vegetated buffers
                           C   instream barriers
                           C   ponds

   Terrestrial Habitat     C   lack of natural corridors
                           C   destruction of upland forested areas
                           C   destruction of wetlands

Recreation and Aesthetic   C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands
       Amenities           C   destruction of natural areas from recreational activities




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                                                                                                 100
T
able 4.17      Key Issues in Subwatershed 13
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                  ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality         C   private waste disposal systems
                             C   soil erosion and sediment from construction activities
                             C   urban runoff from new development
                             C   runoff from existing uncontrolled urban areas
                             C   industrial and household cleaners
                             C   lawn chemicals
                             C   road salt and dust suppressant
                             C   runoff and erosion from cropland
                             C   application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on agricultural
                                 lands

      Water Quantity             No concern

      Aquatic Habitat            No concern

     Terrestrial Habitat         No concern

  Recreation and Aesthetic   C   lack of a trail system
         Amenities           C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




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Table 4.18       Key Issues in Subwatershed 14
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                  ISSUE / CONCERN

 Water Quality               C   private waste disposal systems
                             C   sedimentation
                             C   application of fertilizers , pesticide and herbicide on lawns
                             C   soil erosion from construction activities

       Water Quantity        C   flooding

       Aquatic Habitat       C   sedimentation
                             C   algae blooms

      Terrestrial Habitat    C   destruction of wetlands

  Recreation and Aesthetic   C   beach postings
         Amenities           C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




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                                                                                                 102
Table 4.19   Key Issues in Subwatershed 15
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                              ISSUE / CONCERN

      Water Quality     C    private waste disposal systems
                        C    livestock access to a watercourse
                        C    runoff and erosion from cropland
                        C    application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on agricultural
                             and residential land
                        C    application of industrial and sewage sludge on agricultural lands
                        C    unbuffered watercourse

     Water Quantity     C    increase in peak flows due to deforestation

     Aquatic Habitat    C    lack of vegetated buffers
                        C    instream barriers
                        C    pond




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   Terrestrial Habitat     C   lack of natural corridors
                           C   destruction of upland forested areas

Recreation and Aesthetic        No concerns
       Amenities




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                                                                      104
                                      EXISTING LAND USE
                              Uxbridge Brook Subwatershed 16




                                                             Pasture 22.0%


                   Cultivated 49.0%




                                                           Forest 29.0%




Table 4.20     Key Issues in Subwatershed 16
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                                          ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality             C       private waste disposal systems
                                 C       runoff from manure storage, feedlots and manure spread fields
                                 C       runoff and erosion from cropland
                                 C       application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on agricultural
                                         lands
                                 C       application of industrial and sewage sludge on agricultural lands
                                 C       unbuffered watercourse

      Water Quantity             C       rapid fluctuations in stream flow due to on-line ponds and dams

      Aquatic Habitat            C       lack of vegetated buffers
                                 C       instream barriers
                                 C       ponds

     Terrestrial Habitat         C       lack of natural corridors
                                 C       destruction of wetlands




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                                                                                                           105
 Rec
 reati                                                         No
  on                                                           concern
  and
 Aes
 theti
   c
  Am
 eniti
  es




Table 4.21   Key Issues in Subwatershed 17
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                          ISSUE / CONCERN




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     Water Quality         C   private waste disposal systems
                           C   soil erosion and sediment from construction activities
                           C   urban runoff from new development
                           C   runoff from existing uncontrolled urban areas
                           C   industrial and household cleaners
                           C   lawn chemicals
                           C   road salt and dust suppressant
                           C   runoff and erosion from cropland
                           C   application of agricultural fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides
                           C   unbuffered watercourse

    Water Quantity              No concerns

    Aquatic Habitat        C   lack of vegetated buffers
                           C   instream barriers
                           C   pond

   Terrestrial Habitat     C   lack of natural corridors
                           C   destruction of upland forested areas

Recreation and Aesthetic   C   lack of a trail system
       Amenities           C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




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                                                                                                    107
Table 4.22     Key Issues in Subwatershed 18
  MANAGEMENT ISSUES                               ISSUE / CONCERN

       Water Quality       C   private waste disposal systems
                           C   soil erosion and sediment from construction activities
                           C   urban runoff from new development
                           C   runoff from existing uncontrolled urban areas
                           C   industrial and household cleaners
                           C   lawn chemicals
                           C   road salt and dust suppressant
                           C   livestock access to a watercourse
                           C   runoff from manure storage, feedlots and manure spread fields
                           C   runoff and erosion from cropland
                           C   application of agricultural fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides
                           C   application of industrial and sewage sludge on agricultural lands
                           C   unbuffered watercourse

      Water Quantity       C   flooding (Udora)
                           C   rapid fluctuations in stream flow due to on-line ponds and dams

      Aquatic Habitat      C   lack of vegetated buffers
                           C   instream barriers
                           C   ponds

     Terrestrial Habitat   C   destruction of upland forested areas




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                                                                                               108
Recreation and Aesthetic   C   lack of a trail system
       Amenities           C   garbage and debris dumped in valley lands




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                                                                           109
5.0    PROTECT WHAT IS HEALTHY


The major land use changes predicted to occur within the Uxbridge Brook Watershed are
associated with further urban development. The amount of land used for agricultural will in all
probability not expand beyond what is presently in cultivation or permanent pasture.
Therefore, urban expansion represents the greatest threat to the destruction of existing natural
areas and their functions and processes as they relate to the health of the Uxbridge Brook
ecosystem. To protect against this, it is essential that the plans for future urbanization within
the watershed be understood. This involves a review of the Township of Uxbridge and
Durham Region Official Plans which outline the expectation for future population and land use.


5.1 Existing Conditions
The existing urban area of the Town of Uxbridge is a compact community located in the upper
reaches of Uxbridge Brook. Most of the vacant land within the urban service area has been
committed to development. Studies completed in conjunction with the Municipal Housing
Policy Statement showed that the urban area designated in the 1991 Durham Official Plan
included only 95 ha of vacant land. Using typical development densities for that time, these
lands would generate an additional population equivalent of 1500 to 1900 persons.


In 1996, a Joint Report (N0. 96-J-7) of the Commissioners of Planning and Works concluded
that there were 2,246 connected residentail units (6,002 population equivalent) serviced by
the exisitng sewage treatment plant, and 203 unconnected units (693 population equivalent)
within the service area.


The 1991 Durham Regional Official Plan provides for a total population increase of 10,000
people for the northern urban areas of Durham, subject to the completion of Environmental
Assessments and any required planning studies. In November 1996 a Report (No. 96-P-126)



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of the Commissioner of Planning provided a review of population targets contained in the
Durham Regional Official Plan, and confirmed that Beaverton and Port Perry could each
support an additional serviced population of 3,000 people above the targets contained in the
Plan. The Report further confirmed that, subject to the satisfactory conclusion of the EA
currently underway for the provision of the additional sewage treatment capacity for the
Uxbridge Urabn Area, and any required planning studies, the allocation of the remaining 4,000
population to the Uxbridge Urban Area would be of a magnitude consistent with the Regional
Plan.


5.1.1 Official Plan Designations
Planning responsibility within the Town of Uxbridge is shared between the Township the
Region. The Region is responsible for the broad planning responsibilities with the Township
looking after local planning issues.


1.      Uxbridge Official Plan
        Approved by the Minister of Municipal Affairs in 1970, the plan established the
        land use and policy framework for a serviced population of 4650 persons by
        1986. The boundaries established by that plan generally reflected those of the
        former Town of Uxbridge. Since inception, the plan has been subject to a
        number of amendments that have changed the boundaries of the urban area
        and the policies of the plan. Those parts of the Township of Uxbridge not
        covered by the 1970 plan are now subject to the provisions of the Region of
        Durham Official Plan. The land uses within the urban area generally consist of
        low density residential uses. Also included are the commercial uses of the
        downtown area, open space uses for local parks, and some limited
        employment areas. Much of the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries as they run
        through the urban area are designated as open space or are zoned


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      environmental protection. As such they form the basis of a linked park or
      walkway system through the Town.


2.    Durham Region Official Plan
      The Region of Durham Official Plan, approved by the Minister of Municipal
      Affairs and Housing in 1993, establishes the population targets for each of the
      urban areas, and an overall population target of 65,000 for the rural area. The
      population target contained in the Durham Regional Official Plan for the
      Uxbridge Urban Area is 7,000. As discussed in the previous section, the
      Durham Regional Official Plan provideds for population growth in the northern
      urban areas, subject to specific requirements.


      The Durham Regional Official Plan also provides an overall direction for the
      present and future land use through its land use designations. The land use
      designations for the Uxbridge Urban Area include: Living Area (predominantly
      for residential uses), Employment Area (employment uses), Main Central Area
      (commercial, residential and institutional uses) and Open Space (recreational
      uses). The land use designations for areas outside of the Urban Area are
      described as follows:
                    ! North - Permanent Agriculture Reserve
                     - General Agriculture Area
                     - Major Open Space
                    ! East -Permanent Agricultural Reserve
                            - General Agriculture Area
                    ! South - Oak Ridge Moraine
                            - General Agriculture Area
                    ! West - Oak Ridge Moraine
                     - General Agriculture Area


The Township of Uxbridge is undertaking a Strategic Planning Process to determine, among



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other matters, the amount and location of future growth desired by Uxbridge. As such, the
Township, through this process will determine the amount of urban population growth, and
whether urban expansion would or would not be required. The constraint mapping completed
as part of this study will assist in determining the most appropriate direction for future
boundary expansions should they become necessary.


5.2    Environmental Constraint Analysis and Mapping
One of the guiding principles of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan is to “protect what is
healthy”. To accomplish this, constraint analysis was undertaken for the entire watershed
area using a geographic information system. Constraint analysis is an exercise which can be
used to identify lands which should be protected from future development, and\or where
special conditions should be imposed during development to mitigate any associated harmful
environmental impacts. During the exercise consideration was given to existing agency policy
area restrictions and the preservation of lands deemed necessary to maintain ecological
processes as determined by members of the Steering and Public Advisory Committees.


Agency policy areas are those which are already appear in environmental policy or have
legislative restrictions. These areas include: significant wetlands, stream corridors\buffers,
and flood and fill lines. These areas automatically received the highest ranking during the
constraint mapping exercise because of the existing policy or legislative control.


The ranking methodology completed by the Steering and Advisory Committees involved the
weighting of natural resources and land uses as they relate to the ecological integrity of the
watershed. Members were asked to rank the following resources based on their perceived
worth to the environmental well-being of the watershed.

                     !      Groundwater Resources
                     !      Biological Aquatic


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                     !      Biological Terrestrial
                     !      Agriculture
                     !      Forests
                     !      Human Settlements
                     !      Mineral Resources

The factors were then further sub-divided or refined into more detailed internal resource
factors and official plan designations which were scored independently and appear in
Appendix A. The average score of the overall ranking was then multiplied by the internal
resource factor to produce a final weighted score for each resource factor. These weighted
scores were then attached as attribute data to the corresponding digital mapping to be
overlayed to produce the final constraint map.


The environmental constraint map was created using a geographic information system. Each
of the land use\natural resources identified were mapped within the context of the watershed
boundary. For example, agricultural land use was mapped based on the three sub-categories
defined during the weighting exercise (Appendix A). Forestry resources were similarly
mapped into five sub-categories also as defined during the weighting exercise, and so on for
the five remaining land use\natural resource categories. These maps were then overlayed
and new areas or polygons created where two or more of these different areas overlapped.
In this instance where a new polygon was created, the scores for each of the individual
polygons are summed and applied to the new polygon to provide a new constraint weighting.
In this way the cumulative importance of an area is derived based on the sum of the individual
scores.


The results of the constraint mapping exercise are shown in Figure 5.0. For ease of
interpretation the constraint map was grouped into three categories, high, medium and low.
The areas of high constraint generally include areas where existing government policies or
legislative controls are in effect or one or more of these overlap (i.e. significant wetlands,


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                                                                                         107
                       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Environmental Constraint Map


                                                                          Sunderland




                              Udora




                                                                                                                                 LEGEND

                                            Leaskdale
                                                                                                                                 Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                                                                 roads
                                                                                                     hip
                                                                                             Towns
                                                                                       Brock          nship                      rivers
                                                                                                  Tow
                                                                                            gog
                                                                                        Scu
                                                            Wagner Lake
                                                                                                                                  subwatershed boundary

                                                                                                                       Constraint Level

                                                                                                                                 Low

                                                                                                                                 Medium

                                                                                                                                 High


                                                                                                                                          SCALE




                                                                                                                1 km     0                                                 5 km


    ford
Sand
                                                                                       47
                                                                                 Hwy

                                                                                                                                   Figure 5.0
                      Drive
                Davis

                                                        Uxbridge




           Roseville      .




                                                                                                              Project:       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                       47
                                   y
                              Hw
                                                                                                                             Environmental Constraint Map

                                                                                                              Data Source:
                                                                                                                                                            LSRCA GIS gp
                                                                                                              MNR OBM Maps


                                                                          194
stream corridors, flood or fill lines, or, vulnerable ground water areas). The medium constraint
areas include those areas where secondary land use constrictions may apply (i.e. ground
water recharge/discharge areas, buffer areas or environmentally significant areas). Those
areas that did not receive either a high or medium rating were designated as areas of low
environmental constraint.


Based on the above, an examination of Figure 5.0 reveals that the areas of high constraint are
located adjacent to Uxbridge Brook and the wetlands adjacent to its tributaries. The vulnerable
recharge areas located on the Oak Ridges Moraine and the forested areas are also identified
as high constraint areas. The medium constraint areas represent a transition area between
high and low constraint areas. They include most of the vulnerable ground water resource
areas located in the southern portion of the watershed on the Oak Ridges Moraine. The
remainder of the watershed has been identified as an area of low environmental constraint.
The low constraint area correlates closely with the generally good agriculture lands. While
these latter areas have a low environmental constraint they generally have other constraints
to development (i.e. zoning or official plan designation).
5.3    Management Policies and By-Laws
Like the environmental constraint analysis, management policies and by-laws are planning
tools or mechanisms which can be used to safeguard against potential safety and
environmental problems associated with human land use activites. As preventitive measures,
they fufill the first guiding principle of the watershed plan which is “to protect what is healthy”.
The following section is a brief description of existing and proposed management policies.


Floodplain Regulations
Section 28 of the Conservation Authorities Act allows a Conservation Authority to prohibit or
regulate the construction of any building or structure in any area susceptible to flooding during
a regional storm. This regulation is currently applied through out the Uxbridge Brook


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watershed by the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority. The construction of buildings
in the floodplain can result in two major problems. The first is that buildings constructed in
flood prone areas are susceptible to major damage during severe flooding events. Inhabitants
of these structures would also be exposed to risk to life and property. Secondly, construction
and other types of filling in the floodplain results in a loss of channel capacity and flood
storage. This means that flood waters that would normally have ponded in a filled-in area will
have to fill in other areas to compensate for the loss of storage. This generally results in
increases in flooding upstream or downstream of the altered floodplain.


Tree Cutting By-Law
The Region of Durham has a Tree Cutting By-laws that allow them to regulate, prevent, and\
or limit the large scale cutting of trees by private landowners.           This ensures that the
Municipality is consulted prior to rare or significant stands of old growth trees being cut.


Topsoil Conservation By- Law
This by-law allows a municipality to control the stripping and removal of topsoil thereby
reducing erosion and sedimentation from construction activities. The by-law also allows for
the revegetation of lands stripped for development should construction not begin within a
prescribed period of time. The Township of Uxbridge presently does not have such a by-law,
and it is recommended that they adopt one to help minimize erosion and sedimentation
resulting from construction activites.


Fill Control By-Law
Fill control by-laws provide regulations to control filling in areas outside the jurisdiction of the
Conservation Authority. The Township of Uxbridge presently does not have such a by-law and
it is recommended that they evaluate the benefits of adopting such a by-law.




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                                                                                               110
The Site Plan and Plan of Subdivision Review Process
Every new development proposal is required to produce and obtain approvals for a
stormwater management (SWM) report showing that the new development will not increase
stormwater runoff over what would occur under existing conditions. These reports also
provide information on sediment and erosion controls to be implemented during construction
as well as the proposed water quality treatment for site runoff after the development is
completed. Currently, SWM reports within the Uxbridge watershed must be approved by the
Township of Uxbridge, the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MOEE), and the Lake Simcoe
Region Conservation Authority. The MOEE has set standards for the treatment of stormwater
runoff and they are based on the sensitivity of the stream to which the runoff is drained. The
Conservation Authority in cooperation with the MOEE is currently requesting that the highest
level of stormwater quality protection “Level 1" be required for all new development within the
Uxbrdge Brook watershed.


Ontario’s Wetland Policy
Wetlands are extremely important in maintaining a healthy watershed. They contribute to
ground water recharge, filter sediment and nutrients, store large volumes of water, and are
essential habitat to a large variety of wildlife. Provincially significant wetlands are afforded
some degree of protection through Ontario’s Wetland Policy. Activities such as grazing, peat
removal, or dredging, however, which may not require an application under the Planning Act
are not restricted activities although they can be quite destructive. Small wetlands and others
which are not recognized as provincially significant are also important and should be
protected where possible. Buffer zones should be maintained if present or enhanced if
required.


5.4    Land Use Protection
Official Plan and Secondary Plan Land Use Designations


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Land use designations such as Locally Significant Area, Environmental Protection, Open
Space and Parkland can be used to protect significant resources, establish linkages and
enhance trail systems.


Recharge Zone Protection
Urban development within recharge zones should be permitted only where it is assured that
infiltration rates will not be affected and that pollutants will not enter the ground water system.
The Oak Ridges Moraine Strategy is an example of an attempt to protect a significant
recharge area.


Groundwater Discharge Zone Protection
Groundwater discharge zones (areas where ground waters surface) are particularly sensitive
habitat areas and contribute cold, clean water to the Uxbridge Brook which sustains the
coldwater fishery. These areas must be avoided and vegetated buffer zones maintained .




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6.0    REHABILITATE WHAT HAS BEEN DEGRADED


6.1    Best Management Practices (BMPs)
The guiding principles for the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan are to “Protect What is
Healthy” and to “Rehabilitate What is Degraded”. In the previous sections management
issues and concerns were identified for the five resource categories. Environmental
constraint mapping has been conducted to identify existing natural areas recommended
for protection. Management policies and municipal by-laws have also been evaluated to
determine how they can be used to assist in protecting these areas and minimizing
impacts associated with urbanization. This section will focus on efforts needed to
rehabilitate what is degraded. This involves evaluating both urban and rural remedial
measures and control options to address previously raised issue and concerns.


The term Best Management Practices (BMP’s) has been adopted to describe currently
used “state of the art” remedial works and practices. The following is a description of both
urban and rural BMPs which are practical and cost-effective ways of addressing the
management issues associated with water quality, water quantity, aquatic and terrestrial
habitat and recreation and aesthetic amenities. Table 6.0 lists a realistic range of BMPs
which can be applied within the Uxbridge Brook watershed and indicate the potential
benefits associated with these measures. A brief description of the individual BMPs is
also provided.


Disconnect Roof Leaders and Install Rain Barrels
This type of program is based wholly on community involvement and is geared towards
older existing urban areas where most of the roof down spouts are directly connected to
the storm sewer system. A public information campaign was mounted in 1996 to advertise
the environmental benefits of down spout disconnection and will be continued into the
future. An added incentive to the program has been the availability of rain barrels through
the Township of Uxbridge and Conservation Authority at a reduced cost to all interested



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                                                                                       113
residents.


TABLE 6.0             Environmental Benefits Associated with Best Management Practices
       Best Management Practice                                  Environmental Benefits
                                          Water Quality   Water Quantity   Aquatic Habitat   Terrestrial Habitat
 Disconnect Roof Leaders                        U               U
 Septic System Replacement                      U                                U
 Household Hazardous Waste Disposal             U                                U
 Reforestation and Forest Management            U               U                U                   U
 Retirement of Fragile\Marginal Land            U               U                U                   U
 Fish Habitat (Instream Cover)                                                   U
 Bank Stabilization                             U                                U
 Removal of Instream Barriers                                   U                U
 Naturalization and Reduced Pesticide           U               U                U                   U
 Use
 Reduction of Invasive, Exotic Species                                           U                   U
 Street Cleaning\Reduce Salt & Sand Use         U                                U                   U
 Manure Storage and Handling                    U                                U
 Cropland Field Management                      U               U                U                   U



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                                                                                                              114
 Restrict Livestock access to streams                  U                                        U
 Establish Buffer Strips                               U                   U                    U
 Urban Stormwater Control Facilities                   U                   U                    U
Septic System Inspections and Replacement
Older, poorly designed or un-maintained septic systems are a potential source of
contamination of ground and\or surface waters. Phosphorus, bacteria, nitrates, chlorides, and
other substances may result from leaking systems. Inspections of suspect systems in areas
of high ground water pollution potential need to be conducted. Systems located adjacent to
the brook or Wagner Lake should also be investigated. New systems should be installed
where required and the Region of Durham and the Township of Uxbridge should evaluate
providing full services to older subdivisions within the urban area.


Household Hazardous Waste Disposal
The inappropriate disposal of any number of household products is a common occurrence in
both rural and urban areas. Many of these products contain chemical hazardous waste which,
if not disposed of properly, can result in contamination of both ground and surface waters. A
campaign to promote and educate the public is essential to change the behaviour of the
population. The Regional Municipality of Durham already hosts Hazardous Waste Disposal
Days whereby the public can safely dispose of these products. By further promoting this
program and continuing to make it as convenient as possible for residents to dispose of these
materials it is hoped that future problems can be eliminated.


Reforestation, and Woodland Management and Protection
Forested areas contribute significantly to the health of a watershed, particularly in key
locations such as headwater or recharge areas, stream and valley corridors, or
fragile/marginal lands. Water quality is enhanced through filtering, shading, and reducing
runoff, baseflows are maintained, soil is stabilized, aquatic and terrestrial habitat is provided,


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and the aesthetics and recreational potential is improved. The protection of existing forested
lands has been discussed in the previous section, however, landowners should also be
encouraged to complete management plans for these forested properties. In many cases, it
is possible to improve the health and structure of a woodlot while generating income at the
same time, which can be an excellent incentive to maintain forest cover. Reforesting priority
and wildlife corridor areas which have been denuded of forest cover in the past should be
encouraged where possible to restore the above mentioned ecological functions.
Revegetating stream corridors where native vegetation has been removed, and planting of
corridors to connect low lying forested areas with upland forested areas enables wildlife
movement which increases habitat area.


Retirement of Fragile/Marginal Lands
Many forested areas which were originally cleared for agriculture or for the lumber are located
on extreme slopes or highly erodible soil conditions and as such should not have been
disturbed. A number of these areas have already been taken out of production, or
abandoned, while others are still in use. Incentives should be provided to landowners to retire
these lands and either reforest them or allow them to naturalize.


Fish Habitat Enhancement (Instream Cover)
The absence of instream cover can adversely effect the populations of fish because all fish
utilize various habitats throughout their lifecycle. Therefore, different habitat requirements must
be found within the stream system to ensure a healthy and viable population. If these
requirements are not present, habitat creation must be considered. Creating habitat can be
as simple as adding boulders and logs to the stream channel or establishing a buffer zone.
The over hanging vegetation not only provides shade and cover but also food as bugs drop
from the branches. Man-made structures such as “lunkers” and “rootwads”, provide structure
similar to natural undercut banks, and can also be installed to improve bank stabilization as



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well. Spawning beds can be restored by increasing the velocity of the current to move
accumulated sediment or by mechanically removing the material.




Bank Stabilization
The removal of vegetative cover along stream channels, and increased flows due to
urbanization, are but two examples of how human activities can accelerate the natural process
of streambank erosion. By establishing buffer zones and controlling urban runoff streambank
erosion can be reduced and in some instances totally prevented. Where streambanks have
already experienced a severe erosion problem steps may need to be taken to rehabilitate the
bank. In these instances, both conventional and bioengineering methods of streambank
erosion control can be used to address these problems. Presently, there is a shift away from
the older, conventional techniques of employing stone protection to more natural controls like
the use of root wads (tree roots to deflect the current of the stream), or bioengineering
techniques. Bioengineering is a process whereby bundles of live cut branches are arranged
to provide both physical\mechanical stability to the bank while growing to provide cover and
become self-sustaining. A variety of different bioengineering projects have been completed
within the Lake Simcoe and Uxbridge Brook watershed which have proven to be cost
effective. In either instance, fish habitat is a consideration and techniques can usually be
incorporated to enhance habitat will protecting the streambank.


Removal of Instream Barriers and\or Alter Existing On-Line Ponds
The presence of man-made or natural stream barriers have a deleterious effect on fish
populations by impeding fish migration, increasing streambank erosion, and by ponding and
warming surface waters. In all instances, the best solution would be the total removal of these
barrier, however, this is not always possible. Therefore, alternative solutions such as the
construction of fish ladders or alternate channels around the barriers will help alleviate the


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problem. In the case of beaver dams, a chronic problem in the headwaters of the Uxbridge
Brook, the installation of a beaver baffle (a pipe placed in the lower portion of the dam to
allow the flow of coldwater to continue) will help diminish the pond size and subsequent
release of warmer water into the coldwater system. Trapping may be necessary in some
instances to control local populations. Remedial options to address constructed ponds include
in order of preference:
       !      complete removal of the facility and the restoration of a natural channel
       !      taking the pond off line and restoring a natural channel around the facility
       !      installation of a bottom draw and fish pathway\ladder to reduce the
       severity of downstream warming


Naturalization, and Reduced Fertilizer and Pesticide Use in Urban Areas
Naturalization refers to the process of encouraging natural growth and the revival of a natural
landscape in place of a high maintenance, manicured landscape. This can be accomplished
with varying amounts of energy input.
!    Intensive planting involves mass revegetation of trees, shrubs, or herbaceous
     vegetation, generally followed by some level of maintenance to ensure
     establishment.
!    Managed succession can be likened to natural regeneration with a helping hand.
     This may involve some planting, the removal of non-native species, or other
management techniques to aid the process.
!    Natural regeneration simply involves the cessation of all maintenance activities
     and allowing nature to take its course.

Benefits of naturalizing appropriate park areas include reduced energy inputs and costs,
reduced herbicide and pesticide use, and improved wildlife habitat. Additional water quality
and aquatic habitat improvements can also be realized if this technique is used to reestablish
buffers along watercourses. It should be recognized that all areas cannot be naturalized.
Playing fields necessitate a manicured lawn environment, but even so, efforts can still be
made to reduce the use of herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers. Soil testing can be used to
determine the proper fertilizer application rate based on the nutrient requirements of the turf


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grass and the existing nutrient levels within the soil. This ensures that over application does
not occur and also saves money through reduced fertilizer costs.
Reduction of Invasive, Exotic Species
The introduction to an ecosystem of an invasive, non-native species can have dramatic
consequences, such as has been the case with gypsy moth, zebra mussels, and purple
loosestrife. The impact of these species is well known, however others such as Norway maple
are largely unknown by the general public. The main concern with the introduction of an
invasive species is the disturbance of the system. In some cases, biological introductions can
negatively impact biodiversity, including simplifying ecosystems through the reduction in the
number of species present. These affects can be reduced by educating the public and
encouraging the planting of locally grown native material, particularly in close proximity to
natural areas.


Increase Street Cleaning and Reduce the Use of Road Salt and Sand
The use of road salt and sand on road and street surfaces is necessary to ensure public safety
during winter months. Reducing the use of these products should only be consider given that
it poses no threat to human safety. Alternative products are presently being produced and
marketed, however, any new product should be evaluated based on potential environmental
impacts. An enhanced street cleaning program should be initiated especially in late winter
before the spring thaw washes materials into nearby sewers or the Uxbridge Brook. This will
remove available contaminates, reducing the associated water quality impacts and
maintenance cost of stormwater control facilities.


Manure Storage and Handling
Manure should be stored in an area which is designed to contain runoff and control infiltration
in order to reduce ground and\or surface water contamination. Manure handling practices
such as the timing of spreading, application rate, and incorporation of the manure into the soil,


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are also essential considerations. Manure storage therefore should be sized to contain a
minimum of 240 days of manure production to ensure that farmers do not have to spread
during winter months. Concentrated barnyard runoff should also be contained if possible.


Cropland Field Management
A wide variety of techniques are available to reduce runoff, wind and water erosion, and
nutrient loss from cultivated lands. In addition to reducing contamination of water systems, the
adoption of many of these techniques will result in cost savings or improved efficiencies for
the operator:
!      Grassed waterways involve shaping and seeding an overland drainage route to convey
       runoff away from a field without causing gully erosion.
!      Filter strips are vegetated buffers located between cultivated areas and agricultural
       drains, ditches, and watercourses.
!      Contour farming reduces runoff and soil loss by simply plowing and seeding across
       the slope following the topography.
!      Lowtill / no till farming improves long-term soil viability and reduces soil loss by leaving
       at least 30% of previous year’s crop residue on the field.
!      Strip cropping increases infiltration and reduces runoff by alternating a ground cover
       crop and a row crop changing effectively the amount of surface cover.
!      Crop rotation involves alternating crops year to year thereby improving soil structure,
       infiltration and reducing erosion while improving crop yield.
!      Windbreaks or fence rows reduce soil erosion by reducing wind velocity and the loss
       of soil moisture which binds soil particles together.


Restrict Livestock Access to a Watercourse
Uncontrolled livestock access to streams or other water bodies results in damage to aquatic
habitat, increased erosion and phosphorous, bacteria and other contamination.                 The
installation of a fence, alternative water supply and if necessary a livestock crossing is a
simple and effective solution.


Establish Buffer Strips



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Vegetated areas between watercourses or other water bodies and alternate land uses have
a number of benefits including filtration of runoff, reduced erosion, delayed snowmelt rates,
and provision of terrestrial and aquatic habitat. Existing naturally vegetated buffer zones are
protected from urban development through legislation. Areas where the vegetation has been
removed should be reestablished using a mix of natural species blending grasses, shrubs and
trees.


Urban Stormwater Runoff Best Management Practices
Urban BMPs for water quality control focus primarily on addressing the issue of stormwater
runoff. Existing urban areas which do not have adequate stormwater quality control facilities
represent one of the best opportunities to reduce harmful pollutants entering the Uxbridge
Brook. Urban stormwater contains numerous contaminants. The following Table 6.1 shows
unit area loadings of urban stormwater for six (6) typical contaminants on an annual basis for
residential and commercial areas. The values for suspended solids and biochemical oxygen
demand are based on research done in the City of Guelph (William James - 1993). The
values for zinc, lead and copper were obtained from Schueler - 1987. Phosphorus loadings
are a combination of wet weather and dry weather flow and are based on the Beak
Consultants Limited model developed for the entire Lake Simcoe watershed.


Table 6.1      Pollutant Loadings in Urban Stormwater

            Pollutant              Residential Pollutant          Commercial Pollutant
                                 Loading (RC=.45) (kg/ha/yr)    Loading (RC=.85) (kg/ha/yr)

 Suspended Solids                            840                            1993
 Total Phosphorus                            3.2                             4.4
 BOD                                         38.8                            184
 Zinc                                        1.5                             0.9
 Lead                                        1.5                             1.4



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 Copper                          0.4                              0.4
Note: RC = run off coefficient

Given that the Uxbridge Brook has concentrations of phosphorus above the Provincial Water
Quality Objectives, the watershed study included a review of the state of the art for the removal
of phosphorus in urban stormwater. Table 6.2 outlines the BMPs available and the average
efficiency of each. The maximum assumed removal rates for modelling purposes was 50%
with the exception of the sand filter with extended detention wetland which was assumed to
have an 80% removal efficiency. The table also ranks the land requirements from 1 to 5 with
1 being the least amount of area required. Only BMP’s with a land requirement of 1 are
suitable for installation within existing road right-of-ways. These BMPs function by providing
a settling area for contaminants, filtering out large particles and establishing an area where
biological uptake of pollutants can occur.


Table 6.2      Summary of Stormwater Runoff Best Management Practices

             BMP                    Average P             Land                Cost per
                                   Removal (%)         Requirement          Upstream ha.
 Wet Pond with Extended                  60                   3                 $7,000
 Detention (ED)
 Wetland with ED                         87                   5                 $5,500
 Wet Pond                                46                   3                 $7,000
 Dry Pond with ED                        36                   3                 $7,000
 Dry Pond                                19                   3                 $7,000
 Infiltration Trench                     70                   2           $3,500 (max 2 ha.)
                                                                          $12,500 with OGS
 Infiltration Basin                      70                   2           $3,500 (max 5 ha.)
                                                                          $12,500 with OGS
 Oil Grit Separator (OGS)                10                   1           $9,000 (max 5 ha.)



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 Std Sand Filter                         79                   2                 $3500
 Concrete Tank Sand Filter               79                   1           $18000 for all areas
                                                                              up to 5 ha.
             BMP                    Average P             Land                Cost per
                                   Removal (%)         Requirement          upstream ha.

 Concrete Tank Sand Filter               79                   1           $33000 for all areas
 and OGS                                                                      up to 5 ha.
 Std. Sand Filter with ED                80                   5                 $9000
 wetland
 Grassed swales or ditches               20                2                 not applicable
The following is a brief description of each of the above BMP’s:

Wetpond with ED (WPED)
Wet ponds consist of a deep (greater than 2 metres) permanent pool of water into which storm
drainage is directed. The extended detention (ED) component refers to providing a layer of
active storage above the standing water elevation which would drain down in 24 hours.

Wetland with ED (WLED)
Constructed wetlands consist of a shallow (0.3 - 0.5 metres) permanent pool of water with
deeper areas at the inlet and outlet to trap sediments.

Wetpond (WP)
These are similar to the WPED described above without extended detention.

Extended Detention Dry Pond (EDDP)
These facilities are large open grassed depressions that have been sized to store water from
a 25 to 40 mm storm event and slowly drain out in 24 hours.

Dry Pond (DP)
Dry ponds are designed to control peak flows from development in order to limit impacts on
erosion and flooding. They fill with water only after a significant rainfall event and drain down
within approximately 4-6 hours.



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Infiltration Trench (IT)
These facilities consist of a series of trenches with perforated pipes in them. Stormwater is
directed into the pipes and percolates into the ground. The cost for this BMP in the above
table assume that the water will be pre-treated in a forebay and that an OGS is not required.



Infiltration Basin (IB)
Stormwater infiltration basins generally consist of a depressed area dug in highly pervious
soils which allows stormwater to be infiltrated into the groundwater. The costs calculated in
the above table assumed that the water will be pre-treated in a sediment forebay and that an
OGS is not required.

Oil Grit Separator (OGS)
This type of BMP consists of a large underground concrete tank that, through a series of
baffles and weirs, separates oils and sediment from the incoming stormwater.

Sand Filter (SF)
This BMP treats stormwater by filtering it through a sand layer and collecting it in a perforated
pipe. The costs calculated in the table above have been separated into standard type filters
(constructed at the surface) and concrete type sand filters (sand in an underground concrete
box.).


6.2 BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quality
BMPs evaluated to maintain and improve water quality have to be sensitive to existing land
management practices and implemented within the context of the existing infrastructure. In
rural areas BMPs must be cost-effective for the landowner and not result in a loss of
productivity or revenue. Within urban areas existing limitations associated with the available
space to retro-fit for stormwater management have to be considered. Overall the ability to
improve water quality in relation to the associated cost of the BMP is a final consideration.


Table 6.3 lists the BMPs which were evaluated relative to the management issues and



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concerns previously identified. The BMPs focus on reducing sediment, nutrient, and bacteria
loadings to the Uxbridge Brook either by decreasing inputs at the source or by preventing
nutrient export. They involve a combination of both capital projects and policies and
regulations which have been proven effective.


Table 6.3    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quality
     ISSUE AND CONCERN                          BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

 Urban Development
 Soil Erosion and Sediment from      Promote Soil Conservation Practices
 Construction Activities             ! Continue to comment on subdivision proposals and
                                     ensure compliance of conditions through enforcement of
                                     regulations.
                                     ! Encourage the public to report poor practices.
                                     ! Conduct workshops for participants in the construction
                                     industry.
                                     ! Develop a Soil Conservation By-Law under the Topsoil
                                     Preservation Act (RSO 1990) including a requirement for a
                                     letter of credit to protect lands.

 Urban Runoff from New               Employ “state of the art“ Urban Stormwater Best
 Development                         Management Practices
                                     ! Ensure the construction of state of the art stormwater
                                     management practices including:
                                     ! Water quality should meet Level 1 Protection criteria
                                     anywhere within the Uxbridge Brook watershed.
                                     ! Evaluate the feasibility of installing grassed swales and
                                     ditches versus utilizing curb and gutter for stormwater
                                     conveyance.
 Runoff from Existing Uncontrolled   Retro-Fit Existing Developed Areas with Best
 Urban Areas                         Management Practices
                                     ! Develop and implement a strategy to retro-fit
                                     uncontrolled urban areas using best management
                                     practices. Employ “state of the art” controls:
                                     ! Develop a maintenance plan to ensure facilities are
                                     operating properly.
                                     ! Increase street sweeping in uncontrolled urban areas.


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   ISSUE AND CONCERN                         BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
Illegal Sewer Cross-Connections   Trace and Eliminate Illegal Cross-Connections
                                  ! Under the Municipal Industrial Strategy for Abatement
                                  (MISA) conduct an end- of- pipe audit to trace and eliminate
                                  cross-connections in suspect areas.
                                  ! Ensure that future investigations be a precondition of all
                                  property sales.
Sanitary Sewage Disposal          Ensure that STP Effluent does not Exceed the Watercourses
                                  Assimilative Capacity
                                  ! Ensure that the proper certificate of approval is in place
                                  and monitoring conducted.
Industrial and Household          Educate the Public and Industry to Reduce Spills and Illegal
Chemicals                         Dumping
                                  ! Ensure that trained staff are available for spills response
                                  and control.
                                  ! Provide the public with toxic waste collection.
                                  ! Continue educating the public through the Storm Drain
                                  Marking Programs. Provide home and garden alternatives
                                  to harmful chemicals.
                                  ! Promote the discharge of swimming pool backwash to
                                  sanitary sewers or onto lawns. information
Private Waste Disposal Systems    T r a c e a n d C o r r e c t Problems Associated with
                                  Inadequate\Faulty Private Sewage Disposal Systems
                                  ! Based on the groundwater sensitivity mapping and
                                  proximity to surface water identify and address problem
                                  systems.
                                  ! Educate the public regarding the importance of proper
                                  system maintenance.
                                  ! Require a septic system inspection certificate as a
                                  precondition of all property sales.
Lawn Chemicals                    Reduce the Use of Lawn Chemicals
                                  ! Encourage landowners to reduce the amount of
                                  commercial lawn chemicals used and ensure that they are
                                  applied properly.
                                  ! Support alternative products and home composting.




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   ISSUE AND CONCERN                        BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
Road Salt and Dust Suppressant   Reduce the Use of Road Salts and Dust Suppressants while
                                 Protecting Public safety.
                                 ! Promote environmentally safe sand and salt alternatives
                                 to municipalities and homeowners.
                                 ! Use as little road salt as possible timing the use for
                                 maximum results.
Agriculture - Livestock          Restrict Livestock Access
Livestock Access to a            ! Provide technical and financial support to fence livestock
Watercourse                      out of stream corridors, reestablish vegetation and provide
                                 alternate watering facilities and crossings where necessary.

Milkhouse Washwater Discharge    Install Proper Treatment Systems
                                 ! Provide technical and financial support to reduce
                                 milkhouse washwater discharge by constructing treatment
                                 systems.

Runoff from Manure Storage,      Promote Agricultural Best Management Practices
Feedlots and Manure Spread       ! Provide technical and financial support to construct
Fields                           manure storage, clean water diversions and establish buffer
                                 strips.
                                 ! Promote proper manure management, soil and manure
                                 testing, and discontinue winter spreading.
Agriculture - Cropland
Runoff and Erosion from          Promote Soil Conservation Practices
Cropland                         ! Provide technical and financial support to construct soil
                                 erosion control structures such as grass waterways,
                                 terraces, and windbreaks.
                                 ! Promote conservation tillage practices and the retirement
                                 of erodible lands unsuitable for crop production.




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      ISSUE AND CONCERN                        BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE


 Application of Fertilizers,       Promote Best Management Practices
 Pesticides and Herbicides on      ! Promote organic farming, soil and manure testing so that
 Agricultural Lands                fertilizer application rates are calculated based on crop
                                   requirements.
                                   ! Ensure that farmers are well educated regarding spraying
                                   practices for pesticide and herbicide use.

 Application of Industrial and     Discontinue Winter Applications of Industrial and Sewage
 Sewage Sludge on Agricultural     Sludge.
 Lands                             ! Discontinue winter applications of sludge on agricultural
                                   lands and evaluate the construction of sludge storage sites if
                                   required.
                                   ! Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial guidelines and
                                   owners have Certificate of Approvals.


6.3    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quantity
BMPs to maintain and enhance water quantity focus on processes associated with the
hydrologic cycle such as groundwater recharge and discharge. They address problems
related to existing and future development such as the loss of recharge discharge areas,
flooding, and reduced baseflow to the Uxbridge Brook. Table 6.4 lists the BMPs considered
to address issues and concerns impacting upon water quantity.


Table 6.4    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Water Quantity

      ISSUE AND CONCERN                     BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

 Flooding
 Construction in areas prone to    Prevent or Limit Construction Within Flood Plains.
 flooding.                         ! Through the permit process development in these
                                   areas can be prevented or restricted to areas of minimal
                                   impact.




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   ISSUE AND CONCERN                           BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE


Flooding
Increase in Stream Flows Due         ! Require All New Development to Control Flows Off
to Upstream Development              Site to Pre-Development Levels.


Increase in Stream Flows Due         Continue to Enforce the Regional Municipality of
to Deforestation.                    Durham Tree Cutting By-law
                                     ! Limiting the amount of trees to be cut down and
                                     promoting plantings in park areas will help to reduce the
                                     increases in run off volume.
Negatively Altered Base Flow         Promote Infiltration of Stormwater from Urban Areas
                                     ! Infiltration of stormwater by using lot level controls, and
                                     BMPs should be promoted while ensuring that ground
                                     water quality is not negatively affected.

                                     Maintain Water Taking Permit System.
                                     ! Water taking is done without proper permits being
                                     obtained from the MOEE.
Reduction of Infiltration in Urban   Disconnect Roof Leaders
Areas                                ! Adjust roof leaders so they drain on to lawns rather
                                     than directly into storm sewers.
                                     ! Install rain barrels so rainwater can be used for lawn
                                     watering and thus further promote infiltration.
Loss of Recharge and                 Ensure no Net loss of Groundwater Recharge or
Discharge                            Discharge
                                     ! Adopt Oak Ridges Moraine Polices relating to
                                     Recharge\Discharge areas.
                                     ! Use infiltration BMPs
                                     ! Eliminate use of curb and gutter systems to convey
                                     stormwater runoff




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      ISSUE AND CONCERN                        BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
 Erosion caused by an increase        Require all New Development to Control Flows Off-
 in Stream Flows Due to               Site to pre-development Levels and to Provide 24
 Upstream Development.                Hour Extended Detention for Erosion Control.


 Potential Flooding Due to On-        Remove On-line Ponds and Dams Where Possible.
 line Ponds and Dams                  ! Approach landowners to remove dams
 Excessive use of water during        Educate Watershed Residents
 dry summer months will have an       ! Promote water conservation practices to watershed
 impact on base flow.                 residents.
                                      ! Expand existing conservation programs and
                                      educate watershed residents concern the benefits of
                                      water conservation.



6.4    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Aquatic Habitat
The BMPs associated with maintaining and improving aquatic habitat involve protecting or
enhancing factors essential to the health and survival of aquatic organisms. Many of the BMPs
focus on protecting the existing stream buffers and establishing suitable buffers in areas
where habitat has been degraded. The other most common BMP is to reestablish a functional
natural channel, which will control erosion, restore confined channels, enhance degraded
habitat and improve instream temperatures.


It is clear that other resource factors; such as, water quality, quantity and the terrestrial
environment will effect efforts to improve and maintain aquatic habitat. Therefore, some of this
issues identified previously may be repeated within the scope of this discussion as they relate
to aquatic habitat. Table 6.5 outlines the BMPs reviewed to maintain and improve aquatic
habitat.




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Table 6.5    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Aquatic Habitat

    ISSUE AND CONCERN                     BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
 Lack of Cover
 Instream warming                 Establish Stream Side Vegetation
                                  ! A diverse variety of native plant species should be
                                  planted along streambanks to increase cover

 Reduced Refuge for Fish          Habitat Creation
                                  ! Instream habitat diversity can be increased by
                                  placing logs and boulders in the channel and with
                                  stream side plantings.

 Overland Flow Into Stream        Establish Buffer Zones
                                  ! Ensure that existing buffer zones are protected and
                                  that buffers are established where they have been
                                  removed.
 Bank Erosion/ Stabilization      Stabilize Eroding Streambanks
                                  ! Stabilize streambanks using erosion control
                                  techniques.
 Sedimentation
 Bank and Channel Stabilization   Establish Sediment Traps
                                  ! Install sediment traps to encourage the deposition of
                                  sediments in desirable locations.
                                  ! Maintain natural stream gradients and preserve
                                  sinuosity to keeps gradients low.
                                  ! Promote use of full span bridges, avoid the use of
                                  culverts




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   ISSUE AND CONCERN                      BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
Sedimentation
Habitat Restoration              Restore Degraded Habitat
                                 ! Spawning beds can be restored by physically
                                 removing sediments from areas that are known to be
                                 spawning beds or by adding gravel substrate in some
                                 areas.
Confined Channels                Naturalizing Confined Channels
                                 ! Restore confined channels to increase aquatic
                                 habitat using natural channel design
Instream Barriers
Beaver Dams                      Remove Dams in Sensitive Habitats
                                 ! Remove beaver dams only when found to be
                                 destroying or significantly degrading coldwater habitat
                                 Install Beaver Baffles
                                 ! Install beaver baffles where activities are not directly
                                 degrading


Human Dams                       Promote Dam Removal
                                 ! Dam removal is the best solution for eliminating
                                 flooding hazards and restoring natural fish migration.
                                 ! Other options include constructing fish ladders or
                                 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.
Ponds                            Removal or Alteration of On-line Pond
Temperature and Fish Migration   ! Ponds should be removed and a natural channel
                                 restored.
                                 ! Ponds can be retrofitted to reduce the severity of
                                 downstream warming.




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      ISSUE AND CONCERN                        BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
 Loss of baseflow to the              Protect groundwater recharge and discharge areas
 Uxbridge Brook                       ! See Water Quantity

 Bioconservation - introduction of    Educate the Public Regarding the Implications of
 non-native or exotic species         Introducing Non-native or Exotic Species
                                      ! Produce and distribute materials pertaining to the
                                      potential dangers of transporting and introducing non-
                                      native species into the Uxbridge Brook ecosystem.


6.5    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Terrestrial Habitat
BMPs evaluated to preserve and improve terrestrial habitat within the Uxbridge Brook
watershed must be sensitive to existing land management practices. In rural areas, BMPs
must be cost-effective for the landowner and not result in a loss of productivity or revenue.
BMPs that were identified for terrestrial habitat included the protection of existing valuable
habitat and the rehabilitation of degraded habitats. Protection of forests, wetlands and other
sensitive terrestrial features (ESA’s and ANSI’s) involves private land stewardship programs
and tree cutting by-laws. Rehabilitation of resources includes the regeneration of forest areas,
wetland restoration projects and the creation/preservation of corridors linking forested and
wetland areas. Table 6.6 outlines the BMPs reviewed to maintain and improve terrestrial
habitat.


Table 6.6 - BMPs to Maintain and Improve Terrestrial Habitat

      ISSUE AND CONCERN                        BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
 Forest\Species Diversity             Maintain\Improve Natural Areas
 Loss of Habitat                      ! Protect sensitive areas (ESA's, ANSI's, wetland)
                                      ! Promote good stewardship practices with private
                                      landowners and reestablish native vegetation and
                                      corridors where appropriate.
                                      ! Educate the public on the importance of forests



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      ISSUE AND CONCERN                      BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
 Lack of Natural Corridors          Establish Corridors Between Key Natural Areas
                                    ! Provide technical and financial assistance to
                                    landowners to participate in planting assistance
                                    programs to establish corridors.
                                    ! Establish corridors within new developments
                                    where possible.
 Eroding or Unstable Slopes         Identify\Stabilize Eroding Slopes
                                    ! Provide technical and financial assistance to
                                    reestablish vegetation where required.
                                    ! Promote the retirement of land where appropriate.
                                    ! Educate and involve the community in restoring
                                    native vegetation on affected slopes wherever possible.
 Protection and Regeneration of     Protect and Regenerate Upland Forested Areas
 Upland Forests                     ! Designate significant forested lands as Locally
                                    Significant Areas (LSA's) in official plans. Protect from
                                    development by utilizing tree cutting bylaws.
                                    ! Enhance existing forested areas by promoting
                                    planting assistance programs.

 Protection and Regeneration of     Protect and Regenerate Upland Forested Areas
 Upland Forests                     ! Designate significant forested lands as Locally
                                    Significant Areas (LSA's) in official plans. Protect from
                                    development by utilizing tree cutting bylaws.
                                    ! Enhance existing forested areas by promoting
                                    planting assistance programs.

 Protect and Rehabilitate           Promote the Rehabilitation of Wetlands
 Wetlands                           ! Encourage residents and community groups to
                                    become involved in wetland restoration projects.
                                    ! Utilize constructed wetlands for stormwater control.
                                    Involve school groups.



6.6    BMPs to Maintain and Improve Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities
Recreational activities are seldom viewed as creating potential environmental problems.
Unfortunately some activities, such as the use of recreational vehicles, maintenance in park



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areas, and the dumping of garbage and debris within sensitive valley lands can have harmful
environmental consequences.


A number of BMPs were identified for maintaining and improving recreational opportunities
and aesthetic amenities. The naturalization of public lands in passive recreational areas was
identified as an alternative to the current management practise of maintaining landscaped
parks with manicured lawns. Public lands can be protected from environmental degradation
by implementing strict fines for those caught littering and prohibiting the use of recreational
vehicles in sensitive areas. The creation of a trail system in valley lands and along corridors
would create additional recreational opportunities in the study area and would promote
terrestrial habitat protection and restoration among the residents of Uxbridge. Table 6.7 offers
details regarding the BMPs reviewed to maintain and improve recreation and aesthetic
amenities.


Table 6.7 - BMPs to Maintain and Improve Recreation and Aesthetic Amenities
     ISSUE AND CONCERN                         BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

 Park Maintenance                     Reduce Maintenance in Passive Recreational Areas
                                      ! Discontinue high maintenance in passive areas.
                                      ! Review current pesticide and fertilizer application
                                      practices and find opportunities to reduce, eliminate,
                                      or substitute.
                                      ! Naturalize where possible.
 Debris and Garbage in                Educate and Impose Fines for Dumping Garbage
 Valley\stream Corridors              and Debris
                                      ! Promote public ownership as primary means of
                                      protection, followed by conservation easements,
                                      zoning bylaws, and private land stewardship
                                      programs.
                                      ! Impose fines on known offenders.




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      ISSUE AND CONCERN                       BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
 Lack of Trails and Public           Establish Trails within Valley Lands and Corridors
 Walkways                            ! Link up existing trails and incorporate into the Oak
                                     Ridges trail complex.
                                     ! Use road and bridge reconstruction to create
                                     pedestrian trails.
                                     ! Require new developments adjacent to existing
                                     trails to provide continued access.
 Destruction of Sensitive Areas      Prohibit the Use of Recreational Vehicles on
 Due to Use of Recreation            Sensitive Public Lands
 Vehicles                            ! Educate the public regarding this issue.
                                     ! Ensure that sensitive lands are posted.
                                     ! Work with snowmobile clubs and other
                                     organizations.


6.7    Water Quality and Quantity Modelling of Land Use Scenarios
6.7.1 Water Quality Modelling
The previous section outlines a variety of Best Management Practices which can be
implemented to address management issues and concerns. However, how confident can we
be that these measures will not only achieve our ecosystem goals, but also be able to maintain
them against the pressure of expanding urban development. To answer this question
predictions regarding the impact of proposed remedial works relative to water quality have
been made based on current trends and land use practices.


A number of future growth scenarios within the Uxbridge Brook Watershed were evaluated
using methods adapted from a Water Quality Model developed by BEAK Consultants Limited
(LSEMS Imp. A.3, 1995). The modelling efforts focus on phosphorus loadings to the Uxbridge
Brook since it represents the water quality parameter potentially most limiting to the aquatic
ecosystem.     Furthermore, the remedial measures used to control phosphorus will also
effectively reduce inputs of other nutrients, sediment, bacteria, and metals. Sources of urban



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and rural phosphorus estimated within the watershed include:
       Urban Sources of Phosphorus                 Rural Sources of Phosphorus
!      Sewage treatment effluent                   !      Runoff from manure storage,
!      Stormwater runoff                                  feedlots, an manure spread fields
!      Septic systems                              !      Livestock access to watercourses
!      Sewer cross connections                     !      Cropland erosion
                                                   !      Septic systems


Description of Land Use Scenarios
Four modelling scenarios were evaluated and include:
       !      Scenario “A” - Existing Conditions “Do Nothing”
       !      Scenario “B” - Existing Conditions Implementing Rural and Urban BMPs
       !      Scenario “C” - Future Growth (Official Plan Designation) “Do Nothing”
       !      Scenario “D” - Future Growth (Official Plan Designation) All BMPs

Scenario “A” is a description of conditions within the watershed as they exist now representing
the status quo. No future development has been assessed and existing land use has been
determined from a combination of air photo analysis, satellite imagery, inventory work, and
groundtruthing. Scenario “B” involves the implementation of rural and urban BMPs throughout
the watershed. This scenario provides information concerning the qualitative and quantitative
water quality benefits associated with initiating BMPs. The BMPs which were evaluated and
their associated effectiveness are displayed in Table 6.8.


Conservative estimates of the effectiveness of BMPs were used in the modelling analysis
since not all of the proposed measures are legislated and therefore in some instance require
the cooperation of the landowners. It was also realized that potentially some sources could
escape detection. Therefore, the maximum efficiency of BMPs was generally assumed to be
50% with the exception of a wetland and sand filter system (80%) and grassed swales (20%)
under stormwater runoff.




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Table 6.8      Modelled Effectiveness of Best Management Practices

     Phosphorus              Best Management Practice                   Estimated
       Source                                                          Effectiveness
 Urban Dry Weather        ! Decoupling illegal sanitary                      50%
 Inputs                   connections from storm sewers
 Urban Storm Water        ! Stormwater ponds, sand filters,
 Runoff                   infiltration devices                               50%
                          ! Decoupling roof drains, street
                          sweeping, grass swales                             20%
                          ! Wetland with sand filter                         80%
 Agricultural Inputs      ! Restricting livestock access
 from Livestock           ! Proper manure storage and
                          management practices                               50%
                          ! Install milkhouse washwater
                          treatment systems
 Agricultural Cropland    ! Conservation tillage practices
 Erosion                  ! Install buffer strips                            50%
                          ! Erosion control structures
 Private Septic           ! Maintenance                                      50%
 Systems                  ! Replacement



Scenario “C” involves a description of future land use impacts associated with urban growth
based on the Regional Municipality of Durham Region official plan designation with a total
population expansion of approximately 4,000 people. Development areas as shown on land
use schedules have been implemented in full for the uses specified in the official plans. The
“do nothing” scenario implies that there will be no initiation of BMPs thereby providing a “worst
case” scenario. Stormwater runoff controls for pre and post development are included in this
scenario since they are a requirement under the planning act.




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Scenario “D” illustrates the predicted phosphorus loadings associated with future
development as specified in the official plans (similar to Scenario “C”) and includes the
proposed reduction associated with the implementation of BMPs. This scenario provides the
results required to determine whether the watershed goals can be achieved and maintained
in light of future growth.


Phosphorus Modelling and Extrapolation Tools
Phosphorus loadings to the Uxbridge Brook were estimated using an adaptation of the Lake
Simcoe Water Quality Model developed by BEAK Consultants and from monitoring data.
These predictions use 1994 sewage treatment plant loads and 1990 meteorological
conditions, since that year is considered to best reflect average the climatic norms. The
following is a brief description of the modelling methods, a more detailed explanation is
provided in LSEMS Implementation Report A.3, 1995, “Development and Implementation of
a Phosphorus Loading Watershed Management Model for Lake Simcoe”.


Septic Systems
Information on the number of septic systems within the watershed was collected with
approximately 1,440 residents estimated to serviced by septic systems. Loadings from septic
systems were calculated using the BEAK Water Quality Model and are based upon the
following assumptions:

               !      individuals generate 0.8 kg of phosphorus per year (BEAK, 1995),
               !      50% of systems have automatic dishwashers which increase
               individual loads by 0.36 kg/yr,
               !      septic systems service 3.5 persons each on average,
               !      5% of septic tank effluent reaches surface waters.


These assumptions are believed to be reasonable based on experiences elsewhere in
Ontario and compared to results from previous modelling efforts conducted during the LSEMS



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studies (LSEMS Tech. Report A.6, 1985). The estimated loading from septic systems within
the watershed is approximately 191 kilograms per year.
Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)
Phosphorus loads from the Uxbridge STP were not modelled but measured from monitoring
data provided by the Regional Municipality Durham. Effluent from the plant is sampled for a
variety of water quality parameters on a regular basis to ensure compliance under the MOEE
Certificate of Approval. Concentrations of phosphorus and flow records are routinely used to
accurately estimate annual phosphorus loadings. The phosphorus load from 1994 was used
in the analysis and is approximately 110 kilograms per year.


Urban Stormwater Runoff
Urban stormwater runoff was modelled using hydraulic loadings and unit area phosphorus
concentrations derived from the Lake Simcoe Water Quality Management Model. A survey
of all existing storm water outfalls was completed during the summer of 1996. In addition, the
drainage areas for each of these outfalls was determined through a review of existing
subdivision files and discussions with Township of Uxbridge staff (Figure 6.0). Existing land
uses were determined from zoning maps and aerial photographs The existence or absence
of stormwater quality BMPs was also investigated an the type of BMPs employed within each
area identified. Phosphorus loadings from areas which were found to have existing water
quality BMPs in place were reduced by the expected efficiency of that specific BMPs to a
maximum of 50%. These removal efficiencies are outlined in Table 6.7.


In addition to urban runoff, dry weather inputs of phosphorus have also been estimated to
account for infiltration or other inflow sources into the municipal storm drainage system. A
constant runoff rate of 0.05 L/s/ha (BEAK and Paul Theil Associates, 1990) was applied to
the total area connected to the storm sewer system to determine the hydraulic loading. A
typical phosphorus concentration for dry weather discharges (BEAK and Paul Theil



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                                     Location of Urban Sewersheds
                                                                          T


                                                                       J
                                                                                          L
                                                                                                                      t
                                         Q                                                                        tree
                                                                                                           ck S
                                                                                                        Bro


                                                                       G
                                         R
                                                                                  F
                             N                           B                    H                                            K
                                                                                      I




                                                                                                                                                                               141
                                                                      C
                                                                                          D
          d. 8                   O
      al R
Region

                                                                  A                                     M                                          legend
                                                                       E                                                                           stormwater outfall
                                     P                                                                                                             stormwater pond
                                             S                                                                                                     storm watershed boundary



                                                                                                                                           Figure 6.0

                                                                                                  et
                                                                                              Stre
                                                                  UXBRIDGE                                                            Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                                              t




                                                                                                                          Project:

                                                                                                 Main
                                                        tree
                                                       to S




                                                                                                                            Location of Urban Sewersheds Map
                                                    oon




                                                                                                                              Data Source:
                                                                                                                                                                LSRCA GIS gp
         m 100   0   200 m                                                                                                    LSRCA, Durham Reg.
                                                 Tor
Associates, 1990) was then used to predict annual loadings to the Uxbridge Brook.
To determine the possible increase in P loadings due to future development, it was assumed
the extent of new development would occur only within the confines of the existing Uxbridge
urban boundaries. A summary of the survey results along with the estimated P loadings is
shown on Table 6.9 below. The column Existing P Load refers to the existing phosphorus
loadings from a specific catchment. The column entitled Future P Load (nc) refers to future
loadings from the same area with a) no quality controls, b) standard Level 1 quality controls
as per MOEE guidelines or c) no new controls added to what’s already there. Best
Management Practices were discussed in previous sections and are defined as follows:


        WPED: Wet Pond with Ext. Detention                 OGS: Oil Grit Separator
        WLED: Wetland with Ext. Detention                  SF: Sand Filter


Future phosphorus loadings were based on a total of 79.4 hectares of new residential
development within the urban boundaries of the town only.


Table 6.9 Existing Stormwater Outfalls - Urban Uxbridge

 Area     Size     Description                              Existing   Existing   Future    BMP recom-
          in ha.                                            BMP(s)     P Loads    P         mended
                                                                       (kg/yr)    Loads     P Load in
                                                                                  (kg/yr)   (kg/yr)

 A        19.6     Hospital lands west of Toronto St.       None       62.7       a)        SF&OGS
                   and residential east of Toronto St.                            62.7      for west side
                   draining directly into Electric Light                                    P 41
                   Pond.

 B        29.5     Open ditched and storm sewered           some       94.4       a)        SF & OGS P
                   residential areas drain to Brock St.     grassed               94.4      47.2
                   and then via storm sewer into major      ditches
                   tributary.

 C        6.2      Residential area (4.7 ha.) draining      None       15         a)        15
                   to major tributary                                             15




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Area   Size     Description                           Existing     Existing   Future    BMP recom-
       in ha.                                         BMP(s)       P Loads    P         mended
                                                                   (kg/yr)    Loads     P Load in
                                                                              (kg/yr)   (kg/yr)

D      37.3     Mostly open ditched residential       grassed      84.3       a)        84.3
                area (32.9 ha.) with a small storm    ditches                 84.3
                sewered commercial area draining
                to Elgin Pond and main branch
                downstream

E      19       Future development of Gouldville      None -       1.4        b)        Future
                18T-91016                             open field              30.2      WPED
                                                                                        P 30.2

F      2.2      Commercial downtown area and          None         9.7        a)        OGS
                parking lot draining into large                               9.7       P 8.7
                culvert.

G      9.5      Residential area draining via storm   None         30.4       a)        SF & OGS P
                sewers to main branch                                         30.4      15.2

H      1.3      Commercial downtown area              None         5.7        a)        None
                draining into large culvert.                                  5.7       P 5.7

I      35.2     Large residential area with           None         113        a)        SF &OGS for
                commercial areas north and south                              113       half of the
                of Brock St. draining via storm                                         area
                sewers directly to the main branch.                                     P 84.5

J      13       Institutional and commercial area     None         57.2       a)        None
                on east and west side of Main St.                             57.2      P 57.2

K      130.3    Open fields - undeveloped area in     None -       8.9        b)        WLED with
                east end of town. Future                                      54.7      SF
                development area = 34.2 ha.                                             P 21.9

L      53.5     Barton Farms subdivision (18T-        WPED         85.6       c)        WPED
                87061)                                                        85.6      P 85.6
                and existing residential - mostly
                storm sewers.

M      31.4     Testa Heights subdivision (18T-       WPED         50.2       c)        WPED
                76041)                                                        50.2      P 50.2

N      82.4     Quaker Village (18T-88064)            WPED         131.8      c)        WPED
                based on complete development                                 131.8     P 131.8

O      31.1     Beechwood Doble subdivision           WLED         49.8       c)        WLED
                (18T-88018 & 18T-87070)                                       49.8      P 49.8




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                                                                                                 143
 P        5.9      Rear yards and open space            None       0.1        a)        None
                                                                              0.1       P 0.1

 Area     Size     Description                          Existing   Existing   Future    BMP recom-
          in ha.                                        BMP(s)     P Loads    P         mended
                                                                   (kg/yr)    Loads     P Load in
                                                                              (kg/yr)   (kg/yr)

 Q        35.4     Ditched residential area             grassed    90.6       a)        grassed
                                                        ditches               90.6      ditches
                                                                                        P 90.6

 R        16.2     Partially ditched area draining to   WPED       25.9       c)        WPED
                   Lincoln Homes pond                                         25.9      P 25.9

 S        9        Personna subdivision                 ED with    20.2       c)        Expand
                                                        small WL              20.2      WLED
                                                                                        P 14.4

 T        1        Condo site north end of town         None       3.2        a)        None
                                                                              3.2       P 3.2

 Totals   569                                                      940.1      1041.1    876.3




Livestock Sources
Phosphorus loadings from livestock sources were calculated using a model developed by the
Pollution from Land Use Activities Reference Group (PLUARG) of the International Joint
Commission. This method was used extensively throughout the Great Lakes basin and during
the LSEMS studies. A survey conducted in 1996 of all the farming operations within the
Uxbridge Brook watershed collected information regarding individual livestock operations and
their manure storage and management practices. The data provided was then used to
estimate phosphorous loadings for each of the sub-watersheds.


The numbers and types of livestock was used to determine equivalent animal units (EAU) for
each sub-watershed. Equivalent animal units place weighting on various types of livestock
based on their ability to generate phosphorus in their waste. The proportion of this manure
phosphorus production which enters the brook is extremely dependant upon management


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factors. Based on the survey results this analysis assumed that one EAU results in the
transport of 150 gm/year of phosphorus to surface waters (D.W. Draper and Associates,
1993). The model also assumes that livestock loadings are continuous throughout the year,
while in fact loadings would peak during storm events. Results of the modelling exercise for
the entire watershed is listed in Table 6.10. Phosphorus loadings from livestock sources
within the watershed contribute an estimated 1,528 kg per year


Table 6.10      Phosphorus Loadings from Livestock Operations

        Livestock Type         Numbers       Equivalent         Phosphorus Loading
                                             Animal Units            (Kg/year)

 Beef Cattle                      1,640          1,706                   256
 Dairy Cattle                     1,755          2,198                   330
 Pigs                            10,250          4,185                   628
 Sheep & Goats                    522              89                     13
 Chickens and Ducks              79,222          1,584                   238
 Turkeys                          5,060           152                     23
 Horses                           225             270                     40
 TOTALS                          98,449          9,914                   1,528




Cropland and Natural Soil Erosion
Phosphorus loadings from cropland and natural erosion were estimated using the BEAK
model. The modelling involves three steps:
        ! simulating hydraulic conditions and the generation of runoff over the lands   surface,
        ! determining the amount of particle detachment and soil erosion occurring
          As a result of meteorological conditions,
        ! quantifying the delivery of eroded material to receiving waters,
The model utilizes compiled GIS data which is the perfect tool to display and overlay the



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various climatic, topographic and soil characteristics as well as cultivation practices on
agricultural lands. Using a similar method employed in the constraint mapping exercise the
individual factor maps are overlayed and the individual polygons that emerge are assigned
ratings. This information is then entered into the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran
(HSPF) where a subroutine called PWATER which simulates hydraulic conditions based on
real meterological data for any given year. PWATER considers infiltration rates, soil
moisture, soil storage, lateral groundwater flow, and other external characteristics which
generate surface runoff.


The next modelling subroutine activated is SEDMNT which simulates the production and
removal of sediment from the land. Removal of sediment by water is simulated as particles
are detached by rainfall or scoured by surface runoff and transported by overland flow. It is
important to note that the conditions of the lands surface and the amount of vegetation cover
are significant factors which influence the amount of sediment eroded. In cultivated areas the
farming practices employed directly affect the the areas erosion potential. By utilizing the
model and changing the type of tillage practices evaluations of improved residue
management or conservation tillage practices can be examined. Table 6.11 lists the
phosphorus loading occur as a result of erosion throughout the watershed.


Table 6.11    Phosphorus Loadings from Cropland
              and Natural Soil Erosion
   Loading Component                Phosphorus
                                   Loadings (Kg/y)

 Cultivated Lands                        1,359
 Pasture\Fallow                           559
 Forest                                   492
 Wetland                                  150



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 Scrubland                                157
        Total                   2,717
Summary of Phosphorus Modelling Results
The total annual phosphorus loading entering the Uxbridge Brook from all sources is 5,446
Kg/y. Figure 6.1 illustrates the loading contributions from individual components. Rural
sources such as runoff from livestock operations and cropland soil erosion are the two largest
contributors accounting for than 53% (2887 Kg/y) of the total load. Natural sources are the
next most significant contributor providing roughly 25% (1358 Kg/y) of the total load. Urban
sources account for the remaining 23% (1241 Kg/y) of the total phosphorus load with
stormwater runoff being the largest urban source at 17.3% (940 Kg/y).




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Co
mp
ari
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o f
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                                                  148
nd Use Scenarios
Phosphorus loadings for the various land use scenarios are summarized in Table 6.12 and
displayed in Figure 6.2. Scenario “A” is the present day loading which was described in detail
in the proceeding sections. Given the present day conditions the total phosphorus load
entering the Brook from all sources is 5486 kilograms per year (Kg/y). The following is a
discussion of the remaining scenarios and their implications to the water quality of the
Uxbridge Brook.


Table 6.12    Summary of Phosphorus Loadings Based on Modelling Scenarios

             Loading Component                        Modelling Scenario
                                                  Annual Phosphorus Loads (kg)

                                                   A          B          C         D

 Septic Systems                                   191        95         228       132
 Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)                     110        110        285       285
 Urban Stormwater Runoff                          940        810       1041       876
 Agriculture - Livestock                         1528        764       1528       764
 Agriculture - Cropland Erosion                  1359        680       1359       680
 Pasture\Fallow                                   559        559        559       559
 Forest                                           492        492        492       492
 Wetland                                          150        150        150       150
 Scrubland                                        157        157        157       157
 TOTALS                                          5486       3817       5799       4095


Scenario “B” Existing Conditions and the Implementation of BMP’s
Scenario “B” involves the implementation of a full range of BMP’s to address urban
stormwater, septic systems, runoff from livestock operations and cropland erosion. The total


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phosphorus load from this scenario is estimated at 3817 K/y.             This means that the
implementation of BMPs could reduce roughly 1669 Kg/y of phosphorus entering the Uxbridge
Brook annually. The contributions of individual phosphorus sources is illustrated in Figure
6.2. The largest reductions in loading can be achieved by             implementing rural best
management practices associated with livestock sources and cropland erosion.




A total phosphorus reduction of 1444 Kg/y could be realized by improving manure storage and
handling practices, restricting livestock access to the Brook and its tributaries, and by farmers
adopting conservation or no-till cropping practices. The total reduction from urban sources
accounts for only 226 Kg/y and involves replacement of faulty septic systems and the
treatment of stormwater runoff. The replacement of faulty septic systems could reduce an
estimated 96 Kg/y and treatment of stormwater runoff 130 Kg/y.
Scenario “C” Future Urban Growth - Do Nothing



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Scenario “C” represents the worst case scenario for the Uxbridge Brook based on
uncontrolled future urban growth to accommodate an additional 4,000 people and no
implementation of BMPs. The total loading to the Brook is estimated at 5799 Kg/y an
increase of 313 Kg/y above the existing conditions. The increases in phosphorus loadings
are associated with:
              !        additional septic systems to accommodate a rural population
                       increase of 1,000 people, approximately 37 Kg/y,
              !        expansion of the sewage treatment plant to accommodate a
                       population increase of 4,000 people, approximately 175 Kg/y and
              !        urban runoff from the new development 101 Kg/y.

Additional inputs from agricultural activities are not expected and therefore not predicted.


Scenario “D” Future Urban Growth and Implementation of All BMPs
Scenario “D” shows the projected phosphorus load from future growth described in scenario
“C” and includes the implementation of all BMPs discussed in scenario “B”. The total
predicted load for scenario “D” is 4095 Kg/y. This represents a total reduction of 1391 Kg/y
from scenario “A” - existing conditions, while accommodating additional growth. As with
scenario “B” the major reductions in phosphorus loading are associated with rural BMPs. Any
reductions associated with urban BMPs have been more than compensated for by the
additional loadings related to future growth.


Consequences
What are the implications of these modelling scenarios relative to the Uxbridge Brook and the
ecosystem targets for water quality. Under Scenario “A” or present day conditions average
water quality exceedances for phosphorus occur approximately 50% of the time. However,
information from the aquatic surveys completed within the watershed indicate that generally
this loading is not significantly limiting to the aquatic ecosystem. Localized issues related to



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temperature and sedimentation are judged to be of greater concern and bacterial
contamination affecting beaches will continue to cause beach postings if not addressed.


The consequences of Scenario “C”, “future growth” and “doing nothing” would have severe
impacts to the local aquatic ecosystem and recreational activities of the Uxbridge Brook.
Doing nothing would clearly result in increased phosphorus loading and based on an
extrapolated mean flow for the entire watershed Scenario “C” would result in a concentration
consistently above the PWQO. It is apparent from these results that future growth should occur
only if accompanied by the implementation of BMPs.


Under scenario “B” a reduction in the present day phosphorus load of 1649 Kg/y could be
achieved through the aggressive implementation of BMPs. This represents a improvement
of 30% and would also reduce contamination by other nutrients, bacteria and sediment. Even
with continued urban growth under scenario “D” the implementation of BMPs can still result
in an overall reduction of 1391 Kg/y or 25% of the present day load. It is important to realize
that the benefits associated with the implementation of BMPs will not only improve water
quality but also enhance the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems by improving habitat.
Improvements in water quality will also enhance recreational opportunities especially at both
Elgin Pond and Wagners Lake.


Both Scenarios C and D assume that the Town of Uxbridge will continue to grow to a
population of 11,000 as outlined in the Durham Region Official Plan. This population estimate
is conditional on the successful expansion of the sewage treatment plant which in turn
depends on the overall assimilative capability of the brook. Assimilative capacity refers to
the brooks ability to uptake and\or dilute inputs of phosphorus. Due to this consideration, a
phosphorus loading estimate was calculated for the main branch of the




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                          152
Uxbridge Brook past the sewage treatment plant at Davis Drive (Figure 6.3). Under present
day conditions (Scenario A) the brook receives an estimated phosphorus load of 1,810 Kg/y
or approximately 33% of the total load from the watershed (Table 6.13 and Figure 6.4). For
the contributing subwatersheds (2,3,4,5,8,9), urban inputs account for roughly 1050 Kg/y or
58% of the total loading, while the combined agricultural inputs only contribute 328 Kg/y or
18%. The remaining inputs include septic systems at 60 Kg/y (3%) and natural inputs at 372
Kg/y (21%).


Table 6.13    Phosphorus Loadings to the Uxbridge Brook Above Davis Drive

             Loading Component                       Modelling Scenario
                                                 Annual Phosphorus Loads (kg)

                                                  A          B         C          D

 Septic Systems                                  60         30        60         30
 Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)                    110       110        285        285
 Urban Stormwater Runoff                         940       810       1041        876
 Agriculture - Livestock                         90         45         90        45
 Agriculture - Cropland Erosion                  238       119        238        119
 Natural (Fallow, Forest, Wetland, Scrub)        372       372        372        372
 TOTALS                                         1810       1486      2086       1727


Under Scenario B the total load has been reduced by 324 Kg to an estimated annual loading
of 1,486 Kg/y. Again the urban inputs account for the largest contribution of 920 Kg/y. The
main reductions achieved in as a result of the implementation of remedial measures includes;
       a 30 Kg/y from septic systems, a 130 K/g associated with improved stormwater runoff
control, and, a combined reduction of 164 Kg/y from agriculture.




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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Subwatersheds Contributing Phosphorus Loadings
   to the Uxbridge Brook South of Davis Drive

                                                             Sunderland



      Udora




                       18



                                                   16                                        LEGEND

                                                                                           Uxbridge Brook Watershed
           Leaskdale
                              17                                                           roads
                         Wa
                           gn
                             er
                                Lak
                                                                                             subwatershed boundary
        12                         e
                                       14
                                          13
                                                                                           rivers
                                                                                           Uxbridge subwatersheds
                    15
                                                                                                    SCALE


                                   10                                      km 1        0                                      5 km




                                                                                           Figure 6.3
              11
                              7
                6
                                               8       9
                    Uxbridge

       1
                             5

                                                                 3
                                                   4
                                               2



                                                                          Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                                                                  Phosphorus Loadings South of Davis Dr.

                                                                          Data Source:
                                                                                                               LSRCA GIS gp
                                                                          LSRCA & OBM Maps



                                                           153
Scenario C, or the worst case scenario, has estimated the total phosphorus load at 2,086
Kg/y, an increase of 276 Kg/y from the present day conditions. The largest increase is
associated with the sewage treatment plant expansion contributing an additional 175 Kg/y.
The only other associated increases involves the additional stormwater runoff from new
development which is estimated at 101 Kg/y.


The final Scenario D, future growth and the full implementation of all remedial options results
in a total load of 1,727 Kg/y. This is significant as it represents a reduction of 83 Kg/y in the
total phosphorus load based on present day conditions. Urban inputs remain as the largest




contributor to the brook with a total load of 1,161 Kg/y or 67%.


The guiding principles of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan are clear, “protect what is
healthy and rehabilitate what has been degraded”. If urban growth is allowed to continue
without the implementation of BMPs further degradation to the ecosystem is certain to occur.
Therefore BMPs must be implemented throughout the watershed not only to improve the



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health of the ecosystem as it exists today, but to maintain it into the future.
6.7.2 Water Quantity Modelling
Urban Area - Water Quantity
The hydrology of the urban area in context with the watershed was modelled using the
OTTHYMO.89 computer model. Refer to Section 3 for a more extensive description of this
model. Existing land uses and future Official Plan designations in the urban and rural area
were used to determine flows at nine (9) flow nodes through out the entire watershed. Existing
quantity control ponds were included in the model along with Brookdale, and Elgin Mill Ponds.


Water Quantity - Official Plan Designations
To determine the possible increases in peak flows in the Brook, an assumption of the
complete development of the urban area in Uxbridge was made.                  This is somewhat
conservative as it assumes that a total of 301 hectares of new development will occur in the
urban area while actual Durham Planning population figures indicate a maximum of 66
hectares of new residential growth is expected. However, this modelling technique was used
as it can establish a trend in peak flow increases as developed areas increase. The
modelling of future peak flows included two scenarios F1 and F2. Scenario F1 determined
impacts on flows based on full post\pre development controls along with 24 hour extended
detention of runoff from the 25 mm storm. Scenario F2 was essentially the same as F1 other
than the storm event used a provision of runoff from a 40 mm storm event.


Summary of Modelling Results
Tables 6.14, 6.15 and 6.16 summarize the modelling results for seven (7) different storm
events and shows peak flows at the nine (9) flow nodes shown on Figure 6.5. The Area
column refers to total upstream drainage area at the node location.




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Water Quantity Modelling Stations

                                                         Sunderland



9Udora




                 18



                                           16                                          LEGEND
                            8
                 2



                                                                                      Uxbridge Brook Watershed
     Leaskdale
                                                                                      roads
                   17
                   Wa
                     gn
                       er
                            7                                                         rivers
    12                    Lak
                             e
                                 14
                                    13                                                Subwatershed boundary

              15
                                   6                                                  Flow Modelling Node

                             10

                                                                                               SCALE
         11
                        7                  5                           km 1       0                                   5 km


1         6
                                               4
                                       8       9
                                                                                  Figure 6.5
                   Uxbridge
    1                               3
                       5

                                                           3
                                           4
                                       2


                                                                      Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study

                                                                      Water Quantity Modelling Stations Map
                                                                         Data Source: LSRCA            LSRCA GIS gp




                                                   156
Table 6.14       Peak Flow Summary for 12 hour Storm Events
                 1:2 year, 1:5 year & 1:10 year - Flows in c.m.s.


 Node   Area         2 yr.    2 yr.    2 yr.     5 yr.    5 yr.        5 yr.    10 yr.   10 yr.   10 yr.
        in ha.       Exist.   F1       F2        Exist.   F1           F2       Exist.   F1       F2

 1      1914         2.98     2.98     2.98      5.23     5.23         5.23     7.04     7.04     7.04

 2      4346         5.25     5.25     5.25      9.34     9.34         9.34     12.73    12.73    12.73

 3      4016         2.81     3        2.88      5.11     5.36         5.16     8.27     8.59     8.31

 4      5555         6.38     7.35     6.36      11.03    12.89        10.79    14.7     16.86    14.72

 5      6659         8.89     9.85     8.86      15.46    17.1         15.19    20.68    22.67    20.67

 6      8936         12.54    13.53    12.5      21.14    22.26        21.07    27.29    28.63    27.32

 7      9109         13.55    14.55    13.6      22.5     23.63        22.43    28.88    30.22    28.92

 8      14920        21.4     22.37    21.45     36.52    37.63        36.44    47.73    49.04    47.76

 9      17790        18.65    19.3     18.76     33.18    34.04        33.19    43.65    44.48    43.69

Table 6.15       Peak Flow Summary for 12 hour Storm Events
                 1:25 year, 1:50 year & 1:100 year - Flows in c.m.s.


 Node   Area         25 yr.   25 yr.   25 yr.    50 yr.   50 yr.       50 yr.   100      100      100
        in ha.       Exist.   F1       F2        Exist.   F1           F2       yr.      yr.      yr.
                                                                                Exist.   F1       F2

 1      1914         9.61     9.61     9.61      11.64    11.64        11.64    13.94    13.94    13.94

 2      4346         17.27    17.27    17.27     20.9     20.9         20.9     24.99    24.99    24.99

 3      4016         13.47    13.89    13.64     17.59    18.01        17.83    21.73    22.26    22.04

 4      5555         20.83    22.93    21.67     27.59    29.21        27.76    35.14    37       35.33

 5      6659         28.13    30.59    29.23     35.84    37.98        36.06    46.02    48.06    46.33

 6      8936         35.58    37.14    36.21     42.45    44.23        43.35    50.39    52.43    51.61

 7      9109         37.51    39.06    38.15     44.42    46.26        45.42    52.63    54.65    53.9

 8      14920        63.02    64.57    63.64     75.34    77.1         76.2     89.29    91.36    90.49

 9      17790        56.03    56.93    56.29     65.2     66.14        65.61    75.62    76.69    76.14




             Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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Table 6.16        Peak Flow Summary for 12 hour Storm Event
                  Regional Storm (Hazel) - Flows in c.m.s.


 Node    Area        Regiona    Regional   Regional
         in ha.      l          F1         F2
                     Exist.

 1       1914        78.89      78.89      78.89

 2       4346        140.82     140.82     140.82

 3       4016        159.42     159.98     160

 4       5555        238.5      242.65     242.59

 5       6659        299.7      302.32     302.55

 6       8936        308.53     313.72     313.86

 7       9109        315.01     320.75     320.94

 8       14920       515.08     520.01     520.15

 9       17790       390.76     393.05     392.85


The hydrologic modelling results can be summarized as follows:
1)      The control of flows from future developments in the Uxbridge area to pre -
        development levels along with providing 24 hour detention of the 25 mm storm
        event will result in peak flow increases in the Brook of between 5 and 15%
        downstream of the Town of Uxbridge with the greatest increase coming during
        a 1:2 year storm event.


2)      By providing an additional 15 mm of extended detention storage, the impact of
        development on downstream peak flows will be between 0-5% for all storms up
        to and including the 1:100 year event.

3)      Regardless of the quantity control provided there will be a slight increase in
        Regional storm flows downstream of the Town (<2%).


It is therefore recommended that all new developments in the urban Uxbridge area be required
to control peak flows from the site to pre - development levels. In addition, 24 hour extended
detention should be provided for run off from a four (4) hour 40 mm Chicago type storm event.



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                                                                                         159
7.0    THE UXBRIDGE BROOK WATERSHED PLAN


7.1 Conclusions
Water Quality
The surface water quality of the Uxbridge Brook was discussed in detail in previous
sections of the report. In general, the surface water quality is not limiting to the aquatic
ecology, however, localized issues relative to high phosphorus loadings, sedimentation
and bacterial contamination do exist and must be addressed. Furthermore, the total
phosphorus loading from the Uxbridge Brook watershed is of concern to the Lake Simcoe
ecosystem which has established a 25% loading reduction target.


From the modelling results it is predicted that a 30% reduction in the total phosphorus
loading (1649 Kg/y) is achievable based on the implementation of BMPs and present day
conditions. This would be reduced to approximately 25% (1371 Kg/y) under the future
growth scenario outlined in the Durham Region and Township of Uxbridge Official Plans.
Future growth should only be accommodated given that BMPs are initiated otherwise the
subsequent increase in phosphorus loading could have severe consequences to the
existing aquatic ecosystem.     The implementation of a full range of BMPs to control
phosphorus loadings from rural and urban sources is prescribed. These BMPs will also
have other additional water quality benefits by reducing other nutrient, sediment and
bacteria loadings entering the Uxbridge Brook.


Water Quantity
In general, surface and groundwater quantity within the watershed is in good shape due to
the large areas of forests, farms, meadows and pastures which provide significant natural
storage. This natural storage allows water to be retained such that it can be either
returned to the atmosphere (evapotranspirated) or infiltrated into the ground to recharge
the upper and lower aquifers. The extensive forested areas also reduce the amount of
snowmelt in the spring by shading large snow covered areas that then slowly infiltrate water



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                                                                                       159
back into the ground rather than allowing it to become runoff during the spring thaw. Due
to these hydrologic conditions, surface runoff for the entire watershed represents only 10%
of the annual precipitation (rain and snow) while 25% of total precipitation is infiltrated into
the ground. The remaining 65%of precipitation evapotranspirates back into the air.


Future development, in accordance with the regional official plan, has been assumed to
be limited to the urban area of Uxbridge. Based on the results of the hydrologic model
developed for the watershed, it is concluded that development in this area will result in
increases in downstream peak flows for all storm events. Therefore, all new development
in this area must control peak flows off site to pre-development levels for up to and
including the 1:100 year storm event. In addition, 24 hour extended detention (ED) will be
required for runoff from a 40 mm storm event as 24 hour ED of the 25 mm storm is
insufficient for peak flow control.


Future development on the watershed’s sandy and sandy loam soils will result in a loss of
infiltration and thus may impact on stream base flows. Therefore all new development
should comply with the Oak Ridges Moraine Policies and incorporate infiltration BMPs
such that the water balance is maintained (post = pre) for the subject development. The
areas in the watershed that are highly vulnerable to groundwater contamination are
generally not suitable for the use of infiltration BMPs (Figure 3.0).
The cumulative impact of development in the watershed can be estimated from the results
of the modelling as described in Section 6.7. As described in this section, flows for
future conditions were determined using an extremely conservative estimate of 301
hectares of new development in the Uxbridge area. This value is considerably larger than
the estimate of proposed future growth in Uxbridge as designated in the regional official
plan. However, it was decided to use the value of 301 hectares as a worst case scenario
in order to more accurately predict the effects of cumulative development in the watershed.
The largest increase in peak flows downstream of the Uxbridge area that will occur as a
result of this worst case scenario is during 1:25 year storm conditions and is estimated as



       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           160
a four percent (4%) increase. Assuming a linear relationship between percent increase
in flows and area of new development, 1:25 year peak flows downstream of town are
expected to increase 1.3% for every 100 hectares of new development, regardless of
SWM controls that are implemented.


Aquatic Habitat
There is no doubt that the aquatic habitat of the Uxbridge Brook has been degraded by
human activities within the watershed. Even so, the watershed still maintains a viable cold
and warmwater fishery. A change in species composition was noticed when comparing
the results of survey work completed in 1996 to past inventories conducted in 1979. The
presence of significant or rare species was found at all the past stations, however the
difference could be attributed to sampling procedures or field conditions. The key
management issues which continue to appear in the majority of sub-watersheds relate to
water temperature, the accumulation of sediment, the loss of stream-side vegetative cover
and to a lesser degree the presence of instream barriers and obstructions limiting fishery
migration.


The issue of water temperature degradation involves the coldwater fishery, which as its
name suggests requires cold water for the fish species to survive. The loss of coldwater
habitat due to increased water temperature is occurring primarily within the urban area of
Uxbridge as a result of urban stormwater runoff. There are some other rural areas which
have also been impacted especially along the Leaskdale Creek where the removal of
stream side vegetation for agriculture has resulted in increased water temperature.
Reducing water temperature can be accomplished by reducing urban runoff, infiltrating the
water back into the ground, and proper operation of the bottom draw structures at Elgin
Pond and Electric Light Pond. This will certainly reduce water temperatures extending
through the Town of Uxbridge. The planting of vegetation along unbuffered reaches of the
Uxbridge Brook will enhance temperatures within the rural areas.




       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                      161
Sedimentation, unlike water temperature, is a watershed wide issue. Erosion from
cultivated fields, disturbed streambanks, road sand and urban stormwater runoff transports
sediment from each of the 18 sub-watersheds into surface waters of the Uxbridge Brook.
Controlling erosion and reducing the amount of eroded sediment at the source is one
control method and involves the implementation of conservation tillage practices, urban
stormwater BMPs and the establishment of stream-side buffers. Reducing existing
instream sediment through removal and trapping is another control option.


The importance of restoring stream-side cover has been discussed relative to reducing
water temperature and sediment and nutrient loading. Stream-side cover also provides
structure and food. Instream obstructions were a less important issue limiting the aquatic
ecosystem, however obstructing fish migration reduces the productivity of an area. Natural
instream obstructions can be removed with a minimum of effort. Man-made structures
represent a different challenge which can be overcome by removing the structure or by
constructing fish ladders or side channels.


Terrestrial Habitat
Terrestrial, or wildlife, habitat is a key component of a healthy, functioning ecosystem. The
Uxbridge Brook watershed overall contains an appropriate percentage of natural areas
including forested communities, wetlands and old-field habitat, however some localized
deficiencies are evident within individual sub-basins.


Generally, the portion within the Oak Ridges Moraine contains a high degree of upland
forest with a good degree of complexity and linkages. Remaining natural areas to the
north have been impacted more by agricultural activity, and are most often confined to the
lowland areas following wetland complexes and stream corridors. In several of these sub-
watersheds, agricultural land uses have reduced upland forested areas to a few isolated
pockets. Reforestation efforts would best be focused upon enlarging these areas and
linking them together through valley corridors and hedgerows.



       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                        162
It will be necessary to protect the natural habitat which remains, particularly the several key
large areas which contain significant interior habitat, old growth areas, and areas which
provide a linkage function. Stream corridors are present in each of the sub-basins which
would benefit from increased forest cover. This not only provides corridors for wildlife, it
improves water quality and aquatic habitat also.


Specific recommendations follow for each sub-basin.


Recreational and Aesthetic Amenities
The Uxbridge Brook watershed provides an abundance of recreational opportunities to
area residents. Hiking, fishing, hunting, birdwatching, swimming, picnicking, biking, skiing,
snowmobiling and other activities also contribute to the economic well-being of local
communities by attracting tourists to the area.


As an aesthetic amenity the Uxbridge Brook watershed provides a great deal of landform
diversity and a number of vistas from which to view them. Many of the recommendations
designed to protect and enhance other values will also benefit recreational activities as
well as the more intangible social needs for visual beauty in the landscape.


Specific recommendations include increased emphasis on trail systems, control of
recreational vehicle access to sensitive areas, naturalizing park areas and reducing illegal
dumping.


7.2    Recommendations
The two main guiding principles of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan are to “protect
what is healthy” and “rehabilitate what is degraded”. In order to fulfill the spirit and intent
of these principles, a series of comprehensive and detailed recommendations have been
developed for each of the eighteen subwatersheds. These recommendations provide the
foundation of the watershed plan and deal with the issues and concerns specific to these



       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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                                                                                          163
subwatersheds. Specific resource targets for subwatersheds were established by the
Steering and the Public Advisory Committees. These targets were then used to evaluate
specific recommendations for each subwatershed and are listed in Table 7.0.


Table 7.0        Resource Targets for Management Issues

 Management                                     Resource Target
   Issues

 Water Quality     To protect ground and surface waters which currently meet the Ministry of
                   Environment and Energy Provincial Water Quality Objectives (PWQOs)
                   and Ontario Drinking Water Objectives (ODWOs). To enhance ground
                   and surface waters which do not meet objectives to at least meet these
                   objectives recognizing that in certain areas exceptional water may require
                   more stringent criteria. Furthermore, in some situations natural conditions
                   may make attaining this goal undesirable.
 Water             To protect and maintain the existing flow regime both in terms of peak flows
 Quantity          and flow volume and enhance these functions where they have been
                   degraded wherever possible.
 Aquatic           To maintain and where possible improve aquatic habitat of Uxbridge Brook
 Habitat           to ensure the continued and improved health of the aquatic ecosystem.
 Terrestrial       Protect and enhance existing terrestrial habitat within the watershed
 Habitat           including forests, wetlands, meadows, wildlife corridors and feeding
                   grounds. Rehabilitate degraded habitat wherever possible.
 Recreational      Provide environmentally sound recreational opportunities.
 and Aesthetic
 Amenities

The following tables outline the recommended BMPs and agencies or groups responsible
for implementation for each of the eighteen (18) subwatersheds.




       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                           164
Table 7.1        Subwatershed 1 Recommendations

 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should         Policy      ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                 Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Restrict livestock access to watercourse. (1      Remedial      5 years      Landowner
 site)                                                 project                    LSRCA

 3) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass   Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                    project                    OMAFRA
                                                                                   LSRCA

 4) Promote conservation tillage practices and the    Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                      LSRCA

 5) Construct manure storage, clean water             Remedial      5 years      Landowner
 diversions and establish buffer strips. (1 site)      project                    LSRCA

 6) Promote proper manure management, soil and        Education     ongoing      Landowners
 manure testing, and discontinue winter manure                                    OMAFRA
 spreading.                                                                        LSRCA

 7) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding        Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                              MOEE

 8) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial        Legislation   5 years       OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                           MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 9) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed    Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 watercourses.(1.6 km)                                 project                     LSRCA

 10) Adopt Oak Ridges Moraine Policies relating to      Policy      5 years       Durham
 recharge/discharge areas.                                                        Uxbridge

 11) Remove beaver and man-made dams where            Remedial      10 years     Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or       project                     LSRCA
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.

 12) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install        Remedial      10 years     Landowners
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.         project                     LSRCA

 13) Increase forested area to 25% of total by        Remedial      20 years     Landowners
 promoting planting assistance programs. (59 ha)       project                     LSRCA
                                                                                  Uxbridge

 14) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage           Remedial     ongoing       Uxbridge
 removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.              project




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                        165
Table 7.2        Subwatershed 2 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                         BMP         COMP.    RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY     TARGET

 1) All new development shall meet Level 1 quality     Regulation   ongoing        LSRCA
 control criteria with state of the art phosphorus                                 MOEE
 removal systems.

 2) Trace and correct problems associated with         Remedial     ongoing      Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems for                project               Durham Health Unit
 residences.

 3) Encourage homeowners to reduce their use of        Education    ongoing      Homeowners
 commercial lawn chemicals.                                                        LSRCA

 4) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should         Policy      ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                  Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 5) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass    Remedial     5 years      Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks.                    project                   OMAFRA
                                                                                   LSRCA

 6) Promote conservation tillage practices and the     Education    ongoing       OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                      LSRCA

 7) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding         Education    ongoing       OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                              MOEE

 8) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed     Remedial     5 years      Landowners
 watercourses (2.0 km).                                 project                    LSRCA

 9) Adopt Oak Ridges Moraine Policies relating to       Policy      5 years       Durham
 recharge/discharge areas.                                                        Uxbridge

 10) All new developments are to provide 24 hour        Policy      ongoing       LSRCA
 detention for runoff from a 40 mm storm event.                                    MOEE
                                                                                  Uxbridge

 11) All new developments are to provide full peak      Policy      ongoing       LSRCA
 control for site runoff (post to pre) for up to and                               MOEE
 including the 1:100 year storm event.                                            Uxbridge




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         166
Table 7.2 Continued

RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY      TARGET

12) Remove beaver and man-made dams where              Remedial      10 years     Landowners
possible; alternately construct fish ladders or         project                    Uxbridge
alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                    LSRCA

13) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial      10 years     Landowner
bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                     LSRCA

14) Restore bottom draw in Electric Light Pond         Remedial       1 year       Uxbridge
                                                        project                    LSRCA

15) Restore confined channels using natural            Remedial      5 years      Landowners
channel design.                                         project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR

16) Install sediment traps and restore degraded        Remedial      5 years      Landowners
habitat.                                                project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR

17) Promote the planting of native material close to   Education     ongoing       Uxbridge
natural areas.                                                                     LSRCA

18) Establish a trail system.                          Remedial      10 years     Landowners
                                                        project                    Uxbridge

19) Prohibit the use of recreational vehicles on       Legislation   5 years       Uxbridge
sensitive public land.

20) Naturalize park areas where practical; review        Policy      10 years      Uxbridge
current pesticide and fertilizer application
practices.

21) Disconnect roof leaders from storm sewer           Remedial      5 years       Uxbridge
                                                        project                    LSRCA

22) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage            Remedial      ongoing       Uxbridge
removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.               project




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       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
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Table 7.3        Subwatershed 3 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                         BMP        COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY    TARGET

 1) All new development shall meet Level 1 quality      Policy     ongoing         LSRCA
 control criteria with state of the art phosphorus                                 MOEE
 removal systems.

 2) Trace and correct problems associated with         Remedial    ongoing       Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems for                project               Durham Health Unit
 residences.

 3) Encourage homeowners to reduce their use of        Education   ongoing       Homeowners
 commercial lawn chemicals.                                                        LSRCA

 4) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should         Policy     ongoing        Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                  Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 5) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass    Remedial    5 years       Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks.                    project                   OMAFRA
                                                                                   LSRCA

 6) Promote conservation tillage practices and the     Education   ongoing        OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                      LSRCA

 7) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding         Education   ongoing        OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                              MOEE

 8) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed     Remedial    5 years       Landowners
 watercourses (4.2 km).                                 project                    LSRCA

 9) Adopt Oak Ridges Moraine Policies relating to       Policy     5 years        Durham
 recharge/discharge areas.                                                        Uxbridge

 10) All new developments are to provide 24 hour        Policy     ongoing        LSRCA
 detention for runoff from a 40 mm storm event.                                    MOEE
                                                                                  Uxbridge

 11) All new developments are to provide full peak      Policy     ongoing        LSRCA
 control for site runoff (post to pre) for up to and                               MOEE
 including the 1:100 year storm event.                                            Uxbridge

 12) Remove beaver and man-made dams where             Remedial    10 years      Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or        project                   Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                  LSRCA




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         168
Table 7.3 Continued

RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY      TARGET

13) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial      10 years     Landowner
bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                     LSRCA


14) Restore bottom draw in Elgin Mills Pond.           Remedial       1 year       Uxbridge
                                                        project                    LSRCA

15) Restore confined channels using natural            Remedial      5 years      Landowners
channel design.                                         project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR

16) Install sediment traps and restore degraded        Remedial      5 years      Landowners
habitat.                                                project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR

17) Promote the planting of native material close to   Education     ongoing       Uxbridge
natural areas.                                                                     LSRCA

18) Establish wildlife corridors between key natural   Remedial      10 years     Landowners
areas.                                                  project                     LSRCA
                                                                                   Uxbridge

19) Establish a trail system.                          Remedial      10 years     Landowners
                                                        project                    Uxbridge

20) Prohibit the use of recreational vehicles on       Legislation   5 years       Uxbridge
sensitive public land.

21) Naturalize park areas where practical; review        Policy      10 years      Uxbridge
current pesticide and fertilizer application
practices.

22) Disconnect roof leaders from storm sewer           Remedial      5 years       Uxbridge
                                                        project                    LSRCA

23) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage            Remedial      ongoing       Uxbridge
removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.               project




       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         169
Table 7.4       Subwatershed 4 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                         BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should          Policy      ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                  Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed     Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 watercourses (1.2 km).                                 project                     LSRCA

 3) Remove beaver and man-made dams where              Remedial      10 years     Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or        project                    Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                   LSRCA

 4) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install bottom   Remedial      10 years     Landowner
 draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.                 project                    LSRCA

 5) Prohibit the use of recreational vehicles on       Legislation   5 years       Uxbridge
 sensitive public land.

 6) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage removal    Remedial      ongoing      Wagner Lake
 and enforce illegal dumping laws.                      project                   Ratepayers
                                                                                   Uxbridge




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         170
Table 7.5        Subwatershed 5 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP          COMP.    RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) All new development shall meet Level 1 quality      Policy      ongoing        LSRCA
 control criteria with state of the art phosphorus                                  MOEE
 removal systems.

 2) Trace and correct problems associated with        Remedial      ongoing      Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems for               project                Durham Health Unit
 residences in NW end of town.

 3) Encourage homeowners to reduce their use of       Education     ongoing      Homeowners
 commercial lawn chemicals.                                                        LSRCA

 4) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should         Policy      ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                  Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 5) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass   Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks.                   project                    OMAFRA
                                                                                   LSRCA

 6) Promote conservation tillage practices and the    Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                      LSRCA

 7) Restrict livestock access to watercourse          Remedial      5 years      Landowner
 (1 site)                                              project                    LSRCA

 8) Construct manure storage, clean water             Remedial      5 years      Landowner
 diversions and establish buffer strips (1 site).      project                    LSRCA

 9) Promote proper manure management, soil and        Education     ongoing      Landowners
 manure testing, and discontinue winter manure                                    OMAFRA
 spreading.                                                                        LSRCA

 10) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding       Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                              MOEE

 11) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial       Legislation   5 years       OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                           MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 12) Establish vegetated buffer zones along           Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 exposed watercourses (4.0 km).                        project                     LSRCA

 13) Adopt Oak Ridges Moraine Policies relating to      Policy      5 years       Durham
 recharge/discharge areas.                                                        Uxbridge

 14) All new developments are to provide 24 hour        Policy      ongoing       LSRCA
 detention for runoff from a 40 mm storm event.                                    MOEE
                                                                                  Uxbridge




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         171
Table 7.5 Continued

RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY      TARGET

15) All new developments are to provide full peak        Policy      ongoing       LSRCA
control for site runoff (post to pre) for up to and                                 MOEE
including the 1:100 year storm event.                                              Uxbridge

16) Remove beaver and man-made dams where              Remedial      10 years     Landowners
possible; alternately construct fish ladders or         project                    Uxbridge
alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                    LSRCA

17) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial      10 years     Landowner
bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                    LSRCA

18) Restore confined channels using natural            Remedial      5 years      Landowners
channel design.                                         project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR

19) Install sediment traps and restore degraded        Remedial      5 years      Landowners
habitat.                                                project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR

20) Promote the planting of native material close to   Education     ongoing       Uxbridge
natural areas.                                                                     LSRCA

21) Establish wildlife corridors between key natural   Remedial      10 years     Landowners
areas.                                                  project                     LSRCA
                                                                                   Uxbridge

22) Increase forested area to 25% of total by          Remedial      20 years     Landowner
promoting planting assistance programs (175 ha).        project                    LSRCA
                                                                                   Uxbridge

23) Promote the protection and rehabilitation of         Policy      ongoing       Durham
wetlands.                                                                          Uxbridge
                                                                                   LSRCA
                                                                                    MNR

24) Establish a trail system.                          Remedial      10 years     Landowners
                                                        project                    Uxbridge

25) Prohibit the use of recreational vehicles on       Legislation   5 years       Uxbridge
sensitive public land.

26) Naturalize park areas where practical; review        Policy      10 years      Uxbridge
current pesticide and fertilizer application
practices.

27) Disconnect roof leaders from storm sewer           Remedial      5 years       Uxbridge
                                                        project                    LSRCA

28) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage            Remedial      ongoing       Uxbridge
removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.               project




       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         172
Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                            173
Table 7.6       Subwatershed 6 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should         Policy      ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                 Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Restrict livestock access to watercourse. (1      Remedial      5 years      Landowner
 site)                                                 project                    LSRCA

 3) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass   Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                    project                    OMAFRA
                                                                                   LSRCA

 4) Promote conservation tillage practices and the    Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                      LSRCA

 5) Promote proper manure management, and soil        Education     ongoing      Landowners
 and manure testing.                                                              OMAFRA
                                                                                   LSRCA

 6) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding        Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                              MOEE

 7) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial        Legislation   5 years       OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                           MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 8 ) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed   Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 watercourses (1.2 km).                                project                     LSRCA

 9) Remove beaver and man-made dams where             Remedial      10 years     Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or       project                    Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                  LSRCA

 10) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install        Remedial      10 years     Landowner
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.         project                    LSRCA




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                        174
Table 7.7       Subwatershed 7 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                        CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should           Policy      ongoing        Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                    Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Trace and correct problems associated with          Remedial      ongoing       Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems for                 project                 Durham Health Unit
 residences.

 3) Restrict livestock access to watercourse. (1        Remedial      5 years       Landowner
 site)                                                   project                     LSRCA

 4) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass     Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                      project                     OMAFRA
                                                                                      LSRCA

 5) Promote conservation tillage practices and the      Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                         LSRCA

 6) Promote proper manure management, and soil          Education     ongoing       Landowners
 and manure testing.                                                                 OMAFRA
                                                                                      LSRCA

 7) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding          Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                                 MOEE

 8) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial          Legislation   5 years        OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                              MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 9) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed      Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 watercourses (3.5km).                                   project                      LSRCA

 10) Remove beaver and man-made dams where              Remedial      10 years      Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or         project                     Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                     LSRCA

 11) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial      10 years      Landowner
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                     LSRCA

 12) Establish wildlife corridors between key natural   Remedial      10 years      Landowners
 areas.                                                  project                      LSRCA
                                                                                     Uxbridge

 13) Increase forested area to 25% of total by          Remedial      20 years      Landowners
 promoting planting assistance programs (144 ha).        project                      LSRCA
                                                                                     Uxbridge




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            175
Table 7.8        Subwatershed 8 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                           BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                         CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) All new development shall meet Level 1 quality         Policy      ongoing         LSRCA
 control criteria with state of the art phosphorus                                     MOEE
 removal systems.

 2) Trace and correct problems associated with           Remedial      ongoing       Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems.                     project                 Durham Health Unit

 3) Encourage homeowners to reduce their use of          Education     ongoing       Homeowners
 commercial lawn chemicals.                                                            LSRCA

 4) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should            Policy      ongoing        Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                      Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 5) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed       Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 watercourses (1.0 km).                                   project                      LSRCA

 6) Adopt Oak Ridges Moraine Policies relating to          Policy      5 years        Durham
 recharge/discharge areas.                                                            Uxbridge

 7) All new developments are to provide 24 hour            Policy      ongoing        LSRCA
 detention for runoff from a 40 mm storm event.                                        MOEE
                                                                                      Uxbridge

 8) All new developments are to provide full peak          Policy      ongoing        LSRCA
 control for site runoff (post to pre) for up to and                                   MOEE
 including the 1:100 year storm event.                                                Uxbridge

 9) Restore confined channels using natural              Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 channel design.                                          project                      LSRCA
                                                                                        MNR

 10) Install sediment traps and restore degraded         Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 habitat.                                                 project                      LSRCA
                                                                                        MNR

 11) Promote the planting of native material close to    Education     ongoing        Uxbridge
 natural areas.                                                                       LSRCA

 12) Establish a trail system.                           Remedial      10 years      Landowners
                                                          project                     Uxbridge

 13) Prohibit the use of recreational vehicles on        Legislation   5 years        Uxbridge
 sensitive public land.

 14) Naturalize park areas where practical; review         Policy      10 years       Uxbridge
 current pesticide & fertilizer application practices.

 15) Disconnect roof leaders from storm sewer            Remedial      5 years        Uxbridge
                                                          project                     LSRCA




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                             176
 16) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage           Remedial      ongoing       Uxbridge
 removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.              project
Table 7.9        Subwatershed 9 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                         BMP          COMP.    RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) All new development shall meet Level 1 quality       Policy      ongoing        LSRCA
 control criteria with state of the art phosphorus                                  MOEE
 removal systems.

 2) Trace and correct problems associated with         Remedial      ongoing      Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems.                   project                Durham Health Unit

 3) Encourage homeowners to reduce their use of        Education     ongoing      Homeowners
 commercial lawn chemicals.                                                         LSRCA

 4) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should          Policy      ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                   Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 5) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass    Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks.                    project                    OMAFRA
                                                                                    LSRCA

 6) Promote conservation tillage practices and the     Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                       LSRCA

 7) Promote proper manure management, soil and         Education     ongoing      Landowners
 manure testing, and discontinue winter manure                                     OMAFRA
 spreading.                                                                         LSRCA

 8) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding         Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                               MOEE

 9) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial         Legislation   5 years       OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                            MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 10) Establish vegetated buffer zones along            Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 exposed watercourses (1.8 km).                         project                     LSRCA

 11) Adopt Oak Ridges Moraine Policies relating to       Policy      5 years       Durham
 recharge/discharge areas.                                                         Uxbridge

 12) All new developments are to provide 24 hour         Policy      ongoing       LSRCA
 detention for runoff from a 40 mm storm event.                                     MOEE
                                                                                   Uxbridge

 13) All new developments are to provide full peak       Policy      ongoing       LSRCA
 control for site runoff (post to pre) for up to and                                MOEE
 including the 1:100 year storm event.                                             Uxbridge




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                          177
Table 7.9 Continued

RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP        COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY    TARGET

14) Remove beaver and man-made dams where              Remedial    10 years     Landowners
possible; alternately construct fish ladders or         project                  Uxbridge
alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                  LSRCA

15) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial    10 years     Landowner
bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                  LSRCA

16) Restore confined channels using natural            Remedial    5 years      Landowners
channel design.                                         project                   LSRCA
                                                                                   MNR

17) Install sediment traps and restore degraded        Remedial    5 years      Landowners
habitat.                                                project                   LSRCA
                                                                                   MNR

18) Promote the planting of native material close to   Education   ongoing       Uxbridge
natural areas.                                                                   LSRCA

19) Establish wildlife corridors between key natural   Remedial    10 years     Landowners
areas.                                                  project                   LSRCA
                                                                                 Uxbridge

20) Increase forested area to 25% of total by          Remedial    20 years     Landowner
promoting planting assistance programs (41 ha).         project                  LSRCA
                                                                                 Uxbridge

21) Establish a trail system.                          Remedial    10 years     Landowners
                                                        project                  Uxbridge

22) Naturalize park areas where practical; review       Policy     10 years      Uxbridge
current pesticide and fertilizer application
practices.

23) Disconnect roof leaders from storm sewer           Remedial    5 years       Uxbridge
                                                        project                  LSRCA

24) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage            Remedial    ongoing       Uxbridge
removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.               project




       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                       178
Table 7.10      Subwatershed 10 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should         Policy      ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                 Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Restrict livestock access to watercourse. (1      Remedial      5 years      Landowner
 site)                                                 project                    LSRCA

 3) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass   Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                    project                    OMAFRA
                                                                                   LSRCA

 4) Promote conservation tillage practices and the    Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                      LSRCA

 5) Construct manure storage, clean water             Remedial      10 years     Landowner
 diversions and establish buffer strips                project                    LSRCA
 (2 sites).

 6) Promote proper manure management, soil and        Education     ongoing      Landowners
 manure testing, and discontinue winter manure                                    OMAFRA
 spreading.                                                                        LSRCA

 7) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding        Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                              MOEE

 8) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial        Legislation   5 years       OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                           MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 9) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed    Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 watercourses (2.4 km).                                project                     LSRCA

 10) Remove beaver and man-made dams where            Remedial      10 years     Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or       project                    Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                  LSRCA

 11) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install        Remedial      10 years     Landowner
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.         project                    LSRCA




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                        179
Table 7.11      Subwatershed 11 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP        COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY    TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should        Policy     ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                               Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Restrict livestock access to watercourse. (1      Remedial    5 years      Landowner
 site)                                                 project                  LSRCA

 3) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass   Remedial    5 years      Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                    project                  OMAFRA
                                                                                 LSRCA

 4) Promote conservation tillage practices and the    Education   ongoing       OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                    LSRCA

 5) Construct manure storage, clean water             Remedial    5 years      Landowner
 diversions and establish buffer strips                project                  LSRCA
 (1 site).

 6) Promote proper manure management, and soil        Education   ongoing      Landowners
 and manure testing.                                                            OMAFRA
                                                                                 LSRCA

 7) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding        Education   ongoing       OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                            MOEE

 9) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed    Remedial    5 years      Landowners
 watercourses (0.4 km).                                project                   LSRCA

 10) Remove beaver and man-made dams where            Remedial    10 years     Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or       project                  Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                LSRCA




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                      180
Table 7.12      Subwatershed 12 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                        CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should           Policy      ongoing        Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                    Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Trace and correct problems associated with          Remedial      ongoing       Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems.                    project                 Durham Health Unit

 3) Restrict livestock access to watercourses. (3       Remedial      5 years       Landowner
 sites)                                                  project                     LSRCA

 4) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass     Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                      project                     OMAFRA
                                                                                      LSRCA

 5) Promote conservation tillage practices and the      Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                         LSRCA

 6) Construct manure storages, clean water              Remedial      10 years      Landowner
 diversions and establish buffer strips                  project                     LSRCA
 (5 sites).

 7) Promote proper manure management, soil and          Education     ongoing       Landowners
 manure testing, and discontinue winter manure                                       OMAFRA
 spreading.                                                                           LSRCA

 8) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding          Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                                 MOEE

 9) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial          Legislation   5 years        OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                              MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 10) Establish vegetated buffer zones along             Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 exposed watercourses (1.6 km).                          project                      LSRCA

 11) Remove beaver and man-made dams where              Remedial      10 years      Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or         project                     Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                     LSRCA

 12) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial      10 years      Landowner
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                     LSRCA

 13) Establish wildlife corridors between key natural   Remedial      10 years      Landowners
 areas.                                                  project                      LSRCA
                                                                                     Uxbridge

 14) Increase forested area to 25% of total by          Remedial      20 years      Landowner
 promoting planting assistance programs (220 ha).        project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     Uxbridge




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            181
Table 7.12 Continued

RECOMMENDATIONS                                      BMP          COMP.    RESPONSIBILITY
                                                   CATEGORY      TARGET

15) Promote the protection and rehabilitation of     Policy      ongoing      Durham
wetlands.                                                                     Uxbridge
                                                                              LSRCA
                                                                               MNR

16) Prohibit the use of recreational vehicles on   Legislation   5 years      Uxbridge
sensitive public land.

17) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage        Remedial      ongoing     Wagner Lake
removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.           project                  Ratepayers
                                                                              Uxbridge




       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                    182
Table 7.13      Subwatershed 13 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Trace and correct problems associated with        Remedial      5 years       Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems for               project                 Durham Health Unit
 approximately 60 cottages or residences around
 Wagner Lake.

 2) All new development shall meet Level 1 quality      Policy      ongoing         LSRCA
 control criteria with state of the art phosphorus                                  MOEE
 removal systems.

 3) Keep homeowners informed of the Lake’s water      Education     ongoing      Homeowners
 quality.                                                                        Wagner Lake
                                                                                 Ratepayers
                                                                                   MOEE

 4) Encourage homeowners to reduce their use of       Education     ongoing      Homeowners
 commercial lawn chemicals.                                                      Wagner Lake
                                                                                 Ratepayers
                                                                                   LSRCA

 5) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should         Policy      ongoing        Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                   Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 6) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass   Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks.                   project                     OMAFRA
                                                                                    LSRCA

 7) Promote conservation tillage practices and the    Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                       LSRCA

 9) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding        Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                               MOEE

 10) Establish a trail system.                        Remedial      10 years      Landowners
                                                       project                     Uxbridge

 11) Prohibit the use of recreational vehicles on     Legislation   5 years        Uxbridge
 sensitive public land.

 12) Naturalize park areas where practical; review      Policy      10 years       Uxbridge
 current pesticide and fertilizer application
 practices.

 13) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage          Remedial      ongoing      Wagner Lake
 removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.             project                   Ratepayers
                                                                                  Uxbridge

 14) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install        Remedial      10 years      Landowner
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.         project                     LSRCA




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                          183
Table 7.14      Subwatershed 14 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP        COMP.    RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY    TARGET

 1) Trace and correct problems associated with        Remedial    5 years      Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems for               project              Durham Health Unit
 approximately 60 cottages or residences around
 Wagner Lake.

 2) Keep homeowners informed of the Lake’s water      Education   ongoing     Homeowners
 quality and post beaches as required.                                        Wagner Lake
                                                                              Ratepayers
                                                                                MOEE

 3) Remove sediment from lake.                        Remedial    5 years      Landowners
                                                       project

 4) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage removal   Remedial    ongoing     Wagner Lake
 and enforce illegal dumping laws.                     project                Ratepayers
                                                                               Uxbridge




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                       184
Table 7.15      Subwatershed 15 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                        CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should           Policy      ongoing        Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Trace and correct problems associated with          Remedial      5 years       Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems for                 project                 Durham Health Unit
 approximately 60 cottages or residences around
 Wagner Lake.

 3) Restrict livestock access to watercourses. (1       Remedial      5 years       Landowner
 site)                                                   project                     LSRCA

 4) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass     Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                      project                     OMAFRA
                                                                                      LSRCA

 5) Promote conservation tillage practices and the      Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                         LSRCA

 6) Promote proper manure management, and soil          Education     ongoing       Landowners
 and manure testing.                                                                 OMAFRA
                                                                                      LSRCA

 7) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding          Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                                 MOEE

 8) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial          Legislation   5 years        OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                              MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 9) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed      Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 watercourses (0.6 km).                                  project                      LSRCA

 10) Remove beaver and man-made dams where              Remedial      10 years      Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or         project                     Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                     LSRCA

 11) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial      10 years      Landowner
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                     LSRCA

 12) Establish wildlife corridors between key natural   Remedial      10 years      Landowners
 areas.                                                  project                      LSRCA
                                                                                     Uxbridge

 13) Increase forested area to 25% of total by          Remedial      20 years      Landowner
 promoting planting assistance programs (75 ha).         project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     Uxbridge




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                            185
Table 7.16      Subwatershed 16 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                        CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should           Policy      ongoing       Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                   Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 2) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass     Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                      project                    OMAFRA
                                                                                     LSRCA

 3) Promote conservation tillage practices and the      Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                        LSRCA

 4) Construct manure storage, clean water               Remedial      5 years      Landowner
 diversions and establish buffer strips                  project                    LSRCA
 (1 site).

 5) Promote proper manure management, and soil          Education     ongoing      Landowners
 and manure testing.                                                                OMAFRA
                                                                                     LSRCA

 6) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding          Education     ongoing       OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                                MOEE

 7) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial          Legislation   5 years       OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                             MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 8) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed      Remedial      5 years      Landowners
 watercourses (5.5 km).                                  project                     LSRCA

 9) Remove beaver and man-made dams where               Remedial      10 years     Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or         project                    Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                    LSRCA

 10) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial      10 years     Landowner
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                    LSRCA

 11) Establish wildlife corridors between key natural   Remedial      10 years     Landowners
 areas.                                                  project                     LSRCA
                                                                                    Uxbridge

 12) Promote the protection and rehabilitation of         Policy      ongoing       Durham
 wetlands.                                                                          Uxbridge
                                                                                    LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                          186
Table 7.17      Subwatershed 17 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP        COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY    TARGET

 1) Trace and correct problems associated with        Remedial    5 years       Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems for               project               Durham Health Unit
 approximately 60 cottages or residences around
 Wagner Lake.

 2) All new development shall meet Level 1 quality     Policy     ongoing         LSRCA
 control criteria with state of the art phosphorus                                MOEE
 removal systems.

 3) Keep homeowners informed of the Lake’s water      Education   ongoing      Homeowners
 quality.                                                                      Wagner Lake
                                                                               Ratepayers
                                                                                 MOEE

 4) Encourage homeowners to reduce their use of       Education   ongoing      Homeowners
 commercial lawn chemicals.                                                    Wagner Lake
                                                                               Ratepayers
                                                                                 LSRCA

 5) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should        Policy     ongoing        Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                 Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 6) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass   Remedial    5 years       Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks.                   project                   OMAFRA
                                                                                  LSRCA

 7) Promote conservation tillage practices and the    Education   ongoing        OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                     LSRCA

 8) Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding        Education   ongoing        OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                             MOEE

 9) Establish vegetated buffer zones along exposed    Remedial    5 years       Landowners
 watercourses (2.4 km).                                project                    LSRCA

 10) Adopt Oak Ridges Moraine Policies relating to     Policy     5 years        Durham
 recharge/discharge areas.                                                       Uxbridge

 11) Remove beaver and man-made dams where            Remedial    10 years      Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or       project                   Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                 LSRCA




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                        187
Table 7.17 Continued

RECOMMENDATIONS                                          BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                       CATEGORY      TARGET

12) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install          Remedial      10 years     Landowner
bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.           project                    LSRCA

13) Restore confined channels using natural            Remedial      5 years      Landowners
channel design.                                         project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR

14) Install sediment traps and restore degraded        Remedial      5 years      Landowners
habitat.                                                project                     LSRCA
                                                                                     MNR

15) Promote the planting of native material close to   Education     ongoing       Uxbridge
natural areas.                                                                     LSRCA

16) Establish wildlife corridors between key natural   Remedial      10 years     Landowners
areas.                                                  project                     LSRCA
                                                                                   Uxbridge

17) Establish a trail system.                          Remedial      10 years     Landowners
                                                        project                    Uxbridge

18) Prohibit the use of recreational vehicles on       Legislation   5 years       Uxbridge
sensitive public land.

19) Naturalize park areas where practical; review        Policy      10 years      Uxbridge
current pesticide and fertilizer application
practices.

20) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage            Remedial      ongoing      Wagner Lake
removal and enforce illegal dumping laws.               project                   Ratepayers
                                                                                   Uxbridge




       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                         188
Table 7.18       Subwatershed 18 Recommendations
 RECOMMENDATIONS                                        BMP          COMP.     RESPONSIBILITY
                                                      CATEGORY      TARGET

 1) Trace and correct problems associated with        Remedial      ongoing       Homeowners
 inadequate or faulty septic systems.                  project                 Durham Health Unit

 2) All new development shall meet Level 1 quality      Policy      ongoing         LSRCA
 control criteria with state of the art phosphorus                                  MOEE
 removal systems.

 3) Encourage homeowners to reduce their use of       Education     ongoing       Homeowners
 commercial lawn chemicals.                                                         LSRCA

 4) Road salt, sand and dust suppressant should         Policy      ongoing        Uxbridge
 be applied sparingly; dust suppressant should be                                  Durham
 environmentally friendly.

 5) Restrict livestock access to watercourse. (1      Remedial      5 years       Landowner
 site)                                                 project                     LSRCA

 6) Construct soil erosion structures such as grass   Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 waterways, terraces and windbreaks                    project                     OMAFRA
                                                                                    LSRCA

 7) Promote conservation tillage practices and the    Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 retirement of fragile lands.                                                       LSRCA

 8) Construct manure storage, clean water             Remedial      10 years      Landowner
 diversions and establish buffer strips (2 sites)      project                     LSRCA

 9) Promote proper manure management, soil and        Education     ongoing       Landowners
 manure testing, and discontinue winter manure                                     OMAFRA
 spreading.                                                                         LSRCA

 10 Ensure farmers are well-educated regarding        Education     ongoing        OMAFRA
 pesticide and herbicide application.                                               MOEE

 11) Ensure sludge spreading follows Provincial       Legislation   5 years        OMAFRA
 Guidelines and owners have certificate;                                            MOEE
 discontinue winter spreading.

 12) Establish vegetated buffer zones along           Remedial      5 years       Landowners
 exposed watercourses (2.6 km).                        project                      LSRCA

 13) Remove beaver and man-made dams where            Remedial      10 years      Landowners
 possible; alternately construct fish ladders or       project                     Uxbridge
 alternate channels to facilitate fish migration.                                   LSRCA




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                          189
 Table 7.18 Continued

 RECOMMENDATIONS                                   BMP         COMP.      RESPONSIBILITY
                                                 CATEGORY     TARGET

 14) Remove on-line ponds; alternately install   Remedial     10 years       Landowner
 bottom draw mechanisms to reduce temperature.    project                     LSRCA

 15) Establish a trail system                    Remedial     10 years       Landowners
                                                  project                     Uxbridge

 16) Establish a yearly clean-up for garbage     Remedial      ongoing        Uxbridge
 removal and enforce illegal dumping laws..       project




7.3     Summary of Recommended Capital BMPs
Many of the suggested recommendations listed above involve the initiation of a by-law,
changes to existing management practices, education, and planning policies or guidelines.
These BMPs do have associated costs but they are extremely difficult to assess on a
general basis. Costs associated with remedial projects, however, have been estimated
for the individual subwatersheds of the Uxbridge Brook. Capital BMPs have been divided
into urban and rural.


Urban Best Management Practices
The following table represents a summary of the proposed capital works for the urban
Uxbridge area. Costs for sand filters with oil grit separators are based on $33,000 per
5 hectares of upstream area. Areas I, B, A, G, and S referred to in Table 7.19 are
depicted in Figure 7.0. A total of five urban BMPs can be initiated to address urban
stormwater runoff at a cost of approximately $468,000. These projects will reduce an
estimated 118 Kg/y of phosphorus from entering the Uxbridge Brook. Therefore, unit cost
reduction for 1 kg/y of phosphorus is equal to approximately $4,000.




        Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
        LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                    190
                                     Location of Urban BMPs
                                                                           T


                                                                        J
                                                                                           L
                                         Q                                                                          tree
                                                                                                                        t
                                                                                                             ck S
                                                                                                          Bro


                                                                        G
                                         R
                                                                                   F
                             N                            B                    H                                             K
                                                                                       I




                                                                                                                                                                                  190
                                                                       C
                                                                                           D
             8                   O
         Rd.
     nal
Regio
                                                                   A                                      M                                          legend
                                                                        E                                                                            stormwater outfall
                                     P                                                                                                               stormwater pond
                                             S                                                                                                       storm watershed boundary
                                                                                                                                                       Urban BMPs

                                                                                                                                             Figure 7.0


                                                                                               reet  St
                                                                   UXBRIDGE                                                             Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                                               t




                                                                                                                            Project:
                                                           tree




                                                                                                Main
                                                       to S




                                                                                                                              Location of Urban BMPs
                                                    oon




                                                                                                                                Data Source:
                                                                                                                                                                   LSRCA GIS gp
         m 100   0   200 m                                                                                                      LSRCA, Durham Reg.
                                                 Tor
Table 7.19      Uxbridge Urban Area BMP Capital Cost Summary

 RECOMMENDATIONS                              ESTIMATE      RESPONSIBILITY        PRIORITY
                                               D COST
 1) Install 3 sand filters and oil grit        $112,200           Uxbridge            High
 separators to treat 17 hectares in Area I.
 2) Install 6 sand filters and oil grit        $194,700           Uxbridge            High
 separators in Area B.
 3) Install 3 sand filters and oil grit        $89,700            Uxbridge          Medium
 separators to treat 13.6 hectares in Area
 A.
 4) Install 2 sand filters and oil grit        $66,000            Uxbridge          Medium
 separators in Area G.
 5) Expand existing wetland in Area S.          $6000            Uxbridge           Medium
                                                                 Developer
 Total:                                       $468,600.00


Rural Best Management Practices
Table 7.20 summarizes the total costs of proposed capital works associated with all rural
BMPs (see page 196). A survey of livestock operations conducted in 1996 found eleven
livestock access problems and fourteen farms requiring manure storage within the
Uxbridge Brook watershed. Information collected during the survey was confidential
therefore site locations are not shown. Alternatively, the relative phosphorous loading from
livestock sources within each sub-watershed is depicted in Figure 7.1.


An average of $6,300 per farm was used to reflect the cost associated with restricting
livestock access. This figure was based on a province wide average and included cost
from projects completed within the Lake Simcoe watershed (HSP Consultants and
D.W.Draper and Associates, 1992). Project components included in restricting livestock
access involve fencing, construction of stream crossings and installation of an alternate
watering facilities. Based on this average the total cost to complete all eleven fencing
projects is approximately $69,300.


          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                       191
Phosphorus Loading from Livestock Sources

                                                        Sunderland



     Udora




                      18



                                              16                                       LEGEND

                                                                                      Uxbridge Brook Watershed
          Leaskdale
                            17                                                        roads
                        Wa
                          gn
                            er                                                         subwatershed boundary
       12                      Lak
                                  e  13
                                  14                                                  rivers

                   15                                                                 No loading
                                                                                      Less than 50 Kg/y
                                                                                      Greater than 50 Kg/y
                                 10                                                   Greater than 100 Kg/y
                                                                                      Greater than 500 Kg/y


             11
                            7
               6                                                                                SCALE


                                          8       9                   km 1        0                                    5 km

                      Uxbridge

      1                                                                               Figure 7.1
                           5

                                                          3
                                              4
                                          2



                                                                     Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                                                     Phosphorous Loading from Livestock Sources

                                                                        Data Source: LSRCA & OBM Maps   LSRCA GIS gp




                                                  192
The average cost to construct a manure storage was estimated at $35,000 and was
determined based on the average cost of manure storage completed within the Lake
Simcoe watershed in 1995. Components of a manure storage project include the
construction of a cement pad with retaining walls for the solid manure and a gravity feed
system to convey runoff to a cement tank. The total cost associated with constructing the
fourteen manure storage is roughly $490,000.


Livestock access to a watercourse is considered a direct source of phosphorous loading
and is therefore a higher priority than manure storage. Livestock which have access to a
watercourse are a continuous source of phosphorous and bacteria contamination from
manure deposited directly in the stream, and also contribute to stream sedimentation by
trampling the streambanks,. Phosphorous loadings from manure storage only occur when
there is a rainfall or snowmelt event large enough to generate runoff.


The buffering of the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries should also be considered high
priority. Vegetative buffers not only trap sediment and retain nutrients, but also improve
aquatic habitat by providing structure and reducing water temperature. Establishing
buffers will also assist in the creation of linkages and improved terrestrial habitat.
Approximately 36 kilometres of the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries require the creation
of stream-side buffers (Figure 7.2). Based on an average cost of $9,000 per kilometre to
create a 60 metre wide corridor, the total cost of reestablishing stream-side vegetation
throughout the entire watershed is $324,000.


The retirement of fragile or highly erodible lands as identified in Figure 7.3 through
reforestation represents another high priority project. These lands are extremely steep and
can be considered marginal for use as cropland. By reestablishing forest on these lands,
phosphorous and sediment loading to the Uxbridge Brook and its tributaries can be
reduced, terrestrial habitat can be enhanced, hydraulic loading can be reduced and
infiltration and groundwater recharge enhanced. The total cost of reforesting one



       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                      193
       Location of Unbuffered Reaches of Uxbridge Brook

                                                                           Sunderland


                                   Udora




                                                                                                                          LEGEND
                                                 Leaskdale
                                                                                                                         Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                                                         roads
                                                                                                 hip
                                                                                            wns
                                                                                        k To       ship                  rivers
                                                                                   Broc      To wn
                                                                                        gog
                                                                                    Scu
                                                             Wagner Lake                                                 subwatershed boundary

                                                                                                                         forested areas
                                                                                                                         wetland areas
                                                                                                                         examples of unbuffered
                                                                                                                         watercourses

                                                                                                                         potential linkages


                                                                                                                                  SCALE


                                                                                                           1 km      0                             5 km

    ford
Sand                                                                                  47
                                                                                Hwy

                            rive
                                                                                                                         Figure 7.2
                     is D
               Dav
                                                       Uxbridge




           Roseville    .




                                        y
                                            47                                                            Project:   Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                   Hw
                                                                                                          Revegeation of Uxbridge Watershed Map
                                                                                                          Data Source:
                                                                                                                                          LSRCA GIS gp
                                                                                                          MNR OBM Maps

                                                                           194
                                                Priority Management Areas


                                                                            Sunderland




                              Udora




                                                                                                                                   LEGEND

                                            Leaskdale
                                                                                                                                   Uxbridge Brook Watershed
                                                                                                                                   roads
                                                                                                       hip
                                                                                               Towns
                                                                                         Brock          nship                      rivers
                                                                                                    Tow
                                                                                              gog
                                                                                          Scu
                                                            Wagner Lake
                                                                                                                                   subwatershed boundary


                                                                                                                                 Priority Management Areas




                                                                                                                                            SCALE




                                                                                                                  1 km     0                                                 5 km


    ford
Sand
                                                                                         47
                                                                                   Hwy

                                                                                                                                     Figure 7.3
                      Drive
                Davis

                                                        Uxbridge




           Roseville      .




                                                                                                                Project:       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Study
                                       47
                                   y
                              Hw
                                                                                                                                  Priority Management Areas

                                                                                                                Data Source:
                                                                                                                                                              LSRCA GIS gp
                                                                                                                MNR OBM Maps


                                                                            194
hectare of land is approximately $1,500. At present an estimated 714 hectares could be
targeted for reforestation costing a total $1,701,000. The total estimated cost to implement
all Rural BMPs within the Uxbridge Brook watershed is $1,849,300.


Table 7.20     Rural BMP Capital Cost Summary

   SUB-         FENCING         MANURE        BUFFERING           TREE             TOTAL
   BASIN       LIVESTOCK       STORAGE         STREAM           PLANTING           COST

     1.         $6,300.00      $35,000.00      $14,400.00       $88,500.00       $144,200.00
     2.           $0.00           $0.00        $18,000.00          $0.00          $18,000.00
     3.           $0.00           $0.00        $37,800.00          $0.00          $37,800.00
     4.           $0.00           $0.00        $10,800.00          $0.00          $10,800.00
     5.          $6,300.00     $35,000.00      $36,000.00       $262,500.00      $339,800.00
     6.          $6,300.00        $0.00        $10,800.00          $0.00          $17,100.00
     7.          $6,300.00        $0.00        $31,500.00       $216,000.00      $253,800.00
     8.           $0.00           $0.00         $9,000.00          $0.00          $9,000.00
     9.           $0.00           $0.00        $16,200.00       $61,500.00        $77,700.00
    10.          $6,300.00     $70,000.00      $21,600.00          $0.00          $97,900.00
    11.          $6,300.00     $35,000.00       $3,600.00          $0.00          $44,900.00
    12.         $18,900.00     $175,000.00     $14,400.00       $330,000.00      $538,300.00
    13.           $0.00           $0.00           $0.00            $0.00            $0.00
    14.           $0.00           $0.00           $0.00            $0.00            $0.00
    15.           $0.00           $0.00         $5,400.00       $112,500.00      $117,900.00
    16.          $6,300.00        $0.00        $49,400.00          $0.00          $55,700.00
    17.           $0.00        $35,000.00      $21,600.00          $0.00          $56,600.00
    18.          $6,300.00        $0.00        $23,400.00          $0.00          $29,700.00
  TOTAL         $69,300.00     $385,000.00     $324,000.00     $1,071,000.00    $1,849,300.00

The timing and implementation process of recommended BMPs is discussed in the
following chapter.




          Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
          LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                       196
8.0 IMPLEMENTATION


It is clear from the investigation carried out for this study that the Uxbridge Brook watershed
is a dynamic and complex ecosystem. All of the features addressed in this plan are
continually changing. As land use patterns and development pressures are continually
changing to meet market demands, policies adopted to implement this plan must be
sufficiently flexible to meet these changing demands.


The Uxbridge Brook Watershed plan has identified the ecological basis from which further
degradation of the watershed can be measured and has provided the base line data
against which future enhancements to the watershed ecosystem can be evaluated.
Implementation of the plan will be discussed in the following sections.


8.1 The Planning Process
The Official Plan is the key document in the municipal planning process to implement the
municipality's goals and objectives for land uses within its jurisdiction. The plan therefore
can be an important mechanism to promote the benefits of surface water quality and
related resources to the environmental, social and economic well being of the municipality.
It is therefore recommended that the Township of Uxbridge appropriately amend its plan
to achieve the following:


!      To ensure that land use planning contributes to the protection, maintenance
       and enhancement of water and related resources and aquatic ecosystems
       on an integrated watershed management basis.
!      To maintain and where possible, enhance surface and ground water
       resources in sufficient quality and quantity to meet existing and future needs
       on a sustainable basis.
!      To ensure that all land use decisions promote water conservation and
       support the efficient use of water on a watershed basis.
!      To protect human life and property from water related hazards such as
       flooding and erosion.




       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                          197
!      To protect and maintain lakes and streams an natural and distinct
       ecosystems.
!      To seek the fullest participation in the water and related resource management
       initiatives of other agencies to develop a comprehensive and integrated water and
       related resource planning program.


Adoption of policies to address these issues and adoption of the recommendations of the
Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan will assist all users of the plan in dealing with the future
changing demands placed on the watershed.


8.2 Other Mechanisms
While the Planning Act can deal with the issue of land use and changes to land use, there
are a number of mechanisms under the administrative control of other agencies that can
be appropriately used to implement some of the watershed plan recommendations. These
mechanisms are available through some of the following legislation.
              !       Drainage Act
              !       Lakes & Rivers Improvement Act
              !       Fisheries Act (Federal)
              !       Conservation Authorities Act
              !       Environmental Assessment Act
              !       Environmental Protection Act


The Township of Uxbridge and the Regional Municipality of Durham must develop a good
working relationship with the Provincial Ministries responsible for the administration of the
above mentioned acts to assist in the implementation of the recommendations of the
watershed plan. For example, the Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for
programs such as CWIP (Community Wildlife Improvement Program) and CFIP
(Community Fisheries Involvement Program) to promote and improve fishery and wildlife
habitat. The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs, supports a number
of programs aimed at soil conservation, and has staff with experience who are
knowledgable and have produced a number of Fact Sheets which focus on agricultural


       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
       LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                        198
best management practices. The Federal Environmental Action 21 program may also be
used to obtain funding to implement some of the recommendations of the report.


Although programs such as the CURB (Clean Up Rural Beaches) program have been
terminated, the Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority continues to provide funding
through its Landowner Environmental Assistance Program (LEAP). This multifaceted
program continues to provide funding assistance for both urban and rural BMPs. A list of
the types of projects which are eligible for technical and financial assistance are listed
below.
         !    Livestock Access Restrictions
         !    Milkhouse Washwater Disposal Systems
         !    Manure Storage & Handling Systems
         !    Cropland Erosion
         !    Streambank and Shoreline Erosion
         !    Storm Water Management Retrofits
         !    Retirement Planting of Fragile Priority Lands
         !    Park Naturalization


The Authority also provides landowner assistance on a comprehensive forestry planting
program aimed at priority planting areas.


The rural and urban best management practices (BMP) discussed in this plan must
continue to be applied and implemented to all existing and new development in the
watershed. The Township of Uxbridge and the Conservation Authority should continue to
apply BMP's at the plan of subdivision level and should also ensure that appropriate
controls or remedial measures are applied at the site plan stage.


The Conservation Authority should continue its requirements for the preparation of an
Environmental Impact Statement for any development proposals within the identified



         Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
         LAKE SIMCOE REGION CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
                                                                                     199
recharge areas. While recharge areas have been identified as areas of high constraints,
the impact statements deal with the impact of these proposals on a site specific basis.
A more detailed guideline needs to be prepared to ensure that a single impact statement
will meet the requirements of all agencies.


The Conservation Authority as a lead agency for the protection of the watershed should
continue to work with a variety of public awareness groups and educators to implement
public education programs to increase the public's awareness of natural and human
created linkages and the impacts on the watershed. These public information programs
should be tied into rehabilitation and enhancement programs to obtain maximum benefits
from these program initiatives.


8.3 Timing and Funding
The adoption of the recommendations of the Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan by the Town
of Uxbridge, the Regional municipality of Durham and the Lake Simcoe Region
Conservation Authority should occur in the short term to provide a clear commitment to the
objectives embodied in the plan. This commitment to the plan will lead to a more
comprehensive review of new development proposals and will result in more consistent
planning decision to ensure long term ecological sustainability in the watershed.


With a 1996 population of approximately 6800 people and a capacity at the existing
sewage treatment plant of approximately 8000 to 8500 people, the Town clearly has the
opportunity to put in place a program to implement the measures discussed in Scenario
"D" Future Growth ( Official Plan Designation ) all BMP's as discussed in Section 6.7.1.
The BMP's detailed in Scenario "D" must be implemented before growth beyond the
capacity of the current plant can be anticipated. As the reductions in loadings to Uxbridge
Brook are finite, it must be noted that further development in the upstream constraint areas
outside the current urban boundaries may jeopardize the development possible within the
urban boundaries.



       Uxbridge Brook Watershed Plan
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It is recommended that the all the partners involved in the implementation of this plan
immediately begin to develop a strategy to initiate the BMPs with five year completion
dates. A strategy to implement the remaining longer term recommendations can be
developed during a later stage of implementation. In times of financial constraints, such
a plan will allow suitable budgets to be established and it is crucial that all of the partners
commit part of their financial resources to the implementation of these recommendations.
Once implementation begins it will also provide the opportunity to explore new partnerships
and to find additional sources of funding.


To implement the plan, it is recommended that a committee or working group be
established comprised of representatives from various government agencies, interest
groups, and members of the public. An organizational structure similar to models
developed through the Great Lakes Remedial Action Plans (RAPS) would be ideal. It is
essential that the implementation strategy involve all of the interested stakeholders to
ensure that implementation of the plan becomes a community effort.


8.4    Monitoring
It should be acknowledged, that the water quality modelling methods used in this report
were an extremely useful tool to predict the environmental impacts associated with
changes in land use. However, the accuracy of any computer model is dependant upon
assumptions and data which may not always reflect current environmental conditions. The
most reliable method to gauge ecosystem health remains the collection of real data
through field observations and measurements made within the watershed.


With the health of the Uxbridge Brook watershed hinging on the implementation and
proposed effectiveness of the suggested BMPs, it is recommended that a monitoring
program be established and that future urban growth be contingent on the results. This
recommendation is similar to one of the conditions outlined by the MOEE for the proposed
expansion of the Town of Uxbridge sewage treatment plant. It is significant because it will



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ensure that ecosystem health does not deteriorate at the expense of further urban
development or any unpredicted land use changes. Monitoring efforts should encompass
a wide range of activities to reflect the diversity of the ecosystem. These activities should
include the regular collection of:


               !      water quality data including temperature,
               !      fish and other aquatic organisms (macroinvertebrates, algae,...),
               !      information on changing land use practices (urban and rural),
               !      the number and location of capital BMP projects completed within
                      the watershed.

Monitoring efforts need not be expensive and are an excellent activity in which to involve
schools, interest groups and the general public. For example, school groups could collect,
and identify fish and macroinvertebrates, residents at Wagner Lake could possibly collect
water samples, and naturalists could report any observed flora and fauna. These are just
a few examples of activities which could directly involve the community while providing the
necessary information to evaluate the health of the Uxbridge Brook ecosystem.




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