THE SAFETY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF BRIDGE-APPROACH GUARDRAIL FOR by fdh56iuoui

VIEWS: 47 PAGES: 209

									            2005-39
             Final Report




THE SAFETY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF
  BRIDGE-APPROACH GUARDRAIL FOR
 COUNTY STATE-AID (CSAH) BRIDGES IN
             MINNESOTA
                                                                                Technical Report Documentation Page
1. Report No.                                  2.                               3. Recipients Accession No.
MN/RC-2005-39
4. Title and Subtitle                                                           5. Report Date
The Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Bridge-Approach                            October 2005
Guardrail for County State-Aid (CSAH) Bridges in Minnesota                      6.


7. Author(s)                                                                    8. Performing Organization Report No.
Tim J. Gates, David A. Noyce
9. Performing Organization Name and Address                                     10. Project/Task/Work Unit No.
The University of Wisconsin – Madison
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering                               11. Contract (C) or Grant (G) No.
1210 Engineering Hall                                                           (c) 84374
1415 Engineering Drive
Madison, Wisconsin 53706

12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address                                    13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Minnesota Department of Transportation                                          Final Report
Research Services Section                                                       14. Sponsoring Agency Code
395 John Ireland Boulevard Mail Stop 330
St. Paul, Minnesota 55155
15. Supplementary Notes
http://www.lrrb.org/PDF/200539.pdf
16. Abstract (Limit: 200 words)
Bridge-approach guardrail provides protection for vehicles from collision with bridge components, such
as the blunt end of the bridge rail or abutment, and other types of run-off-the-road collisions. The
primary objective of this research was to determine the average daily traffic (ADT) at which the
benefit/cost ratio for the installation of approach guardrail at county-state-aid (CSAH) bridges in
Minnesota becomes greater than 1.0. A survey of state transportation agencies found that 26 of 35
responding agencies have policies or guidelines requiring placement of approach guardrail on any bridge
if the bridge was built using state funds. Results of the research analyses showed that bridge-approach
guardrail was effective at reducing the severity of run-off-the-road crashes occurring on the approach or
departure to CSAH bridges. Fatalities and A-injury crashes accounted for only 6 percent of the crashes
occurring at bridges with approach guardrail compared to 28.5 percent at bridges without approach
guardrail. The subsequent benefit/cost analysis showed that bridge-approach guardrail is cost-effective
(i.e., B/C > 1) for CSAH bridges with ADT greater than or equal to 300 vehicles per day (vpd). Overall,
approach guardrail has a benefit/cost ratio of approximately 3.5 to 5.5. The researchers recommended
that the ADT threshold for approach guardrail on CSAH bridges be set at 400 vpd, which is consistent
with previous Mn/DOT standards and AASHTO low-volume local road guidelines. Approach guardrail
should be considered on a case-by-case basis for bridges with ADT between 150 and 400 vpd, especially
those between 300 and 400 vpd. Placement of approach guardrail at bridges with ADT less than 150 vpd
is not cost-effective in most cases.
17. Document Analysis/Descriptors                                               18. Availability Statement
Guardrail                                      Bridge                           No restrictions. Document available from:
Safety                                         County                           National Technical Information Services,
Cost-Effectiveness                                                              Springfield, Virginia 22161

19. Security Class (this report)               20. Security Class (this page)   21. No. of Pages              22. Price
Unclassified                                   Unclassified                               209
  THE SAFETY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF
 BRIDGE-APPROACH GUARDRAIL FOR COUNTY
  STATE-AID (CSAH) BRIDGES IN MINNESOTA


                                        Final Report



                                         Prepared by:
                                       Tim J. Gates
                                     David A. Noyce
                         The University of Wisconsin - Madison
                    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering




                                       October 2005




                                         Published by:
                          Minnesota Department of Transportation
                                 Research Services Section
                           395 John Ireland Boulevard, MS 330
                             St. Paul, Minnesota 55155-1899




This report represents the results of research conducted by the authors and does not necessarily
represent the views or policies of the Minnesota Department of Transportation and/or the Center
for Transportation Studies. This report does not contain a standard or specified technique.
                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This project was conducted in cooperation with the Minnesota Local Road Research Board and
the Minnesota Department of Transportation. The authors would like to thank the project
director, Paul Stine of Mn/DOT, for providing guidance and expertise on this project. The
authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their assistance:

      •    Loren Hill, Marc Briese, and Marj Ebensteiner from Mn/DOT for providing crash
           data and crash reports;
      •    Thomas Martin from Mn/DOT for providing CSAH bridge data and other
           information from the Pontis database;
      •    Dave Conkel and Nancy Sannes from Mn/DOT for providing bridge cost and policy
           information;
      •    John Grindeland, Tom Miles - Fillmore County; Kaye Bieniek, Michael Sheehan –
           Olmsted County; Jim Klevan – Goodhue County; Todd Howard – Dakota County;
           Gary Barclay, Mike Hanson – Mower County; Wayne Dosh – Crow Wing County;
           Michael Banks - Wantowan County; Andrew Witter, Jim Christenson – Anoka
           County; Mark Sehr – Rock County; and Steve Johnson – Lyon County and other
           county personnel for providing detailed information about the location of approach
           guardrail on CSAH bridges;
      •    Numerous county personnel on the report review panel who provided detailed
           reviews and feedback of the final report; and
      •    George Lu from UW-Madison for assistance with the logistic regression modeling.
                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: Introduction ...................................................................................................................1
     Background ................................................................................................................................1
     Objective ....................................................................................................................................2
     Literature Review.......................................................................................................................2
          Current Guidelines and Standards .......................................................................................2
          Relevant Safety Research ....................................................................................................4
Chapter 2: Survey of Nationwide State Agency Practice ................................................................5
     Survey Findings .........................................................................................................................5
          Criteria for Application of Approach Guardrail on Local State-Aid Bridges .....................5
          Use of Protective Treatments Other than Guardrail ............................................................7
          Iowa Procedure for Determining Need for Bridge-Approach Guardrail .............................8
Chapter 3: Analysis Methodology .................................................................................................10
     CSAH Bridge Data ..................................................................................................................11
          Development of Bridge Sample Populations and Collection of Inventory Data ...............11
          Bridge Characteristics........................................................................................................13
     Collection of Crash Data..........................................................................................................17
          Initial Queries of Minnesota Crash Database ....................................................................17
          Crash Data Filtering...........................................................................................................17
          Police Crash-Report Data ..................................................................................................18
     Research Hypotheses ...............................................................................................................19
Chapter 4: Analysis of Database Crashes ......................................................................................20
     Initial Crash Investigations ......................................................................................................20
          Crash Frequency per Bridge ..............................................................................................20
          Relationship between Crashes, ADT, and Deck Width.....................................................21
          Crashes Separated by ADT................................................................................................24
     Analysis of Coded Crash Types...............................................................................................26
          All Bridges .........................................................................................................................26
          Data Separated by ADT .....................................................................................................27
     Analysis of Crash Severity.......................................................................................................29
          All Bridges .........................................................................................................................29
          Data Separated by ADT .....................................................................................................30
Chapter 5: Analysis of Police Crash-Report Data .........................................................................33
     Crash-Report Acquisition ........................................................................................................33
     Report Screening and Filtering ................................................................................................34
           Screening Results...............................................................................................................34
     Analysis and Results ................................................................................................................35
           Initial Object Struck versus Guardrail Presence ................................................................35
           Initial Object Struck versus Guardrail Presence for Crashes Coded as TYPE 31 .............37
           Logistic Regression Analysis for Crash Severity versus Various Bridge and Crash
           Factors................................................................................................................................38
           Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence .........................................................................41
                      Discussion of Fatal and Severe Injury Crashes......................................................42
           Crash Severity versus Initial Object Struck .......................................................................44
           Effectiveness of Guardrail Based on Type of Collision and Guardrail Presence ..............45
           Assessment of the Need for Guardrail at All Bridge Corners versus Approach Corners
           Only....................................................................................................................................46
Chapter 6: Benefit/Cost Analysis...................................................................................................50
     Costs of Approach Guardrail ...................................................................................................50
     Benefits of Approach Guardrail...............................................................................................51
     Analysis and Findings..............................................................................................................52
Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................................60
     Conclusions..............................................................................................................................60
           Mn/DOT Practice Compared to Other Agencies ...............................................................60
           Effect of Approach Guardrail on Crash Severity...............................................................61
           Effectiveness of Approach Guardrail.................................................................................61
           Guardrail Protection at All Corners of Bridge versus Approach Corners Only ................61
           Crash Coding for Collisions with Bridge Components .....................................................62
           Cost-Effectiveness of Approach Guardrail........................................................................62
     Recommendations....................................................................................................................62
           ADT Threshold for Installation of Approach Guardrail on CSAH Bridges......................62
           Guardrail Protection at All Corners of Bridge...................................................................62
           Crash Type Coding for Collisions with Bridge Components ............................................63
References......................................................................................................................................64
Appendix A: State Survey Form................................................................................................. A-1
Appendix B: State Survey Responses..........................................................................................B-1
Appendix C: Iowa Procedure for Determining the Need for Bridge Guardrail on Low-Volume
Roads............................................................................................................................................C-1
Appendix D: Pontis Inventory Information for Sample CSAH Bridges .................................... D-1
Appendix E: Database Query: Fixed-Object and Run-Off-Road Occurring at Sample CSAH
Bridges, 1988-2002 .....................................................................................................................E-1
Appendix F: Summarized Police Report Information for Crashes at Sample CSAH Bridges.... F-1
Appendix G: Explanation of Minnesota Procedure for Coding Crashes with Bridge Components
and Guardrail .............................................................................................................................. G-1
Appendix H: Crash Frequencies and Costs by ADT Category, Crash Severity, and Guardrail
Presence ...................................................................................................................................... H-1
Appendix I: Benefit/Cost Computations.......................................................................................I-1
                                                         List of Tables
Table 1.1 Clear-Zone Distances in Feet from Edge of Through-Traveled Way .......................3
Table 3.1 Example of CSAH Bridge Data Obtained from Pontis Database............................12
Table 4.1 Descriptive Statistics for Crashes versus ADT, Deck Width, and Deck Width
minus Approach Width ............................................................................................................23
Table 4.2 Chi-Square Test for Crash Type versus Guardrail Presence, All Bridges...............27
Table 4.3 Chi-Square Test for Crash Type versus Guardrail Presence Separated by ADT ....28
Table 4.4 Chi-Square Test for Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence, All Bridges..........29
Table 4.5 Chi-Square Test for Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence Separated by
ADT .........................................................................................................................................31
Table 5.1 Crash Frequency at CSAH Bridges .........................................................................35
Table 5.2 Coded Crash Types versus Guardrail Presence .......................................................36
Table 5.3 Chi-Square Test for Initial Object Struck versus Guardrail Presence .....................37
Table 5.4 Initial Object Struck for Crashes Coded as TYPE 31..............................................38
Table 5.5 Results of Ordinal Logistic Regression Analysis for Crash Severity......................39
Table 5.6 Probabilities of Crash Severity versus Object Struck Based on Logistic
Regression................................................................................................................................40
Table 5.7 Chi-Square Test for Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence ..............................41
Table 5.8 Fatal and A-Injury Crash Details .............................................................................43
Table 5.9 Chi-Square Test for Crash Severity versus Initial Object Struck ............................44
Table 6.1 2004 Costs for Approach Guardrail on a CSAH Bridge .........................................51
Table 6.2 2004 Minnesota Crash Costs versus KABCO Severity...........................................52
Table 6.3 Bridge Crashes from 1988-2002 by ADT, Severity, and Guardrail Presence.........53
Table 6.4 Benefit/Cost Calculations for Bridge-Approach Guardrail (2004 Dollars, 30-year
Life-Cycle)...............................................................................................................................56
Table D-1 Pontis Data for Bridges WITH Approach Guardrail ........................................... D-1
Table D-2 Pontis Data for Bridges WITHOUT Approach Guardrail................................. D-17
Table E-1 Fixed-Object and Run-Off-Road Crashes Occurring at Bridges WITH Approach
Guardrail, 1988-2002.............................................................................................................E-1
Table E-2 Fixed-Object and Run-Off-Road Crashes Occurring at Bridges WITHOUT
Approach Guardrail, 1988-2002 ............................................................................................E-6
Table F-1 Summary of Crash Reports: Fixed-Object and ROR Crashes Occurring at Bridges
WITHOUT Approach Guardrail, 1988 - 2002 ...................................................................... F-1
Table F-2 Summary of Crash Reports: Fixed-Object and ROR Crashes Occurring at Bridges
WITH Approach Guardrail, 1988 - 2002............................................................................... F-8
Table H-1 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – All Bridges .................................. H-1
Table H-2 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT < 150 .................................. H-1
Table H-3 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 150-299 .............................. H-2
Table H-4 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 300-399 .............................. H-2
Table H-5 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 400-749 .............................. H-3
Table H-6 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 750-999 .............................. H-3
Table H-7 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 1,000-1,499 ........................ H-4
Table H-8 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 1,500-4,999 ........................ H-4
Table H-9 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 5,000-9,999 ........................ H-5
Table H-10 Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT > 10,000 ........................... H-5
Table I-1 Bridge-Crash Costs from 1988-2002 Separated by ADT Range and Guardrail
Presence ..................................................................................................................................I-1
Table I-2 Bridge-Crash Costs from 1988-2002 Separated by Threshold ADT and Guardrail
Presence ..................................................................................................................................I-1
Table I-3 30-year Cumulative Traffic Forecasts and Estimated Crash Benefits at Bridges
Without Approach Guardrail Separated by ADT Range ........................................................I-2
Table I-4 30-year Cumulative Traffic Forecasts and Estimated Crash Benefits at Bridges
Without Approach Guardrail Separated by ADT Threshold ..................................................I-2
Table I-5 30-year Costs per Bridge With Approach Guardrail and Associated Benefit/Cost
Ratio by ADT Range ..............................................................................................................I-3
Table I-6 30-year Costs per Bridge With Approach Guardrail and Associated Benefit/Cost
Ratio by ADT Threshold ........................................................................................................I-3
Table I-7 Revised Benefit/Cost Ratio Based on ADT 150-299 and ADT 300-399 ...............I-4
                                                         List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Criteria for Application of Approach Guardrail on Local State-Aid Bridges ..........6
Figure 2.2 Treatments Used Where Insufficient Guardrail Space Exists ..................................8
Figure 3.1 CSAH Bridge With Approach Guardrail ...............................................................10
Figure 3.2 CSAH Bridge Without Approach Guardrail ..........................................................11
Figure 3.3 Map of CSAH Bridges Used in the Analysis .........................................................13
Figure 3.4 Number of Bridges by County ...............................................................................14
Figure 3.5 Number of Bridges by ADT Range........................................................................15
Figure 3.6 Percent of Bridges by Number of Lanes ................................................................15
Figure 3.7 Number of Bridges by Functional Class ................................................................16
Figure 3.8 Number of Bridges by Age of Structure ................................................................17
Figure 4.1 Frequency of ROR and Fixed-Object Crashes Occurring near Bridges from 1988-
2002..........................................................................................................................................20
Figure 4.2 Frequency of ROR and Fixed-Object Crashes Occurring near Bridges from 1988-
2002, ADT ≤ 1,000 vpd ...........................................................................................................21
Figure 4.3 Scatterplots of Bridge-Crash Frequency versus ADT, Deck Width, and Deck
Width Minus Approach Width.................................................................................................22
Figure 4.4 Crash Frequency per Bridge versus ADT Range and Approach Guardrail
Presence ...................................................................................................................................25
Figure 4.5 Crash Type versus Guardrail Presence, All Bridges ..............................................27
Figure 4.6 Crash Type versus Guardrail Presence and ADT Category ...................................28
Figure 4.7 Crash Severity (KABCO scale) versus Guardrail Presence, All Bridges ..............30
Figure 4.8 Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence and ADT Category ..............................31
Figure 5.1 Initial Object Struck versus Guardrail Presence.....................................................37
Figure 5.2 Initial Object Struck for Crashes Coded as TYPE 31 ............................................38
Figure 5.3 Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence..............................................................41
Figure 5.4 Crash Severity versus Initial Object Struck............................................................44
Figure 5.5 Effectiveness (or Potential Effectiveness) of Approach Guardrail ........................45
Figure 5.6 Guardrail Protection at Approach Corners Only versus All Corners .....................46
Figure 5.7 Location of First Harmful Event with Respect to Bridge.......................................47
Figure 5.8 Effectiveness of Guardrail for Approach-Side versus Departure-Side Collisions
for Bridges with Approach Guardrail ......................................................................................48
Figure 5.9 Severity of Departure-Side Collisions for Bridges with Approach Guardrail .......49
Figure 6.1 Cash-Flow Diagram for Cost of Approach Guardrail on a CSAH Bridge.............51
Figure 6.2 Crash Costs per 108 Vehicle Crossings by ADT Range and Guardrail Presence ..53
Figure 6.3 Estimated Crash Savings and Costs per Bridge if Approach Guardrail is
Installed....................................................................................................................................55
Figure 6.4 Benefit/Cost Ratio Based on Threshold ADT and Traffic Growth Rate................57
Figure 6.5 Revised Benefit/Cost Ratios for Bridges with ADT between 0 and 750 vpd ........58
Figure 6.6 Benefit/Cost Ratio Based on Revised Threshold ADT for Guardrail Installation .59
                                   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction and Objectives
Certain bridge components, including bridge railings, piers, headwalls, and abutments are fixed-
objects that are typically very close to the edge of the traveled way and their presence in the
clear-zone constitutes a roadside safety hazard. Guardrail and other treatments are often
connected to the ends of the rail/parapet to keep vehicles from running-off-the-road (ROR) and
striking the less-forgiving ends of the rail or other bridge components or roadside objects. Yet
the installation of bridge-approach guardrail on these low-volume roads can add costs and other
safety and maintenance problems that may outweigh the proposed benefits.

The FWHA requires bridge-approach guardrail on
all NHS roadways, but states are given discretion                Bridge-Approach
to develop their own policies or guidelines for non-                 Guardrail
NHS roadways, such as county state-aid roadways.
As of 2004, Mn/DOT required guardrail to be
placed on the approach to bridges on the county
state-aid bridges if the average daily traffic (ADT) exceeds 750 vehicles per day (vpd), although
previous Mn/DOT standards required bridge-approach guardrail on county state-aid bridges with
ADTs greater than 400 vpd. The objective of this research was to determine the ADT at which
the benefit/cost ratio suggests that installing bridge-approach guardrail provides a positive return
on investment (i.e., B/C ratio >1.0) for county state-aid highway (CSAH) bridges in Minnesota.
The primary tasks included: review literature, survey other states to determine current practices,
analyze crashes at CSAH bridges with approach guardrail versus those without, and analyze the
benefits vs. costs for approach guardrail on CSAH bridges.

Literature Summary
The AASHTO Roadside Design Guide (RDG) provides guidance in evaluating the need for
protection of roadside objects, including bridge rail. Tables in the RDG provides minimum
clear-zone requirements based on design speed, ADT, and slope. However, the RDG, does not
specifically address design issues with very low-volume local roads (i.e., ADT ≤ 400), which are
of specific interest to the research described here. Perhaps a better tool for addressing design
issues on very low-volume local roads is the AASHTO Guidelines for Geometric Design of Very
Low-Volume Local Roads (ADT ≤ 400), which states that roadside clear-zones and safety barriers
provide little benefit on low-volume local roads because the probability of striking a roadside
object on these types of roads is extremely low when compared to similar higher volume roads.

Nationwide Survey of Current Practice
The researchers conducted a survey of state transportation agencies to determine the state-of-
practice for approach guardrail application on county state-aid bridges. Twenty-six of the 35
responding state agencies (74 percent) have policies or guidelines requiring the placement of
guardrail or attenuators on bridge approaches if the bridge was built using state funds, regardless
of the roadway system. Only Wisconsin, Illinois, and Virginia have policies similar to
Minnesota’s requiring bridge-approach guardrail on state-aid local highways only where an ADT
threshold is exceeded. Six of the respondents indicated that approach guardrail is not required on
lower-speed facilities (i.e., ≤ 45 mph).
Bridge-Crash Data Collection
The researchers obtained data for 398 Minnesota CSAH bridges from 10 counties. The 398
bridges were divided into two samples: those with approach guardrail (155) and those without
approach guardrail (243). The presence of approach guardrail was confirmed by the county
officials, while Mn/DOT’s “Pontis” bridge database was queried to obtain other relevant bridge
information.

The Minnesota crash database was queried to obtain the crashes that occurred near the 398
bridges included in the sample. The database queries were filtered to include only all single-
vehicle fixed-object or ROR crashes that occurred from 1988 – 2002 within approximately 200 ft
of the sample bridges. The resulting crash data set included a total of 263 crashes that met the
aforementioned criteria, 156 of which occurred at bridges with approach guardrail and the
remaining 107 crashes occurred at bridges without approach guardrail.

Analysis of the crash database queries was initially limited because collisions with approach
guardrail and all other bridge components were coded into the crash database under a single code
(TYPE 31 “bridge piers”) and included no further information about the object struck. As a
result, the effectiveness of approach guardrail could not be determined using solely the database
information. Thus, the researchers reviewed the diagrams and descriptions from the crash
reports of the 263 database crashes. A crash was included for further analyses if it involved
collision with a bridge component, roadside fixed-object, or other roadside collision and
occurred on the approach or departure to one of the sample bridges. The crash report screening
process resulted in 96 crashes being deemed useful to the analyses, 47 of which occurred near
bridges with approach guardrail, while the remaining 49 crashes occurred at bridges without
approach guardrail. Multiple analyses were performed on the data.

Findings
Safety-Effectiveness of Approach Guardrail
The analyses showed that bridge-approach guardrail was effective at reducing the severity (and
subsequent costs) of ROR crashes occurring on the approach or departure to CSAH bridges. The
proportions of fatal and A-injury crashes were considerably lower when guardrail existed at the
bridge. Fatalities or A-injury crashes accounted for only 6 percent of the crashes occurring at
bridges with approach guardrail, but accounted for 28.5 percent of the crashes at bridges without
approach guardrail – a rate that is 4.5 times greater than at bridges with approach guardrail. As
reflected in the following figure, further analysis of the severity of various objects struck showed
that zero of the 33 bridge guardrail collisions were fatal or A-injuries compared to 24 percent and
29 percent of roadside and bridge rail collisions resulting in fatalities or A-injuries. These
findings were statistically validated by both a chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis.
                         Roadside                  BR                      GR
                                PDO                     PDO          PDO




                                            B/C
                  B/C
                                      K/A
                                                              K/A
                                                                                B/C

                                Severity vs. Initial Object Struck
Guardrail Protection at All Corners of Bridges versus Approach Corners Only
The analysis showed that approach-side collisions occurred in approximately 62 percent of the
sample crashes, while departure-side collisions occurred approximately 34 percent of the crashes
(undetermined in 4 percent of the cases). For approach-side crashes at bridges with approach
guardrail, the guardrail provided effective attenuation or redirection in 69 percent of the cases
with no A-injuries or fatalities. However, departure-side guardrail either did not exist or was too
short to be effective in 65 percent of the departure-side collisions at bridges where approach-side
guardrail existed and 82 percent of these collisions resulted in either an injury or fatality.

Cost-Effectiveness of Approach Guardrail
The benefit/cost analysis showed that, based on the crash and cost data, bridge-approach
guardrail installed at all four bridge corners is cost-effective (i.e., B/C > 1) for CSAH bridges
with ADT greater than or equal to 300 vpd and becomes increasingly more cost-effective with
increasing ADT. However, bridge-approach guardrail is not cost-effective for CSAH bridges
with ADT less than 300 vpd because crashes occur very infrequently. Overall, approach
guardrail has a benefit/cost ratio of approximately 3.5 to 5.5 depending on assumptions for traffic
growth rate and guardrail costs.

Crash Coding for Collisions with Bridge Components
The Minnesota crash reporting system does not included a specific code for either bridge rail or
approach guardrail, rather both were typically included in TYPE 31 “bridge piers,” which
represented crashes with any component of the bridge, including approach guardrail. A detailed
review of the police diagrams/descriptions showed that all of the 67 crashes coded in the
database as TYPE 31 were found to be either collision with bridge rail or approach guardrail.
Thus, to reduce the ambiguity that exists in the current crash coding system for collisions with
bridge components and guardrail, the researchers recommend splitting the current TYPES 31
“bridge pier” and 34 “guardrail” into the following categories: “bridge pier/abutment,” “bridge
rail”, “bridge guardrail (approach or departure),” and “other guardrail (not attached to bridge).”

Recommended Installation for CSAH Bridge-Approach Guardrail
Given the limited number of bridges in the 300 to 400 ADT range, the researchers recommend
that the new threshold for approach guardrail on CSAH bridges be set at 400 vpd. In other
words, all CSAH bridges with ADT greater than or equal to 400 vpd should have approach
guardrail. An ADT threshold of 400 vpd is consistent with previous Mn/DOT standards and
AASHTO guidelines. It is recommended that bridges with ADT between 150 and 400 vpd,
especially those between 300 and 400 vpd, be reviewed on a case by case basis for guardrail
need. Bridges located on horizontal curves and with bridge deck widths less than the approach
roadway may warrant guardrail at ADT between 150 and 400 vpd. Placement of approach
guardrail at bridges with ADT less than 150 vpd is probably not cost-effective in most cases.

The researchers recommend application of guardrail to all four corners of the bridge rail instead
of at the two approach corners only. Guardrail applied at all four bridge corners provides
protection for both approach and departure-side events, such as where the vehicle runs off the
road to the right after crossing the bridge or runs-off-the-road ahead of the bridge to the left,
potentially striking the bridge rail end. Departure-side protection is especially critical on roads
with narrow lanes and bridges.
                                        CHAPTER 1:
                                      INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND
         Certain bridge components, including bridge railings, piers, headwalls, and abutments are
fixed-objects that are typically very close to the edge of the traveled way. Their presence in the
clear-zone constitutes a roadside safety hazard. Guardrail and other treatments, such as
attenuators, are often connected to the ends of the rail/parapet to keep vehicles from running-off-
the-road (ROR) and striking the less forgiving ends of the rail or other bridge components or
roadside objects. Yet the installation of approach guardrail can add costs and other safety and
maintenance problems that outweigh the proposed benefits. Beyond the fact that the guardrail
itself is a fixed-object within the clear-zone, guardrail is known to promote snow drifting during
the winter months providing an additional maintenance and safety concern. Additionally, grass
and weeds that grow near the guardrail cannot be cut by traditional lawn mowers requiring
county workers to use labor-intensive weed cutting devices around guardrail posts.
         The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) currently requires guardrail to
be placed on the approach to bridges on the county state-aid system (CSAH) if the average daily
traffic (ADT) exceeds 750 vehicles per day (vpd). Previous Mn/DOT standards required bridge-
approach guardrail on highways with ADT greater than 400 vpd. Local traffic engineers, and
Mn/DOT staff, suggested that this standard be reviewed since many questioned the benefit
versus the cost of the 400 vpd threshold.
       After careful consideration, the Standards Committee of Mn/DOT agreed to increase the
minimum ADT standard for requiring bridge-approach guardrail to 750 vpd. The 750 vpd value
was selected subjectively and represented the upper limit of the next highest ADT range on the
design standards chart. In contrast to this standards change, the Mn/DOT Bridge Section
recommended lowering the ADT standard to 150 vpd because current standards require that
roadways with ADTs greater than 150 vpd be paved, which increases vehicle operating speeds.
The Standards Committee has decided to maintain the 750 vpd standard until research is
conducted to determine an appropriate ADT value. The Rules Committee in Mn/DOT also
looked at this issue and considered:

      •   Shortening the length of the railing and using a different type of protection;
      •   Requiring local agencies to pay for approach work costs, including the guardrail;
      •   The inability of large farm equipment to use the shoulder in areas where guardrail is
          present; and
      •   How changes in guardrail or county/township responsibility limits the ability of
          counties and townships to replace bridges.

       In light of the above information and discussion, the Rules Committee accepted the
recommendation of the Standards Committee to no longer require bridge-approach guardrail for
roadways with less than 750 vpd (anticipated ADT in the design year). However, the discussion
and resulting standard change made evident the need for research to determine the conditions
(ADT, roadway geometrics, speed, clear-zone) for which the benefits of installing approach
guardrail (i.e., improving safety) outweigh the costs. These costs may include installation,




                                                1
general maintenance/repair, and additional maintenance and safety issues associated with snow
drifting and vegetation removal.
OBJECTIVE
        The objective of this research was to determine the ADT at which the benefit/cost ratio
suggests that installing bridge-approach guardrail provides a positive return on investment. In
other words, identify the ADT where benefits exceed costs and the benefit/cost ratio exceeds 1.0.
This ADT value will be used to establish the threshold/standard for bridge-approach guardrail
installation on CSAH roadways in Minnesota.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Current Guidelines and Standards
        To protect vehicles from striking the blunt end of the bridge rail, the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) requires approach guardrail on all National Highway System (NHS)
bridges, but does not regulate non-NHS bridges. As a result, states and local agencies are given
discretion to develop their own policies or guidelines for the application of approach guardrail on
non-NHS roadways. Guidance for determining whether or not approach guardrail should be
applied to bridges is provided by two main documents, both published by the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO): Roadside Design Guide
(RDG) and Guidelines for Geometric Design of Very Low-Volume Local Roads (ADT ≤ 400)
(VLVRDG).
        The RDG (1) is a leading document for evaluating the need for protection of vehicles
from roadside objects, including bridge rail. Table 1.1 is a reproduction of Table 3.1 from the
RDG, which provides minimum clear-zone requirements based on design speed, ADT, and slope.
For example, for a roadway with a design speed of 55 mph and an ADT less than 750 vpd and
fore slopes flatter than 1:4, a minimum clear-zone of 12-18 feet is required. However, the RDG,
does not specifically address design issues with very low-volume local roads (i.e., ADT ≤ 400
vpd), which are of specific interest to the research described here.
       Perhaps a better tool for addressing design issues on very low-volume local roads is the
AASHTO Guidelines for Geometric Design of Very Low-Volume Local Roads (ADT ≤ 400) (2),
which states that based on research, roadside clear-zones provide very little benefit on low-
volume roads. The VLVRDG concludes that traffic barriers are not generally cost-effective on
roads with very low traffic volumes because the probability of striking a fixed-object on these
types of roads is extremely low (compared to similar roadways with higher traffic volumes).
Therefore, it is often not economical to provide the same level of roadside hazard protection
especially considering the number of centerline miles that possess ADTs of ≤ 400 vpd.




                                                2
Table 1.1. Clear-Zone Distances in Feet from Edge of Through Traveled Way (1)




        Note that the AASHTO VLVRDG applies only to roads that are functionally classified as
a local road and have a design ADT of 400 vpd or less (2). This definition is extended to
“collectors” that are below the 400 vpd threshold and primarily serve familiar drivers. The
VLVRDG makes it clear that “local” functional classification of a road is a key element of the
definition for the roadways to which the guidelines pertain because it implies a level of driver
familiarity with the roadway that is not provided on higher classifications of roads. The 400 vpd
ADT threshold for guardrail placement on the approach to bridges was also deemed suitable in
NCHRP Report 22-5A, A User’s Guide to Guardrail Warrants for Low-Volume Roads, as
documented in Transportation Research Circular 416 (3). It is significant to note that in 2004,
52 percent of the approximately 5,500 bridges on Minnesota’s CSAH roadway network had an
ADT of 400 vpd or less.




                                               3
Relevant Safety Research
        Several states have analyzed bridge-approach guardrail through various research efforts,
although most of the focus in these studies was placed on crashworthiness of the guardrail/bridge
rail connections and end treatments. Very few published literature sources were found to be
directly related to the placement-related objectives of this research.
        In a late 1970’s study for the New Mexico DOT (4), Hall found that collisions with
guardrail produced severity indices that were approximately 50 percent lower than that of
collisions with bridge abutments, which had the highest severity index of all fixed-object
collisions that were examined. Crashes with guardrail accounted for only 1.8 percent of all fatal
crashes. As a result, it was suggested that the addition of guardrail to protect an abutment or
bridge would reduce the crash severity by 50 percent. Hall also found that bridges were the most
common location for a guardrail crash to occur (28 percent of all reported guardrail crashes in
New Mexico), likely due to the fact that bridges were the most common location for guardrail
installation with 31 percent of all installations.
         In 1989, the Iowa DOT conducted a study examining the application of bridge-approach
guardrail on primary roads (5). At this time, 65 percent of Iowa’s bridge-crash fatalities were
due to impacts with unprotected bridge rail/abutments. After determining an array of potential
benefits and costs, a benefit/cost analysis was completed using an early version of AASHTO’s
ROADSIDE software program, which generated linear relationships between the benefit/cost
ratio and ADT at various lateral offsets for the guardrail. The Iowa study found the break-even
benefit/cost ratio (i.e., b/c = 1.0) for the application of bridge-approach guardrail to apply to
roadways with 1,400 vpd and a guardrail offset of two feet from the edge of pavement. Higher
traffic volumes would increase the expected benefit/cost ratio, while higher guardrail offsets
would decrease the benefit/cost ratio. The report suggests that benefit/cost ratios as low as 0.8
are still acceptable values for upgrading.
        More recently, a study by Wolford and Sicking found little need for guardrail for
protection of embankments and culverts when the ADT was less than approximately 500 vpd,
regardless of other variables (6).




                                               4
                                CHAPTER 2:
                SURVEY OF NATIONWIDE STATE AGENCY PRACTICE

         A critical extension of the literature review was a survey of current agency practice
pertaining to application of bridge-approach guardrail on low-volume state-aid (or similar) local
facilities. The researchers developed an Internet-based survey questionnaire and administered
the survey to members of the AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Traffic Engineering,
representing all 50 state departments of transportation (DOTs). The survey consisted of seven
concise questions and relevant state DOT personnel were contacted via email in January 2004
and asked to respond to the Internet survey. The survey responses were automatically submitted
via email to the research staff. A copy of the survey instrument can be found in Appendix A.
       The goal of the survey was to determine the procedures of state DOTs pertaining to the
use of bridge-approach guardrail. Of particular interest was the basis for determining whether
approach guardrail should be applied to bridges on low-volume local roads. The primary survey
questions included:

      •   Is ADT used to determine whether or not to place guardrail on the approach to bridges
          on local roads, and if so, what is this ADT value and how was it chosen?
      •   If ADT is not used, what is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches
          for local roads?
      •   Do other factors play a role in the decision to place/not place bridge-approach
          guardrail?
      •   Are treatments other than guardrail used to shield the bridge rail?

      Detailed survey responses provided by the state DOTs and the FHWA are presented in
Appendix B. A summary of the survey findings is provided in the following section.
SURVEY FINDINGS
Criteria for Application of Approach Guardrail on Local State-Aid Bridges
        Figure 2.1 summarizes the state-by-state criteria for approach guardrail on local state-aid
bridges. Twenty-six of the 35 responding state agencies (74 percent) have policies or guidelines
requiring the placement of guardrail or attenuators on bridge approaches if the bridge was built
using state funds, regardless of the roadway system. The general belief among these agencies
was that the bridge rail or parapet ends are fixed-object hazards within the clear-zone and
therefore traffic must be shielded. This complies with the clear-zone requirements in the
AASHTO Roadside Design Guide (1), which was cited by many agencies as the basis for their
policy or guideline. Furthermore, nearly every agency indicated that guardrail placement was
dictated by agency policy rather than a guideline, although some agencies grant exceptions to
their guardrail policy, as noted in Figure 2.1.




                                                5
Figure 2.1. Criteria for Application of Approach Guardrail on Local State-Aid Bridges




                                        6
        Four of the 35 responding state agencies (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Virginia)
require bridge-approach guardrail on state- or federal-aid local facilities only at locations where
an ADT threshold is exceeded (Figure 2.1). Wisconsin and Virginia noted that their respective
ADT threshold values were based on the guidelines in the AASHTO Guidelines for Geometric
Design of Very Low-Volume Local Roads (ADT ≤ 400), which suggests that the use of guardrail
for protection of fixed-objects is generally not cost-effective for roadways with ADT ≤ 400 vpd
(2).
        Six of the responding agencies (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Washington, Ohio, and
Delaware) indicated that lower-speed facilities (i.e., speeds equal to or less than 45 mph) do not
require approach guardrail. Oregon DOT indicated that the decision to place approach guardrail
for non-National Highway System bridges is made by the supervising engineer on a case-by-case
basis, considering factors such as ADT and operating speed. Some agencies indicated that other
factors may also be considered when determining whether or not to place approach guardrail on
local state-aid bridges, including horizontal curvature, bridge width, and benefit/cost analysis.
These additional factors are noted in Figure 2.1.
Use of Protective Treatments Other than Guardrail
        The minimum length of an NCHRP 350-compliant section of approach guardrail with
proper transition and end treatment is approximately 75 feet. Certain cases exist where there is
insufficient space to place a minimum section of guardrail on a bridge approach. This may occur
when a driveway, roadway, or immovable structure is located very near the bridge and
movement or realignment is not economical. Where space is limited, some agencies opt to use
treatments such as crash attenuators directly affixed to the bridge rail, while other agencies
continue to use a shortened or curved/flared section of guardrail due to the expense of the
attenuator. Figure 2.2 displays state agency use of attenuators where insufficient guardrail space
exists. Responses were rather evenly split between attenuator versus a minimal or modified
section of guardrail when insufficient guardrail space exists.




                                                7
Figure 2.2. Treatments Used Where Insufficient Guardrail Space Exists


Iowa Procedure for Determining Need for Bridge-Approach Guardrail
        The Iowa Department of Transportation has developed an instructional
memorandum explaining the procedure for determining the need for traffic barriers at
roadway bridges and culverts, which is perhaps the most comprehensive procedure of its
kind among state DOTs. A copy of this procedure is provided in Appendix C. Note that
a scoring system has been developed to determine the type of guardrail system required.
The memo states that design exceptions to not install guardrail at bridges or culverts will
be considered if the following conditions exist:
       1. Current ADT at structure is less than 200 vpd,
       2. Structure width is 24 feet or greater,
       3. Structure is on tangent alignment, and
       4. Benefit/cost Ratio is less than 0.80.




                                            8
       The memo goes on to say that other obstructions, within the right-of-way and clear-zone,
should be reviewed for removal, relocation, and installation of a traffic barrier or the “do
nothing” option based on a cost-effectiveness approach.




                                              9
                                    CHAPTER 3:
                               ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

      One of the major data analysis tasks of this project involved comparison of crashes
occurring at bridges both with and without approach guardrail. This task was important for two
reasons:

      •   Inference could be made as to the relative safety effects of using guardrail on bridge
          approaches for a number of different bridge/roadway characteristics; and
      •   Results could be used in a benefit/cost analysis.

        To perform such a safety analysis, the researchers deemed it necessary to collect crash
data for two discrete populations of bridges on Minnesota CSAH roadways:

      •   Crashes occurring at bridges WITH guardrail on the approach; and
      •   Crashes occurring at bridges WITHOUT guardrail on the approach.

       Examples of typical CSAH bridges with and without guardrail are shown in Figures 3.1
and 3.2, respectively.




                            Bridge-Approach
                            Guardrail




Figure 3.1. CSAH Bridge With Approach Guardrail




                                              10
Figure 3.2. CSAH Bridge Without Approach Guardrail


CSAH BRIDGE DATA
       Because of the relatively few number of crashes that occur at CSAH bridges, researchers
deemed it appropriate to create a sample of at least 100 CSAH bridges for each of the two bridge
populations. The belief was that 100 bridges would provide at least 100 crashes for each
population, thereby providing a sample size large enough for statistical interpretation.
Development of Bridge Sample Populations and Collection of Inventory Data
        In order to identify CSAH bridges for inclusion in one of the two sample populations, it
was necessary to identify whether or not approach guardrail existed on the bridge. Identifying
the existence of approach guardrail on CSAH bridges turned out to be a substantial challenge.
The researchers determined early in the project that sufficient approach guardrail information for
CSAH bridges could not be obtained from Mn/DOT’s “Pontis” bridge inventory database. Other
options, such as reviewing roadway inventory video logs or reviewing construction plans, were
also ruled out due to unavailability of such records for the CSAH roadway system. As a result, it
was determined that approach guardrail information for CSAH bridges would need to be
obtained directly from the counties.
        An initial step in the collection of bridge data occurred on July 20th and 21st of 2004 when
University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers met with engineering personnel from four
Minnesota counties: Fillmore, Olmsted, Goodhue, and Dakota. These counties were chosen
based on their availability of appropriate data and because they provided a suitable balance of
rural and urban/suburban bridges with a broad range of traffic volumes. The meetings provided
the researchers with necessary data pertaining to CSAH bridge-approach guardrail, including;


                                                11
         •    Complete lists of CSAH bridges with approach guardrail (by bridge number);
         •    Current costs associated with guardrail installation on bridges; and
         •    Issues and challenges faced by the counties with regards to placing approach guardrail
              on CSAH bridges.

        Based on these meetings, researchers developed a plan for telephone or email
correspondence with engineering personnel from numerous other Minnesota counties to obtain
similar information. By October 2004, detailed CSAH bridge data had been received from a
total of ten Minnesota counties: Anoka, Crow Wing, Dakota, Fillmore, Goodhue, Lyon, Mower,
Olmsted, Rock, and Watonwan. Other counties were contacted but were unable to provide the
necessary data.
        The ten previously listed Minnesota counties provided the researchers with a list of 155
CSAH bridge identification numbers for bridges with approach guardrail. Using this list of 155
bridge ID numbers, Mn/DOT’s Pontis bridge inventory database was queried to obtain additional
information pertaining to each of the bridges for use in the crash analysis. Such relevant data
included reference point, location, year built, max span length, number of lanes, functional class,
and ADT. A sample of the resulting Pontis query is shown in Table 3.1.

       A second Pontis query was generated to form a comparison sample of CSAH bridges
without approach guardrail for each of the ten counties. This resulting group of 243 CSAH
bridges was generated by querying all CSAH bridges for each of the ten counties excluding the
155 generated in the first query, culverts, and structures without a deck. The purpose of
generating the comparison group in this manner was to provide a set of CSAH bridges similar to
the 155 generated in the first query with the primary physical difference being the lack of
approach guardrail. The full Pontis bridge inventory data for all 398 CSAH bridges can be found
in Appendix D.


Table 3.1. Example of CSAH Bridge Data Obtained from Pontis Database
 Br Num      Ref Point    Facility   County No.          Location           Yr Built Lanes    Functional Class   ADT Total
 55516       005+00.500   CSAH 7        55          2.1 MI N OF JCT TH 52    1968     2       06-RUR/MINOR ART      940
 55521       003+00.710   CSAH 7        55          0.4 MI N OF JCT TH 52    1971     2       06-RUR/MINOR ART      940
 55512       001+00.750   CSAH 8        55        0.7 MI N OF JCT CSAH 6     1966     2      08-RUR/MINOR COLL     1,000
 6787        006+00.490   CSAH 17       67          1.0 MI S OF JCT TH 90    1955     2         07-RURAL COLL       560
 67538       016+00.360   CSAH 3        67        0.3 MI N OF JCT CSAH 8     1999     2         07-RURAL COLL       470
 67524       018+00.805   CSAH 4        67        0.7 MI W OF JCT CSAH 3     1984     2         07-RURAL COLL      1,450
 L2033       007+00.950   CSAH 5        67         1.9 MI E OF JCT CSAH 6    1956     2         07-RURAL COLL       350
 83513       003+00.450   CSAH 12       83        1.4 MI N OF JCT CSAH 10    1978     2         07-RURAL COLL       255
 90340       003+00.000   CSAH 18       83         0.9 MI N OF JCT CR116     1920     2      08-RUR/MINOR COLL      40
 90343       006+00.760   CSAH 19       83         0.4 MI N OF JCT CR119     1923     2      08-RUR/MINOR COLL      135




                                                             12
Bridge Characteristics
       Upon obtaining the Pontis data for the 398 CSAH bridges, the researchers were able to
summarize and compare the characteristics of the bridges in each sample population. Figure 3.3
provides a map of the bridge locations. Figure 3.4 shows the number of bridges per county both
with and without approach guardrail.




Figure 3.3. Map of CSAH Bridges Used in the Analysis




                                             13
                     80
                                                                                       9 73

                     70


                     60
                                  With Approach GR (155 bridges)
 Number of Bridges




                     50           Without Approach GR (243 bridges)
                                                                                                                   3 44

                                     Number of Bridges
                     40              per County                                                             5 34
                          29 29      27 3
                     30
                                               23 1
                                                         18 14     17 7      15 20                9 18
                     20


                     10


                      0
                          Mower     Anoka    Crow Wing Goodhue     Dakota   Olmsted   Fillmore   Watonwan   Lyon   Rock

Figure 3.4. Number of Bridges by County


       The counties shown in Figure 3.4 are ordered from the most to least number of bridges
with approach guardrail. It can be observed that the counties with the greatest number of bridges
with approach guardrail (mostly suburban counties) typically have the fewest number of bridges
without approach guardrail and vice-versa. This is expected as the suburban counties have
higher traffic volumes and thus a greater percentage of bridges with guardrail on the approach,
since guardrail placement on CSAH bridges is typically based on ADT.
        Perhaps a more useful representation of the two bridge sample populations is separation
by ADT, as displayed in Figure 3.5. With some exceptions, ADT data reported in Pontis were
measured by the counties between 2001 and 2003. To provide consistency, these ADT values
were converted to 2004 ADT prior to the analyses using each county’s estimated 2004 traffic
growth rate. As expected, the sample of bridges with approach guardrail was shifted toward the
higher ADT ranges while the bridges without approach guardrail generally fell into the lower
ADT ranges. The median ADT was 1,320 vpd with a range from 42 to 41,524 vpd for the 155
bridges with approach guardrail and 325 vpd with a range from 16 to 27,785 vpd for the 243
bridges without approach guardrail. It is interesting to note that 57 of the bridges without
approach guardrail have ADTs exceeding the current CSAH guardrail warrant of 750 vpd. It is
likely that many of these bridges were built prior to any ADT requirement for approach guardrail
and were thus grandfathered in.
        Figure 3.6 displays the percent of bridges versus number of lanes on the bridge. The
figure shows that a majority of the bridges were two-lane bridges. With very few exceptions, the
bridges in both populations accommodated two-way traffic. Also with very few exceptions, the
bridges in both populations were water crossings.


                                                                      14
                             90

                             80
                                                                                    With Approach GR (155 bridges)

                             70                                                     Without Approach GR (243 bridges)


                             60
         Number of Bridges




                             50                                                               Median 2004 ADT:
                                                                                              - With GR = 1320
                             40                                                               - Without GR = 325


                             30

                             20

                             10

                              0
                                   <150   150-399   400-749        750-1499       1500-4999   5000-9999     10000<
                                                                  ADT Range
Figure 3.5. Number of Bridges by ADT Range


                      100%

                             90%
                                                                                With Approach GR (155 bridges)

                             80%                                                Without Approach GR (243 bridges)

                             70%
 Percent of Bridges




                             60%

                             50%

                             40%

                             30%

                             20%

                             10%

                             0%
                                     1         2              3               4               5              6
                                                              Number of Lanes

Figure 3.6. Percent of Bridges by Number of Lanes


                                                                  15
        Further separation by functional class and bridge age are shown in Figures 3.7 and 3.8,
respectively. Separation by functional class in Figure 3.7 shows that 83 percent and 96 percent
of the sample bridges with and without guardrail, respectively, are on roadways classified as
rural. Figure 3.8 shows that the bridges with approach guardrail are slightly newer with a
median age of 34 years, compared to 44 years for those without approach guardrail.


                     120
                     110
                     100
                                                                                              With Approach GR (155 bridges)
                      90
 Number of Bridges




                      80                                                                      Without Approach GR (243 bridges)

                      70
                      60
                      50
                      40
                      30
                      20
                      10
                        0
                                T




                                                                                                     T
                                                                                     T
                                                           LL




                                                                       AL
                                            LL




                                                                                                                  LL




                                                                                                                               AL
                               AR




                                                                                   AR




                                                                                                    AR
                                                          O
                                           O




                                                                                                                 O




                                                                                                                              C
                                                                     C
                                                         C




                                                                                                                C
                                           C




                                                                   LO




                                                                                                                          LO
                            R




                                                                                 PR




                                                                                               R
                                                    R




                                                                                                            B
                                        AL
                           O




                                                                                                O
                                                                  AL




                                                                                                           R




                                                                                                                          N
                                                     O




                                                                                              IN
                         IN




                                                                              TH
                                       R




                                                                                                                        BA
                                                                                                           -U
                                                   IN




                                                                                             M
                       /M




                                                                 R
                                      U




                                                                             O




                                                                                                         17
                                                 /M




                                                                U
                                      -R




                                                                                          B/




                                                                                                                       R
                      R




                                                                          B/
                                                              -R




                                                                                                                     -U
                                                R




                                                                                         R
                     U




                                    07




                                                                         R
                                               U




                                                                                        -U
                                                            09
                 -R




                                                                                                                   19
                                                                         -U
                                               -R




                                                                                      16
               06




                                                                       14
                                             08




Figure 3.7. Number of Bridges by Functional Class




                                                                            16
                      70


                      60          With Approach GR (median age = 34)

                                  Without Approach GR (median age = 44)
                      50
  Number of Bridges




                      40


                      30

                      20

                      10

                       0
                            <10 years   10-19 years   20-29 years   30-39 years   40-49 years   50-74 years   >74 years

                                                             Age of Bridge

Figure 3.8. Number of Bridges by Age of Structure


COLLECTION OF CRASH DATA
Initial Queries of Minnesota Crash Database
       After determination of the relevant bridge characteristics for the 398 sample bridges, the
roadway and linear reference point data obtained from the Pontis queries were used by the
researchers to collect the associated crash data for the bridges. Two queries were obtained from
the Mn/DOT crash database:

                      •    Crashes that occurred near the 155 bridges with approach guardrail, and
                      •    Crashes that occurred near the 243 bridges without approach guardrail.

        Each query included all crashes from 1988 – 2002 that occurred on the specified CSAH
highway within ± 1 mile from each bridge’s reference point (from Pontis). The 15-year analysis
period was chosen to obtain the largest sample of crashes possible, recognizing the infrequency
at which collisions occur near bridges. The effect of both changing traffic volumes and changes
to the crash reporting practices over the 15-year analysis period should be offset by the fact that
both bridge sample populations were taken from the same ten counties and thus any temporal
effects are expected to be roughly the same for both bridge populations.
Crash Data Filtering
       The initial crash database queries included information for crashes of all types that
occurred within ± 1 mile from the bridges, which resulted in approximately 10,250 crashes at
bridges with approach guardrail and 5,150 crashes for bridges without approach guardrail.


                                                                    17
Further screening of the crash data was thus necessary to obtain only “target” crashes occurring
near the bridges that would likely be affected by the presence or absence of approach guardrail.
         The target crashes included all fixed-object and run-off-the-road crashes occurring in the
general vicinity of the bridge. The researchers used the following two criteria to further filter
(i.e., select) crashes from the initial crash queries:

      •   Crash occurred within 0.04 miles (approximately 211 ft) of the bridge reference point
          (this was extended out further for crashes involving TYPE 31 “bridge piers” to aid
          against slight inaccuracies in the reference point coding); and
      •   Crash was one of the following types: collision with light pole (TYPE 24), collision
          with utility pole (25), collision with sign structure or post (26), collision with
          mailboxes and/or posts (27), collision with other poles (28), collision with
          tree/shrubbery (30), collision with bridge piers (31), collision with median safety
          barrier (32), collision with crash cushion (33), collision with guardrail (34), collision
          with fence (35), collision with culvert/headwall (36), collision with
          embankment/ditch/curb (37), collision with building/wall (38), collision with rock
          outcrops (38), collision with other fixed-object (41), collision with unknown type of
          fixed-object (42), overturn/rollover (51), submersion (52), other type of crash (90)
          (single vehicle crashes only).

         The filtering task was very labor-intensive as each of the more than 15,000 crashes in the
initial query was manually examined to determine its applicability to our analysis based on the
above criteria. The resulting crash data set included a total of 263 crashes occurring between
1988 and 2002 that met the aforementioned criteria. Of the 263 crashes, 156 crashes occurred at
bridges with approach guardrail and 107 crashes occurred at bridges without approach guardrail.
Detailed information on all 263 crashes can be found in Appendix E.
       For each bridge population, about half of the crashes were coded in the database as
having occurred on dry pavement, while the other half occurred on wet/snowy/icy pavement.
Furthermore, although wet or icy pavement conditions are typically associated with a higher
frequency of crashes, such conditions do not necessarily cause the crashes to be more severe.
Because the analyses performed here were largely focused on crash severity rather than overall
frequency, the researchers felt it was not necessary to further analyze the effect of pavement
condition.
Police Crash-Report Data
        The filtered crash data from the database queries provided a general overview of the
crashes occurring near CSAH bridges. However, the researchers quickly determined that a
detailed analysis of the effectiveness of approach guardrail could not be determined solely from
the crash database information. This was because approach guardrail and all other bridge
components occurring during the analysis period were coded in the crash database as TYPE 31
“bridge piers” and no further information was listed that would allow for determination of the
actual object struck. To resolve this problem, researchers obtained Mn/DOT crash reports for
most of the 263 bridge crashes that were identified from the initial database queries. The
researchers then performed a detailed manual review of each crash report to gather necessary
information that was not available in the database, including the object struck, the location of the
collision with respect to the bridge, and the nature of the collision. The data obtained from the


                                                18
police crash-reports were then used to perform a detailed analysis of the safety effectiveness of
bridge-approach guardrail. Detailed information about the analysis of police crash-report data is
described later in Chapter 5. The crash report data were also used in the benefit/cost analysis,
which is fully discussed in Chapter 6.
RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
       With the exception of guardrail crashes, the crash types included in the analysis (see
aforementioned crash filtering criteria) were chosen because the frequency of such crashes
occurring at or near bridges is intuitively lower when guardrail exists on the bridge approach due
to the added protection against run-off-the-road related rollover or fixed-object crashes. The
frequency of guardrail crashes occurring at bridges is obviously expected to be higher for bridges
with approach guardrail, but crashes with guardrail are generally less severe than most other
fixed-object or rollover crashes. As a result, the researchers hypothesized that two major trends
would be observed in the analyses:

      1. A lower occurrence of fixed-object and other run-off-the-road crashes (except
         guardrail crashes) in the vicinity of the bridge for bridges with guardrail on the
         approach versus bridges without guardrail;
      2. A lower severity of fixed-object and other run-off-the-road crashes occurring in the
         vicinity of bridges with guardrail on the approach versus bridges without guardrail.

        Multiple analyses were performed on the crash data and are described in Chapter 4, 5,
and 6 including:

      •   Initial investigations of crashes occurring at CSAH bridges (Chapter 4),
      •   Analysis of CSAH bridge-crash types based on database queries (Chapter 4),
      •   Analysis of CSAH bridge-crash severity based on database queries (Chapter 4),
      •   Analysis of the effectiveness of CSAH bridge-approach guardrail based on police
          crash-reports (Chapter 5), and
      •   Benefit/cost analysis for CSAH bridge-approach guardrail (Chapter 6).




                                               19
                                         CHAPTER 4:
                                ANALYSIS OF DATABASE CRASHES

INITIAL CRASH INVESTIGATIONS
Crash Frequency per Bridge
       An initial analysis task was to determine the distribution of crashes per bridge. Because
crashes typically occur at random, they are generally assumed to follow the Poisson distribution.
However, based on the results of a chi-square test for independence, the crashes did not fit a
Poisson distribution for either bridge population (p-value < 0.0001 confidence for both
populations). Figure 4.1 displays the frequency of run-off-the-road and fixed-object crashes near
the sample bridges from 1998-2002.


                      180
                      170
                      160
                      150
                      140
                                                                             With Approach GR
  Number of Bridges




                      130
                      120                                                    (155 Bridges)
                      110
                      100                                                    Without Approach
                       90                                                    GR (243 Bridges)
                       80
                       70                                                    Poisson GR
                       60
                       50                                                    Poisson No GR
                       40
                       30
                       20
                       10
                        0
                            0    1         2           3     =4
                                 Crashes from 1988-2002

Figure 4.1. Frequency of ROR and Fixed-Object Crashes Occurring near Bridges from
1988-2002


        Figure 4.1 shows that a majority of the bridges in the two samples had zero reported run-
off-the-road or fixed-object crashes from 1988 – 2002. During the 15-year analysis period, the
sample of 243 CSAH bridges without approach guardrail included 174 (72 percent) with zero
crashes during the entire period, and 69 (28 percent) with at least one reported crash, with an
average of 0.44 crashes per bridge during the entire 15-year analysis period (i.e., 0.029 crashes
per bridge per year). The maximum number of crashes for any bridge without approach
guardrail was six.
        The percentage of bridges with at least one reported crash was considerably higher for
bridges with approach guardrail. During the 15-year analysis period, the sample of 155 CSAH
bridges with approach guardrail included 84 (54 percent) with zero crashes during the entire
period, and 71 (46 percent) with at least one reported crash, with an average of 1.01 crashes per



                                                  20
bridge during the entire 15-year analysis period (i.e., 0.0673 crashes per bridge per year). The
higher crash frequencies for bridges with approach guardrail versus without were likely a result
of higher traffic volumes. The maximum number of crashes occurring at any bridge with
approach guardrail during the 15-year analysis period was ten crashes, which occurred at two
locations.
       Similar crash-frequency trends existed when only bridges with ADT ≤ 1,000 vpd were
considered, as displayed in Figure 4.2. The percentage of bridges with zero reported crashes
increased slightly regardless of guardrail presence. Additionally, the distribution of crashes that
occurred at bridges with approach guardrail and ADT ≤ 1,000 vpd fit a Poisson distribution
based on a chi-squared test for independence (with approach GR: p-value = 0.1287; without
approach GR: p-value = 0.0020).


                      160
                      150
                      140
                      130
                      120                                                      With Approach GR
  Number of Bridges




                      110                                                      (70 Bridges)
                      100                                                      Without Approach
                       90                                                      GR (202 Bridges)
                       80
                                                                               Poisson GR
                       70
                       60
                       50                                                      Poisson No GR
                       40
                       30
                       20
                       10
                        0
                            0      1             2            3
                                Crashes from 1988-2002

Figure 4.2. Frequency of ROR and Fixed-Object Crashes Occurring near Bridges from
1988-2002, ADT ≤ 1,000 vpd


Relationship between Crashes, ADT, and Deck Width
       Because of the broad range of traffic volumes and deck widths for the bridges used in the
analysis, it was important to determine if any trends existed between these factors and bridge-
crash frequency. The researchers also considered the difference between deck width and
approach roadway width since bridges that are narrower than the approaching roadway present a
potential safety hazard. Figure 4.3 shows scatterplots for the run-off-the-road and fixed-object
crash data for each bridge population versus the 2004 ADT on the bridge (Figure 4.3a), versus
bridge deck width (Figure 4.3b), and versus deck width minus approach width (Figure 4.3c).
Basic descriptive statistics are shown in Table 4.1.




                                                 21
  Crashes per Bridge (15 year period)   10
                                         9                                                                    Bridges
                                         8                                                                    With GR
                                                                                                              Bridges
                                         7                                                                    Without GR
                                         6
                                         5                                                  Trend line for
                                         4                                                  bridges with GR

                                         3
                                         2
                                                                                 Trend line for
                                         1                                       bridges without GR
                                         0
                                             0        10,000   20,000         30,000           40,000              50,000
                                                                        ADT

a. Scatterplot of Bridge Crashes versus ADT


                                        10
  Crashes per Bridge (15 year period)




                                                                                                          Bridges With
                                         9                                                                GR
                                         8                                                                Bridges
                                         7                                                                Without GR

                                         6
                                         5
                                         4
                                                                                         With GR
                                         3
                                         2
                                         1
                                                                                                      Without GR
                                         0
                                             0   10       20   30        40       50        60          70          80
                                                                    Deck Width

b. Bridge Crashes versus Deck Width



                                                                        22
                                                                               12

                                                                               10
                                                                                                 Bridges With
   Crashes per Bridge




                                                                                                 GR
                                                                                   8
                                                                                                 Bridges
                                                                                                 Without GR
                                                                                   6
                                                     With GR
                                                                                   4

                                                                                   2
                                     Without GR

                                                                                   0
                        -90   -80   -70   -60     -50     -40    -30   -20   -10       0   10   20   30
                                            Deck Width minus Approach Width

c. Bridge Crashes versus Deck Width minus Approach Width
Figure 4.3. Scatterplots of Bridge-Crash Frequency versus ADT, Deck Width, and Deck
Width Minus Approach Width



Table 4.1. Descriptive Statistics for Crashes versus ADT, Deck Width, and Deck Width
minus Approach Width
2004 ADT                                       GR       No GR
Mean                                         4,118       1,102
Median                                       1,320         325
Mode                                         1,351          52
Min                                             42          16
Max                                         41,524      27,785
Deck Width                                     GR       No GR
Mean                                         35.76       31.28
Median                                        32.1        30.1
Mode                                            44          32
Min                                           22.8        13.5
Max                                             68          68
Deck Width - App Width                         GR       No GR
Mean                                         -3.61       -1.66
Median                                           0           0
Mode                                             0           0
Min                                            -82         -62
Max                                           18.3        39.4



                                                                  23
        For bridges with approach guardrail, Figure 4.3a shows a generally upward trend for
crash frequency versus ADT. This trend is especially evident for ADT greater than 10,000 vpd.
Figure 4.3b shows very weak linear trends between bridge crashes and deck width, regardless of
approach guardrail presence/absence. Figure 4.3c shows a generally downward trend for crashes
versus deck width minus approach width at bridges with approach guardrail. No considerable
trends exist for crashes versus any of the three variables for bridges without approach guardrail.
Crashes Separated by ADT
        The trend lines in Figure 4.3a showed an upward linear trend between bridge crashes and
ADT. In addition, Table 4.1 shows that considerable disparity exits between the average daily
traffic volumes for the two bridge data sets. Thus, the bridge crashes were clustered based on
ADT for further analysis. Figure 4.4 shows a comparison of the total number of run-off-the-road
and fixed-object crashes per bridge occurring from 1988 - 2002 separated by ADT range. Figure
4.4a is based on all crashes in the sample, while Figure 4.4b is based only on injury/fatal crashes.
Please note that the data shown in Figure 4.4 and elsewhere in this report include the sum of all
crashes that occurred during the entire 15-year analysis period and are not annual rates.
        Figure 4.4 displays a number of interesting findings. The rates of crashes per bridge were
similar both in magnitude and trend for bridges both with and without approach guardrail when
bridges with ADT between 150 and 9,999 vpd were considered. With the exception of the 1,500
– 4,999 vpd range, there was a similar general upward trend for rate versus ADT for both bridge
populations, regardless of whether or not property damage only (PDO) crashes were considered.
The ADT range of 400 – 4,999 vpd contained the most balanced number of bridges with and
without approach guardrail and thus should likely provide the most accurate comparison of crash
rates for the two bridge populations.
       Comparison of crash rates versus presence of approach guardrail for both the 150-399
and 400-749 vpd ranges was of particular significance to this study. Bridges with approach
guardrail had slightly more crashes per bridge in the 150-399 vpd range, but slightly fewer
crashes per bridge in the 400-749 vpd range. This trend was the same regardless of whether or
not PDOs were included in the analysis.
       Unusual patterns were observed for crash rates in the lowest and highest ADT ranges (i.e.,
ADT < 150 or ADT > 10,000) as bridges with approach guardrail had more crashes than bridges
without approach guardrail. Two explanations are given for this phenomenon. First, a highly
unbalanced number of bridges existed between bridges with and without approach guardrail for
each of these ADT ranges. Second, for bridges in the highest ADT range, the average ADT for
bridges with and without approach guardrail differed greatly with ADTs of 19,674 vpd and
16,242 vpd, respectively.




                                                24
                                          3.5
                                                                                                                18 7
     Total Crashes per Bridge during


                                            3                        With Approach GR
                                          2.5                        Without Approach GR
                1988-2002




                                            2
                                                                                                       20 5
                                          1.5    Number of Bridges
                                                 in ADT Range
                                                                                    36 29
                                            1
                                                                                              29 16
                                                6 63         21 72       25 51
                                          0.5

                                            0
                                                <150       150-399       400-749 750-1499     1500-    5000-    10000<
                                                                                              4999     9999
                                                                            Average Daily Traffic


 a. Run-Off-The-Road and Fixed-Object Crashes: All Crashes


                                          1.6
  Total Injury/Fatal Crashes per Bridge




                                          1.4                  With Approach GR
                                          1.2                  Without Approach GR
             during 1988-2002




                                           1

                                          0.8

                                          0.6

                                          0.4

                                          0.2

                                           0
                                                <150       150-399       400-749   750-1499    1500-    5000-    10000<
                                                                                               4999     9999
                                                                             Average Daily Traffic

b. Run-Off-The-Road and Fixed-Object Crashes: Injury/Fatals Only
Figure 4.4. Crash Frequency per Bridge versus ADT Range and Approach Guardrail
Presence




                                                                                   25
ANALYSIS OF CODED CRASH TYPES
        The researchers were particularly interested in whether or not the presence of approach
guardrail had an effect on bridge-crash type. However, this analysis was not possible using only
the crash information from the Minnesota crash database because crashes with approach
guardrail and all other bridge components were coded in the crash database together as TYPE 31
“bridge piers.” Thus, based on the database information, only the TYPE codes could be
analyzed as described in the paragraphs that follow. A comprehensive analysis of approach
guardrail effectiveness was performed using information obtained from the police crash-reports
and is described in Chapter 5.
        The researchers believed that the presence of guardrail on bridge approaches may
redistribute the types of crashes that occur. For example, run-off-the-road fixed-object and
rollover crashes are expected to be less frequent where guardrail is present. In addition, crashes
with bridge components (i.e., crash TYPE 31) may actually increase when approach guardrail is
present. The researchers were particularly interested in the effect that guardrail had on the
frequency and severity of crashes with bridge components versus roadside fixed-object crashes
and rollover crashes. To avoid “sparse” categories for the analysis (i.e., cell frequency < 5),
similar crash types were clustered into the three categories based on TYPE code as follows:

      •   Fixed-Object – Roadside (i.e, not related to the bridge), included:
                o TYPE 24 (light pole), 25 (utility pole), 26 (sign structure), 27 (mailbox), 28
                    (other poles), 29 (hydrant), 30 (tree/shrubbery), 35 (fence), 38 (wall), 39
                    (rock outcrops), 41 (other fixed-object), 42 (unknown type of fixed-object)
      •   Fixed-Object – Bridge, included:
                o 31 (bridge piers), 32 (median safety barrier), 33 (crash cushion), 34
                    (guardrail), 36 (culvert/headwall)
      •   Rollover/Ditch, included:
                o 37 (embankment/ditch), 51 (overturn/rollover), 52 (submersion)

         The hypotheses were tested using a 2-way Pearson chi-square test for independence of
                     (oij − eij ) 2
the form χ = ∑∑
            2
                                    , where oij = observed frequency and eij = expected frequency for
                 i j      eij
cell ij. The probability of eij is computed by multiplying the row total count by column total
count divided by the overall total count for the table. The Pearson chi-square test measures the
independence (or level of association) between the rows and columns in the table; for example,
testing the null hypothesis (Ho) that bridge-crash type does not depend on the presence/absence
of approach guardrail. The degrees of freedom for a 2-way Pearson chi-square test = (# rows -
1)*(# columns -1). All statistical testing was performed at a 95 percent level of confidence. In
other words, a p-value of less than 0.05 indicates a statistically significant difference between the
row-by-row distribution of crashes for bridges with approach guardrail versus those without.
All Bridges
       The researchers first analyzed database crashes from all 398 bridges to determine if the
presence of approach guardrail had an effect on the types of run-off-the-road crashes occurring at
bridges. Table 4.2 and Figure 4.5 present the results of the chi-square analysis for database
crashes occurring at the 398 bridges during the 15-year analysis period.


                                                 26
Table 4.2. Chi-Square Test for Crash Type versus Guardrail Presence, All Bridges
                        Percent
Crash Type Cluster      No GR         GR       Total         Total Count
Fixed Obj. - Roadside   13.5          24.3     20.2          50
Fixed Obj. - Bridge     45.8          44.7     45.1          112
Rollover/Ditch          40.6          30.9     34.7          86
Total Percent           100.0         100.0    100.0         248
Total Count             96            152      248
Test statistic          Value         df       Prob          Statistically Significant Differences?
Pearson chi-square      5.018         2        0.081         No



                    No GR                                                      GR

  FO-Bridge                                                                                  FO-Roadside
                                         FO-Roadside

                                                       FO-Bridge




                                                                                             Roll/Ditch
                                  Roll/Ditch

Figure 4.5. Crash Type versus Guardrail Presence, All Bridges


         Both Table 4.2 and Figure 4.5 show slight, although non-statistically significant,
differences in the proportion of crash types that occur at the bridges – particularly fixed-object
roadside and rollover/ditch crashes. Rollover/ditch crashes are slightly more frequent for bridges
without guardrail than bridges with guardrail, which was expected. Crashes with non-bridge-
related fixed-objects on the roadside were more frequent for bridges with approach guardrail
than those without, which was not expected. However, none of these differences were
statistically significant and thus could not be attributed to the presence or absence of approach
guardrail.
Data Separated by ADT
        Because crash frequency may be influenced by traffic volume, the researchers deemed it
appropriate to perform the analysis with data separated into similar ADT categories. To avoid
the problems associated with sparse categories, data were split into only two ADT classes: ADT
≤ 1,000 vpd and ADT > 1,000 vpd. The results of the analysis are found in Table 4.3 and Figure
4.6 that follow.




                                                   27
Table 4.3. Chi-Square Test for Crash Type versus Guardrail Presence Separated by ADT
               Crash Type Cluster         No GR (pct.)   GR (pct.)   Total (pct.)   Total Count
               Fixed Obj. - Roadside      10.6           21.8        14.2           14
               Fixed Obj. - Bridge        40.9           43.7        41.8           41
               Rollover/Ditch             48.4           34.3        43.8           43
 ADT ≤ 1,000   Total Percent              100.0          100.0       100.0
               Total Count                66             32          98
                                                                                    Statistically Significant
               Test statistic             Value          Df          Prob
                                                                                    Differences?
               Pearson chi-square         2.935          2.000       0.230          No
               Crash Type Cluster         No GR (pct.)   GR (pct.)   Total (pct.)   Total Count
               Fixed Obj. - Roadside      20.0           25.0        24.0           36
               Fixed Obj. - Bridge        56.6           45.0        47.3           71
               Rollover/Ditch             23.3           30.0        28.6           43
  ADT >1,000   Total Percent              100.0          100.0       100.0
               Total Count                30             120         150
                                                                                    Statistically Significant
               Test statistic             Value          df          Prob
                                                                                    Differences?
               Pearson chi-square         1.312          2.000       0.519          No


               No GR                                                         GR
  FO-Bridge
                                                                                            FO-Roadside
                                    FO-Roadside
                                                    FO-Bridge




                                                                                         Roll/Ditch
                       Roll/Ditch
                                       a. ADT ≤ 1,000

                        No GR                                                GR

                                                                                            FO-Roadside
                                       FO-Roadside



 FO-Bridge                                          FO-Bridge



                                       Roll/Ditch
                                                                                            Roll/Ditch

                                       b. ADT > 1,000
Figure 4.6. Crash Type versus Guardrail Presence and ADT Category


                                             28
        Based on Table 4.3 and Figures 4.6a-b, it does not appear that separation of database
crashes into ADT category has any improved effect on the analysis as no statistically significant
differences were found between the crash types for bridges with approach guardrail versus those
without.

ANALYSIS OF CRASH SEVERITY
        The researchers were also interested in whether or not the presence of approach guardrail
had an effect on CSAH bridge-crash severity. Guardrail is not intended to reduce the frequency
of crashes, although it is designed to reduce the severity of crashes when they occur. Because of
this the researchers hypothesized that presence of approach guardrail at bridges would result in a
lower crash severity. In other words, guardrail was expected to be associated with a lesser
proportion of severe injury/fatal crashes (i.e., K, A, B, and C crash severities using KABCO
scale) and greater proportion of property damage (PDO) crashes.
       A Pearson chi-square analysis of the crash severity for bridges with approach guardrail
versus those without was performed on the database crashes. Again, all statistical testing
performed at a 95 percent level of confidence. A more comprehensive severity analysis was
performed using information obtained from the police crash-reports and is described in Chapter 5.
All Bridges
        The researchers first analyzed data from all 398 bridges to determine if the presence of
approach guardrail had an effect on the crash severity. Table 4.4 and Figure 4.7 present the
results of the chi-square analysis for crashes occurring at the 398 bridges during the 15-year
analysis period.


Table 4.4. Chi-Square Test for Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence, All Bridges
                                Percent
Crash Severity                  No GR     GR       Total     Total Count
A (incapacitating injury)       10.2      7.6      8.7       23
B (non-incapacitating injury)   18.6      23.7     21.6      57
C (possible injury)             14.9      16.6     15.9      42
K (fatal)                       5.6       0.6      2.6       7
PDO (no injury)                 50.4      51.2     50.9      134
Total Percent                   100.0     100.0    100.0
Total Count                     107       156      263
Test statistic                  Value     df       Prob      Statistically Significant Differences?
Pearson chi-square              7.233     4.000    0.124     No




                                                  29
                      No GR                                               GR
                              B                                                 B
              C
                                                               C
                                        A
                                                                                          A
          K                                                K




                            PDO                                        PDO

Figure 4.7. Crash Severity (KABCO scale) versus Guardrail Presence, All Bridges


         Both Table 4.4 and Figure 4.7 show only slight non-statistically significant differences in
the proportion of crash types that occur versus presence of approach guardrail. It is important to
note that only one of the 156 crashes (0.6 percent) at bridges with approach guardrail was a
fatality compared to six of the 107 crashes (5.6 percent) at bridges without approach guardrail.
This finding will be discussed in greater detail in the analysis of police crash-reports described in
Part 4 of this chapter.
Data Separated by ADT
        Again, because crash frequency is influenced by traffic volumes, the researchers deemed
it appropriate to perform the severity analysis with data separated into similar ADT categories.
To avoid a high number of sparse categories, (i.e., cell frequency < 5) injury/fatal crashes were
pooled together (i.e., K, A, B, and C crash severities) and analyzed versus PDO crashes. To
further address problems associated with sparse categories, data were split into only two ADT
classes: ADT ≤ 1,000 vpd and ADT > 1,000 vpd. The results of the analysis are found in Table
4.5 and Figure 4.8.




                                                 30
Table 4.5. Chi-Square Test for Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence Separated by ADT
                  Crash Severity                    No GR (pct.)   GR (pct.)     Total (pct.)       Total Count
                  A (incapacitating injury)         13.3           14.7          13.7               15
                  B (non-incapacitating injury)     21.3           17.6          20.1               22
                  C (possible injury)               12.0           26.4          16.5               18
                  K (fatal)                         5.3            0.0           3.6                4
   ADT ≤ 1,000    PDO (no injury)                   48.0           41.1          45.8               50
                  Total Percent                     100.0          100.0         100.0
                  Total Count                       75             34            109
                                                                                                    Statistically Significant
                  Test statistic                    Value          df            Prob
                                                                                                    Differences?
                  Pearson chi-square                5.207          4.000         0.267              No
                  Crash Severity                    No GR (pct.)   GR (pct.)     Total (pct.)       Total Count
                  A (incapacitating injury)         3.1            5.7           5.1                8
                  B (non-incapacitating injury)     12.5           25.4          22.7               35
                  C (possible injury)               21.8           13.9          15.5               24
                  K (fatal)                         6.2            0.8           1.9                3
    ADT >1,000    PDO (no injury)                   56.2           54.0          54.5               84
                  Total Percent                     100.0          100.0         100.0
                  Total Count                       32             122           154
                                                                                                    Statistically Significant
                  Test statistic                    Value          df            Prob
                                                                                                    Differences?
                  Pearson chi-square                7.077          4.000         0.132              No


                  No GR                                                                   GR
                         B                                                                      B


          C                                 A                                                                     A

                                                                     C
      K


                                                                         K


                             PDO                                                                      PDO
                                            a. ADT ≤ 1,000
                  No GR                                                                    GR
                   C                                                                                    B

                                        B                                    C
          K
                                                                        K                                             A
                                                A




                 PDO                                                                    PDO
                                            b. ADT > 1,000

Figure 4.8. Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence and ADT Category



                                                      31
       Based on Table 4.5 and Figure 4.8, it does not appear that separation of crashes into ADT
category has any improved effect on the analysis. Similar to the analysis of all data, fatalities
were considerably lower for bridges with approach guardrail versus those without in both ADT
categories.




                                               32
                                   CHAPTER 5:
                     ANALYSIS OF POLICE CRASH-REPORT DATA

        The major objective of the research described herein was to determine if the presence of
approach guardrail had an effect on both the type and severity of crashes occurring near the
respective bridges. In particular, the researchers hypothesized that for crashes occurring near
bridges, the presence of approach guardrail would result in:

      •   A greater proportion of guardrail crashes;
      •   A lower proportion of other types of fixed-object crashes (i.e., bridge rail, trees,
          ditches) and rollover crashes; and
      •   A lower proportion of severe crashes (i.e., fatal and A-injury).

       Collisions with approach guardrail and all other bridge components were combined into a
single database code: TYPE 31 “bridge piers”. As a result, the effectiveness of approach
guardrail could not be specifically determined using solely the crash database information.
Furthermore, the researchers wanted to focus solely on the crashes that could be directly related
to the presence or absence of approach guardrail. Therefore, a detailed microscopic review of
the respective police crash-reports was required.
CRASH REPORT ACQUISITION
        Hard copies of specific police crash-reports were requested from Mn/DOT. Although a
time consuming task, analyzing the diagrams and descriptions contained within each police
crash-report provided detailed information that was not available from the Mn/DOT crash
database. Researchers also had several questions pertaining to the crash coding methods for
certain fixed-object collisions, namely the predominant types of objects struck for TYPE 31
“bridge pier” crashes.
         A police report was requested for all crashes meeting one or more of the following
criteria:

      •   Crashes with a bridge or safety component:
                   o Crash TYPE = 31 (bridge pier), 32 (median barrier), 33 (crash cushion),
                      34 (guardrail), 36 (culvert);
      •   Crashes with a roadside fixed-object or rollover:
                   o Crash TYPE = 25 (utility pole), 26 (sign structure), 30 (tree/shrubbery),
                      37 (embankment/ditch/ culvert), 41 (other fixed-object), 51 (rollover), or
                      90 (other type of crash); or
      •   Injury TYPE = K or A.

     238 of the 263 total run-off-the-road and fixed-object crashes met the above requirement
and were thus requested from Mn/DOT.




                                               33
REPORT SCREENING AND FILTERING
       After receiving the hard copies of the 238 crash reports, researchers analyzed each of the
diagrams and crash descriptions to obtain the following information:

      •   Did the crash involve a bridge component (including approach guardrail) or did a run-
          off-the-road crash occur very near the bridge, potentially prevented by approach- or
          departure-side guardrail connected to the bridge?
      •   Did the crash occur on the approach side of the bridge, departure side, or on the bridge
          itself?
      •   If approach (or departure) guardrail did not exist, would approach (or departure)
          guardrail have improved the situation either through redirection of the vehicle back
          onto the roadway or attenuation of the vehicle with the end of the bridge rail?
      •   If approach (or departure) guardrail did exist, was it effective at preventing a
          potentially more severe crash?
      •   Did the coded crash type fit the police officer’s description?

       After each report was reviewed, the researchers assessed whether or not it was
appropriate for inclusion in any of the desired analyses based on the following criteria:

      •   The crash occurred on the approach or departure and within approximately 200 feet of
          the appropriate CSAH bridge and
      •   The crash involved collision with a bridge component, roadside fixed-object, or other
          roadside collision.

Screening Results
         Of the 238 reports that were screened, ten were unusable for a variety of reasons, such as:
illegible report, no diagram or description on file, and/or lack of relevant information. Of the
228 usable reports now available, 100 were determined not to be related to the objectives of this
analysis in that they were most likely unrelated to the presence/absence of approach guardrail.
Many of these crashes were run-off-the-road crashes occurring within the designated bridge
‘zone’ as described in the crash database analysis but outside the reach of the typical guardrail
application. Another 26 crashes were removed from the analysis because they occurred entirely
while the vehicle was on bridge and were thus unaffected by the presence/absence of approach
guardrail. Most of these 26 crashes were PDO involving a sideswipe with the bridge rail.
Finally, six reports involved motorcycles and were also excluded from the analysis. Thus, 96 of
the initial 238 crash reports were used in the final analyses.
       Of the 96 analyzed crash reports, 47 involved crashes occurring at 32 bridges with
approach guardrail, while the remaining 49 crashes occurred at 36 bridges without approach
guardrail. Table 5.1 displays the frequency of target crashes at the sample CSAH bridges.




                                                34
Table 5.1. Crash Frequency at CSAH Bridges
                                     Number of Bridges
Crashes Observed per Bridge    No GR       GR          Total
              1                 27         23           50
              2                  5          7           12
              3                  4          1            5
              7                  0          1            1
Total Bridges                    36        32           68
Total Crashes                   49         47           96


        The specific detail provided in the police report sketches and narratives allowed for a
detailed microscopic analysis of crashes that were very likely affected by approach guardrail or
the lack thereof. Thus, detailed analyses of the safety effectiveness of approach guardrail could
be performed. The results of the safety analyses were later used to determine the financial
savings provided by approach guardrail at various levels of traffic.
ANALYSES AND RESULTS
       Numerous analyses were performed to satisfy the research objectives, including:

       •   Initial object struck:
           o Chi-square analysis for object struck versus guardrail presence,
           o Chi-square analysis for object struck versus guardrail presence for TYPE 31
               crashes only,
       •   Crash severity:
           o Logistic regression analysis for crash severity versus object struck, surface
               condition, 2004 ADT, speed limit, deck width, and deck width minus approach
               width,
           o Chi-square analysis for crash severity versus guardrail presence,
           o Chi-square analysis for crash severity versus object struck,
       •   Guardrail effectiveness and placement:
           o Chi-square analysis for effectiveness of guardrail based on type of collision and
               guardrail presence, and
           o Assessment of the need for departure-side guardrail in addition to approach-side
               guardrail.

       The following sections detail the analyses and their results.
Initial Object Struck versus Guardrail Presence
       The initial analysis focused on whether or not the presence of approach guardrail had an
effect on the initial object struck. The researchers hypothesized that presence of approach
guardrail would result in a greater occurrence of guardrail crashes and a lesser occurrence of
crashes with all other types of bridge components, roadside fixed-objects, and rollover crashes
when compared to bridges without approach guardrail.




                                                35
        Table 5.2 displays a breakdown of the crash types for the 96 crashes as coded in the
Minnesota database. The summarized list of attributes from the 96 crash reports, including
police descriptions and diagram summaries, can be found in Appendix F.


Table 5.2. Coded Crash Types versus Guardrail Presence
Crash Type               No GR       GR         Total
25 “utility pole”                0           1            1
26 “sign structure/post”         1           1            2
30 “tree/shrubbery”              4           1            5
31 “bridge piers”               33          34           67
33 “crash cushion”               0           1            1
34 “guardrail”                  1            2            3
35 “fence”                       0           1            1
37 “embankment”                 2            1            3
41 “other fixed-object”          1           0            1
51 “overturn/rollover”           7           5           12
Total                           49          47           96


        Table 5.2 shows 67 of the 96 crashes (69 percent) occurring near the bridges were coded
in the database as TYPE 31 “bridge piers,” while very few crashes were coded TYPE 34
“guardrail”. Discussions with Mn/DOT staff indicated that for crashes included in this study,
database TYPE 31 “bridge piers” represented crashes with any component of the bridge,
including approach guardrail. TYPE 34 represented crashes with other guardrail not connected
to a bridge. Thus, the Minnesota crash-reporting system does not include a specific code for
either bridge rail or approach guardrail; rather both were included in TYPE 31 making it
impossible to make inferences on the effectiveness of guardrail based solely on analysis of
database crash records. A breakdown of the initial object struck for crashes coded as TYPE 31
can be found in the next section of this report. A more detailed explanation of the Minnesota
coding procedures for crash TYPE exists in Appendix G.
        The researchers used the diagrams and descriptions from the crash report to determine the
initial object struck (or first harmful event, in the case of roadside crashes) for each of the
crashes. Because of the uncontrolled variation in the roadside conditions from bridge to bridge,
all roadside crashes not involving a bridge component were clustered together in a single
category. The hypotheses were tested using a Pearson two-way chi-square test for independence
at a 95 percent level of confidence. Table 5.3 and Figure 5.1 display the results of the chi-square
analysis.




                                                 36
Table 5.3. Chi-Square Test for Initial Object Struck versus Guardrail Presence
                        Percent
Initial Object Struck   No GR     GR         Total     Total Count
Bridge Rail (BR)        71.4      6.4        39.6      38
Guardrail (GR)          0.0       51.1       25.0      24
BR/GR Connection        0.0       19.1       9.4       9
Roadside                28.6      23.4       26.0      25
Total Percent           100.0     100.0      100.0     96
Total Count             49        47         96
Test statistic          Value     df         Prob      Statistically Significant Differences?
Pearson chi-square      60.292    3.000      0.000     Yes



                    No GR                                               GR
                                                                                    BR/GR
          BR


                                                                                            BR

                                                     GR


                                                                                         Roadside
                                  Roadside
                GR
             BR/GR
Figure 5.1. Initial Object Struck versus Guardrail Presence


        Table 5.3 and Figure 5.1 show that approximately 71 percent of the crashes occurring
near bridges without approach guardrail were collisions with the bridge rail, while approximately
29 percent were collisions with a roadside fixed-object or rollover. As expected, the results were
much different for bridges with approach guardrail. Seventy percent of the crashes near bridges
with approach guardrail involved collision with either the guardrail or the bridge rail/guardrail
connection, while only six percent were collisions with the bridge rail. Roadside collisions
comprised 23 percent of the crashes for bridges with guardrail.
Initial Object Struck versus Guardrail Presence for Crashes Coded as TYPE 31
       As previously stated, the Minnesota crash reporting system does not included a specific
code for either bridge rail or approach guardrail, rather both were typically coded as TYPE 31
“bridge piers,” which represented crashes with any component of the bridge, including approach
guardrail. A detailed review of the police diagrams/descriptions showed all of the 67 analyzed
crashes coded in the database as TYPE 31 “bridge piers” were bridge rail and approach guardrail
crashes. Table 5.4 and Figure 5.2 display a breakdown of the initial objects struck for the 67
crashes coded with TYPE = 31.




                                                37
Table 5.4. Initial Object Struck for Crashes Coded as TYPE 31
                        Percent
Initial Object Struck   No GR     GR        Total      Total Count
Bridge Rail (BR)        100.0     17.6      58.2       39
Guardrail (GR)          0.0       58.8      29.8       20
BR/GR Connection        0.0       23.6      12.0       8
Total Percent           100.0     100.0     100.0      67
Total Count             33        34        67


                        No GR                                             GR
                                                           BR/GR
                                                                                     BR



                                          GR
                                          BR/GR
        BR




                                                                     GR

Figure 5.2. Initial Object Struck for Crashes Coded as TYPE 31


        Many interesting findings are displayed in Table 5.4 and Figure 5.2. All of the TYPE 31
collisions for bridges without approach guardrail were collisions with the bridge rail. However,
for bridges with approach guardrail, the primary fixed-objects struck included: guardrail (59
percent), bridge rail (18 percent), and the bridge rail/guardrail connection (23 percent).
Interestingly, none of the 67 crashes coded as TYPE 31 were actually pier (i.e., supporting
column) strikes. This is not surprising since a pier strike on a typical CSAH bridge over water is
virtually impossible, since it would require a vehicle to run-off-the-road and travel back under
the bridge in order to strike a pier column. Thus, using the description of “bridge pier” for TYPE
31 is a misnomer, at least for bridges over water.
Logistic Regression Analysis for Crash Severity versus Various Bridge and Crash Factors
        Logistic regression modeling was used to predict crash severity as a function of various
bridge and crash factors for the sample of 96 crashes. Logistic regression is useful for predicting
the probability of an outcome based on values of a set of predictor variables. Specifically,
ordinal logistic regression was used here because the response for the dependent variable
(severity) is ordered, but the distances are non-numeric (i.e., A-injury is more severe than B-
injury). The ordinal logistic regression model for binary response has the form:




                                                  38
                                           pi 
                                                       = α + β Xi                                     (1)
                                                               '
                                       ln 
                                           (1 − pi ) 

              Where:     pi = Probability( yi = y1 | X i ) is the response probability to be modeled (i.e.,
                              crash severity given that a crash has occurred), and y1 is the first
                              ordered level of y
                        α = Intercept parameter
                        β ' = Vector of slope parameters
                        X i = Vector of predictor variables

        A stepwise ordinal logistic regression model was developed for crash severity versus
object struck, surface condition, 2004 ADT, speed limit, deck width, and deck width minus
approach width. These predictor variables were chosen because they are often associated with
crash severity. The alpha for a predictor to be entered into the stepwise model was 0.10. The
analysis was run in SAS using the LOGISTIC procedure. The results are displayed in Table 5.5
with discussion to follow.


Table 5.5. Results of Ordinal Logistic Regression Analysis for Crash Severity
Summary of Stepwise Selection
Step Entered      DF      No. In Score Chi-Square Pr > Chi-square
1    OBJECT 2             1           7.8278               0.0200
No additional predictors met the 0.1 significance level necessary for entry into the model.
Predictors not entered: SURFACE COND., ADT, SPEED LIMIT, DECK WIDTH, DECK WIDTH - APP. WIDTH

Score Test for the Proportional Odds Assumption
Chi-Square DF Pr > Chi-square
5.3263       2      0.0697

Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Estimates
Parameter             DF Estimate Std. Error Chi-Square Pr > Chi-square
Intercept (K/A)        1 -2.3331      0.4229  30.4366    <.0001 Sig.
Intercept (K/A + B/C) 1 -0.3460       0.3470   0.9942     0.3187 Insig.
OBJECT Roadside       1 1.0233        0.5134  3.9719      0.0463 Sig.
OBJECT Bridge Rail 1 1.1973          0.4674   6.5610     0.0104 Sig.

Odds Ratio Estimates
Effect                          Point Estimate      95% Confidence Limits
OBJECT Roadside vs Guardrail     2.782               1.017   7.611
OBJECT Bridge Rail vs Guardrail 3.311                1.325   8.276


        The stepwise logistic regression analysis showed object struck (OBJECT) to be the only
predictor variable with a significant effect on the response variable, crash severity. Interpretation
of the score test verifies that the proportional odds model is adequately valid for fitting the data
(p-value = 0.0697). Thus, the odds-ratio estimates could then be used to determine the
probability of a certain crash severity based on the object struck in the collision. Because the




                                                      39
ordinal logistic regression equation is a binary function, two equations were necessary to
represent the three severity levels (K or A-injury, B- or C-injury, PDO):

                       πK/A        
            ln                      = −2.3331 + 1.0233 xroadside + 1.1973 xbridgerail                     (2)
                (π B / C + π PDO ) 
                (π    + π B/C ) 
            ln  K / A            = −0.3460 + 1.0233 xroadside + 1.1973 xbridgerail                        (3)
                   π PDO        

            Where: π K / A = Probability of Fatal or A-injury
                    π B / C = Probability of B- or C-injury
                    π PDO = Probability of Property Damage Only
                    xroadside = Roadside crash indicator (1 if yes, 0 otherwise)
                    xbridgerail = Bridge rail crash indicator (1 if yes, 0 otherwise)
                         Note: Guardrail crash is indicated by 0’s for both xroadside and xbridgerail

        Accordingly, based on the preceding equations, the predicted probabilities for each crash
severity versus object struck can be calculated in the following way:

                                                      eequation (2)
                                          πK/A =                                                            (4)
                                                    1 + eequation (2)

                                eequation(3)     eequation(2)                          e equation (3)
                     πB/C =                   −                 , (π K / A + π B/C =                    )   (5)
                              1 + eequation(3) 1 + eequation(2)                      1 + e equation (3)

                                       π PDO = 1 − (π K / A + π B / C )                                     (6)

        Using equations 4, 5, and 6, the probabilities of a crash being of K/A, B/C, and PDO
severity level can be calculated for collisions with the roadside, bridge rail, and guardrail as
shown in Table 5.6.


Table 5.6. Probabilities of Crash Severity versus Object Struck Based on Logistic Regression
             Probability
Severity     Roadside       Bridge Rail Guardrail
PDO          0.337          0.299         0.586
B/C          0.451          0.458         0.326
K/A          0.213          0.243         0.088


        Table 5.6 shows that fatal and A-injuries are approximately 2.5 more likely to result if the
collision occurs with the roadside or bridge rail versus guardrail. Guardrail collisions are
roughly twice as likely to result in no injuries versus roadside or bridge rail collisions. The most
severe collisions are those with the bridge rail, although roadside collisions are nearly as severe.



                                                           40
Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence
Also of interest was whether or not the presence of approach guardrail had an effect on crash
severity. Although guardrail is not intended to reduce the frequency of crashes, it is designed to
reduce the severity of crashes when they occur. Because of this, the researchers hypothesized
that presence of approach guardrail at bridges would result in a lower crash severity. In other
words, guardrail was expected to be associated with a lesser proportion of severe injury/fatal
crashes (i.e., K and A crash severities) and greater proportion of property damage (PDO) crashes.
The hypothesis was tested using a two-way Pearson chi-square test for independence, performed
at a 95 percent level of confidence. To avoid sparse categories in the chi-squared test, crashes
were clustered into three severity categories: PDO, B/C, and K/A. Table 5.7 and Figure 5.3 show
the clustered KABCO severity rates and associated chi-squared analysis.


Table 5.7. Chi-Square Test for Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence
                                                     Percent
Crash Severity                                       No GR     GR      Total        Total Count
PDO (no injury)                                      36.7      46.8    41.7         40
B/C (non-incapacitating injury or possible injury)   34.7      46.8    40.6         39
K/A (fatal or incapacitating injury)                 28.6      6.4     17.7         17
Total                                                100.0     100.0   100.0
N                                                    49        47      96
                                                                                    Statistically Significant
Test statistic                                       Value     df      Prob
                                                                                    Differences?
Pearson chi-square                                   8.121     2.000   0.017        Yes


                        No GR                                                  GR
                                  PDO                                           PDO




                                                                                                  K/A
         B/C

                                         K/A
                                                                        B/C

Figure 5.3. Crash Severity versus Guardrail Presence


         Table 5.7 and Figure 5.3 show that crashes occurring near the CSAH bridges were
significantly less severe when approach guardrail existed than when it did not exist. While
guardrail did not appear to have a large effect on the proportion of B- and C-injury crashes,
fatality and A-injury crashes accounted for a much smaller proportion of the crashes for bridges
with approach guardrail as only three of the 47 crashes (six percent) were coded as K or A-injury.
Alarmingly, 14 of the 49 crashes (28.5 percent) occurring at bridges without approach guardrail
resulted in either a fatality or A-injury – a rate that is 4.5 times greater than at bridges where


                                                        41
guardrail exists on the approach. Further discussion of the K and A-injury crashes analyzed here
is provided in the following section.
Discussion of Fatal and Severe Injury Crashes
       The researchers thoroughly investigated the crash reports for each of the 17 fatal and
severe injury (i.e., A-injury) crashes that occurred near the sample bridges. Table 5.8
summarizes the attributes of these crashes.




                                                42
Table 5.8. Fatal and A-Injury Crash Details
                                                                                          Initial     Was guardrail
                                                                                          object      effective or if
 Did bridge                                                                               struck or   guardrail did
   have                                                                                   first       not exist,
 approach     2004    Crash     Crash                                                     harmful     would it have
 Guardrail?   ADT    severity   type             Summary of police description            event       been effective?
                                        Swerved to miss deer; struck corner of bridge     Bridge      Potentially
    No        425       A        31
                                        rail near end on approach                         Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        Lost control on slippery road, crossed
                                                                                          Bridge      Potentially
    No        790       A        31     centerline and side-impacted the end of the
                                                                                          Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        bridge rail end
                                        Crossed centerline and struck the bridge          Bridge      Potentially
    No        205       A        31
                                        railing head-on and continued off the roadway     Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        Head-on strike to end of bridge rail on           Bridge      Potentially
    No        394       A        31
                                        approach                                          Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        Head-on strike to end of bridge rail on           Bridge      Potentially
    No        1445      A        31
                                        approach                                          Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        Lost control on icy road and struck end of        Bridge      Potentially
    No        8846      A        31
                                        bridge rail head-on                               Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        Crossed centerline, ROR and struck bank of        Embank-     Potentially
    No        317       A        37
                                        waterway                                          ment        (Redirection)
                                        Swerved to miss deer, crossed centerline,
                                                                                          Ditch/      Potentially
    No        418       A        51     ROR into ditch just ahead of bridge and rolled
                                                                                          Rollover    (Redirection)
                                        over
                                        ROR on the right (approx. 177-ft upstream of
                                        the bridge), went into ditch, sideswiped one                  Potentially
    No        343       K        30                                                       Tree
                                        tree and struck another head-on, vehicle                      (Redirection)
                                        engulfed in fire
                                        Struck end of bridge rail head-on on the
                                                                                          Bridge      Potentially
    No        481       K        31     approach, went through the rail and into the
                                                                                          Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        creek; a piece of the rail went through the car
                                        Struck end of bridge rail head-on on the
                                                                                          Bridge      Potentially
    No        1507      K        31     approach, railing came through cab striking
                                                                                          Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        driver, car flipped and came to rest in creek
                                        ROR to left, overcorrected back to right,
                                        struck end of bridge rail with rear of veh
                                                                                          Bridge      Potentially
    No        826       K        31     (sheared off rear of veh), vaulted down river
                                                                                          Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        bank striking trees, coming to rest submerged
                                        in the river
                                        Lost control of veh and driver side collided      Bridge      Potentially
    No        833       K        31
                                        with end of bridge rail on approach               Rail        (Attenuation)
                                        Crossed centerline, ROR on left side near
                                                                                          Ditch/      Potentially
    No        1455      K        51     bridge (but did not strike), struck ditch, went
                                                                                          Rollover    (Redirection)
                                        airborne, and overturned
                                                                                                      No (ROR on
                                        ROR onto shoulder, overcorrected back onto
                                                                                          Bridge      departure side
    Yes       249       A        31     roadway, rolled on roadway and overturned,
                                                                                          Rail        where GR did
                                        and struck bridge rail where veh came to rest
                                                                                                      not exist)
                                                                                                      No (ROR on
                                        Crossed centerline, ROR on left side about                    departure side
                                                                                          Ditch/
    Yes       253       A        51     150-ft prior to bridge, struck ditch then tree                where GR
                                                                                          Rollover
                                        and rolled multiple times into creek.                         existed but was
                                                                                                      short)
                                                                                                      No (ROR on
                                        ROR on the right side approximately 100-ft
                                                                                          Ditch/      departure side
    Yes       5629      K        37     past bridge, went into ditch, collided with
                                                                                          Culvert     where GR did
                                        culvert wall, went airborne and landed on roof
                                                                                                      not exist)




                                                      43
        Table 5.8 shows that for each of the 14 fatal or severe-injury crashes at bridges without
approach guardrail, the severity of those crashes could potentially have been reduced had
guardrail been in place when the collision occurred. In ten of these 14 crashes, the vehicle struck
the end of the unprotected bridge rail – usually head-on. Had approach guardrail been present in
these cases, it would likely have either attenuated the vehicle from a direct impact on the blunt
end of the rail or redirected the vehicle back onto the roadway before impacting the bridge rail.
The other four crashes were a result of the vehicle running-off-the-road and striking a roadside
object or rolling over. Had approach guardrail existed in these cases, it would likely have
redirected the vehicle back onto the roadway, thereby preventing the more severe run-off-the-
road collision.
        For the three severe crashes that occurred at bridges with approach guardrail, the
collisions occurred on the departure side of the bridges, which either did not have guardrail or
had a section of guardrail that was too short to prevent the collision.
Crash Severity versus Initial Object Struck
        Table 5.8 showed that none of the 17 fatal or severe injury crashes involved a collision
with approach guardrail. All of the severe crashes were either collision with the end of the
bridge rail, collision with a roadside object, or roadside rollover. Table 5.9 and Figure 5.4 show
how the collision object affects crash severity. Note, “GR” also included crashes that occurred at
the bridge rail/guardrail connection.


Table 5.9. Chi-Square Test for Crash Severity versus Initial Object Struck
                                                     Percent
Crash Severity                                       Roadside     BR         GR      Total   Total Count
PDO (no injury)                                      36.0         34.2       54.5    41.7    40
B/C (non-incapacitating injury or possible injury)   40.0         36.8       45.5    40.6    39
K/A (fatal or incapacitating injury)                 24.0         28.9       0.0     17.7    17
Total                                                100.0        100.0      100.0   100.0
N                                                    25           38         33      96
                                                                                             Statistically Significant
Test statistic                                       Value        df         Prob
                                                                                             Differences?
Pearson chi-square                                   11.452       4.000      0.022           Yes


                 Roadside                                    BR                                    GR
                          PDO                                          PDO                   PDO




                                        B/C
B/C
                                  K/A
                                                                             K/A
                                                                                                           B/C

Figure 5.4. Crash Severity versus Initial Object Struck


                                                       44
        Table 5.9 and Figure 5.4 clearly show that collision with approach guardrail resulted in a
significantly lower proportion of fatalities and A-injuries and a significantly higher proportion of
PDO crashes. As stated earlier, zero of the fatal and A-injury crashes involved collision with the
approach guardrail. Roadside collisions and collisions with the ends of the bridge rail each
resulted in similar proportions of fatalities and A-injuries (24 percent and 29 percent,
respectively). The type of object struck had only a moderate effect on the proportion of B/C
injuries. Importantly, the data shown in Table 5.9 and Figure 5.4 correlate very closely with the
severity probabilities shown in Table 5.6 that were predicted by the logistic regression analysis.
Effectiveness of Guardrail Based on Type of Collision and Guardrail Presence
       The information obtained from the police descriptions and diagrams, in most cases
allowed the researchers to determine the following:

      •   If approach guardrail existed, was it effective in preventing a potentially more serious
          crash?
      •   If no approach guardrail existed, would guardrail have potentially reduced the severity
          of the crash (i.e., provided attenuation from the bridge rail end or kept the vehicle on
          the roadway)?

       The following graphs display the findings from this analysis of the 96 crashes near the
sample bridges with and without approach guardrail.


              No GR                                                    GR
      Yes (Atten.)
                                                          No (Short)
                                                                                  No (Dep ROR)
                                                    No (Vault)


                                       (Vault)
                                       (Short)
                                    No (Dep ROR)



                                                   Yes (Atten.)                    Yes (Redir.)

                     Yes (Redir.)

Would approach GR have been effective?                      Was approach GR effective?

Figure 5.5. Effectiveness (or Potential Effectiveness) of Approach Guardrail


        Figure 5.5 shows many important findings. First, for the 49 collisions at bridges without
approach guardrail, researchers hypothesized that each crash could potentially have been less
severe if approach guardrail had existed, either by redirection of the vehicle back onto the
roadway or by attenuation from the bridge-rail end. For the 47 collisions at bridges with
approach guardrail, the guardrail was considered effective in approximately 57 percent of the
cases. The guardrail was considered effective if it provided attenuation from the end of the
bridge rail or redirection back onto the roadway. The approach guardrail was deemed ineffective


                                                   45
in roughly 43 percent of the collisions. Approach guardrail was deemed ineffective if any of the
following occurred:

      •    The vehicle vaulted over or broke through the guardrail;
      •    The guardrail section was too short to protect the vehicle against running off the road;
           or
      •    The vehicle ran off the road on the departure side of the bridge where no guardrail was
           present (i.e., guardrail existed on the two approach corners only).

Assessment of the Need for Guardrail at All Bridge Corners versus Approach Corners Only
        Based on conversations with numerous Minnesota county engineers, it appeared that the
application of guardrail on all four corners of the bridge rail versus on the two approach corners
only is a practice that varies from county to county. Figure 5.6 shows a comparison of guardrail
protection at all corners of the bridge versus only the two approach corners.



      Guardrail                   Road Edge
                                                         Approach               Departure
                                                         Side                   Side
                         Bridge




          Waterway

                                                                      Traffic
                                    Bridge Rail
                                                          Departure             Approach
                                                          Side                  Side


       Guardrail on Approach Corners Only                   Guardrail on All Corners
Figure 5.6. Guardrail Protection at Approach Corners Only versus All Corners


        Guardrail applied at all four bridge corners is designed to protect both approach- and
departure-side events. Departure-side collisions include cases where the vehicle runs off the
road to the right after crossing the bridge or crosses the centerline ahead of the bridge and runs-
off-the-road to the left, potentially striking the bridge rail head on. Departure-side protection is
especially critical on narrow bridges. Figure 5.7 shows the occurrence of approach- versus
departure-side crashes for the 96 crashes near CSAH bridges.




                                                  46
                     No GR                                             GR
          Approach                                        Approach




                                                                                           Unsure
                                         Unsure




                             Departure                                         Departure

Figure 5.7. Location of First Harmful Event with Respect to Bridge


        Figure 5.7 shows that, as expected, the location of the collision with respect to the bridge
is not affected by the presence of guardrail. Approach-side collisions occurred in approximately
62 percent of the sample crashes, while departure-side collisions occurred approximately 34
percent of the crashes. Thus, departure-side collisions with a bridge component occur frequently
enough to potentially warrant departure-side guardrail protection. Due to a lack of detail in
certain collision diagrams and descriptions, the researchers were unsure of the location of initial
collision in approximately four percent of the cases.
       Further analysis of approach- versus departure-side collisions included comparison of
guardrail effectiveness for the approach- versus departure-side collisions. This analysis was
performed using only data for bridges with approach guardrail. Figure 5.8a-c shows the analysis
of 29 approach-side and 17 departure-side bridge collisions at bridges with approach guardrail.




                                                  47
    Approach-Side Collisions (N = 29)                   Departure-Side Collisions (N = 17)
                                                     None Existed
                                                    No (Dep ROR)
               No (Vault)                            or Too Short
                                     No (Short)




Yes (Atten.)
                                                                                       Yes (Redir.)
                                     Yes (Redir.)

                                                                Yes (Atten.)

                                  a.) Was guardrail effective?


                                                                               Roadside
                                   BR
                                        Roadside


                                                          BR


         GR

                                                                                GR
                                    b.) Initial object struck



                     PDO                                                         PDO




                                          K/A


                                                                                          K/A
                                                            B/C


                            B/C
                                           c.) Severity

Figure 5.8. Effectiveness of Guardrail for Approach-Side versus Departure-Side Collisions
for Bridges with Approach Guardrail


                                                   48
        Figure 5.8a-c shows a number of useful findings. Looking first at the approach-side
collisions, guardrail was found to be effective in approximately 69 percent of these cases.
Furthermore, 86 percent of the approach-side crashes were collisions with the guardrail. Finally,
slightly more than half of the approach-side collisions were property-damage only, while the rest
were B- or C-injuries and, most importantly, zero were fatalities or A-injuries.
        In contrast, for departure-side collisions, departure-side guardrail existed and was
effective in only 35 percent. Furthermore, departure-side guardrail either did not exist or was too
short to be effective in 65 percent of the departure-side collisions, with each of these crashes
resulting in either a collision with the end of the bridge rail or a roadside collision. Only 35
percent of the departure-side collisions were PDO, while 18 percent were fatalities or A-injuries.
The researchers deemed it important to further analyze the severity of the 17 departure-side
crashes versus departure-side guardrail presence, the findings of which are shown in Figure 5.9.


         Dep. Side GR Did Not Exist
                                                                           GR
                                                                 Dep. SideYes Existed
             orNo/Too Short
                Was Too Short
                                                                PDO
                                      PDO

       B/C
                                                                                            K/A



                                     K/A
       Note: N = 11                                     Note: N = 6                  B/C

Figure 5.9. Severity of Departure-Side Collisions for Bridges with Approach Guardrail


         Figure 5.9 shows that 9 of the 11 (82 percent) departure-side collisions where either no
guardrail was present or it was too short to be effective resulted in either an injury or fatality (one
fatality, two A-injuries, two B-injuries, and four C-injuries). It is important to note that the three
K/A-injuries that occurred on the departure-side of bridges where guardrail either did not exist or
was too short to be effective accounted for all of the K/A-injuries at bridges with approach
guardrail (see Table 5.8).
        Guardrail was present and provided effective protection for six departure-side collisions.
Four of these collisions resulted in property-damage only, while the other two resulted in B- or
C-injuries. Although the sample size is small, these results suggest substantial reductions in
severity if guardrail protection is provided at both the approach- and departure-sides of bridges
rather than at the approach-sides only.




                                                  49
                                      CHAPTER 6:
                                 BENEFIT/COST ANALYSIS

        There is no debating the fact that hazardous immovable objects such as bridge abutments,
piers, and railings exist within roadway clear-zones on CSAH roadways presenting a significant
safety concern. Yet the installation of guardrail on these low-volume roads can add costs and
other safety and maintenance problems that may outweigh the proposed benefits. Beyond the
fact that guardrail itself is a fixed-object within the clear-zone, guardrail is known to promote
snow drifting during the winter months and vegetation growth during summer months providing
an additional maintenance and safety concerns.
        Thus, a primary task of this research was to perform a benefit/cost analysis. Benefit/cost
analyses are used to compare the relative benefits and costs of treatment alternatives. The
objective of the analysis performed here was to determine the ADT at which the benefit/cost
ratio suggests installing bridge-approach guardrail provides a positive return on investment for
CSAH bridges in Minnesota. In other words, the researchers sought to identify the ADT where
the benefit/cost ratio exceeds 1.0.
COSTS OF APPROACH GUARDRAIL
       Any benefit/cost analysis begins with determination of the potential costs (i.e., materials,
labor) and benefits (i.e., crash savings). The first step in the analysis was to determine an
approximate life-cycle cost for a typical section of approach guardrail. Conversations with
numerous Mn/DOT employees allowed the researchers to develop an approximate life-cycle cost
for a typical installation of approach guardrail to all four bridge corners. Costs for bridge-
approach guardrail include those for:

      •   Installation
                 o standard guardrail,
                 o transition guardrail,
                 o end treatment,
                 o supplementary signs and/or delineators,
                 o labor;
      •   Maintenance
                 o vegetation removal,
                 o snow removal; and
      •   Repair.

        It was reasonable to assume that the guardrail has no salvage value at the end of its useful
life. The estimated life-cycle was 30 years, although this may be greater if steel posts are used
instead of wood. Because maintenance and repair costs will occur sometime after installation,
they were first converted to present-worth. Mn/DOT’s Office of Investment Management
recommends using a 3.6 percent annual discount rate (7), which represents the interest rate minus
inflation rate for a 30-year U.S. Treasury note or bond. The estimated 2004 costs for installation,
maintenance, and repair of approach guardrail for a single Minnesota CSAH bridge is shown in
Table 6.1. The corresponding cash-flow diagram is shown in Figure 6.1. The 2004 cost per
bridge for bridge-approach guardrail assuming a 30-year design-life and protection at all four



                                                50
corners was estimated at $27,100 - $45,000 with approximately $14,400 - $20,000 (roughly 40 –
60 percent) of that being the cost of materials and labor for installation.


Table 6.1. 2004 Costs for Approach Guardrail on a CSAH Bridge
                                                                 Minimum   Total Cost per
                                                                 Section   Bridge (All 4
 Category               Item                     Unit Cost       Length    Corners)         Net 2004 Cost
                        Standard Guardrail       $12-$15 /ft     50 ft     $2,400-$3,000    $2,400-$3,000
                        Transition Guardrail     $36-$50 /ft     25 ft     $3,600-$5,000    $3,600-$5,000
                                                 $2,000-
                        End Treatment                            1 unit    $8,000-$12,000   $8,000-$12,000
 Initial Installation                            $3,000 /ea.
 (Including Labor)      Supplementary
                                                 $100 /ea.       1 unit    $400             $400
                        Object Markers
                        Salvage                  $0              -         $0               $0
                        Total Installation                                                  $14,400 - $20,000
 Additional             Vegetation Removal,
                                                 $100 /yr        -         $100- $500 /yr   $1,800- $9,100
 Maintenance            Snow Removal
                        Replacement of 1
                        section every 5 years    $3,600-                   $3,600-
 Repair                                                          -                          $10,900- $15,500
                        due to vehicle or farm   $5,100 /5 yr              $5,100 /5 yr
                        equipment hit
 Total Life-Cycle
                                                                                            $27,100- $45,000
 Cost




                                                                                                   A = $100
                                                      5 yrs
                    F = $3,600 - $5,100

 P = $14,400 - $20,400

Figure 6.1. Cash-Flow Diagram for Cost of Approach Guardrail on a CSAH Bridge


BENEFITS OF APPROACH GUARDRAIL
       The primary benefit for installing approach guardrail is a reduction in the costs of target
crashes (i.e., crashes with bridge components, run-off-the-road near the bridge, etc.). Crash costs
can be reduced either through a reduction in the severity and/or frequency of such crashes. For
bridges without approach guardrail, typical crashes may include the following:

        •    ROR - bridge component
                  o bridge rail (including blunt ends),
                  o curb,
                  o pier, or
                  o abutment;
        •    ROR - roadside
                  o rollover,
                  o tree,


                                                            51
                o   embankment,
                o   ditch,
                o   culvert/headwall, or
                o   pole/post.

        Based on the results of the crash analysis, installation of bridge-approach guardrail is
expected to greatly reduce the occurrence of all types of roadside collisions and collisions with
bridge components – especially the blunt ends of the bridge rail. These crashes would typically
be replaced by a less-severe collision with the guardrail. The analysis also showed that the
severity of crashes near bridges will be lower if approach (and departure) guardrail exists. The
reduction in crash severity will consequently result in a net crash cost savings. Mn/DOT’s
Office of Investment Management maintains a list of estimated crash costs for each severity level
(based on the KABCO scale), which are summarized in Table 6.2 (7).


Table 6.2. 2004 Minnesota Crash Costs versus KABCO Severity
 Crash Severity                        Estimated Cost per Crash (2004 dollars)
 Property Damage Only                  $4,300
 C Injury (Possible Injury)            $29,000
 B Injury (Non-Incapacitating Injury)  $59,000
 A Injury (Incapacitating Injury)      $270,000
 Fatal                                 $3,500,000


        As can be observed in Table 6.2, any treatment that can reduce a crash from a fatality to
an A-injury has a net positive economic impact of $3.23 million. A treatment that reduces crash
severity from an A-injury to a B-injury has a net positive economic impact of $211,000, and so
forth for the remaining severity reductions. Therefore, the analysis focused on quantifying
differences in crash severity that could be attributed to approach guardrail.
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
       The analysis was performed using data from the same 96 run-off-the-road and fixed-
object bridge crashes used in the crash analysis described in Chapter 5. The 96 crashes were
separated by 2004 ADT, crash severity, and guardrail presence and placed in a series of tables
along with the estimated crash costs from Table 6.2. Table 6.3 summarizes the crash frequencies
by ADT category, severity, and guardrail presence.




                                               52
Table 6.3. Bridge Crashes from 1988-2002 by ADT, Severity, and Guardrail Presence
                                                                       Bridges     PDO             C                  B              A                  K          TOTAL
                                                                  No              No          No             No                No               No                No
2004 ADT                                                          GR       GR     GR    GR    GR       GR    GR           GR   GR        GR     GR          GR    GR         GR
<150                                                              63       6      3     0     0        0     1            0    0         0      0           0     4          0
150-399                                                           72       21     4     3     1        0     1            0    3         2      1           0     10         5
400-749                                                           51       25     4     1     1        0     5            3    2         0      1           0     13         4
750-999                                                           12       15     1     0     1        1     1            1    1         0      2           0     6          2
1000-1499                                                         17       21     4     5     3        4     0            3    1         0      1           0     9          12
1500-4999                                                         16       29     0     5     0        1     0            0    0         0      1           0     1          6
5000-9999                                                         5        20     1     3     1        1     1            3    1         0      0           1     4          8
10000<                                                            7        18     1     5     0        2     1            3    0         0      0           0     2          10
All                                                               243      155    18    22    7        9     10           13   8         2      6           1     49         47

        Using the data from Tables 6.2 and 6.3, the total crash costs for each of the ADT
categories were computed for bridges with and without approach guardrail. Because the traffic
volumes varied from bridge to bridge, it was important to normalize the crash costs on a
per-vehicle basis. The estimated cumulative traffic volumes for the 1988-2002 analysis period
were generated based on the reported ADTs and the 2004 traffic growth factors (shrink factors in
this case) for each county. Figure 6.2 presents a summary of the estimated crash costs (2004
dollars) per one hundred million (108) vehicle crossings based on ADT category and guardrail
presence. These results exist in tabular-format in Appendix H.

                                                         $15,000,000

                                                         $14,000,000

                                                         $13,000,000
  Crash Cost per 10^8 Vehicle Crossings (2004 Dollars)




                                                         $12,000,000

                                                         $11,000,000

                                                         $10,000,000

                                                          $9,000,000
                                                                                                                                                                  No GR
                                                          $8,000,000
                                                                                                                                                                  GR
                                                          $7,000,000

                                                          $6,000,000

                                                          $5,000,000

                                                          $4,000,000

                                                          $3,000,000

                                                          $2,000,000

                                                          $1,000,000

                                                                 $0
                                                                           <150    150-399   400-749   750-999    1,000-1,499 1,500-4,999 5,000-9,999   10,000<        All
                                                                                                                  ADT Range

Figure 6.2. Crash Costs per 108 Vehicle Crossings by ADT Range and Guardrail Presence


                                                                                                                 53
        Figure 6.2 shows a number of important findings. First, for all bridges with ADT less
than 5,000 vpd, the crash costs per vehicle crossing are considerably higher at bridges without
approach guardrail than at bridges with approach guardrail. This is especially true for the 750-
999 vpd category where bridges without approach guardrail have crash costs that are 105 times
those of bridges with approach guardrail. This is largely due to the disproportionate number of
K and A-injury crashes occurring in this ADT range at bridges without approach guardrail.
When all bridges are considered, the crash cost-per-vehicle-crossing is approximately 11 times
greater for bridges without approach guardrail than for bridges with approach guardrail.
        The findings shown in Figure 6.2 and Appendix H were used to estimate the crash
benefits for each ADT range. In a practical sense, a crash benefit can be thought of as the
estimated reduction in crash costs that would be expected if approach guardrail was installed at
bridges where no guardrail existed. Although such values cannot truly be determined, they can
be estimated based on the costs of crashes that occurred at the cohort sample of bridges with
approach guardrail.
       Furthermore, because approach guardrail costs were computed for a 30-year life-cycle, the
benefits were also computed for the same 30-year term from 2004 to 2034. Three 30-year
cumulative traffic volume forecasts, which can be found in Appendix I, were created for use in
the benefit/cost analysis based on the estimated 2004 ADTs for each bridge and the following
growth rates:

      •   No traffic growth during the 30-year period;
      •   30-year traffic based on the 2004 estimated traffic growth rate per county (Anoka
          1.5%, Crow Wing 1.7%, Dakota 1.4%, Fillmore 1.3%, Goodhue, 1.6%, Lyon 1.3%,
          Mower 1.2%, Olmsted 1.6%, Rock 1.2%, Wantowan 1.3%); and
      •   30-year traffic based on a 2 percent annual growth rate.

       The 30-year crash benefits for installing approach guardrail were then computed by
multiplying the per-vehicle crash costs for bridges without approach guardrail (in 2004 dollars as
shown in Figure 6.2) by an estimate of the cumulative number of vehicle crossings at these
bridges for the 30-year period of 2004 to 2034. Three estimates of the benefits were computed
for each ADT category based on the three traffic forecasts and are displayed along with the low
and high approach guardrail costs in Figure 6.3 and in tabular-format in Appendix I.




                                               54
               $300,000
                              Net Crash Savings per Bridge - NO TRAFFIC
                              GROWTH



               $250,000       Net Crash Savings per Bridge - 2004 TRAFFIC
                              GROWTH RATES


                              Net Crash Savings per Bridge - 2% ANNUAL
                              TRAFFIC GROWTH
               $200,000
                              Min. Cost for Installing and Maintaining Approach
                              Guardrail at a Bridge (assume: 30-year life-cycle
                              and installation at all 4 corners)
2004 Dollars




                              Max. Cost for Installing and Maintaining Approach
               $150,000
                              Guardrail at a Bridge (assume: 30-year life-cycle
                              and installation at all 4 corners)




               $100,000




                $50,000




                    $0
                               <150              <400               <750          <1,000         <1,500   <5,000   <10,000   All
                                                                                           ADT

Figure 6.3. Estimated Crash Savings and Costs per Bridge if Approach Guardrail is
Installed


       The data in Figure 6.3 were used to compute a benefit/cost ratio for each ADT category
using the equation that follows. Table 6.4 displays a summary of the benefit/cost calculations,
while the full procedure can be found in Appendix I. The results are displayed in Figure 6.4a-b.

                                                                     Crash Savings # Vehicles
                                                                                   ×
                                                      Benefit           Vehicle      # Bridges
                                                              =                                                                    (7)
                                                       Cost     Crash Costs # Vehicles GR Costs
                                                                            ×           +
                                                                  Vehicle     # Bridges     Bridge

                          Where: Crash Savings/Vehicle = 30-year estimated crash savings per vehicle that would occur if
                                 approach guardrail is added to bridges previously without guardrail (2004 dollars)
                                 Crash Costs/Vehicle = 30-year estimated crash costs per vehicle for bridges with approach
                                 guardrail (2004 dollars)
                                 # Vehicles = 30-year cumulative traffic volume for bridges without approach guardrail
                                 # Bridges = number of bridges without approach guardrail
                                 GR Cost/Bridge = 30-year life-cycle cost of approach guardrail per bridge (2004 dollars)




                                                                                    55
Table 6.4. Benefit/Cost Calculations for Bridge-Approach Guardrail (2004 Dollars, 30-
year Life-Cycle)
                                                     Benefits         Costs                        B/C Ratio
                                                                      Min. Total     Max. Total
                                                     Total 30-year    30-year        30-year
                                          Bridges    Crash Savings    Costs per      Costs per
Traffic               Cumulative 30-      Without    per Bridge if    Bridge if GR   Bridge if GR
Growth     ADT        year Traffic        GR         GR is Applied    is Applieda    Appliedb     Min        Max
           <150       59,554,131          63         $2,497           $27,100       $45,000         0.06      0.09
           <400       270,678,691         135        $72,680          $61,743       $79,643         0.91      1.18
           <750       560,103,092         186        $104,319         $48,423       $66,323         1.57      2.15
None       <1,000     673,435,068         198        $179,599         $43,695       $61,595         2.92      4.11
           <1,500     902,932,388         215        $205,050         $42,975       $60,875         3.37      4.77
           <5,000     1,312,120,407       231        $224,324         $36,927       $54,827         4.09      6.07
           <10,000 1,687,691,045          236        $223,613         $52,060       $69,960         3.20      4.30
           All        2,932,663,571       243        $218,440         $46,864       $64,764         3.37      4.66
           <150       72,219,261          63         $3,027           $27,100       $45,000         0.07      0.11
           <400       327,977,731         135        $88,065          $69,076       $86,976         1.01      1.27
           <750       679,637,910         186        $126,582         $52,974       $70,874         1.79      2.39
2004       <1,000     819,740,831         198        $218,618         $47,300       $65,200         3.35      4.62
Rates      <1,500     1,101,206,922       215        $250,076         $46,461       $64,361         3.89      5.38
           <5,000     1,604,359,858       231        $274,286         $39,116       $57,016         4.81      7.01
           <10,000 2,077,635,497          236        $275,279         $57,827       $75,727         3.64      4.76
           All        3,635,725,478       243        $270,807         $51,602       $69,502         3.90      5.25
           <150       80,533,223          63         $3,376           $27,100       $45,000         0.08      0.12
           <400       366,030,486         135        $98,283          $73,946       $91,846         1.07      1.33
           <750       757,410,220         186        $141,067         $55,935       $73,835         1.91      2.52
2%         <1,000     910,665,573         198        $242,867         $49,541       $67,441         3.60      4.90
Annual     <1,500     1,221,007,755       215        $277,282         $48,568       $66,468         4.17      5.71
           <5,000     1,774,340,153       231        $303,346         $40,389       $58,289         5.20      7.51
           <10,000 2,282,212,800          236        $302,385         $60,853       $78,753         3.84      4.97
           All        3,965,750,934       243        $295,389         $53,826       $71,726         4.12      5.49
      a
Notes: Includes estimated crash costs and $27,100 installation and maintenance costs (for 30-year life-cycle, 2004
         dollars)
      b
        Includes estimated crash costs and $45,000 installation and maintenance costs (for 30-year life-cycle, 2004
         dollars)




                                                        56
                       8



                            NO TRAFFIC GROWTH
                       7

                            2004 TRAFFIC GROWTH
                            RATES
                       6    2% ANNUAL TRAFFIC
                            GROWTH


                       5
  Benefit/Cost Ratio




                       4



                       3



                       2



                       1



                       0
                           <150        <400         <750   <1,000         <1,500    <5,000   <10,000   All
                                                                    ADT


  a. B/C Assuming Minimum Life-Cycle Cost for Installing Approach Guardrail

                       6

                              NO TRAFFIC GROWTH


                       5      2004 TRAFFIC GROWTH
                              RATES
                              2% ANNUAL TRAFFIC
                              GROWTH

                       4
 Benefit/Cost Ratio




                       3




                       2




                       1




                       0
                           <150        <400         <750   <1,000          <1,500   <5,000   <10,000    All
                                                                    ADT


  b. B/C Assuming Maximum Life-Cycle Cost for Installing Approach Guardrail
Figure 6.4. Benefit/Cost Ratio Based on Threshold ADT and Traffic Growth Rate


                                                                          57
        Table 6.4 and Figure 6.4 show that for ADT less than 150 vpd, the benefit/cost ratio for
bridge-approach guardrail is very small (i.e., < 0.10) regardless of the forecasted traffic growth
rate or guardrail costs. For ADT less than 400 vpd, the benefit/cost ratio ranges between 0.9 and
1.3 depending on the traffic growth rate and guardrail installation costs. The benefit/cost ratio
for approach guardrail increases steadily as the ADT threshold is increased above 400 vpd.
        For bridges with ADT between 150 and 399 vpd, further analysis was necessary to
determine the cost-effectiveness. Closer investigation of the one fatal and three A-injury crashes
at bridges without guardrail in this ADT range showed that only one A-injury and no fatalities
occurred for ADTs between 150 and 299 vpd. The remaining three severe crashes occurred at
bridges with ADTs between 300 and 399 vpd. As a result, the researchers split this ADT range
into 150-299 vpd and 300-399 vpd and re-ran the benefit/cost analysis. Figure 6.5 displays the
benefit/cost ratios for each of these ADT ranges along with the two adjacent ADT ranges
(<150 vpd and 400-749 vpd).


                       20


                       18   High GR Costs, No Traffic Growth
                            High GR Costs, 2004 Traffic Growth Rates
                       16   High GR Costs, 2% Annual Traffic Growth
                            Low GR Costs, No Traffic Growth
                       14   Low GR Costs, 2004 Traffic Growth Rates
                            Low GR Costs, 2% Annual Traffic Growth

                       12
  Benefit/Cost Ratio




                       10


                       8


                       6


                       4


                       2
                        1

                       0
                                <150                           150-299               300-399   400-749
                                                                         ADT Range


Figure 6.5. Revised Benefit/Cost Ratios for Bridges with ADT between 0 and 750 vpd


       Figure 6.5 shows that approach guardrail is not cost-effective for CSAH bridges with
ADT less than 300 vpd, but is highly cost-effective for CSAH bridges with ADT greater than or
equal to 300 vpd. Figure 6.6 displays the benefit/cost ratios for the revised cumulative ADT
thresholds for the maximum guardrail costs only.




                                                                          58
                      6



                             NO TRAFFIC GROWTH

                      5
                             2004 TRAFFIC
                             GROWTH RATES
                             2% ANNUAL TRAFFIC
                             GROWTH
                      4
 Benefit/Cost Ratio




                      3




                      2




                      1




                      0
                          <150       <300        <400   <750   <1,000   <1,500   <5,000   <10,000   All
                                                                ADT


Figure 6.6. Benefit/Cost Ratio Based on Revised Threshold ADT for Guardrail Installation




                                                               59
                                  CHAPTER 7:
                       CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

        The major objective of the research described herein was to determine if the presence of
approach guardrail had an effect on both the type and severity of crashes occurring near a
ten-county sample of Minnesota CSAH bridges. The initial tasks included a literature review
and survey of state agency practice, which produced little data related to the safety or
cost-effectiveness for bridge-approach guardrail. The primary tasks included analysis of
Minnesota crash data to determine the safety and cost-effectiveness of approach guardrail for
CSAH bridges and to determine ADT-based criteria for bridge-approach guardrail on the CSAH
system.
        The initial data analyses focused solely on queries from the Minnesota crash database.
The final database query included a total of 263 run-off-the-road and fixed-object crashes
occurring between 1988 and 2002 and within approximately 200 feet of any of the 398 CSAH
bridges included in the sample. Analysis of the crash database queries was limited because
collisions with approach guardrail and all other bridge components were coded into the crash
database under a single code (TYPE 31 “bridge piers”) and included no further information
about the object struck. As a result, the effectiveness of approach guardrail could not be
determined based solely on the crash database information and thus required a detailed review of
the respective police crash-reports.
       The researchers reviewed the diagrams and descriptions from the crash reports of 238 of
the 263 crashes from the database query. Upon review of the crash report, a crash was
considered to be appropriate for use in the analyses if the crash:
   •   Occurred on the approach or departure and within approximately 200 ft of the appropriate
       CSAH bridge; and
   •   Involved collision with a bridge component (including approach guardrail), roadside
       fixed-object, or other roadside collision.
        The screening process resulted in 96 of the initial 238 crash reports being deemed useful
to the analyses, 47 of which occurred near bridges with approach guardrail, while the remaining
49 crashes occurred at bridges without approach guardrail. Comprehensive safety analyses and
benefit/cost analyses were performed on the sample of 96 crashes. The conclusions and
recommendations from these analyses are summarized in the sections that follow.
CONCLUSIONS
Mn/DOT Practice Compared to Other Agencies
       Twenty-six of the 35 state agencies responding to the survey (74 percent) have policies or
guidelines requiring the placement of approach guardrail or attenuators on state-aid bridges.
Only Wisconsin, Illinois, and Virginia have policies similar to Minnesota’s in that bridge-
approach guardrail is required on state-aid local highways only where an ADT threshold is
exceeded. These states’ ADT thresholds ranged from 150 to 750 vpd. Six of the responding
agencies also indicated that lower-speed facilities (i.e., speeds ≤ 45 mph) do not require approach
guardrail. Agencies were rather evenly split between use of an attenuator versus a minimal or
modified section of guardrail when insufficient guardrail space exists.




                                                60
Effect of Approach Guardrail on Crash Severity
        The analyses showed that bridge-approach guardrail was effective at reducing the
severity (and subsequent costs) of run-off-the-road crashes occurring on the approach or
departure to CSAH bridges. While guardrail did not appear to have a large effect on the
proportion of B- and C-injury crashes, the proportions of fatal and A-injury crashes were
considerably lower when guardrail existed on the approach. Fatal or A-injury crashes accounted
for only six percent of the crashes occurring at bridges with approach guardrail, but accounted
for 28.5 percent of the crashes at bridges without approach guardrail - a rate that is 4.5 times
greater than at bridges with approach guardrail.
        As previously presented in Figure 5.4, further analysis of the severity of various
object-types struck showed that collisions with approach guardrail resulted in a significantly
lower proportion of fatal and A-injury crashes when compared to collisions with the bridge rail
or other roadside collisions. In fact, zero of the 33 approach guardrail collisions were fatal or A-
injuries. This statistic is even more significant when compared to roadside and bridge rail
collisions of which 24 percent and 29 percent, respectively, were fatalities or A-injuries. These
findings were statistically validated by both a chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis.
Effectiveness of Approach Guardrail
       A section of approach guardrail was deemed effective if it either provided attenuation
from the end of the bridge rail or redirection back onto the roadway or shoulder. The guardrail
was deemed ineffective if a vehicle vaulted over or broke through the section, if it was too short
to prevent a vehicle from running off the road, or if no guardrail existed at the corner of the
bridge where the crash occurred. The researchers determined that all of the 49 collisions at
bridges without approach guardrail could potentially have been less severe if approach guardrail
had existed at the time of the crash.
       Approach guardrail was effective in approximately 57 percent of the 47 collisions at
bridges with approach guardrail, either by attenuation or redirection. However, the approach
guardrail was found to be less effective or ineffective in roughly 43 percent of the collisions,
although the researchers concluded that each of these cases could have been prevented. For
example, cases of vehicles vaulting over or breaking through the guardrail could have been
avoided with the use of upgraded end-treatments and improved guardrail designs, respectively.
Cases where the vehicle ran-off-the-road just ahead or beyond the guardrail could have been
prevented by longer guardrail sections. Finally, cases where guardrail existed only on the two
approach corners but a vehicle ran-off-the-road on the departure side of the bridge would have
been aided if departure-side guardrail had been installed.
Guardrail Protection at All Corners of Bridge versus Approach Corners Only
        The analysis showed that approach-side collisions occurred in approximately 62 percent
of the crashes near CSAH bridges, while approximately 34 percent of the collisions were
departure-side collisions (undetermined in 4 percent of the cases). For approach-side crashes at
bridges with approach guardrail, the guardrail provided effective attenuation or redirection in 69
percent of the cases with no A-injuries or fatalities. However, departure-side guardrail either did
not exist or was too short to be effective in 65 percent of the departure-side collisions at bridges
where approach-side guardrail existed. Alarmingly, 82 percent of these departure-side collisions


                                                61
where either departure-side guardrail was not present or it was too short to be effective resulted
in either an injury or fatality.
Crash Coding for Collisions with Bridge Components
         The Minnesota crash reporting system does not included a specific code for either bridge
rail or approach guardrail, rather both were typically included in TYPE 31 “bridge piers”, which
represented crashes with any component of the bridge, including approach guardrail. A detailed
review of the police diagrams/descriptions showed that none of the 67 crashes coded as TYPE 31
were actually pier strikes. Instead, all of the 67 crashes coded in the database as TYPE 31 were
found to be either collision with bridge rail or approach guardrail.
Cost-Effectiveness of Approach Guardrail
         The benefit/cost analysis showed that typical installations of bridge-approach guardrail
(i.e., approximately 75 ft of rail and end treatments installed at all four bridge corners) are cost-
effective (i.e., B/C > 1) for CSAH bridges with ADT greater than or equal to 300 vpd, becoming
increasingly more cost-effective with increasing ADT. However, bridge-approach guardrail is
generally not cost-effective for CSAH bridges with ADT less than 300 vpd. Overall, approach
guardrail installed on CSAH bridges has a benefit/cost ratio of approximately 3.5 to 5.5
depending on assumptions for traffic growth rate and guardrail costs. The benefit/cost ratios for
approach guardrail installation at various ADT thresholds were presented previously in Table 6.4
and Figures 6.4 and 6.6.
RECOMMENDATIONS
ADT Threshold for Installation of Approach Guardrail on CSAH Bridges
        The primary goal of this research was to determine the appropriate ADT threshold at
which approach guardrail is cost-effective at CSAH bridges. The safety analysis showed
significantly lower rates of severe crashes at bridges with approach guardrail versus those
without for all ADTs except the very low ranges. The subsequent benefit/cost analysis showed
that approach guardrail was cost-effective (i.e., B/C > 1) at all bridges except those with ADTs
less than 300 vpd.
        Given the limited number of bridges in the 300 to 400 vpd range, the researchers
recommend that the ADT threshold for approach guardrail on CSAH bridges be set at 400 vpd.
In other words, all CSAH bridges with ADT greater than or equal to 400 vpd should have
approach guardrail. A threshold ADT of 400 vpd is consistent with previous Mn/DOT standards
and AASHTO guidelines (2). It is recommended that bridges with ADT between 150 and 400
vpd, especially those between 300 and 400 vpd, be reviewed on a case by case basis for guardrail
need. Bridges located on horizontal curves and with bridge deck widths less than the approach
roadway may warrant guardrail at ADT between 150 and 400 vpd. Placement of approach
guardrail at bridges with ADT less than 150 vpd is probably not cost-effective for a vast majority
of the cases.
Guardrail Protection at All Corners of Bridges
       Although only about 1/3 of all collisions analyzed here were departure-side collisions, the
researchers recommend application of guardrail at all four corners of the bridge rail instead of
only at the two approach corners. This practice has traditionally varied from county to county
but installation at all four corners appears to now be occurring more frequently. Guardrail
applied at all four bridge corners provides protection for both approach- and departure-side


                                                 62
events, such as where the vehicle runs off the road to the right after crossing the bridge or crosses
the centerline ahead of the bridge and runs-off-the-road to the left, potentially striking the bridge
rail head-on. Departure-side protection is especially critical for narrow bridges.
Crash Type Coding for Collisions with Bridge Components
       To reduce the ambiguity that exists in the current crash coding system for collisions with
bridge components and guardrail, the researchers recommend splitting the current crash TYPE
31 “bridge pier” and TYPE 34 “guardrail” into the following four distinct categories (also
assigning an arbitrary numeric code):

      •   “Bridge pier/abutment”,
      •   “Bridge rail”,
      •   “Bridge guardrail (approach or departure)”, and
      •   “Other guardrail (not attached to bridge)”.




                                                 63
REFERENCES

1.   American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Roadside
     Design Guide (Washington, D.C.: AASHTO, 2002).

2. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO),
   Guidelines for Geometric Design of Very Low-Volume Local Roads (ADT ≤ 400)
   (Washington, D.C.: AASHTO, 2001).

3. L.B. Stephens, A User’s Guide to Guardrail Warrants for Low-Volume Roads, Report
   NCHRP 22-5A (Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, April 1992).

4.   J.W. Hall, “Guardrail Installation and Improvement Priorities,” Transportation Research
     Record 868, (1982), 47-53.

5. W.A. Schwall, Upgrading of Bridge-Approach Guardrail on Primary Roads in Iowa (Ames,
   IA: Federal Highway Administration, Iowa Division, 1989).

6. D. Wolford and D.L. Sicking, “Guardrail Need: Embankments and Culverts,” Transportation
   Research Record 1599, (1997).

7. Mn/DOT Office of Investment Management (Internet), Benefit/Cost Analysis for
   Transportation Projects, July 2004 (cited January 2005),
   http://www.oim.dot.state.mn.us/EASS/ (see Table 1).




                                             64
  APPENDIX A
State Survey Form
 University of Wisconsin Survey: Application of Guardrail on Bridge Approaches for Low
                                                 Volume Roads
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AGENCY:
NAME:
DIVISION:
PHONE:
EMAIL:

1. Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail
should be placed on bridge approaches for low-volume state and local roads?

       If Yes:  i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-
                    approach guardrail?
                ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
               iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving,
                    shoulders, lane width, edgelines, etc.)?
       If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?

2. Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on
bridge approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder
presence/width/type, speed limit, paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?

3. Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?

       If Yes, please describe:

4. Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?

5. Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?

       If Yes, why?

6. Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach
guardrail placement on low-volume roads?

       If Yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?

7. May we receive:

       i. A copy of the current application policy/guideline
       ii. A copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?




                                               A-1
    APPENDIX B
State Survey Responses
Full Agency Responses
=========
Agency: Ohio Dept. of Transportation
Name: Dean Focke
Division: Office of Roadway Engineering
Phone: 614-466-2847
Email: dfocke@dot.state.oh.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
          Answer: Ohio does recognize AASHTO's 2001 Guidelines for Geometric Design of Very Low Volume
Local Roads, but only for county and municipal projects. The state system cannot use that AASHO Guideline (very
little meets that ADT criteria and is considered a local road). Therefore, all facilities that are constructed with state
or federal money must comply with ODOT standards which are based on a speed threshold of 50 mph for approach
guardrail placement.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
           Answer: Only difference we allow is between low speed and high speed facilities. Protection on low speed
facilities on city streets and urban type facilities is normally not required.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:     If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: When deflection would be a problem, concrete barrier is used. In certain high accident locations,
Impact Attenuators could be substituted for guardrail and guardrail transitions.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: Just to allow AASHTO's Very Low Volume Guidelines on county/local roads.




                                                          B-1
Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7a: Policy - ODOT's Location and Design Manual is found on-line at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/roadwayengineering/LDM1_link.htm
Section 600 is on Roadside Safety.

Question 7b: Standards - ODOT's Standard Drawings for Guardrails are found on-line at:
http://www.dot.state.oh.us/roadwayengineering/standard_drawingslink.htm
Guardrail drawings for bridge approaches are GR-6.a and 6.2.

=========
Agency: Nebraska Department of Roads
Name: Phil TenHulzen
Division: Roadway Design
Phone: (402) 479 - 3951
Email: ptenhulz@dor.state.ne.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: All highways constructed with Federal and State moneys receive guardrail attached to bridge rail.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.


                                                         B-2
Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: CONNDOT
Name: DANIEL GLADOWSKI
Division: DESIGN
Phone: 860-594-3280
Email: Daniel.Gladowski@po.state.ct.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
         Answer: If state/federal money was used to construct the bridge, it must follow the state standard and have
guardrail on the approach, regardless of the system. Municipalities are encouraged to use Department guiderail
standards. These can be obtained on our website, ct.gov/dot under Publications, see Highway Design Manual -
Chapter 13.




                                                        B-3
Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Illinois Department of Transportation
Name: Gary Galecki
Division: Highways-Bureau of Local Roads and Streets
Phone: 217-785-8564
Email: galeckigj@nt.dot.state.il.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: Yes

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: 150 ADT on a local road for a federal-funded project provided the roadway is on a tangent
alignment. Also, when the distance between the bridge rails is greater than two time the clear-zone for ADTs 0-400,
guardrail on the departure sides of the bridge is not required.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: Based on a policy committee including representatives of the Illinois Department of
Transportation Bureau of Local Roads & Streets, county engineers and municipal engineers.


                                                         B-4
Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: Not to our knowledge. The design of lane widths, shoulders, etc. are based on a different ADT. A
copy of our design guidelines for rural roadways is attached.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: As stated above, if the ADT is at least 150 and on a tangent alignment, guardrail is required. If the
roadway is not on a tangent alignment, it is required regardless of the ADT.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
         Answer: Yes. Illinois has a township (road district) road system within each county. Most of these roads
are low volume with oil and chip or aggregate surfaces. If the road district bridge is wider than the existing roadway
and on a tangent alignment, guardrail is not required.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:       If Yes: Please describe:
         Answer: Not for local low volume roads. Also, please note that when guardrail is used on low volume
local roads, typically a Type 1A barrier is used as an end treatment. Attached is a copy of our standard.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: Please note that the policy we refer to is for local roads using federal funds.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
         Answer: Our department's local roads policy manual is currently being revised. The chapter for roadside
safety has not been drafted, but this policy will be reviewed. We anticipate to have the new manual completed at the
end of this year.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT)
Name: David L Piper
Division: Highways/Bureau of Design and Environment
Phone: (217)785-0720


                                                         B-5
Email: piperdl@nt.dot.state.il.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: See separate response from our Local Roads Bureau.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No response.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
          Answer: See our Bureau of Design Manual, online at: http://www.dot.state.il.us/desenv/bdemanual.html
For Roadside Safety Policy (New/Reconstruction) see: Ch 38-4.09. For 3R (Other than Freeway) see Ch 49-3.07(d).
For 3R (Freeway) see Ch 50-3.09. For a statement on low speed (<30 mph) urban sections see Ch 38-3.02(f). This
availability of documents online is to be considered as positive response to last two questions. Design Standards and
Specifications are available at: http://www.dot.state.il.us/desenv/demanuals.html

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: Statement in Ch 38-3.02(f) recently updated to conform with Roadside Design Guide.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes


                                                         B-6
Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Maine Department of Transportation
Name: Leanne Timberlake
Division: Bridge Program
Phone: 0207-624-3422
Email: leanne.timberlake@maine.gov

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
         Answer: We place guardrail on all bridge approaches, including those on local roads. However, we do
have reduced standards based on AADT for determining the length of guardrail and the type of end treatment on
local and collector roads. For example, if the ADT is less than 500, a low-volume end treatment may be used.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: The only time I can envision not having guardrail on a bridge-approach is in an urban setting
where the edge of a building butts up against the end of the bridge rail.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: On rare occasions, we might use fencing in addition to guardrail.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: The guardrail and guardrail policy was updated for NHS and other state roads in July 2003 to be
NCHRP 350 compliant for new construction. New AADT levels were set for the selection of guardrail end
treatment on non-NHS state roads: NCHRP 350 compliant for AADT =>500, Low Volume Guardrail End for


                                                         B-7
AADT <500. We are currently in the process of developing new standards for guardrail lengths and end treatments
with bridges on local roads.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
         Answer: Yes
=========
Agency: Mississippi Department of Transportation
Name: Wes Dean, P.E.
Division: Traffic Engineering Division
Phone: 601-359-1454
Email: wdean@mdot.state.ms.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: N/A

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: N/A

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: N/A

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: We install guardrail on all MDOT maintained bridges, including state-aid local road bridges.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.


                                                         B-8
Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
         Answer: Yes
=========
Agency: New Jersey Department of Transportation
Name: Shirish Patel
Division: Structural Engineering
Phone: (609)530-5656
Email: shirish.patel@dot.state.nj.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
          Answer: All state bridges must have approach guardrail. Local roadway bridges must follow this policy if
state or federal money is used.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: N/A This response reflects only State roads.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.




                                                         B-9
Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
         Answer: Yes
=========
Agency: Delaware DOT
Name: Jiten K. Soneji
Division: Transportation Solution, Bridge Section
Phone: (302) 7602299
Email: jsoneji@mail.dot.state.de.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
         Answer: Design speed. For the design speed up to 35 mph, we allow tapered down parapet. Otherwise all
bridges built with state/federal monies must have approach guardrail.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: Yes, mainly clear-zone. If the slope is greater than 3:1 than approach guardrail must be placed.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?


                                                        B-10
Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: Guideline

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No, but we review and implement FHWA guidelines, and the crash test results

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Oklahoma DOT
Name: Faria Emamian, P.E
Division: Traffic Engineering
Phone: 405-521-2867
Email: emamian@odot.org

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: We are using the Min distance of Clear-zone (see Table 3.1 Road side Design Guide)

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: Based on National Study (AASHTO)

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
          Answer: No response.
Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
          Answer: Bridge approaches are considered a hazard. All state bridges are protected with approach
guardrail and any local bridges that were built with state monies are also protected at the same level. We calculate
the guard rail for bridge approaches based on length of need which takes in to account the approach slopes, ADT,
shy line, distance to the bridge-approach, and clear-zone distance.


                                                        B-11
Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: YES

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:     If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Yes, Most cases we are using Guard Rail, but there is some situation that we are using crash
cushioning type devices like Quad Gard or Tracc etc if the bridge is too close to an immovable object.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: Based on the newest requirement from FHWA(which is based on crash tests) Guard rail Block out
and Bridge connection has been changed to satisfy the latest crash test requirements.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Arkansas Highway and Transportation Department
Name: Charles Clements
Division: Roadway Design
Phone: 501-569-2336
Email: charles.clements@ahtd.state.ar.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.


                                                        B-12
Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: All bridge ends are protected regardless of AADT, including state-aid local bridges. The clear-
zone requirement follows the AASHTO Roadside Design Guide.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: See response under 1b.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:      If Yes: Please describe:
          Answer: In curb and gutter sections, bridge ends are protected with a concrete parapet transition wall. Also,
other bridge end treatments such as "Trend Systems" (i.e. crash cushions) are used if existing driveways or
intersecting roadways are positioned too close to a bridge to use guardrail.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: See response to 1b.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: No

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: No

=========
Agency: Virginia Dept. of Transportation
Name: Bryant Lowery
Division: Engineering Services Section of Location and Design Div.
Phone: (804) 786-9468
Email: Bryant.Lowery@VirginiaDOT.org

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?


                                                        B-13
         Answer: Yes

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: ADT less than or equal to 400 vpd as a general guide.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: Defined by AASHTO in the 2001 Guidelines for Geometric Design of Very Low-Volume Roads.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: The VDOT Road Design Manual (available online) uses ADT along with other factors to
determine paving, shoulders, etc.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: Each - Pay limits are from the terminal end treatment, or standard strong post guardrail at the point
where the post spacing begins to decrease, to the physical attachment on the bridge.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: Yes. Typical items we look at other than ADT are: speed, accident history, paved/unpaved
roadway, room for guardrail, can guardrail be physically attached to an older bridge, cost, hazards other than bridge,
would bad situation become worse with addition of guardrail which itself is a hazard.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Delineation, Impact Attenuators

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: Other

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: For low-volume roads, each location is handled on a case by case basis. Good engineering
judgment must be used to determine if guardrail should be used on bridge-approach.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: No

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes


                                                        B-14
=========
Agency: Iowa Department of Transportation
Name: Will Stein
Division: Methods Engineer
Phone: 515-239-1402
Email: Will.Stein@dot.state.ia.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: Yes

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: Yes for low volume county roads ~ 200 ADT. No for state roads, we shield all bridge ends.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
         Answer: Used the cost effective selection procedure given in AASHTO's 1977 Guide for selecting, locating,
and designing traffic barriers.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: Yes, must also have a structure width of 24' or greater, must be on a tangent alignment, and the
benefit/cost ratio is less than 0.80.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: No response.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
         Answer: For local county roads see County Engineers I.M. 3.213. This is available on-line at :
http://www.dot.state.ia.us/local_systems/publications/county_im/county_im_toc.htm.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Occasionally we use impact attenuators if there is insufficient room for guardrail.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
         Answer: For local/county roads ~ I.M. 3.213 may be updated in the future as per AASHTO'S policy for
very low volume local roads. The current edition of I.M. 3.213 does not account for the latest AASHTO guidance.
For state roads, no.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No


                                                        B-15
Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Nevada Department of Transportation
Name: Dennis Coyle
Division: Specifications/Standards and Manuals
Phone: 775-888-7598
Email: dcoyle@dot,state,nv.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
         Answer: We have adopted the the AASHTO Roadside Design Guide as a criteria for justifying all roadside
design issues regardless of the type of facility. The Roadside Safety Analysis Program is used to analyze benefits
and costs in conjunction with engineering judgment to make decisions.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: Please refer to the AASHTO Roadside Design Guide. In addition, the funding source may be a
factor.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:         If Yes: Please describe:
          Answer: First of all we do not normally install safety hardware to protect bridge components. We use
safety hardware to shield traffic from the blunt ends of bridge rails along with the feature that the bridge is crossing
if the feature itself is an obstacle. In conjunction with guardrail we use a transition section to eliminate the coffin
corner effect at the bridge rail end and then a guard rail end terminal to protect traffic from the end of the guardrail.
If the feature that the bridge crosses is not an obstacle itself then a crash cushion is acceptable to protect traffic from
the blunt end of the bridge rail. For abutments I assume you are referring to when traffic is running under the bridge.
In these cases we use guardrail or concrete barrier rail.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?


                                                         B-16
         Answer: Other

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: It is actually a combination of the two. The AASHTO Roadside Design Guide is adopted as a
guide however we also have policy regarding the placement of safety hardware also.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: The latest edition of the Roadside Design Guide was issued in 2003.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes



=========
Agency: Michigan Department of Transportation
Name: Mark C. Harrison
Division: Highways
Phone: 517-373-2346
Email: harrisonm@michigan.gov

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: We have all bridges use guardrail on bridge approaches.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No


                                                        B-17
Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:      If Yes: Please describe:
         Answer: In urban settings where guardrail cannot be placed and the traffic speed is low (25mph) a sloped
concrete end section has been used.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
          Answer: Michigan has yet to adopt the low volume road manual. However, when it does, which should be
shortly, the state is making a policy that all bridge ends must be protected.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: No

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: West Virginia Department of Transportation (Response 1)
Name: Ray Lewis
Division: Traffic Engr. Div., Division of Highways
Phone: 304 558 8912
Email: rlewis@dot.state.wv.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.




                                                        B-18
Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
         Answer: We attempt to put adequate approach guardrail on all bridges on local roads. In some cases, we
can go to the point of need; however, we try to get 62.5 feet of guardrail on each corner. In cases where speeds are
low this may be w-beam guardrail with 12' 6" post spacing, no blockouts, and buffer ends.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No response.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: No

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
         Answer: No
=========
Agency: West Virginia Department of Transportation (Response 2)
Name: Randy Epperly
Division: Deputy State Highway Engineer
Phone: 304-558-6266
Email: repperly@dot.state.wv.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?


                                                        B-19
         Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: Many issues are considered including speed, height of the roadway, types of vehicles, roadway
alignment

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: See above

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Concrete barriers in certain situations.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Rhode Island Department of Transportation
Name: David A. Craveiro,P.E.
Division: Transportation Development, Road Design
Phone: (401)222-2023 ext 4036
Email: dcraveiro@dot.state.ri.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No


                                                        B-20
Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: No response.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No, we protect all bridges, including state-aid local bridges. Use AASHTO Roadside Design
Guide for clear-zone.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Crash cushions such as Sand Barrels or expandable guardrail systems with cells are also used at
abutments and gore abutments on bridge ramps.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: Other

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
          Answer: RIDOT uses the Roadside Design Guide, the AASHTO Green Book Design Guide and also
develops standards which are base on our those design standards and performance experiences in the field with
installations.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: Only in the sense that it is upgraded and adjusted to account for newer guidelines and standards
developed under the auspices of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. NCHRP 350 is the latest and
adjustments are made when necessary.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: No response.


                                                        B-21
=========
Agency: Kansas Department of Transportation
Name: Ron Seitz
Division: Bureau of Local Projects
Phone: (785)296-3861
Email: seitz@ksdot.org

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
         Answer: On city/county road projects we require a minimum length of guardrail (approach transition plus
crashworthy terminal) as a minimum on all bridges regardless of how low the traffic volumes are. We are only
protecting the end of the bridge rail and do not consider the full clear-zone.
On state highway projects, approach guardrails will be used in accordance with the Roadside Design Guide (length
of need) regardless of traffic volumes.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No other factors. We place approach guardrail in all cases.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:      If Yes: Please describe:
         Answer: In urban areas a tapered approach concrete barrier may be used, particularly when there is a
sidewalk present. This design reduces maintenance concerns, is more aesthetically pleasing, and is safer for
pedestrians because it eliminates the sharp edges and/or projections that are present on a guardrail.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.




                                                        B-22
Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
         Answer: Yes
=========
Agency: Utah Department of Transportation
Name: Boyd Wheeler / Glenn Schulte
Division: Structures/ Traffic & Safety
Phone: 801-964-4456 801-9654376
Email: bwheeler@utah.gov gschulte@utah.gov

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: No response.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
         Answer: AASHTO Roadside Design Guide clear-zone requirements dictate requirements for need for
protection.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Precast or cast in place concrete barrier or appropriate attenuation.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?


                                                        B-23
         Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Tennessee Department of Transportation (Paper copy only)
Name: Ed Wasserman
Division: Structures
Phone: 615-741-3351
Email: ed.wasserman@state.tn.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
          Answer: All bridges, regardless of system or finding source are fitted with NCHRP 350 approved bridge
rails and approach guardrails.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: None

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?


                                                        B-24
         Answer: Other

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
         Answer: TnDOT subscribes to following AASHTO policy as defined in the standard specifications for
highway bridges and the LRFD specifications for design of highway bridges, which call for crash tested rails to
given crash levels. TnDOT and FHWA agree on this.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: See 4a., above.

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes (attached)

=========
Agency: Wisconsin DOT
Name: Pat Fleming (via telephone, entered by TG)
Division:
Phone: 608-266-8486
Email:

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: Yes

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: 300 for all state-aid roads. Length of guardrail determined by AASHTO RDG clear-zone
calculations.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
         Answer: AASHTO RDG recommends ADT of 400, also AASHTO DG for Very Low Volume Roads, TRB
Special Report 214.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: No response.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?


                                                        B-25
         Answer: Speed: Urban state-aid routes with curb and gutter and sidewalk with design speed less than or
equal to 45 mph do not need guardrail.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Crash cushions directly affixed to bridge rail if the space is too confined to place guardrail.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: Chapter 11-45-1 of the WisDOT Design Manual (follows AASHTO RDG for clear-zone).

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No response.

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: TxDOT
Name: Rory Meza (via telephone, entered by TG)
Division: Roadway Design
Phone: 512-416-2678
Email:

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.




                                                        B-26
Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: All bridge rails/parapets must be protected including off-system state/federal aid bridges

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Curve guardrail back if need be (70' min needed for straight section of g.r.)

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: Possibly TTI or CTR - call Mark Vawshawk 512-416-2178

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: No response.

=========
Agency: Mn/DOT
Name: Paul Stine
Division: State Aid for Local Transportation
Phone: (651) 296-9973
Email: paul.stine@dot.state.mn.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: Yes

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: 750

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: By consensus of county engineer standards committee.


                                                        B-27
Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: Yes, ADT defines standards ranges.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: No response.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: Yes, design speed greater than 40 mph.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: Other

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: Rule (has the force and effect of law).

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: Was raised from 400 ADT to 750 ADT in 2000.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: SDDOT
Name: Noel Clocksin (via telephone, entered by Tim)
Division: Local Roads
Phone: 605-773-4256
Email: noel.clocksin@state.sd.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No, but ADT is used to determine the type of guardrail used




                                                        B-28
Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
          Answer: No bridge rail is left completely unprotected. Local Rural Roads with ADT's less than 150 have
only rail end treatments turned down and connected directly to the bridge. Will mail me standard drawings.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: Will email me information

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: This particular ADT was chosen because it was determined that in most cases in South Dakota,
local roads below 150 are gravel and above 150 are asphalt. This basically is our line between low volume and high
volume local roads in South Dakota.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: No response.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Attenuators if no space for GR

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
         Answer: Standards: http://www.sddot.com/pe/roaddesign/plans_rdmanual.asp - State Manual
http://www.sddot.com/fpa/lga/docs/secondaryroadplan.pdf - Local State Aid

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Mailed




                                                        B-29
=========
Agency: Maryland State Highway Admin
Name: Tom Hicks
Division: Traffic
Phone: 410.787.5825
Email: thicks@sha.state.md.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: Safety - all bridges are so provided

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: Nearby intersecting roads may affect the design, possibly resulting in a short barrier wall
appropriately angled

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Barrier wall, as described above

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.
Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?


                                                        B-30
         Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

Dick Langoni (Taken by Tim over the phone) has submitted a survey.

Details:
=========
Agency: Colorado DOT
Name: Dick Langoni (Taken by Tim over the phone)
Division: Traffic Region 5
Phone: 970-385-1416
Email:

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: All bridges receiving state funds regardless of system must follow the state guidelines and thus
must have guardrail on approach to protect the blunt ends.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No response.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.


                                                        B-31
Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Washington State Dept. of Transportation
Name: Rick Glidden
Division: Design
Phone: (360) 705-7246
Email: glidder@wsdot.wa.gov

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: We are usually concerned with State Highways, not local roads.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
         Answer: We usually apply full design standards at bridge approaches. Sometimes existing conditions will
warrant not upgrading the barrier systems. Historic bridges or roadways with posted speed limits below 35 MPH are
some examples.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: Concrete Barrier, Impact Attenuators

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy




                                                        B-32
Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: Some of the WSDOT Std. Plans for guardrail transitions to bridges were revised to include a curb
about one year ago to satisfy concerns raised by the Federal Highway Administration.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Arizona DOT
Name: Terry H. Otterness, P.E.
Division: ITD
Phone: 602-712-4285
Email: totterness@dot.state.az.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
         Answer: There is no separate policy for local roads. Bridge ends are considered a fixed object without
protection. We use either an extended barrier or most times is a thrie-beam transition to a guard rail terminal.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: Not at this time.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes


                                                        B-33
Question 3a:       If Yes: Please describe:
         Answer: Assuming we are talking about bridge dadoes or bridge ends. Crash cushions are sometimes used
in special applications where access roads are too close to the bridge to allow proper guard rail length.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
         Answer: No but I think that some consideration should be given for urban conditions where curb and gutter
are present and there is sidewalk across the bridge. In those conditions, there may be some justification for not
introducing barrier at a bridge end.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: North Dakota DOT
Name: George Stelzmiller (recorded by Tim over phone)
Division: Design
Phone: 701-328-2556
Email: gstelzmi@state.nd.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: All bridges, all routes if state/federal monies (AASHTO RDG)


                                                        B-34
Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: ADT, Speed limit determines the length - follows AASHTO RDG

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No
Question 3a:     If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: Guidelines/standards are online: http://www.state.nd.us/dot/designmanual.html

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Montana DOT
Name: Duane Williams
Division: Traffic and Safety
Phone: 406-444-7312
Email: duwilliams@state.mt.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?


                                                        B-35
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: All bridges regardless of ADT or class (see Q2 for exceptions)

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: Very low volume roads or low speed urban are case-by-case and may be excluded, but this is rare


Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: crash cushion where space is limited

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: Guideline

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: Guidelines likely online

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Wyoming DOT
Name: Mike Gustovich
Division: Traffic and Safety
Phone: 307-777-4492
Email: mike.gostovich@dot.state.wy.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.


                                                        B-36
Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: All bridges that receive state/federal money must have approach guardrail (clear-zone
requirements follow AASHTO RGD)

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: No

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: bend rail back where not enough space, particularly with draining ditches

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: Guideline

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: follow AASHTO RDG strictly

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: No

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: No

=========
Agency: Oregon DOT
Name: Dan MacDonald (via telephone, entered by Tim)
Division: Design Standards
Phone: 503-986-3779
Email: daniel.j.macdonald@odot.state.or.us




                                                        B-37
Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
          Answer: All NHS require approach guardrail. All non-NHS routes (ODOT or off-system): approach
guardrail is recommended but it's up to the local engineer (ODOT or county/city) to decide based on weighing the
injury risk versus the cost of the guardrail.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: volume and operating speed - is a rail cost effective given the injury risk?

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: but only if space is insufficient for guardrail

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: Guideline

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
         Answer: ODOT used to protect all bridges, but recently was interested in the need for placement of
approach guardrail on low volume or low speed non-NHS routes. Dan MacDonald contacted FHWA's Dick Powers
(richard.powers@fhwa.dot.gov 202-366-1320) who suggested the guideline in 1b. FHWA suggests states develop
their own policy.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: No response.

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: No response.




                                                        B-38
Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: No response.

=========
Agency: NCDOT
Name: Dewayne Sykes
Division: Design
Phone: 919-250-4016
Email: dsykes@dot.state.nc.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: Yes

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.
Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
         Answer: ADT < 400 a minimal section of guardrail is typically placed on most bridges to protect the rail,
but there are cases such as low speed urban where exceptions may occur. (400 ADT is in conjunction with
AASHTO DG for very low volume roads). Some sort of protection is generally required for all bridges. Over 400
ADT, guardrail is placed and RDG is followed.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: ADT, speed, functional classification

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: attenuators where limited space

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No


                                                        B-39
Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: www.doh.dot.state.nc.us/preconstruct/highway/dsn_srvc/value/manuals (Design Manual Part 1 -
Chapter 3 Guard Rail)

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Idaho DOT
Name: MIlford Miller
Division: Design Standards
Phone: 208-334-8475
Email: mlmiller@itd.state.id.us

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: All bridges must have guardrail regardless of jurisdiction if state/federal monies are used

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
          Answer: On lower speed routes (35 mph) in urban areas, use of a turned down end treatment is allowed
rather than NCHRP 350 treatment

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: attenuators where space is limited

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: Yes


                                                        B-40
Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: Low volumes were considered for change, but decided to keep the policy for all bridges

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: http://www.itd.idaho.gov/manuals/Design/index.htm

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Missouri DOT
Name: Joe Jones (taken over phone by Tim)
Division: Design Division, Technical Support Engineer
Phone: 573-751-3813
Email: joseph.jones@modot.mo.gov

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
          Answer: Policy says no blunt ends in clear-zone - therefore protect every bridge rail regardless of
jurisdiction or ADT or speed as long as state or federal monies are involved.

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No response.

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?
        Answer: Yes

Question 3a:        If Yes: Please describe:
          Answer: wrap guardrail around the radius or modify the end of the bridge to connect an impact attenuator
directly to the rail.

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?


                                                        B-41
         Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: Standards are on-line but manuals are not: http://www.modot.state.mo.us/business/

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: Louisiana DOT
Name: Paul Fossier
Division: Assist State Bridge Design Engineer
Phone: 225-379-1323
Email: pfossier@dotd.louisiana.gov

Question 1: Does your agency use average daily traffic (ADT) to determine whether or not guardrail should be
placed on bridge approaches for low volume state and local roads?
        Answer: No

Question 1a. If Yes: i. What is the minimum ADT threshold that requires for placement of bridge-approach
guardrail?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1ii. How was this ADT threshold developed?
        Answer: No response.

Question 1iii. Does this ADT threshold coincide with any other threshold (i.e., paving, shoulders, lane width,
edgelines, etc.)?
         Answer: No response.

Question 1b. If No: What is the basis for placement of guardrail on bridge approaches for local roads?
        Answer: Require guardrail on all bridges based regardless of ADT or system if state funding is used (follow
AASHTO RDG)

Question 2: Are there other factors that play a role in the decision to place/not place approach guardrail on bridge
approaches for local roads (e.g., roadway width, roadway geometry, shoulder presence/width/type, speed limit,
paved vs. unpaved, etc.)?
        Answer: No

Question 3: Does your agency use treatments other than guardrail to protect bridge abutments?


                                                        B-42
         Answer: Yes

Question 3a:    If Yes: Please describe:
        Answer: yes - fit in shorter section of guardrail, YUMA treatment (curved guardrail), crash cushion if not
enough space

Question 4: Is the basis for guardrail placement a state/agency policy or simply a guideline?
        Answer: State/Agency Policy

Question 4a: If Other, please describe:
        Answer: No response.

Question 5: Has this policy/guideline been recently changed or considered for change?
        Answer: No

Question 5a: If Yes, why?
        Answer: No response.

Question 6: Has your agency performed any research into the safety or benefit/cost of bridge-approach guardrail
placement on low volume roads?
        Answer: No

Question 6a: If yes, how can we obtain a copy of the report?
        Answer: www.dotd.lousiana.gov goto publications manuals (bridge manual)

Question 7a: May we receive a copy of the current application policy/guideline?
        Answer: Yes

Question 7b: May we receive a copy of the current design standard for bridge-approach guardrail?
        Answer: Yes

=========
Agency: FHWA
Name: Dick Powers
Division: Office Safety and Design, Highway Engineer
Phone: 202-366-1320
Email: richard.powers@fhwa.dot.gov

FHWA only requires that guardrail be placed on federally funded roadways (i.e. NHS). For the case of non NHS
roadways, they would like to see all bridges protected, but states are allowed to develop their own policy for non
NHS roads and it's probably not cost-effective to protect every bridge. If a threshold is used, it should be based on
operating speeds rather than traffic volume. Other factors include: bridge width (compared to roadway width) and
presence of trees and other hazards. For example, if a wide bridge has moderate speeds, sufficient delination and
object markers and has a considerable line of trees or other hazards on the approach, then it may not make sense to
place guardrail on the approach.




                                                        B-43
                       APPENDIX C
Iowa Procedure for Determining the Need for Bridge Guardrail
                   on Low-Volume Roads
INSTRUCTIONAL MEMORANDUMS (I.M.)
                                        To County Engineers
 To                                                            Date
 County Engineers                                              November 2001
 From                                                          IM No.
 Office of Local Systems                                       3.213
 Subject
 Traffic Barriers (Guardrail and Bridge Rail)

The purpose of this I.M. is to provide guidelines for determining the need for traffic barriers at
roadway bridges and culverts. A traffic barrier is a device used to shield a roadside obstacle that
is located on the right-of-way within an established minimum width clear-zone (see I.M. 3.215
for clear-zone instruction).

Roadside obstacles are classified as non-traversable objects (such as large culverts) and as fixed
objects (such as unprotected ends of bridge rails). These roadside obstacles should first be
reviewed for possible removal or relocation outside the Clear-zone. If this is not practical, then a
traffic barrier may be necessary. A traffic barrier itself poses some risk to an errant motorist and
should be installed only if it is clear that the barrier reduces the severity of potential crashes.

GUARDRAIL (Approach Guardrail):

In general, guardrail should be installed at:

1. All four bridge corners on newly constructed bridges on the Farm-to-Market system, except
bridges located within an established speed zone of 35 mph or less.

2. On the approach bridge corners (right side) on new federally funded bridges constructed on
the area service system, except bridges within a 35 mph or less speed zone. Consideration
should be given to shielding the opposite corner if it is located on the outside edge of a curve.
The FHWA will participate in guardrail at all four corners if desired by the county.

3. All four bridge corners on existing bridges within the termini of a 3R project on the Farm-to-
Market System. Existing w-beam installations that are flared and anchored at both ends may be
used as constructed without upgrading to current standards.

4. Culverts with spans greater than six feet (circular pipe culverts greater than 72" in diameter), if
it is impractical to extend beyond the clear-zone and grates are not utilized.

Design exceptions (see I.M. 3.218 for design exception instructions) to not utilize guardrail at
bridges or culverts will be considered if the following conditions exist:

1. Current ADT at structure is less than 200 vehicles per day.

2. Structure width is 24' or greater.




                                                 C-1
3. Structure is on tangent alignment.

4. Benefit/cost Ratio is less than 0.80.

Other obstructions, within the right-of-way and clear-zone, should be reviewed for removal,
relocation, installation of a traffic barrier or the “do nothing” option based on a cost-
effectiveness approach.

BRIDGE RAILS (Barrier Rail):

Bridge rails on newly constructed bridges should be constructed to the latest available standards
(includes SL-1 type rail on structures with less than 1,000 vpd). On bridge rehabilitation projects
involving federal-aid, any substandard bridge rail should be reviewed for retrofitting.

Bridge rails which are both structurally deficient and functionally obsolete should be reviewed
for upgrading as part of the 3R projects. Included with this I.M. is a “Bridge Rail Rating
System” developed to assist in determining if a bridge rail should be upgraded with the 3R
project and to what extent it should be upgraded. Any bridge which is programmed in the near
future for replacement or rehabilitation may not require upgrading as part of the 3R project.

The rating system assigns points to five factors (Crashes, ADT, Width, Length and Type of
bridge rail); the sum of these factors will indicate the degree or amount of upgrading required, if
any. The crash factor involves crashes (property damage only, personal injury and fatality) in
the last five years (Access ALAS). The types of bridge rail are from various county bridge
standards. If the existing rail is not an old standard, then determine which type it is similar to and
assign the corresponding points.

Consideration should be given to extending the guardrail through the bridge on short bridges or
bridges which have no end posts. This may be less costly than attaching the guardrail as per
standard RE-27B or constructing an end post.




                                                 C-2
                              BRIDGE RAIL RATING SYSTEM
                                   5 FACTOR SYSTEM
  POINTS               0            5          10                         15            20
                                                                        1 F or      2 or more
    Crashes
                                                                     2 PDO’s or     F’s/PI’s or
  (in the last       None           1 PDO                 1 PI
                                                                     1 PI and 1     3 or more
    5 years)
                                                                        PDO           PDO’s
    ADT
                     < 200         200 - 299            300 - 399     400 - 750       > 750
(current year)
Bridge Width
                     > 30             28                   24            22           < 20
    (feet)
Bridge Length
                     < 50           50 - 99             100 - 149    150 - 200        > 200
    (feet)
                                                                     Steel Rail
                                                   Formed Steel
                  Aluminum        Steel Box                            (1941          Angle
                                                    Beam Rail
 Bridge Rail         Rail            Rail                            Standard)      Handrail
                                                    (1951 and
   (type)           (1967           (1964                           Concrete Rail     (1928
                                                       1957
                  Standard)       Standard)                            (1928        Standard)
                                                    Standards)
                                                                     Standard)

Abbreviations: PDO = Property Damage Only crash
               PI = Personal Injury crash
               F = Fatality crash

Upgrading Needed
< 25 Points - No Upgrading at this time
25 - 50 Points - Delineation according to Standard RE-48A
51 - 75 Points - Block out with Thrie Beam to curb edge
(If existing approach guardrail is W-Beam, W-Beam may be used)
Over 75 Points - Retrofit




                                                  C-3
                   APPENDIX D
Pontis Inventory Information for Sample CSAH Bridges
Table D-1. Pontis Data for Bridges WITH Approach Guardrail
                                                                                                                                                            Appr.
County               Bridge                               Feature       Year     Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                         Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                  Intersected   Built    Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                            Rating

                                                                                                        16-
                                           0.6 MI S OF
ANOKA     CSAH 26    2195     000+00.650                  CEDAR CREEK   1918     30.0    41.4    2      URB/MINOR    1409    2002   2       36      41.4    8
                                           JCT CSAH 24
                                                                                                        ART

                                                                                                        06-
                                           0.2 MI E OF
ANOKA     CSAH 24    02501    009+00.030                  RUM RIVER     1964     106.5   44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    9400    2003   2       44      44      7
                                           JCT CSAH 28
                                                                                                        ART

                                                                                                        06-
                                           0.1 MI W OF
ANOKA     CSAH 28    02502    002+00.160                  SEELYE BROOK 1961      24.8    28.1    2      RUR/MINOR    3108    2002   2       28      28.1    6
                                           JCT CR 71
                                                                                                        ART

                                                                                                        06-
                                           0.7 MI N OF
ANOKA     CSAH 13    02518    000+00.800                  CEDAR CREEK   1966     26.1    29.6    2      RUR/MINOR    1976    2002   2       32      29.6    6
                                           JCT CSAH 22
                                                                                                        ART

                                                                                                        06-
                                           0.2 MI E OF
ANOKA     CSAH 22    02519    008+00.810                  RUM RIVER     1969     78.2    30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    8586    2002   2       32      30      7
                                           JCT CR 55
                                                                                                        ART

                                                                                                        16-
                                           0.2 MI NE OF
ANOKA     CSAH 2     02523    000+00.181                  BNSF RR       1973     205.0   44.0    2      URB/MINOR    9103    2002   2       44      44      5
                                           JCT CSAH 1
                                                                                                        ART


                                           1.5 MI E OF
ANOKA     CSAH 7     02526    007+00.670                  RUM RIVER     1975     68.4    44.0    2      17-URB COLL 8708     2002   2       50      44      7
                                           JCT TH 47


                                                          CHAN                                          06-
                                           1.0 MI S OF
ANOKA     CSAH 14    02527    016+00.405                  BETWEEN TWO 1975       31.0    48.3    2      RUR/MINOR    7201    2002   2       30      48.3    8
                                           JCT TH 35W
                                                          LAKES                                         ART


                                           1.2 MI S OF                                                  07-RURAL
ANOKA     CSAH 7     02535    013+00.210                  SEELYE BROOK 1984      20.0    44.1    2                   6241    2002   2       32      44.1    8
                                           JCT CSAH 24                                                  COLL


                                                                                                        06-
                                           1.2 MI S OF
ANOKA     CSAH 9     02536    007+00.400                  CEDAR CREEK   1995     64.0    44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    10380   2002   2       40      44      9
                                           JCT CSAH 22
                                                                                                        ART




                                                                                D-1
                                                                                                                                                          Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year     Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built    Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                          Rating

                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.3 MI S OF
ANOKA    CSAH 78    02539    004+00.806                 COON CREEK    1982     64.6    54.8    2      URB/MINOR    14554   2002   2       54      54.8    8
                                          JCT CSAH 16
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          1.5 MI N OF
ANOKA    CSAH 1     02541    003+00.980                 RICE CREEK    1988     51.0    34.0    4      URB/MINOR    26758   2002   2       84      68      9
                                          JCT TH 694
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.4 MI E OF
ANOKA    CSAH 116 02545      002+00.026                 RUM RIVER     1990     133.4   68.0    4      URB/MINOR    17156   2002   2       68      68      8
                                          JCT TH 47
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.1 MI E OF   RUM RIVER
ANOKA    CSAH 116 02546      001+00.716                               1990     100.0   68.0    4      URB/MINOR    17156   2002   2       68      68      9
                                          JCT TH 47     OXBOW
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      06-
                                          0.4 MI W OF
ANOKA    CSAH 22    02548    004+00.994                 FORD BROOK    1987     67.0    40.0    2      RUR/MINOR    5464    2002   2       40      40      9
                                          JCT TH 47
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.2 MI N OF
ANOKA    CSAH 18    02549    002+00.571                 COON CREEK    1988     69.0    56.0    4      URB/MINOR    14479   2002   2       76      56      7
                                          JCT TH 242
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.6 MI E OF
ANOKA    CSAH 11    02553    004+00.450                 COON CREEK    1991     42.0    56.0    4      URB/MINOR    13770   2002   2       56      56      8
                                          JCT CSAH 78
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          1.0 MI W OF
ANOKA    CSAH 14    02560    001+00.049                 BNSF RR       1991     90.0    32.0    4      URB/MINOR    20076   2002   2       82      64      9
                                          JCT TH 10
                                                                                                      ART


                                          0.1 MI E OF
ANOKA    CSAH 116 02564      005+00.078                 COON CREEK    1999     27.2    33.4    5      17-URB COLL 20558    2002   2       67      78.6    8
                                          JCT CSAH 16


                                          0.4 MI N OF
ANOKA    CSAH 35    3310     001+00.580                 RICE CREEK    1920     10.0    47.0    2      17-URB COLL 10500    2003   2       44      0       6
                                          JCT CSAH 6




                                                                              D-2
                                                                                                                                                          Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year     Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built    Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                          Rating

                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.8 MI S OF
ANOKA    CSAH 49    4711     001+00.458                 CHANNEL       1927     35.0    27.0    2      URB/MINOR    14106   2002   2       36      27      7
                                          JCT CSAH 23
                                                                                                      ART


                                          2.5 MI N OF   HARDWOOD                                      07-RURAL
ANOKA    CSAH 21    90734    006+00.080                               1960     5.0     35.0    2                   800     2003   2       32      0       5
                                          JCT CSAH 14   CREEK                                         COLL


                                          0.8 MI W OF                                                 07-RURAL
ANOKA    CSAH 23    90737    012+00.263                 RICE CREEK    1926     10.0    45.0    2                   6100    2003   2       44      0       8
                                          JCT CSAH 21                                                 COLL


                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.8 MI N OF
ANOKA    CSAH 1     92164    008+00.926                 COON CREEK    1973     14.1    48.0    5      URB/MINOR    40306   2002   2       130     106     8
                                          JCT CSAH 11
                                                                                                      ART


                                          0.5 MI E OF                                                 07-RURAL
ANOKA    CSAH 24    92730    017+00.590                 CEDAR CREEK   1970     9.5     32.0    2                   1000    2003   2       32      0       8
                                          JCT CSAH 26                                                 COLL


                                                                                                      06-
                                          1.9 MI E OF
ANOKA    CSAH 22    95167    012+00.146                 CEDAR CREEK   1983     10.2    48.0    2      RUR/MINOR    8978    2002   2       44      0       8
                                          JCT CSAH 9
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.3 MI E OF   PARK ACCESS
ANOKA    CSAH 116 96834      001+00.934                               1990     40.0    68.0    4      URB/MINOR    17156   2002   2       68      68      8
                                          JCT TH 47     ROAD
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      06-
CROW                                      2.0 MI N OF   MISSISSIPPI
         CSAH 3     6518     001+00.469                               1950     112.6   30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    8600    2001   2       44      30      8
WING                                      BRAINERD      RIVER
                                                                                                      ART


CROW                                      1.2 MI S OF                                                 07-RURAL
         CSAH 16    18501    012+00.150                 PINE RIVER    1963     31.1    40.3    2                   2550    2001   2       40      40.3    9
WING                                      JCT CSAH 66                                                 COLL


                                                                                                      08-
CROW                                      1.7 MI N OF   NOKASIPPI
         CSAH 23    18502    010+00.330                               1960     28.7    29.4    2      RUR/MINOR    590     2001   2       36      29.4    8
WING                                      JCT CSAH 22   RIVER
                                                                                                      COLL




                                                                              D-3
                                                                                                                                                           Appr.
County              Bridge                               Feature       Year     Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                         Algnmt.
Name                No.                                  Intersected   Built    Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                           Rating


CROW                                      2.5 MI S OF                                                  07-RURAL
         CSAH 15    18503    004+00.700                  PINE RIVER    1971     49.6    36.0    2                   550     2001   2       40      36      8
WING                                      JCT CSAH 1                                                   COLL


CROW                                      0.4 MI N OF    NOKASIPPI                                     07-RURAL
         CSAH 45    18504    003+00.980                                1970     31.1    40.1    2                   930     2001   2       40      40.1    8
WING                                      JCT CSAH 2     RIVER                                         COLL


                                                                                                       08-
CROW                                      3.0 MI N OF    RABBIT LAKE
         CSAH 31    18506    003+00.510                                1974     22.0    30.8    2      RUR/MINOR    1350    2001   2       40      30.8    8
WING                                      JCT TH 210-6   NARROWS
                                                                                                       COLL


CROW                                      2.8 MI W OF                                                  07-RURAL
         CSAH 77    18508    000+00.660                  GULL RIVER    1979     81.0    44.6    2                   4250    2001   2       48      44.6    9
WING                                      JCT TH 371                                                   COLL


                                                                                                       06-
CROW                                      0.9 MI N OF    DAGGETT
         CSAH 66    18510    000+00.980                                1979     70.0    44.1    2      RUR/MINOR    5100    2001   2       44      44.1    9
WING                                      JCT CSAH 3     BROOK
                                                                                                       ART


CROW                                      2.3 MI E OF    NOKASIPPI                                     07-RURAL
         CSAH 2     18512    002+00.300                                1984     30.7    36.2    2                   255     2001   2       36      36.2    9
WING                                      JCT TH 371     RIVER                                         COLL


CROW                                      1.5 MI W OF    LITTLE PINE                                   07-RURAL
         CSAH 36    18514    007+00.820                                1981     26.0    31.8    2                   570     2001   2       36      31.8    9
WING                                      JCT TH 6       RIVER                                         COLL


                                                                                                       06-
CROW                                      0.2 MI S OF
         CSAH 3     18517    022+00.757                  PINE RIVER    1985     59.5    44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    5900    2001   2       44      44      9
WING                                      JCT CSAH 6
                                                                                                       ART


CROW                                      0.5 MI S OF                                                  07-RURAL
         CSAH 36    18518    001+00.100                  PINE RIVER    1984     104.5   38.5    2                   1100    2001   2       36      38.5    9
WING                                      JCT CSAH 37                                                  COLL


CROW                                      1.0 MI N OF    NOKASIPPI                                     09-RURAL
         CSAH 9     18520    000+00.940                                1993     32.1    36.6    2                   260     2001   2       34      36.6    8
WING                                      JCT CSAH 2     RIVER                                         LOCAL




                                                                               D-4
                                                                                                                                                         Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year     Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                       Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built    Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                         Rating


CROW                                      0.5 MI W OF   DAGGETT                                      07-RURAL
         CSAH 2     18522    012+00.690                               1996     55.8   36.0    2                   485     2001   2       32      36      8
WING                                      JCT TH 25     BROOK                                        COLL


                                                                                                     08-
CROW                                      1.1 MI N OF   NOKASIPPI
         CSAH 21    18523    001+00.160                               2001     69.7   36.0    2      RUR/MINOR    530     2001   2       32      36      8
WING                                      JCT CSAH 2    RIVER
                                                                                                     COLL


CROW                                      0.3 MI E OF                                                07-RURAL
         CSAH 11    18524    018+00.450                 PINE RIVER    2003     66.7   40.0    2                   1050    2001   2       36      40      8
WING                                      JCT CSAH 19                                                COLL


CROW                                      1.1 MI W OF   DAGGETT                                      07-RURAL
         CSAH 2     92168    018+00.120                               1967     9.5    36.0    2                   1550    2001   2       36      0       8
WING                                      JCT CR 132    BROOK                                        COLL


                                                                                                     08-
CROW                                      0.3 MI N OF
         CSAH 21    92547    003+00.030                 HAY CREEK     1960     12.3   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    940     2001   2       36      32      8
WING                                      JCT CR 121
                                                                                                     COLL


CROW                                      0.4 MI S OF   GRAVE LAKE                                   07-RURAL
         CSAH 8     93300    017+00.800                               1977     12.8   36.0    2                   660     2001   2       36      0       9
WING                                      JCT TH 18     OUTLET                                       COLL


                                                                                                     08-
CROW                                      0.9 MI N OF   DAGGETT
         CSAH 23    L2839    001+00.930                               1952     19.7   28.2    2      RUR/MINOR    335     2001   2       32      28.2    8
WING                                      JCT CR 139    BROOK
                                                                                                     COLL


CROW                                      1.2 MI W OF   NOKASIPPI                                    09-RURAL
         CSAH 24    L2840    002+00.020                               1962     5.0    30.0    2                   345     2001   2       32      30      8
WING                                      JCT CSAH 8    RIVER                                        LOCAL


CROW                                      0.8 MI E OF   THOMPSON                                     07-RURAL
         CSAH 1     L2863    008+00.950                               1943     28.0   28.0    2                   1400    2001   2       38      28      8
WING                                      JCT CR 134    CREEK                                        COLL


                                                                                                     06-
CROW                                      0.5 MI N OF   PELICAN
         CSAH 3     L2865    019+00.487                               1958     12.3   40.0    2      RUR/MINOR    4350    2001   2       40      0       8
WING                                      JCT CSAH 11   BROOK
                                                                                                     ART




                                                                              D-5
                                                                                                                                                          Appr.
County              Bridge                               Feature       Year     Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                No.                                  Intersected   Built    Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                          Rating


                                          0.2 MI W OF                                                 07-RURAL
DAKOTA   CSAH 88    4914     007+00.582                  STREAM        1930     28.3   25.0    2                   2000    2003   2       30      25      8
                                          JCT TH 52                                                   COLL


                                                                                                      06-
                                          1.2 MI N OF    VERMILLION
DAKOTA   CSAH 9     8433     002+00.156                                1945     9.0    30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    3300    2003   2       28      0       8
                                          JCT CSAH 80    RIVER
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      06-
                                          0.5 MI W OF    VERMILLION
DAKOTA   CSAH 46    19502    022+00.245                                1967     50.0   30.2    2      RUR/MINOR    4200    2003   2       44      30.2    8
                                          JCT CSAH 47    RIVER
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          0.7 MI SW OF   VERMILLION
DAKOTA   CSAH 46    19503    023+00.803                                1968     57.0   34.6    2      URB/MINOR    9900    2003   2       36      34.6    8
                                          JCT TH 61      RIVER
                                                                                                      ART


                                          0.9 MI N OF    VERMILLION                                   07-RURAL
DAKOTA   CSAH 85    19504    011+00.120                                1968     52.1   30.0    2                   890     2003   2       48      30      8
                                          JCT CSAH 62    RIVER                                        COLL


                                          0.3 MI W OF                                                 14-URB/OTH
DAKOTA   CSAH 42    19511    000+00.947                  CP RAIL       1971     54.0   28.0    4                   39500   2003   2       61      56      8
                                          JCT CSAH 5                                                  PR ART


                                                                                                      06-
                                          1.5 MI S OF
DAKOTA   CSAH 23    19517    011+00.320                  CHUB CREEK    1987     63.1   44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    3450    2003   2       44      44      8
                                          JCT CSAH 86
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      16-
                                          .7 MI S OF JCT
DAKOTA   CSAH 31    19528    013+00.394                  PARK TRAIL    1990     46.0   64.0    5      URB/MINOR    17700   2003   2       64      64      8
                                          CSAH 32
                                                                                                      ART

                                                                                                      06-
                                          0.1 MI S OF
DAKOTA   CSAH 47    19542    000+00.840                  CHUB CREEK    2004     40.0   44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    3100    2003   2       40      44      9
                                          JCT CSAH 88
                                                                                                      ART


                                          1.1 MI W OF                                                 07-RURAL
DAKOTA   CSAH 62    96705    009+00.815                  DRY RUN       1990     12.0   40.0    2                   1700    2003   2       40      0       8
                                          JCT CSAH 91                                                 COLL




                                                                               D-6
                                                                                                                                                             Appr.
County                Bridge                               Feature        Year     Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                         Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                  Intersected    Built    Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                             Rating

                                                                                                         16-
                                            0.6 MI E OF    E BR N FK
DAKOTA     CSAH 50    19J07    006+00.881                                 1996     8.0    34.0    4      URB/MINOR    15000   2003   2       86      68      8
                                            JCT CSAH 23    VERMILLION R
                                                                                                         ART

                                                                                                         06-
                                            0.1 MI SW OF
DAKOTA     CSAH 47    L3169    015+00.089                  DRY RUN        1919     7.9    26.0    2      RUR/MINOR    2250    2003   2       34      26      8
                                            JCT CSAH 85
                                                                                                         ART

                                                                                                         06-
                                            0.3 MI SW OF
DAKOTA     CSAH 47    L3170    014+00.869                  DRY RUN        1919     10.0   28.0    2      RUR/MINOR    2250    2003   2       34      28      8
                                            JCT CSAH 85
                                                                                                         ART

                                                                                                         06-
                                            0.6 MI N OF    VERMILLION
DAKOTA     CSAH 23    L3173    011+00.530                                 1923     10.0   43.6    2      RUR/MINOR    5700    2003   2       44      43.6    8
                                            JCT CSAH 78    RIVER
                                                                                                         ART

                                                                                                         08-
                                            3.0 MI SW OF
DAKOTA     CSAH 91    L3180    001+00.750                  TROUT BROOK    1931     8.0    26.0    2      RUR/MINOR    120     2003   2       30      26      7
                                            JCT TH 61
                                                                                                         COLL

                                                                                                         06-
                                            0.9 MI E OF    N BR CHUB
DAKOTA     CSAH 86    L3182    009+00.810                                 1940     10.0   29.4    2      RUR/MINOR    2200    2003   2       34      29.4    7
                                            JCT CR 53      CREEK
                                                                                                         ART


                                            1.3 MI N OF                                                  07-RURAL
DAKOTA     CSAH 85    L3196    001+00.230                  PINE CREEK     1959     24.0   28.5    2                   490     2003   2       30      28.5    8
                                            JCT CSAH 86                                                  COLL


                                            0.9 MI N OF                                                  07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 1     5289     020+00.770                  STREAM         1933     41.0   24.8    2                   1300    2001   2       28      24.8    6
                                            JCT CSAH 4                                                   COLL


                                            0.6 MI S OF                                                  07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 1     23507    016+00.070                  DEER CREEK     1965     52.0   30.1    2                   1300    2001   2       30      30.1    6
                                            JCT CSAH 4                                                   COLL


                                            1.0 MI N OF                                                  07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 1     23508    017+00.750                  BEAR CREEK     1965     46.0   30.0    2                   1300    2001   2       30      30      8
                                            JCT CSAH 4                                                   COLL




                                                                                  D-7
                                                                                                                                                            Appr.
County                Bridge                               Feature       Year     Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                  Intersected   Built    Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                            Rating


                                            0.1 MI E OF                                                 09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 36    23513    000+00.020                  ROOT RIVER    1969     67.2   30.0    2                   365     2001   2       30      30      8
                                            JCT TH 16                                                   LOCAL


                                            0.3 MI N OF    S BR ROOT                                    07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 1     23514    006+00.370                                1970     31.1   30.7    2                   900     2001   2       32      30.7    8
                                            JCT CSAH 3     RIVER                                        COLL


                                            0.2 MI SW OF                                                07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 5     23516    027+00.708                  BEAR CREEK    1971     46.0   32.0    2                   550     2001   2       32      32      6
                                            JCT CR 102                                                  COLL


                                            1.0 MI SE OF                                                07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 8     23528    002+00.050                  DEER CREEK    1982     39.3   32.6    2                   1750    2001   2       32      32.6    8
                                            JCT CSAH 4                                                  COLL


                                            0.6 MI W OF    N BR ROOT                                    07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 2     23535    016+00.600                                1998     59.5   39.3    2                   760     2001   2       35      39.3    8
                                            JCT TH 52      RIVER                                        COLL


                                            0.3 MI W OF    S BR ROOT                                    07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 12    23546    020+00.700                                1985     95.0   44.0    2                   760     2001   2       44      44      8
                                            JCT CSAH 17    RIVER                                        COLL


                                            0.4 MI S OF                                                 07-RURAL
GOODHUE    CSAH 2     25501    007+00.008                  WELLS CREEK   1966     25.2   29.5    2                   510     2003   2       36      29.5    5
                                            JCT CR 45                                                   COLL


                                                                                                        06-
                                            2.1 MI N OF    VERMILLION
GOODHUE    CSAH 18    25505    002+00.170                                1968     85.8   36.0    2      RUR/MINOR    7400    2003   2       34      36      8
                                            JCT TH 61      RIVER
                                                                                                        ART

                                                                                                        06-
                                            2.6 MI N OF    INDIAN
GOODHUE    CSAH 18    25506    002+00.720                                1968     72.3   36.0    2      RUR/MINOR    7400    2003   2       34      36      7
                                            JCT TH 61      SLOUGH
                                                                                                        ART

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.1 MI S OF    LITTLE
GOODHUE    CSAH 14    25508    004+00.220                               1969      52.0   30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    245     2003   2       34      30      6
                                            JCT CR 44      CANNON RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL




                                                                                 D-8
                                                                                                                                                            Appr.
County               Bridge                                Feature       Year     Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                         Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                   Intersected   Built    Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                            Rating

                                                                                                        08-
                                           1.0 MI N OF     LITTLE
GOODHUE   CSAH 14    25509    006+00.180                                1969      54.0   30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    510     2003   2       32      30      7
                                           JCT CSAH 22     CANNON RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL


                                           0.9 MI E OF     N BR ZUMBRO                                  07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 10    25512    010+00.300                                 1971     67.1   30.0    2                   920     2003   2       30      30      8
                                           JCT CSAH 4      RIVER                                        COLL


                                           0.5 MI W OF     GILBERT                                      07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 5     25513    014+00.060                                 1971     44.0   36.0    2                   2150    2003   2       32      36      7
                                           JCT TH 61       CREEK                                        COLL


                                           0.2 MI E OF                                                  07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 66    25517    000+00.270                   HAY CREEK     1975     62.0   44.0    2                   6700    2003   2       44      44      9
                                           JCT CSAH 1                                                   COLL


                                                                                                        08-
                                           1.2 MI W OF     N FK ZUMBRO
GOODHUE   CSAH 30    25520    009+00.368                                 1979     65.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    610     2003   2       32      32      9
                                           JCT TH 57       RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                           0.2 MI N 0F S   N BR MID FK
GOODHUE   CSAH 27    25538    000+00.190                                1982      40.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    120     2003   2       32      32      9
                                           CO LINE         ZUMBRO RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                           1.9 MI E OF
GOODHUE   CSAH 17    25540    002+00.970                   PINE CREEK    1986     85.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    640     2003   2       32      32      8
                                           JCT TH 20
                                                                                                        COLL


                                           0.3 MI W OF     LITTLE                                       07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 9     25541    005+00.430                                1981      55.0   44.0    2                   1500    2003   2       44      44      9
                                           JCT CSAH 14     CANNON RIVER                                 COLL


                                                                                                        08-
                                           2.5 MI SW OF    LITTLE
GOODHUE   CSAH 24    25554    006+00.075                                1983      70.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    510     2003   2       32      32      9
                                           JCT TH 52       CANNON RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL


                                           0.2 MI E OF                                                  07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 1     25559    022+00.447                   BELLE CREEK   1993     77.0   44.0    2                   1100    2003   2       40      44      9
                                           JCT CSAH 8                                                   COLL




                                                                                 D-9
                                                                                                                                                                Appr.
County               Bridge                                  Feature         Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                             Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                     Intersected     Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                                Rating


                                           0.8 MI N OF       N FK ZUMBRO                                    07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 1     25562    007+00.290                                     1993    55.2    40.0    2                   710     2003   2       36      40      9
                                           JCT TH 60         RIVER                                          COLL


                                                                                                            08-
                                           1.5 MI W OF
GOODHUE   CSAH 30    25564    008+00.910                     STREAM          1987    31.7    32.1    2      RUR/MINOR    420     2003   2       32      32.1    9
                                           JCT TH 57
                                                                                                            COLL


                                           0.4 MI E OF                                                      07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 5     25566    005+00.180                     WELLS CREEK     1992    68.4    36.0    2                   650     2003   2       36      36      9
                                           JCT CSAH 2                                                       COLL


                                                                                                            08-
                                           0.4 MI S OF       BULLARD
GOODHUE   CSAH 21    25582    003+00.400                                     1998    37.7    43.0    2      RUR/MINOR    1000    2003   2       39      43      9
                                           JCT TH 61         CREEK
                                                                                                            COLL

                                                                                                            08-
                                           2.3 MI N OF       S BR YELLOW
LYON      CSAH 13    42512    019+00.470                                     1967    26.0    30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    145     2001   2       36      30      8
                                           JCT TH 19         MEDICINE R
                                                                                                            COLL

                                                                                                            08-
                                           0.2 MI N OF       S BR YELLOW
LYON      CSAH 13    42514    017+00.460                                     1967    26.0    30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    145     2001   2       36      30      8
                                           JCT TH 19         MEDICINE R
                                                                                                            COLL


                                           0.6 MI E OF                                                      07-RURAL
LYON      CSAH 33    42539    002+00.825                     BNSF RR         1983    61.0    44.0    2                   3950    2001   2       44      44      9
                                           JCT TH 59                                                        COLL


                                           1.2 MI E OF       REDWOOD                                        07-RURAL
LYON      CSAH 33    42541    003+00.475                                     1983    50.0    44.0    2                   3950    2001   2       48      44      9
                                           JCT TH 59         RIVER                                          COLL


                                           0.9 mi E of jct                                                  07-RURAL
LYON      CSAH 2     42557    020+00.110                     Cottonwood River 2002   101.7   40.0    2                   244     2001   2       36      40      8
                                           CSAH 9                                                           COLL


                                           0.1 MI E OF                                                      07-RURAL
MOWER     CSAH 2     736      004+00.040                     STREAM          1939    28.1    29.0    2                   730     1996   2       28      29      8
                                           JCT CSAH 25                                                      COLL




                                                                                 D-10
                                                                                                                                                        Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                        Rating

                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.8 MI S OF
MOWER    CSAH 25    2227     003+00.830                 STREAM        1958    23.0   27.5    2      RUR/MINOR    800     1996   2       26      27.5    8
                                          JCT CSAH 2
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.6 MI E OF
MOWER    CSAH 4     2534     021+00.130                 STREAM        1917    24.0   22.8    2      RUR/MINOR    75      1996   2       35      22.8    8
                                          JCT CSAH 7
                                                                                                    COLL


                                          0.6 MI N OF                                               07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 8     4569     010+00.570                 DEER CREEK    1926    47.0   23.5    2                   315     1996   2       30      23.5    8
                                          JCT CSAH 13                                               COLL


                                          0.3 MI S OF                                               16-
MOWER    CSAH 29    5368     003+00.700   OAKLAND       CEDAR RIVER   1933    84.0   30.0    2      URB/MINOR    2950    1996   2       40      30      5
                                          AVE                                                       ART


                                          0.1 MI E OF                                               07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 5     7016     002+00.250                 CEDAR RIVER   1951    85.0   24.1    2                   210     1996   2       32      24.1    8
                                          JCT TH 105                                                COLL


                                                                                                    16-
                                          0.9 MI N OF
MOWER    CSAH 23    7048     000+00.960                 TURTLE CREEK 1955     60.0   28.0    2      URB/MINOR    2150    1996   2       30      28      8
                                          JCT CSAH 28
                                                                                                    ART


                                          0.8 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 4     7050     011+00.170                 ROSE CREEK    1957    60.1   24.0    2                   610     1996   2       32      24      8
                                          JCT CSAH 19                                               COLL


                                          0.3 MI E OF                                               07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 6     7091     002+00.350                 CEDAR RIVER   1953    85.0   24.0    2                   640     1996   2       36      24      8
                                          JCT TH 105                                                COLL


                                          0.2 MI N OF   UPPER IOWA                                  07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 14    7148     000+00.200                               1955    71.0   24.0    2                   1200    1996   2       29      24      8
                                          JCT TH 56     RIVER                                       COLL


                                          0.2 MI W OF
MOWER    CSAH 28    7232     003+00.680                 CEDAR RIVER   1959    80.0   28.0    2      17-URB COLL 1300     1996   2       30      28      8
                                          JCT CSAH 29




                                                                          D-11
                                                                                                                                                         Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature        Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                       Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected    Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                         Rating


                                          0.1 MI N OF   ROBERTS                                      07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 16    50502    007+00.200                                1960    30.0   27.3    2                   400     1996   2       26      27.3    8
                                          JCT CSAH 2    CREEK                                        COLL


                                                                                                     16-
                                          0.9 MI S OF
MOWER    CSAH 16    50503    000+00.900                 WOLF CREEK     1960    28.5   40.0    2      URB/MINOR    2100    1996   2       45      40      8
                                          JCT CSAH 25
                                                                                                     ART


                                          0.8 MI E OF                                                07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 1     50504    002+00.360                 CEDAR RIVER    1961    31.2   27.2    2                   410     1996   2       30      27.2    8
                                          JCT TH 218                                                 COLL


                                                                                                     08-
                                          1.9 MI S OF   RED CEDAR
MOWER    CSAH 25    50507    008+00.750                                1963    31.5   27.0    2      RUR/MINOR    230     1996   2       28      27      5
                                          JCT CSAH 1    RIVER
                                                                                                     COLL


                                          2.5 MI S OF   N BR ROOT                                    07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 7     50513    023+00.370                                1968    25.0   31.2    2                   270     1996   2       28      31.2    8
                                          JCT CSAH 1    RIVER                                        COLL


                                          2.1 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 7     50514    022+00.530                 STREAM         1967    31.0   31.0    2                   270     1996   2       29      31      8
                                          JCT CSAH 2                                                 COLL


                                          0.2 MI E OF                                                07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 13    50515    000+00.380                 ROSE CREEK     1968    25.0   30.7    2                   330     1996   2       27      30.7    8
                                          JCT CR 59                                                  COLL


                                          0.8 MI N OF   LITTLE IOWA                                  07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 14    50516    003+00.980                                1968    25.0   30.7    2                   1050    1996   2       32      30.7    8
                                          JCT CSAH 11   RIVER                                        COLL


                                                                                                     08-
                                          0.1 MI N OF
MOWER    CSAH 25    50517    000+00.110                 CEDAR RIVER    1968    61.0   30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    750     1996   2       31      30      8
                                          JCT CSAH 16
                                                                                                     COLL


                                          0.3 MI E OF   LITTLE CEDAR                                 07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 7     50519    004+00.350                                1968    31.2   29.4    2                   700     1996   2       37      29.4    8
                                          JCT CSAH 5    RIVER                                        COLL




                                                                           D-12
                                                                                                                                                          Appr.
County               Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                       Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                          Rating


                                           0.1 MI N OF   N FK BEAR                                    07-RURAL
MOWER     CSAH 8     50520    014+00.140                               1970    25.1    29.3    2                   500     1996   2       29      29.3    8
                                           JCT CSAH 2    CREEK                                        COLL


                                           0.5 MI E OF                                                07-RURAL
MOWER     CSAH 2     50524    004+00.590                 CEDAR RIVER   1971    60.0    32.0    2                   730     1996   2       28      32      8
                                           JCT CSAH 25                                                COLL


                                           1.5 MI E OF                                                07-RURAL
MOWER     CSAH 4     50528    006+00.970                 ROSE CREEK    1973    31.1    37.0    2                   610     1996   2       32      37      8
                                           JCT TH 218                                                 COLL


                                           1.3 MI N OF   S FK BEAR                                    07-RURAL
MOWER     CSAH 8     50576    013+00.300                               1995    101.5   40.0    2                   770     1996   2       36      40      9
                                           JCT TH 16     CREEK                                        COLL


                                           0.4 MI S OF                                                07-RURAL
MOWER     CSAH 7     89215    006+00.870                 STREAM        1958    28.8    40.0    2                   1150    1996   2       31      40      8
                                           JCT TH 56                                                  COLL


                                           0.6 MI W OF                                                09-RURAL
MOWER     CSAH 20    89228    016+00.860                 STREAM        1934    30.2    24.1    2                   180     1996   2       34      24.1    8
                                           JCT CSAH 7                                                 LOCAL


                                           0.2 MI N OF                                                09-RURAL
MOWER     CSAH 21    92138    000+00.170                 DITCH         1967    23.1    30.5    2                   200     1996   2       26      30.5    8
                                           JCT CSAH 28                                                LOCAL


                                                                                                      08-
                                           0.1 MI S OF   N BR UPPER
MOWER     CSAH 9     93079    005+00.960                               1974    23.0    33.2    2      RUR/MINOR    65      1996   2       35      33.2    8
                                           JCT TH 56     IOWA RIVER
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                           2.3 MI S OF   N BR ROOT
OLMSTED   CSAH 19    5877     002+00.980                               1939    46.6    24.0    2      RUR/MINOR    495     2002   2       36      24      5
                                           JCT TH 52     RIVER
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      16-
                                           0.2 MI S OF
OLMSTED   CSAH 1     7092     011+00.360                 WILLOW CREEK 1952     45.0    52.0    4      URB/MINOR    8200    2002   2       68      52      8
                                           JCT CR 146
                                                                                                      ART




                                                                           D-13
                                                                                                                                                           Appr.
County               Bridge                              Feature        Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                 Intersected    Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                           Rating


                                           0.5 MI N OF   MID FK                                        07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 3     7212     033+00.050                              1959      65.0    30.0    2                   2200    2002   2       32      30      6
                                           JCT CSAH 5    ZUMBRO RIVER                                  COLL


                                                                                                       08-
                                           1.3 MI E OF   S BR MID FK
OLMSTED   CSAH 14    55506    003+00.770                              1963      66.6    30.4    2      RUR/MINOR    660     2002   2       36      30.4    8
                                           JCT CR 105    ZUMBRO RIVER
                                                                                                       COLL

                                                                                                       08-
                                           0.7 MI N OF   N BR ROOT
OLMSTED   CSAH 8     55512    001+00.750                                1966    68.0    30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    1000    2002   2       36      30      8
                                           JCT CSAH 6    RIVER
                                                                                                       COLL


                                           0.5 MI S OF                                                 07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 3     55515    013+00.680                 SALEM CREEK    1967    51.7    32.0    2                   1150    2002   2       40      32      8
                                           JCT CSAH 25                                                 COLL


                                           0.7 MI W OF   S FK ZUMBRO                                   14-URB/OTH
OLMSTED   CSAH 22    55519    011+00.290                                1969    86.5    54.4    4                   25500   2002   2       68      54.4    8
                                           JCT TH 63     RIVER                                         PR ART


                                                                                                       06-
                                           2.6 MI W OF
OLMSTED   CSAH 12    55520    009+00.624                 ZUMBRO RIVER 1975      135.0   44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    1950    2002   2       44      44      8
                                           JCT TH 63
                                                                                                       ART

                                                                                                       06-
                                           0.4 MI N OF
OLMSTED   CSAH 7     55521    003+00.710                 MILL CREEK     1971    31.0    43.3    2      RUR/MINOR    940     2002   2       44      43.3    8
                                           JCT TH 52
                                                                                                       ART


                                           0.8 MI NW OF S BR MID FK                                    07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 5     55527    007+00.460                             1977       100.0   44.0    2                   2300    2002   2       40      44      8
                                           JCT CSAH 4   ZUMBRO RIVER                                   COLL


                                           0.8 MI W OF   S FK ZUMBRO                                   07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 14    55530    011+00.620                                1979    115.0   44.0    2                   5200    2002   2       44      44      9
                                           JCT TH 63     RIVER                                         COLL


          CSAH 22                          0.5 MI N OF                                                 14-URB/OTH
OLMSTED              55548    014+00.950                 SILVER CREEK   1987    32.0    40.0    2                   6100    2002   1       40      40      8
          SB                               JCT CSAH 9                                                  PR ART




                                                                            D-14
                                                                                                                                                            Appr.
County               Bridge                              Feature          Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                         Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                 Intersected      Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                            Rating

                                                                                                        08-
                                           0.8 MI N OF   N BR ROOT
OLMSTED   CSAH 3     55554    003+00.370                                  1996    43.2   36.0    2      RUR/MINOR    265     2002   2       32      36      9
                                           JCT CSAH 6    RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL


          CSAH 22                          0.5 MI N OF                                                  14-URB/OTH
OLMSTED              55559    014+00.950                 SILVER CREEK     1995    32.0   42.0    2                   6100    2002   1       35      42      9
          WB                               JCT CSAH 9                                                   PR ART


                                                         S FK
                                           0.1 MI S OF                                                  07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 10    95764    010+00.929                 WHITEWATER       1986    40.3   40.0    2                   1550    2002   2       40      40      8
                                           JCT TH 14                                                    COLL
                                                         RIVER


                                           1.0 MI S OF                                                  07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 17    6787     006+00.490                 BEAVER CREEK 1955        32.5   30.3    2                   560     2002   2       32      30.3    8
                                           JCT TH 90                                                    COLL


                                           0.7 MI W OF                                                  07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 4     67524    018+00.805                 ELK CREEK        1984    33.4   41.6    2                   1450    2002   2       40      41.6    8
                                           JCT CSAH 3                                                   COLL


                                           1.9 MI E OF                                                  07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 5     L2033    007+00.950                 BEAVER CREEK 1956        60.0   24.0    2                   350     2002   2       34      24      9
                                           JCT CSAH 6                                                   COLL


WATON-                                     2.3 MI E OF                                                  07-RURAL
          CSAH 3     1383     022+00.749                 JUD DITCH # 13   1914    15.6   25.9    2                   1300    2001   2       42      25.9    8
WAN                                        JCT CSAH16                                                   COLL


WATON-                                     0.1 MI E OF                                                  07-RURAL
          CSAH 57    8259     000+00.441                 ST JAMES LAKE 1932       10.0   43.0    2                   2700    2001   2       43      0       8
WAN                                        JCT CR 114                                                   COLL


                                                                                                        06-
WATON-                                     1.7 MI W OF
          CSAH 3     83504    025+00.199                 ELM CREEK        1963    25.2   29.3    2      RUR/MINOR    1300    2001   2       42      29.3    8
WAN                                        JCT TH15
                                                                                                        ART

                                                         N FK                                           06-
WATON-                                     1.0 MI N OF
          CSAH 27    83506    016+00.420                 WATONWAN         1967    31.1   32.5    2      RUR/MINOR    1650    2001   2       40      32.5    8
WAN                                        JCT CSAH3
                                                         RIVER                                          ART




                                                                              D-15
                                                                                                                                                         Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                       Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                         Rating

                                                        S FK
WATON-                                    1.4 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
         CSAH 12    83513    003+00.450                 WATONWAN      1978    36.4    32.0    2                   255     2001   2       26      32      8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH 10                                                COLL
                                                        RIVER

                                                        S FK
WATON-                                    1.0 MI S OF                                                07-RURAL
         CSAH 27    83539    003+00.130                 WATONWAN      1996    100.0   44.0    2                   1200    2001   2       40      44      9
WAN                                       JCT CSAH 10                                                COLL
                                                        RIVER

                                                                                                     08-
WATON-                                    0.9 MI N OF   WATONWAN
         CSAH 18    90340    003+00.000                               1920    10.0    26.0    2      RUR/MINOR    40      2001   2       38      26      8
WAN                                       JCT CR116     RIVER
                                                                                                     COLL

                                                        S FK                                         08-
WATON-                                    0.9 MI N OF
         CSAH 19    90344    002+00.800                 WATONWAN      1918    38.0    26.4    2      RUR/MINOR    290     2001   2       32      26.4    7
WAN                                       JCT CSAH7
                                                        RIVER                                        COLL

                                                                                                     08-
WATON-                                    0.4 MI N OF
         CSAH 19    90343    006+00.760                 CREEK         1923    19.9    26.5    2      RUR/MINOR    135     2001   2       35      26.5    8
WAN                                       JCT CR119
                                                                                                     COLL




                                                                          D-16
Table D-2. Pontis Data for Bridges WITHOUT Approach Guardrail
                                                                                                                                                           Appr.
County               Bridge                               Feature       Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                  Intersected   Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                           Rating

                                                                                                       16-
                                           1.0 MI S OF
ANOKA     CSAH 51    02520    003+00.680                  SAND CREEK    1966    25.8    52.5    2      URB/MINOR    16500   2003   2       52      52.5    8
                                           JCT TH 242
                                                                                                       ART


                                           0.1 MI E OF                                                 19-URBAN
ANOKA     CSAH 30    02531    000+00.140                  RUM RIVER     1980    105.2   44.0    2                   7970    2002   2       44      44      8
                                           JCT TH 47                                                   LOCAL


                                                                                                       16-
                                           0.3 MI N OF
ANOKA     CSAH 78    95884    001+00.780                  COON CREEK    1983    40.3    52.0    4      URB/MINOR    26970   2002   2       52      52      8
                                           JCT TH 10
                                                                                                       ART

                                                                                                       06-
CROW                                       0.4 MI W OF    DAGGETT
          CSAH 1     6519     015+00.110                                1952    37.6    24.0    2      RUR/MINOR    2050    2001   2       36      24      8
WING                                       JCT CSAH 3     BROOK
                                                                                                       ART


                                           2.9 MI SE OF                                                07-RURAL
DAKOTA    CSAH 54    2951     002+00.640                  DRY RUN       1918    11.2    32.0    2                   4200    2003   2       32      32      8
                                           JCT CR 91                                                   COLL


                                                                                                       08-
                                           2.8 MI SW OF
DAKOTA    CSAH 91    7271     001+00.920                  STREAM        1949    26.7    29.5    2      RUR/MINOR    120     2003   2       32      29.5    _
                                           JCT TH 61
                                                                                                       COLL


                                           0.6 MI N OF    VERMILLION
DAKOTA    CSAH 31    19512    002+00.076                                1974    50.0    52.0    2      17-URB COLL 9900     2003   2       48      52      8
                                           JCT CSAH 74    RIVER


                                                                                                       06-
                                           0.3 MI NE OF   VERMILLION
DAKOTA    CSAH 68    19529    002+00.000                                1996    76.0    44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    5200    2003   2       40      44      8
                                           JCT CSAH 54    RIVER
                                                                                                       ART

                                                                                                       16-
                                           0.3 MI E OF    VERMILLION
DAKOTA    CSAH 50    19532    009+00.472                                1996    38.0    48.0    3      URB/MINOR    13500   2003   2       48      48      8
                                           JCT CSAH 31    RIVER
                                                                                                       ART

                                                                                                       06-
                                           0.1 MI W OF    VERMILLION
DAKOTA    CSAH 66    19541    006+00.580                                2004    83.3    44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    1850    2003   2       40      44      9
                                           JCT TH 52      RIVER
                                                                                                       ART




                                                                            D-17
                                                                                                                                                            Appr.
County                Bridge                               Feature        Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                  Intersected    Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                            Rating

                                                                                                        16-
                                            0.2 MI W OF
DAKOTA     CSAH 26    97556    006+00.809                  PED WALK       1992    20.0   64.0    4      URB/MINOR    10400   2003   2       64      64      8
                                            JCT CSAH 75
                                                                                                        ART

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.6 MI W OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 12    376      018+00.420                  STREAM         1943    25.5   23.0    2      RUR/MINOR    165     2001   2       26      23      8
                                            JCT CSAH 14
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.8 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 12    449      016+00.970                  STREAM         1937    40.5   26.4    2      RUR/MINOR    165     2001   2       30      26.4    8
                                            JCT CR 118
                                                                                                        COLL


                                            1.5 MI W OF    KEDRON                                       07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 2     2915     003+00.270                                 1953    26.5   24.0    2                   220     2001   2       30      24      8
                                            JCT CSAH 1     BROOK                                        COLL


                                            0.7 MI SE OF                                                09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 6     3309     000+00.900                  RICE CREEK     1941    31.3   23.1    2                   110     2001   2       30      23.1    8
                                            JCT TH 52                                                   LOCAL


                                                                                                        08-
                                            2.0 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 40    4026     002+00.020                  STREAM         1923    24.0   22.2    2      RUR/MINOR    125     2001   2       26      22.2    8
                                            JCT TH 52
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.7 MI W OF    S BR S FK ROOT
FILLMORE   CSAH 24    4408     001+00.460                                 1925    34.3   23.6    2      RUR/MINOR    275     2001   2       32      23.6    8
                                            JCT CSAH 28    RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            1.5 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 40    6081     001+00.430                  LYNCH CREEK    1930    32.7   18.5    2      RUR/MINOR    125     2001   2       26      18.5    3
                                            JCT TH 52
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.3 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 40    6082     000+00.350                  STREAM         1923    23.0   24.2    2      RUR/MINOR    175     2001   2       26      24.2    3
                                            JCT TH 52
                                                                                                        COLL


                                            1.2 MI N OF                                                 07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 15    7188     010+00.600                  WILLOW CREEK 1958      40.0   26.0    2                   245     2001   2       30      26      8
                                            JCT CSAH 22                                                 COLL




                                                                              D-18
                                                                                                                                                          Appr.
County                Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                          Rating


                                            1.3 MI W OF   KEDRON                                      07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 2     7253     003+00.400                               1958    41.0   24.2    2                   220     2001   2       30      24.2    8
                                            JCT CSAH 1    BROOK                                       COLL


                                                                                                      08-
                                            0.5 MI W OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 27    7280     001+00.800                 STREAM        1959    24.5   26.5    2      RUR/MINOR    290     2001   2       28      26.5    8
                                            JCT TH 43
                                                                                                      COLL


                                            0.2 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 1     7950     000+00.780                 BEAVER CREEK 1939     23.0   35.8    2                   850     2001   2       32      35.8    8
                                            JCT CR 109                                                COLL


                                            1.6 MI E OF   KEDRON                                      07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 4     7955     001+00.680                               1936    22.5   19.0    2                   120     2001   2       28      19      8
                                            JCT CSAH 1    BROOK                                       COLL


                                            0.3 MI N OF   CARTERS                                     07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 5     7959     018+00.998                               1920    30.3   23.5    2                   680     2001   2       28      23.5    4
                                            JCT CSAH 8    CREEK                                       COLL


                                            0.7 MI S OF                                               09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 7     7963     006+00.390                 SHADY CREEK   1904    29.0   25.0    2                   230     2001   2       26      25      8
                                            JCT CSAH 5                                                LOCAL


                                            1.3 MI S OF                                               09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 7     7964     005+00.720                 STREAM        1939    21.3   22.1    2                   230     2001   2       26      22.1    8
                                            JCT CSAH 5                                                LOCAL


                                                                                                      08-
                                            1.6 MI N OF   WATSON
FILLMORE   CSAH 11    7973     002+00.890                               1939    40.0   23.0    2      RUR/MINOR    135     2001   2       30      23      8
                                            JCT TH 16     CREEK
                                                                                                      COLL


                                            0.1 MI N OF                                               07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 15    7979     009+00.400                 STREAM        1904    16.8   16.0    1                   245     2001   2       30      16      8
                                            JCT CSAH 22                                               COLL


                                            0.5 MI E OF                                               07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 15    7980     007+00.910                 STREAM        1904    16.5   18.5    1                   110     2001   2       28      18.5    3
                                            JCT CR 110                                                COLL




                                                                            D-19
                                                                                                                                                            Appr.
County                Bridge                               Feature        Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                  Intersected    Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                            Rating


                                            0.9 MI N OF                                                 07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 15    7983     000+00.850                  STREAM         1929    25.0   28.4    2                   385     2001   2       28      28.4    8
                                            JCT CSAH 30                                                 COLL


                                            1.3 MI E OF                                                 09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 16    7984     007+00.730                  DITCH          1941    11.0   26.4    2                   140     2001   2       28      26.4    8
                                            JCT CR 111                                                  LOCAL


                                            1.3 MI E OF                                                 09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 16    7985     001+00.360                  CAMP CREEK     1936    24.5   19.0    2                   275     2001   2       28      19      8
                                            JCT CSAH 17                                                 LOCAL


                                            1.3 MI W OF                                                 09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 16    7986     002+00.230                  STREAM         1940    31.0   23.1    2                   275     2001   2       28      23.1    8
                                            JCT TH 52                                                   LOCAL


                                                                                                        08-
                                            1.7 MI NW OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 21    7992     021+00.140                  STREAM         1953    22.2   23.1    2      RUR/MINOR    120     2001   2       30      23.1    8
                                            JCT CSAH 8
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.9 MI S OF    WHALAN
FILLMORE   CSAH 23    9916     015+00.230                                 1904    30.4   13.5    1      RUR/MINOR    65      2001   2       26      13.5    3
                                            JCT TH 16      CREEK
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            2.8 MI S OF    WHALAN
FILLMORE   CSAH 23    9917     013+00.420                                 1953    22.0   23.0    2      RUR/MINOR    65      2001   2       26      23      8
                                            JCT TH 16      CREEK
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            3.4 MI S OF    WHALAN
FILLMORE   CSAH 23    9918     012+00.560                                 1947    22.0   24.0    2      RUR/MINOR    65      2001   2       26      24      8
                                            JCT TH 16      CREEK
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.9 MI S OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 23    9922     002+00.980                  WEISEL CREEK   1951    29.0   23.1    2      RUR/MINOR    265     2001   2       30      23.1    6
                                            JCT CSAH 24
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            1.6 MI N OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 25    9923     013+00.660                  PINE CREEK     1936    40.8   19.0    2      RUR/MINOR    255     2001   2       32      19      8
                                            JCT TH 30
                                                                                                        COLL




                                                                              D-20
                                                                                                                                                          Appr.
County                Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                          Rating


                                            0.3 MI E OF                                               09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 26    9929     001+00.980                 STREAM        1952    31.4   23.0    2                   85      2001   2       24      23      8
                                            JCT CR 109                                                LOCAL


                                            1.5 MI W OF                                               09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 26    9931     003+00.240                 STREAM        1936    36.3   21.2    2                   85      2001   2       24      21.2    8
                                            JCT TH 63                                                 LOCAL


                                                                                                      08-
                                            1.2 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 29    9938     002+00.680                 STREAM        1940    21.5   25.2    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       28      25.2    8
                                            JCT TH 43
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                            1.6 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 29    9939     003+00.020                 STREAM        1949    28.3   23.5    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       28      23.5    8
                                            JCT TH 43
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                            1.9 MI E OF   RICEFORD
FILLMORE   CSAH 29    9940     003+00.480                               1940    31.3   22.7    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       28      22.7    6
                                            JCT TH 43     CREEK
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                            2.8 MI E OF   RICEFORD
FILLMORE   CSAH 29    9942     004+00.320                               1950    31.9   23.2    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       28      23.2    8
                                            JCT TH 43     CREEK
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                            1.1 MI W OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 30    9945     013+00.160                 STREAM        1908    22.3   27.7    2      RUR/MINOR    155     2001   2       30      27.7    8
                                            JCT TH 139
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                            0.1 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 30    9946     014+00.410                 STREAM        1947    31.0   23.0    2      RUR/MINOR    85      2001   2       30      23      8
                                            JCT TH 139
                                                                                                      COLL


                                            0.7 MI N OF                                               07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 5     23501    020+00.708                 ROOT RIVER    1961    92.8   28.0    2                   680     2001   2       32      28      8
                                            JCT CSAH 8                                                COLL


                                            0.1 MI W OF   SPRING                                      07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 1     23502    011+00.770                              1961     40.0   60.0    2                   1850    2001   2       60      60      8
                                            JCT TH 63     VALLEY CREEK                                COLL




                                                                            D-21
                                                                                                                                                            Appr.
County                Bridge                              Feature        Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                 Intersected    Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                            Rating

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.1 MI W OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 25    23503    007+00.580                 ROOT RIVER     1963    109.5   30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    990     2001   2       42      30      8
                                            JCT TH 16
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            1.0 MI N OF   S BR S FK ROOT
FILLMORE   CSAH 23    23505    006+00.740                                1963    25.0    29.7    2      RUR/MINOR    300     2001   2       28      29.7    8
                                            JCT CSAH 18   RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL


                                            0.1 MI W OF   S BR ROOT                                     07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 8     23506    033+00.500                                1964    78.0    30.0    2                   1250    2001   2       30      30      8
                                            JCT TH 250    RIVER                                         COLL


                                            1.1 MI S OF   N BR ROOT                                     07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 5     23509    029+00.518                                1966    72.0    30.0    2                   1000    2001   2       36      30      8
                                            JCT TH 52     RIVER                                         COLL


                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.3 MI S OF   S BR ROOT
FILLMORE   CSAH 17    23510    009+00.170                                1967    65.9    30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    1800    2001   2       30      30      8
                                            JCT CSAH 12   RIVER
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                            0.2 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 27    23511    004+00.660                 RUSH CREEK     1967    68.1    30.3    2      RUR/MINOR    2100    2001   2       35      30.3    8
                                            JCT TH 43
                                                                                                        COLL


                                            0.3 MI W OF                                                 07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 12    23512    019+00.780                 WILLOW CREEK 1970      45.0    36.0    2                   760     2001   2       36      36      8
                                            JCT CSAH 15                                                 COLL


                                            0.1 MI E OF   RICEFORD                                      09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 34    23515    001+00.436                                1971    65.0    44.0    2                   1200    2001   2       44      44      8
                                            JCT TH 44     CREEK                                         LOCAL


                                                                                                        08-
                                            4.0 MI N OF   RICEFORD
FILLMORE   CSAH 29    23518    003+00.710                                1974    31.7    32.1    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       32      32.1    8
                                            JCT TH 44     CREEK
                                                                                                        COLL


                                            2.7 MI W OF                                                 09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 26    23519    002+00.130                 BEAVER CREEK 1974      18.0    32.1    2                   15      2001   2       32      32.1    8
                                            JCT TH 63                                                   LOCAL




                                                                             D-22
                                                                                                                                                              Appr.
County                Bridge                               Feature          Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                          Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                  Intersected      Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                              Rating


                                            0.35 MI S OF   MID BR ROOT                                    09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 7     23520    006+00.780                                   1975    42.0   32.1    2                   230     2001   2       32      32.1    8
                                            JCT CSAH 5     RIVER                                          LOCAL


                                                                                                          08-
                                            0.9 MI N OF    N BR ROOT
FILLMORE   CSAH 21    23521    023+00.350                                   1977    95.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    120     2001   2       32      32      8
                                            JCT CSAH 6     RIVER
                                                                                                          COLL


                                            0.4 MI S OF    S BR ROOT                                      07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 5     23522    010+00.798                                   1977    60.0   32.0    2                   430     2001   2       32      32      8
                                            JCT CSAH 12    RIVER                                          COLL


                                                                                                          08-
                                            1.4 MI W OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 27    23527    000+00.820                  STREAM           1982    81.5   32.6    2      RUR/MINOR    290     2001   2       32      32.6    8
                                            JCT TH 43
                                                                                                          COLL

                                                                                                          08-
                                            2.2 mi NW of
FILLMORE   CSAH 8     23529    012+00.490                  Mid Br Root River 2001   72.2   35.4    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       24      35.4    8
                                            jct CSAH 5
                                                                                                          COLL

                                                                                                          08-
                                            0.1 MI E OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 8     23530    017+00.260                  STREAM           1983    42.9   32.6    2      RUR/MINOR    435     2001   2       40      32.6    8
                                            JCT CSAH 5
                                                                                                          COLL

                                                                                                          08-
                                            0.5 MI E OF    S FK ROOT
FILLMORE   CSAH 13    23533    000+00.550                                   1985    57.2   32.6    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       32      32.6    8
                                            JCT TH 43      RIVER
                                                                                                          COLL

                                                                                                          08-
                                            0.4 MI S OF    S BR ROOT
FILLMORE   CSAH 12    23538    016+00.450                                   1981    47.3   32.6    2      RUR/MINOR    165     2001   2       32      32.6    8
                                            JCT CSAH 11    RIVER
                                                                                                          COLL

                                                                                                          08-
                                            0.3 MI S OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 38    23539    005+00.910                  BEAR CREEK       1986    53.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    105     2001   2       28      32      8
                                            JCT CSAH 4
                                                                                                          COLL


                                            0.4 MI W OF    SPRING                                         07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 1     23540    011+00.400                               1981        80.0   32.6    2                   1050    2001   2       32      32.6    8
                                            JCT TH 63      VALLEY CREEK                                   COLL




                                                                                D-23
                                                                                                                                                                Appr.
County                Bridge                                  Feature        Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                            Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                     Intersected    Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                                Rating


                                            1.6 MI S OF       N BR ROOT                                     07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 11    23541    012+00.180                                    1980    130.0   32.0    2                   310     2001   2       32      32      8
                                            JCT TH 30         RIVER                                         COLL


                                            0.4 MI SW OF                                                    07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 2     23545    016+00.810                     MILL CREEK     1983    50.0    40.6    2                   1400    2001   2       40      40.6    8
                                            JCT TH 52                                                       COLL


                                            2.1 MI W OF       S FK ROOT                                     07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 12    23547    035+00.250                                    1988    85.0    32.0    2                   490     2001   2       32      32      8
                                            JCT TH 43         RIVER                                         COLL


                                            0.5 MI S OF       RICEFORD                                      07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 28    23550    001+00.540                                    1994    40.0    44.0    2                   890     2001   2       40      44      8
                                            JCT TH 44         CREEK                                         COLL


                                                                                                            08-
                                            3.0 MI E OF       S FK ROOT
FILLMORE   CSAH 13    23554    003+00.190                                    1997    60.0    32.1    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       28      32.1    9
                                            JCT TH 43         RIVER
                                                                                                            COLL


                                            0.1 MI W OF                                                     07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 12    23557    021+00.950                     CAMP CREEK     1997    87.2    43.3    2                   2050    2001   2       40      43.3    8
                                            JCT TH 52                                                       COLL


                                            0.3 MI E OF       S BR ROOT                                     07-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 12    23558    021+00.280                                    1996    93.6    43.3    2                   2050    2001   2       44      43.3    8
                                            JCT CSAH 17       RIVER                                         COLL


                                            1.8 MI W OF                                                     09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 27    23559    000+00.370                     RUSH CREEK     1996    45.0    36.0    2                   290     2001   2       32      36      8
                                            JCT TH 43                                                       LOCAL


                                            1.3 mi W of jct                                                 09-RURAL
FILLMORE   CSAH 18    23561    005+00.950                     Weisel Creek   2001    83.0    36.0    2                   92      2001   2       32      36      8
                                            TH 43                                                           LOCAL


                                                                                                            08-
                                            2.8 mi NW of
FILLMORE   CSAH 8     23562    011+00.860                     Deer Creek     2001    81.4    36.0    2      RUR/MINOR    50      2001   2       32      36      8
                                            jct CSAH 5
                                                                                                            COLL




                                                                                 D-24
                                                                                                                                                           Appr.
County                Bridge                               Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
           Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                       Algnmt.
Name                  No.                                  Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                           Rating

                                                                                                       08-
                                            3.2 MI NE OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 38    23567    002+00.990                  DEER CREEK    2003    50.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    105     2001   2       28      32      9
                                            JCT CSAH 1
                                                                                                       COLL

                                                                                                       08-
                                            0.1 MI N OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 11    88879    000+00.140                  STREAM        1940    20.0   23.0    2      RUR/MINOR    225     2001   2       28      23      8
                                            JCT CSAH 12
                                                                                                       COLL

                                                                                                       08-
                                            0.7 MI S OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 21    88903    021+00.950                  STREAM        1939    21.0   20.7    2      RUR/MINOR    120     2001   2       28      20.7    8
                                            JCT CSAH 6
                                                                                                       COLL

                                                                                                       08-
                                            0.3 MI N OF
FILLMORE   CSAH 23    93038    004+00.200                  STREAM        1955    29.3   24.3    2      RUR/MINOR    255     2001   2       28      24.3    6
                                            JCT CSAH 24
                                                                                                       COLL


                                            0.1 MI S OF                                                07-RURAL
GOODHUE    CSAH 62    757      000+00.580                  ZUMBRO RIVER 1913     45.1   34.0    2                   8600    2003   2       80      34      6
                                            JCT CSAH 11                                                COLL


                                            0.2 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
GOODHUE    CSAH 2     2103     010+00.435                  STREAM        1960    58.9   25.0    2                   820     2003   2       30      25      6
                                            JCT CSAH 5                                                 COLL


                                            0.2 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
GOODHUE    CSAH 2     25504    007+00.730                  WELLS CREEK   1967    41.3   30.1    2                   510     2003   2       36      30.1    7
                                            JCT CR 45                                                  COLL


                                                                                                       08-
                                            0.25 MI N OF
GOODHUE    CSAH 8     25516    007+00.870                  BELLE CREEK   1973    31.0   34.1    2      RUR/MINOR    395     2003   2       42      34.1    8
                                            JCT CSAH 9
                                                                                                       COLL


                                            7.0 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
GOODHUE    CSAH 6     25518    005+00.300                  DRY RUN       1974    31.0   34.5    2                   1450    2003   2       32      34.5    8
                                            ZUMBROTA                                                   COLL


                                                                                                       08-
                                            0.9 MI S OF
GOODHUE    CSAH 4     25521    004+00.870                  TROUT BROOK   1976    45.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    350     2003   2       42      32      8
                                            JCT CR 42
                                                                                                       COLL




                                                                             D-25
                                                                                                                                                           Appr.
County               Bridge                               Feature       Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                  Intersected   Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                           Rating


                                           2.5 MI S OF                                                 07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 7     25522    020+00.480                  CANNON RIVER 1979     94.0    36.0    2                   455     2003   2       36      36      8
                                           JCT TH 61                                                   COLL


                                           2.8 MI N OF                                                 07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 7     25530    016+00.910                  STREAM        1986    26.0    32.0    2                   320     2003   2       32      32      9
                                           JCT TH 19                                                   COLL


                                           3.0 MI N OF                                                 07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 7     25531    017+00.160                  BELLE CREEK   1979    70.0    32.0    2                   320     2003   2       32      32      9
                                           JCT CSAH 19                                                 COLL


                                           1.9 MI S OF                                                 07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 6     25532    005+00.990                  STREAM        1979    50.0    32.0    2                   1450    2003   2       32      32      9
                                           JCT CSAH 9                                                  COLL


                                           0.4 MI S OF                                                 07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 14    25534    011+00.630                  BUTLER CREEK 1979     32.0    36.6    2                   1000    2003   2       36      36.6    9
                                           JCT TH 52                                                   COLL


                                           0.4 MI N OF                                                 07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 2     25535    017+00.944                  WELLS CREEK   1980    75.0    36.0    2                   450     2003   2       36      36      9
                                           JCT TH 61                                                   COLL


                                                                                                       08-
                                           0.1 MI W OF    SHINGLE
GOODHUE   CSAH 30    25563    010+00.080                                1987    31.7    32.2    2      RUR/MINOR    610     2003   2       32      32.2    9
                                           JCT TH 57      CREEK
                                                                                                       COLL


                                           0.8 MI W OF                                                 07-RURAL
GOODHUE   CSAH 3     25575    002+00.980                  WELLS CREEK   1995    122.0   40.0    2                   510     2003   2       36      40      9
                                           JCT CSAH 2                                                  COLL


                                           2.1 MI SW OF   REDWOOD                                      09-RURAL
LYON      CSAH 25    5034     000+00.740                                1931    73.0    27.0    2                   35      2001   2       24      27      9
                                           JCT CSAH 5     RIVER                                        LOCAL


                                           0.1 MI N OF                                                 09-RURAL
LYON      CSAH 32    5524     000+00.471                  BNSF RR       1936    36.0    39.3    2                   820     2001   2       32      39.3    9
                                           JCT TH 23                                                   LOCAL




                                                                            D-26
                                                                                                                                                        Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                        Rating


                                          0.6 MI S OF   THREE MILE                                  07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 5     7209     020+00.900                               1958    23.0   28.0    2                   400     2001   2       26      28      8
                                          JCT CR 76     CREEK                                       COLL


                                          0.9 MI W OF   THREE MILE                                  07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 8     7210     011+00.380                               1958    25.0   28.0    2                   340     2001   2       26      28      8
                                          JCT CR 65     CREEK                                       COLL


                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.5 MI N OF   N BR YELLOW
LYON     CSAH 3     7211     012+00.870                               1958    25.0   28.0    2      RUR/MINOR    420     2001   2       28      28      8
                                          JCT CSAH 26   MEDICINE R
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                        YELLOW
                                          0.8 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 10    42502    014+00.820                 MEDICINE      1960    26.0   28.6    2                   215     2001   2       32      28.6    8
                                          JCT TH 14                                                 COLL
                                                        RIVER

                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.5 MI W OF   THREE MILE
LYON     CSAH 8     42503    020+00.170                               1962    26.3   28.8    2      RUR/MINOR    140     2001   2       30      28.8    8
                                          JCT CSAH 9    CREEK
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.4 MI W OF
LYON     CSAH 10    42505    004+00.700                 STREAM        1963    24.0   28.5    2      RUR/MINOR    380     2001   2       28      28.5    8
                                          JCT CSAH 3
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                        BIG
                                          0.6 MI S OF                                               07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 11    42507    007+00.980                 COTTONWOOD    1964    24.0   30.0    2                   590     2001   2       38      30      8
                                          JCT CSAH 2                                                COLL
                                                        RIVER

                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.5 MI S OF
LYON     CSAH 7     42510    001+00.530                 STREAM        1966    25.0   30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    210     2001   2       32      30      8
                                          JCT TH 14
                                                                                                    COLL


                                          0.9 MI N OF   S BR YELLOW                                 07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 3     42511    005+00.990                               1966    26.0   31.0    2                   670     2001   2       28      31      8
                                          JCT CSAH 8    MEDICINE R                                  COLL


                                                        BIG
                                          1.2 MI S OF                                               07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 7     42513    006+00.860                 COTTONWOOD    1967    18.4   30.4    2                   670     2001   2       28      30.4    9
                                          JCT CSAH 2                                                COLL
                                                        RIVER




                                                                          D-27
                                                                                                                                                         Appr.
County              Bridge                               Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                       Algnmt.
Name                No.                                  Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                         Rating


                                          0.1 MI E OF    S BR YELLOW                                 07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 8     42516    004+00.140                                1970    26.0   30.2    2                   220     2001   2       30      30.2    8
                                          JCT CSAH 3     MEDICINE R                                  COLL


                                                                                                     08-
                                          0.5 MI S OF    REDWOOD
LYON     CSAH 11    42520    022+00.020                                1971    26.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    170     2001   2       28      32      9
                                          JCT CSAH 8     RIVER
                                                                                                     COLL

                                                         YELLOW
                                          1.5 MI S OF                                                07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 10    42521    011+00.650                  MEDICINE      1971    40.0   32.0    2                   215     2001   2       32      32      9
                                          CO LINE                                                    COLL
                                                         RIVER


                                          1.2 MI S OF    REDWOOD                                     07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 9     42522    018+00.850                                1973    44.0   36.1    2                   245     2001   2       30      36.1    9
                                          JCT CSAH 8     RIVER                                       COLL


                                          0.2 MI W OF    THREE MILE                                  07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 8     42523    012+00.000                                1973    26.0   36.3    2                   340     2001   2       26      36.3    9
                                          JCT CR 65      CREEK                                       COLL


                                          1.7 MI SW OF   REDWOOD                                     09-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 25    42526    001+00.290                                1975    32.0   32.0    2                   255     2001   2       32      32      9
                                          JCT CSAH 5     RIVER                                       LOCAL


                                          0.3 MI E OF    REDWOOD                                     09-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 13    42527    002+00.110                                1978    32.0   32.0    2                   70      2001   2       27      32      9
                                          JCT TH 23      RIVER                                       LOCAL


                                          0.5 MI NW OF   REDWOOD                                     07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 5     42536    015+00.720                                1986    44.0   40.0    2                   425     2001   2       40      40      9
                                          JCT CSAH 25    RIVER                                       COLL


                                          0.1 MI E OF                                                09-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 26    42538    000+00.280                  STREAM        1985    38.6   32.0    2                   40      2001   2       32      32      9
                                          JCT CSAH 1                                                 LOCAL


                                          0.1 MI W OF    S BR YELLOW                                 09-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 26    42540    005+00.040                                1989    44.5   32.0    2                   40      2001   2       32      32      9
                                          JCT CSAH 10    MEDICINE R                                  LOCAL




                                                                           D-28
                                                                                                                                                              Appr.
County              Bridge                               Feature            Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                            Algnmt.
Name                No.                                  Intersected        Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                              Rating

                                                                                                          08-
                                          0.3 MI N OF    REDWOOD
LYON     CSAH 15    42542    000+00.790                                     1989    40.2   44.0    2      RUR/MINOR    890     2001   2       44      44      9
                                          JCT TH 23      RIVER
                                                                                                          COLL


                                          1.2 MI E OF    THREE MILE                                       07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 8     42546    010+00.710                                     1991    36.0   32.0    2                   340     2001   2       34      32      9
                                          JCT TH 68      CREEK                                            COLL


                                          0.1 MI S OF    S BR YELLOW                                      07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 3     42547    004+00.890                                     1991    63.6   32.0    2                   420     2001   2       36      32      9
                                          JCT CSAH 8     MEDICINE R                                       COLL


                                          0.7 MI S OF    COTTONWOOD                                       07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 11    42548    010+00.760                                     1992    41.0   40.0    2                   275     2001   2       36      40      9
                                          JCT CSAH 20    RIVER                                            COLL


                                          0.8 MI N OF    N BR YELLOW                                      07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 1     42549    003+00.870                                     1993    41.3   36.6    2                   360     2001   2       32      36.6    8
                                          JCT CSAH 26    MEDICINE R                                       COLL


                                          0.3 MI S OF                                                     07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 7     42555    016+00.550                  Three Mile Creek   2000    62.0   48.0    2                   670     2001   2       48      48      9
                                          JCT TH 19                                                       COLL


                                                                                                          08-
                                          1.5 MI W OF    REDWOOD
LYON     CSAH 12    92692    004+00.080                                     1970    18.0   30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    45      2001   2       36      30      8
                                          JCT TH 91      RIVER
                                                                                                          COLL


                                          2.6 MI SW OF   REDWOOD                                          09-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 25    5101A    000+00.200                                     1931    60.0   28.0    2                   35      2001   2       24      28      8
                                          JCT CSAH 5     RIVER                                            LOCAL


                                                                                                          08-
                                          0.5 MI N OF    S BR YELLOW
LYON     CSAH 3     L1687    009+00.080                                     1952    18.0   28.7    2      RUR/MINOR    420     2001   2       28      28.7    8
                                          JCT TH 68      MEDICINE R
                                                                                                          COLL

                                                                                                          08-
                                          0.7 MI S OF    COTTONWOOD
LYON     CSAH 9     L1705    004+00.440                                     1956    18.0   24.4    2      RUR/MINOR    330     2001   2       35      24.4    3
                                          JCT CSAH 2     RIVER
                                                                                                          COLL




                                                                                D-29
                                                                                                                                                          Appr.
County              Bridge                               Feature        Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                        Algnmt.
Name                No.                                  Intersected    Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                          Rating


                                          0.4 MI E OF                                                 07-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 10    L1716    021+00.010                  DITCH          1940    21.3   27.8    2                   295     2001   2       30      27.8    8
                                          JCT CSAH 23                                                 COLL


                                          0.8 MI SW OF   REDWOOD                                      09-RURAL
LYON     CSAH 25    R0122    000+00.910                                 1925    47.5   15.8    1                   35      2001   2       28      15.8    8
                                          LYND           RIVER                                        LOCAL


                                                                                                      08-
                                          1.0 MI W OF
MOWER    CSAH 4     738      017+00.470                  STREAM         1917    25.4   28.0    2      RUR/MINOR    370     1996   2       28      28      8
                                          JCT CSAH 7
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                          1.1 MI N OF    DOBBINS
MOWER    CSAH 24    1750     001+00.060                                 1944    19.0   27.1    2      RUR/MINOR    387     2000   2       28      27.1    8
                                          JCT CSAH 46    CREEK
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                          2.9 MI E OF    LITTLE CEDAR
MOWER    CSAH 4     3141     015+00.240                                 1963    23.0   30.1    2      RUR/MINOR    370     1996   2       28      30.1    8
                                          JCT TH 56      RIVER
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                          1.2 MI W OF
MOWER    CSAH 4     4570     016+00.720                  STREAM         1926    23.0   29.0    2      RUR/MINOR    370     1996   2       28      29      8
                                          JCT CSAH 7
                                                                                                      COLL


                                          0.8 MI E OF    UPPER IOWA                                   07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 11    4866     000+00.850                                 1929    35.0   30.0    2                   130     1996   2       31      30      8
                                          JCT TH 56      RIVER                                        COLL


                                          1.7 MI N OF                                                 07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 7     4872     027+00.560                  STREAM         1938    14.8   26.9    2                   270     1996   2       30      26.9    8
                                          JCT CSAH 1                                                  COLL


                                          0.7 MI W OF                                                 07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 46    5064     007+00.330                  STREAM         1931    31.0   27.0    2                   1400    1996   2       32      27      8
                                          JCT CSAH 24                                                 COLL


                                          0.1 MI W OF                                                 07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 46    5065     007+00.950                  STREAM         1931    39.8   27.0    2                   1400    1996   2       32      27      8
                                          JCT CSAH 24                                                 COLL




                                                                            D-30
                                                                                                                                                        Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                        Rating


                                          0.8 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 46    5066     009+00.250                 STREAM        1931    40.2   27.0    2                   330     1996   2       32      27      8
                                          JCT TH 56                                                 COLL


                                          0.4 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 46    5067     009+00.690                 STREAM        1931    35.5   27.0    2                   330     1996   2       32      27      8
                                          JCT TH 56                                                 COLL


                                          0.2 MI N OF   UPPER IOWA                                  07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 8     6645     000+00.050                               1948    36.0   24.0    2                   450     1996   2       34      24      8
                                          JCT TH 56     RIVER                                       COLL


                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.4 MI W OF
MOWER    CSAH 6     50505    012+00.630                 STREAM        1961    23.0   27.1    2      RUR/MINOR    235     1996   2       28      27.1    8
                                          JCT CSAH 7
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.6 MI E OF
MOWER    CSAH 4     50508    003+00.440                 CEDAR RIVER   1965    75.0   27.9    2      RUR/MINOR    300     1996   2       31      27.9    8
                                          JCT TH 105
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.6 MI S OF
MOWER    CSAH 19    50509    007+00.970                 ROSE CREEK    1965    31.1   29.7    2      RUR/MINOR    400     1996   2       30      29.7    8
                                          JCT CSAH 3
                                                                                                    COLL


                                          1.3 MI E OF   N BR ROOT                                   07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 1     50510    018+00.240                               1965    31.5   29.6    2                   340     1996   2       30      29.6    8
                                          JCT CSAH 7    RIVER                                       COLL


                                          0.3 MI N OF                                               07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 29    50511    000+00.350                 ROSE CREEK    1966    56.0   29.2    2                   550     1996   2       32      29.2    8
                                          JCT CSAH 4                                                COLL


                                          0.9 MI E OF                                               07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 2     50525    027+00.150                 BEAR CREEK    1972    31.0   33.8    2                   250     1996   2       34      33.8    8
                                          JCT CSAH 8                                                COLL


                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.0 MI E OF
MOWER    CSAH 6     50530    006+00.380                OTTER CREEK    1974    31.1   37.0    2      RUR/MINOR    560     1996   2       30      37      8
                                          JCT CSAH 105
                                                                                                    COLL




                                                                          D-31
                                                                                                                                                              Appr.
County              Bridge                                  Feature         Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                            Algnmt.
Name                No.                                     Intersected     Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                              Rating


                                          0.1 MI S OF       LITTLE CEDAR                                  07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 7     50536    006+00.550                                     1975    31.0   39.5    2                   1150    1996   2       31      39.5    8
                                          JCT TH 56         RIVER                                         COLL


                                          0.7 MI N OF       UPPER IOWA                                    09-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 12    50540    001+00.680                                     1977    60.0   36.0    2                   1200    1996   2       42      36      8
                                          JCT TH 56         RIVER                                         LOCAL


                                                                                                          08-
                                          1.4 MI W OF
MOWER    CSAH 13    50541    008+00.154                     DEER CREEK      1977    31.1   34.2    2      RUR/MINOR    55      1996   2       35      34.2    8
                                          JCT CSAH 8
                                                                                                          COLL


                                          2.7 MI N OF       N BR ROOT                                     07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 7     50542    028+00.540                                     1977    31.1   37.3    2                   270     1996   2       30      37.3    8
                                          JCT CSAH 1        RIVER                                         COLL


                                          0.1 MI S OF                                                     07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 29    50547    001+00.920                     STREAM          1979    82.0   44.6    2                   600     1996   2       36      44.6    9
                                          JCT CSAH 28                                                     COLL


                                                                                                          08-
                                          0.6 MI E OF       LITTLE CEDAR
MOWER    CSAH 6     50551    014+00.640                                     1982    44.3   32.6    2      RUR/MINOR    260     1996   2       29      32.6    9
                                          JCT CSAH 7        RIVER
                                                                                                          COLL


                                          2.3 MI N OF       DOBBINS                                       09-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 19    50556    013+00.380                                     1979    36.3   32.0    2                   130     1996   2       32      32      9
                                          JCT CSAH 46       CREEK                                         LOCAL


                                                                                                          08-
                                          1.1 mi W of jct
MOWER    CSAH 4     50582    001+00.660                     Orchard Creek   2001    31.0   36.0    2      RUR/MINOR    256     2001   2       36      36      8
                                          TH 105
                                                                                                          COLL


                                          2.0 MI W OF       WOODBURY                                      07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 5     89212    000+00.010                                     1939    27.5   23.0    2                   220     1996   2       26      23      8
                                          JCT TH 105        CREEK                                         COLL


                                          1.5 MI S OF                                                     07-RURAL
MOWER    CSAH 16    89225    005+00.550                     WOLF CREEK      1954    28.9   24.1    2                   380     1996   2       24      24.1    8
                                          JCT CSAH 2                                                      COLL




                                                                                D-32
                                                                                                                                                          Appr.
County               Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                       Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                          Rating

                                                                                                      08-
                                           0.5 MI W OF
MOWER     CSAH 4     92137    017+00.970                 STREAM        1963    29.2    30.4    2      RUR/MINOR    370     1996   2       28      30.4    8
                                           JCT CSAH 7
                                                                                                      COLL


                                           0.6 MI N OF   MID FK                                       07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 18    448      000+00.630                              1918     208.2   40.0    2                   1950    2002   2       40      40      8
                                           JCT TH 52     ZUMBRO RIVER                                 COLL


                                           0.5 MI W OF                                                07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 6     6643     007+00.200                 CARYS CREEK   1948    50.3    24.0    2                   1400    2002   2       25      24      5
                                           JCT TH 63                                                  COLL


                                           0.3 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 36    55023    000+00.167                 MARION CREEK 1970     45.9    36.2    2                   4550    2002   2       36      36.2    8
                                           JCT TH 52                                                  COLL


                                                                                                      08-
                                           0.2 MI S OF   S FK ZUMBRO
OLMSTED   CSAH 15    55507    002+00.800                               1962    61.5    30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    560     2002   2       32      30      8
                                           JCT CR 126    RIVER
                                                                                                      COLL

                                                                                                      08-
                                           0.8 MI S OF
OLMSTED   CSAH 15    55508    005+00.800                 SALEM CREEK   1962    60.3    30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    800     2002   2       34      30      8
                                           JCT CSAH 25
                                                                                                      COLL


                                           1.6 MI W OF   S FK ZUMBRO                                  07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 26    55511    000+00.350                               1964    60.0    30.0    2                   240     2002   2       32      30      8
                                           JCT CSAH 3    RIVER                                        COLL


                                                         MID FK
                                           0.4 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 10    55513    014+00.290                 WHITEWATER    1965    31.2    29.8    2                   1200    2002   2       32      29.8    8
                                           JCT CSAH 9                                                 COLL
                                                         RIVER

                                                                                                      06-
                                           2.1 MI N OF
OLMSTED   CSAH 7     55516    005+00.500                 STREAM        1968    84.0    32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    940     2002   2       42      32      8
                                           JCT TH 52
                                                                                                      ART


                                           0.3 MI N OF   N BR ROOT                                    09-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 20    55518    002+00.280                               1971    74.4    32.0    2                   600     2002   2       36      32      8
                                           JCT CR 120    RIVER                                        LOCAL




                                                                           D-33
                                                                                                                                                              Appr.
County               Bridge                                  Feature       Year    Max     Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                           Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                     Intersected   Built   Span    Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                              Rating

                                                                                                          16-
                                           0.3 MI E OF       S FK ZUMBRO
OLMSTED   CSAH 25    55522    011+00.226                                   1975    124.0   52.0    4      URB/MINOR    18900   2002   2       48      52      9
                                           JCT US 52         RIVER
                                                                                                          ART


                                           0.1 MI W OF       S BR MID FK                                  07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 3     55528    028+00.350                                  1979     85.5    44.0    2                   910     2002   2       40      44      8
                                           JCT CSAH 12       ZUMBRO RIVER                                 COLL


                                           1.3 MI S OF       MID FK                                       09-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 31    55533    002+00.060                                  1981     88.2    32.0    2                   140     2002   2       32      32      8
                                           JCT TH 52         ZUMBRO RIVER                                 LOCAL


                                                             S FK
                                           0.1 MI S OF                                                    09-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 32    55535    003+00.510                     WHITEWATER    1978    31.7    32.0    2                   220     2002   2       24      32      5
                                           JCT TH 14                                                      LOCAL
                                                             RIVER


                                           2.3 MI S OF       N BR ROOT                                    07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 1     55536    003+00.520                                   1981    70.6    44.0    2                   1700    2002   2       40      44      7
                                           JCT CSAH 16       RIVER                                        COLL


                                           0.1 MI N OF       S BR ZUMBRO                                  07-RURAL
OLMSTED   CSAH 3     55543    008+00.500                                   1985    55.0    40.0    2                   500     2002   2       40      40      8
                                           JCT CR 126        RIVER                                        COLL


                                                                                                          16-
                                           1.8 MI SW OF
OLMSTED   CSAH 36    55551    003+00.112                     BEAR CREEK    1994    32.2    68.0    4      URB/MINOR    5200    2002   2       64      68      9
                                           JCT TH 14
                                                                                                          ART


                                           0.1 MI N OF                                                    14-URB/OTH
OLMSTED   CSAH 22    55561    004+00.761                     DM&E RR       1996    66.2    36.0    6                   14900   2002   2       98      90      8
                                           JCT TH 14                                                      PR ART


                                                                                                          16-
                                           0.1 mi S of jct   S FK Zumbro
OLMSTED   CSAH 8     55567    013+00.440                                   2002    115.7   28.0    4      URB/MINOR    6500    2002   2       56      56      8
                                           CSAH 22           River
                                                                                                          ART

                                                             N FK                                         08-
                                           0.4 MI E OF
OLMSTED   CSAH 24    89179    003+00.980                     WHITEWATER    1953    30.0    29.0    2      RUR/MINOR    760     2002   2       32      29      8
                                           JCT CR 102
                                                             RIVER                                        COLL




                                                                               D-34
                                                                                                                                                         Appr.
County               Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
          Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                 No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                         Rating

                                                                                                     08-
                                           1.0 MI E OF
OLMSTED   CSAH 30    89181    004+00.170                 TROUT CREEK   1956    15.2   24.0    2      RUR/MINOR    140     2002   2       30      24      8
                                           JCT CR 130
                                                                                                     COLL


                                           1.9 MI N OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 3     3295     012+00.990                 ELK CREEK     1920    30.0   27.0    2                   245     2002   2       27      27      8
                                           JCT CSAH 4                                                COLL


                                           0.7 MI N OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 3     3298     008+00.860                 STREAM        1920    20.1   28.4    2                   630     2002   2       28      28.4    8
                                           JCT CSAH 16                                               COLL


                                           1.7 MI N OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 3     3299     012+00.820                 ELK CREEK     1920    22.9   27.0    2                   245     2002   2       27      27      8
                                           JCT CSAH 4                                                COLL


                                           0.1 MI E OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 4     5050     014+00.015                 ROCK RIVER    1931    43.0   30.0    2                   3050    2002   2       48      30      8
                                           JCT CSAH 18                                               COLL


                                                                                                     08-
                                           0.9 MI S OF
ROCK      CSAH 9     5348     008+00.140                 ELK CREEK     1933    49.7   30.3    2      RUR/MINOR    440     2002   2       33      30.3    8
                                           JCT CSAH 16
                                                                                                     COLL

                                                                                                     08-
                                           1.5 MI E OF   KANARANZI
ROCK      CSAH 15    5497     015+00.560                               1935    49.9   30.3    2      RUR/MINOR    125     2002   2       32      30.3    8
                                           JCT CSAH 3    CREEK
                                                                                                     COLL

                                                                                                     08-
                                           0.4 MI E OF
ROCK      CSAH 8     7122     016+00.240                 ROCK RIVER    1954    59.5   24.0    2      RUR/MINOR    385     2002   2       30      24      8
                                           JCT CSAH 19
                                                                                                     COLL


                                           1.6 MI E OF   KANARANZI                                   07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 1     67501    007+00.630                               1961    39.8   28.1    2                   510     2002   2       26      28.1    8
                                           JCT CSAH 3    CREEK                                       COLL


                                           0.3 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK      CSAH 1     67502    001+00.740                 ROCK RIVER    1968    42.0   30.3    2                   420     2002   2       30      30.3    8
                                           JCT CSAH 9                                                COLL




                                                                           D-35
                                                                                                                                                        Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                        Rating


                                          0.9 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 7     67503    017+00.040                 ROCK RIVER    1969    36.0   36.1    2                   680     2002   2       40      36.1    8
                                          JCT CSAH 2                                                COLL


                                          0.6 MI N OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 6     67504    008+00.680                 BEAVER CREEK 1972     36.0   36.0    2                   415     2002   2       34      36      8
                                          JCT CSAH 4                                                COLL


                                          0.4 MI W OF   LITTLE BEAVER                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 5     67505    009+00.670                               1971    26.0   36.3    2                   750     2002   2       28      36.3    8
                                          JCT CSAH 11   CREEK                                       COLL


                                          2.1 MI W OF   SPLIT ROCK                                  07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 7     67506    000+00.380                               1973    26.0   32.1    2                   170     2002   2       32      32.1    8
                                          JCT TH 23     CREEK                                       COLL


                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.6 MI S OF   CHAMPEPADAN
ROCK     CSAH 9     67507    017+00.430                             1971      26.0   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    125     2002   2       30      32      8
                                          JCT CSAH 8    CREEK
                                                                                                    COLL


                                          0.3 MI W OF                                               09-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 21    67510    004+00.620                 ROCK RIVER    1979    31.7   32.0    2                   40      2002   2       34      32      8
                                          JCT CSAH 2                                                LOCAL


                                          0.7 MI E OF                                               09-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 15    67512    007+00.750                 ROCK RIVER    1991    66.0   28.0    2                   145     2002   2       28      28      8
                                          JCT TH 75                                                 LOCAL


                                          1.3 MI E OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 1     67529    001+00.250                 ASH CREEK     1991    32.0   32.2    2                   420     2002   2       34      32.2    8
                                          JCT TH 75                                                 COLL


                                          1.5 MI E OF   ASH CREEK                                   07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 1     67530    001+00.420                               1991    24.0   32.1    2                   420     2002   2       34      32.1    8
                                          JCT TH 75     OVERFLOW                                    COLL


                                          1.6 MI E OF   ROCK RIVER                                  07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 1     67531    001+00.560                               1991    31.6   32.3    2                   420     2002   2       34      32.3    8
                                          JCT TH 75     OVERFLOW                                    COLL




                                                                          D-36
                                                                                                                                                            Appr.
County              Bridge                                  Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                          Algnmt.
Name                No.                                     Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                            Rating


                                          0.3 MI N OF       CHAMPEPADAN                                 07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 3     67538    016+00.360                                 1999      29.2   39.4    2                   470     2002   2               39.4    9
                                          JCT CSAH 8        CREEK                                       COLL


                                          2.0 MI S OF       KANARANZI                                   07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 3     67540    001+00.090                                   2000    56.0   36.0    2                   190     2002   2               36      8
                                          JCT CSAH 1        CREEK                                       COLL


                                          0.6 mi E of jct   ROCK RIVER                                  07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 4     67544    014+00.525                                   2002    42.0   44.0    2                   2600    2002   2       36      44      8
                                          CSAH 18           OVERFLOW                                    COLL


                                                                                                        08-
                                          1.7 MI S OF
ROCK     CSAH 9     92429    001+00.290                     STREAM        1965    22.2   30.6    2      RUR/MINOR    215     2002   2       30      30.6    8
                                          JCT CSAH 1
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                          0.7 MI N OF       LITTLE BEAVER
ROCK     CSAH 11    92583    016+00.470                                   1969    24.0   30.0    2      RUR/MINOR    70      2002   2       38      30      8
                                          JCT CSAH 20       CREEK
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                          0.2 MI S OF
ROCK     CSAH 8     92759    015+00.620                     MOUND CREEK 1960      17.2   28.1    2      RUR/MINOR    385     2002   2       30      28.1    8
                                          JCT CSAH 19
                                                                                                        COLL

                                                                                                        08-
                                          0.2 MI W OF       CHAMPEPADAN
ROCK     CSAH 8     92760    020+00.630                                 1960      17.0   28.2    2      RUR/MINOR    200     2002   2       30      28.2    8
                                          JCT CSAH 3        CREEK
                                                                                                        COLL


                                          0.4 MI E OF                                                   07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 7     92762    008+00.440                     STREAM        1959    22.0   28.7    2                   175     2002   2       30      28.7    8
                                          JCT CR 66                                                     COLL


                                          0.2 MI S OF                                                   07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 6     92763    007+00.940                     SPRING BROOK 1957     18.6   40.4    2                   670     2002   2       40      40.4    8
                                          JCT CSAH 4                                                    COLL


                                          1.8 MI E OF                                                   07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 1     L1942    007+00.690                     STREAM        1949    22.0   26.8    2                   510     2002   2       26      26.8    8
                                          JCT CSAH 3                                                    COLL




                                                                              D-37
                                                                                                                                                        Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                        Rating


                                          2.3 MI S OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 3     L1945    000+00.850                 STREAM        1959    23.4   28.2    2                   190     2002   2       30      28.2    4
                                          JCT CSAH 1                                                COLL


                                          0.3 MI S OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 3     L1991    015+00.790                 STREAM        1949    24.0   28.5    2                   245     2002   2       30      28.5    8
                                          JCT CSAH 8                                                COLL


                                          0.9 MI S OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 17    L2017    001+00.150                 BLOOD RUN     1960    22.0   28.3    2                   560     2002   2       26      28.3    8
                                          JCT CSAH 13                                               COLL


                                          0.9 MI W OF                                               09-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 8     L2069    008+00.210                 BEAVER CREEK 1940     38.0   26.9    2                   250     2002   2       32      26.9    8
                                          JCT CSAH 11                                               LOCAL


                                          0.3 MI E OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 7     L2106    013+00.330                 MOUND CREEK 1959      23.9   44.6    2                   1100    2002   2       44      44.6    8
                                          JCT TH 75                                                 COLL


                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.8 MI N OF
ROCK     CSAH 9     L2120    006+00.870                 STREAM        1920    31.9   30.6    2      RUR/MINOR    440     2002   2       30      30.6    8
                                          JCT CSAH 15
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.4 MI S OF   LITTLE BEAVER
ROCK     CSAH 11    L2129    012+00.020                               1954    17.0   24.5    2      RUR/MINOR    70      2002   2       28      24.5    8
                                          JCT CSAH 8    CREEK
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.6 MI N OF   LITTLE BEAVER
ROCK     CSAH 11    L2130    011+00.040                               1954    23.0   24.4    2      RUR/MINOR    70      2002   2       28      24.4    8
                                          JCT CSAH 5    CREEK
                                                                                                    COLL


                                          1.6 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 13    L2135    003+00.480                 STREAM        1952    23.8   28.3    2                   1200    2002   2       36      28.3    7
                                          JCT CSAH 6                                                COLL


                                          0.5 MI W OF                                               07-RURAL
ROCK     CSAH 13    L2136    000+00.560                 BLOOD RUN     1952    23.9   28.4    2                   990     2002   2       36      28.4    8
                                          JCT CSAH 17                                               COLL




                                                                          D-38
                                                                                                                                                        Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                        Rating

                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.7 MI E OF
ROCK     CSAH 16    L2146    000+00.740                 ROCK RIVER    1951    64.3   22.0    2      RUR/MINOR    310     2002   2       28      22      8
                                          JCT TH 75
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.3 MI E OF
ROCK     CSAH 16    L2147    004+00.320                 ELK CREEK     1949    25.0   24.2    2      RUR/MINOR    80      2002   2       32      24.2    8
                                          JCT CR 55
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.3 MI W OF
ROCK     CSAH 17    L2148    011+00.078                 BEAVER CREEK 1942     20.0   24.0    2      RUR/MINOR    115     2002   2       26      24      8
                                          JCT CSAH 4
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          0.1 MI S OF
ROCK     CSAH 19    L2150    004+00.040                 STREAM        1960    21.9   28.0    2      RUR/MINOR    70      2002   2       32      28      8
                                          JCT CSAH 7
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                                                                    08-
                                          1.5 MI W OF
ROCK     CSAH 20    L2153    008+00.450                 BEAVER CREEK 1952     19.0   24.3    2      RUR/MINOR    195     2002   2       26      24.3    8
                                          JCT CSAH 11
                                                                                                    COLL


WATON-                                    0.4 MI W OF   BUTTERFIELD                                 07-RURAL
         CSAH 3     4422     005+00.610                               1925    29.9   36.4    2                   600     2001   2       32      36.4    8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH18    CREEK                                       COLL


WATON-                                    0.8 MI S OF   WATONWAN                                    09-RURAL
         CSAH 32    4795     003+00.140                               1928    30.0   26.8    2                   105     2001   2       32      26.8    8
WAN                                       JCT TH30      RIVER                                       LOCAL


WATON-                                    0.9 MI N OF                                               09-RURAL
         CSAH 32    4819     004+00.840                 STREAM        1928    20.5   23.9    2                   50      2001   2       35      23.9    8
WAN                                       JCT TH 30                                                 LOCAL


                                                        N FK
WATON-                                    0.3 MI W OF                                               09-RURAL
         CSAH 1     5354     002+00.710                 WATONWAN      1934    50.0   24.2    2                   35      2001   2       30      24.2    8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH18                                                LOCAL
                                                        RIVER

                                                        N FK
WATON-                                    0.2 MI E OF                                               09-RURAL
         CSAH 1     5861     008+00.690                 WATONWAN      1939    51.5   24.2    2                   115     2001   2       32      24.2    8
WAN                                       JCT TH4                                                   LOCAL
                                                        RIVER




                                                                          D-39
                                                                                                                                                         Appr.
County              Bridge                               Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                       Algnmt.
Name                No.                                  Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                         Rating

                                                         N FK
WATON-                                    0.6 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
         CSAH 18    5935     006+00.720                  WATONWAN      1941    52.0   24.8    2                   150     2001   2       32      24.8    8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH1                                                  COLL
                                                         RIVER

                                                         N FK
WATON-                                    2.0 MI N OF                                                07-RURAL
         CSAH 4     6111     002+00.000                  WATONWAN      1900    45.0   25.5    2                   250     2001   2       36      25.5    8
WAN                                       JCT TH30                                                   COLL
                                                         RIVER


WATON-                                    0.3 MI NW OF   WATONWAN                                    07-RURAL
         CSAH 9     83001    009+00.232                                1974    73.8   44.0    2                   1150    2001   2       44      44      9
WAN                                       JCT TH 15      RIVER                                       COLL


WATON-                                    1.2 MI W OF                                                07-RURAL
         CSAH 26    83505    001+00.790                  DITCH         1964    23.1   32.5    2                   100     2001   2       32      32.5    8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH9                                                  COLL


                                                         S FK
WATON-                                    1.9 MI W OF                                                07-RURAL
         CSAH 10    83511    015+00.790                  WATONWAN      1977    50.0   36.0    2                   210     2001   2       36      36      8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH 12                                                COLL
                                                         RIVER

                                                                                                     08-
WATON-                                    0.2 MI S OF    WATONWAN
         CSAH 16    83516    012+00.470                                1979    36.3   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    95      2001   2       32      32      8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH 3     RIVER
                                                                                                     COLL

                                                         S FK                                        08-
WATON-                                    2.0 MI E OF
         CSAH 16    83521    006+00.330                  WATONWAN      1987    46.3   32.0    2      RUR/MINOR    55      2001   2       32      32      8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH 13
                                                         RIVER                                       COLL

                                                         S FK
WATON-                                    0.1 MI W OF                                                07-RURAL
         CSAH 13    83524    007+00.990                  WATONWAN      1984    44.3   41.6    2                   820     2001   2       40      41.6    8
WAN                                       JCT CR 109                                                 COLL
                                                         RIVER

                                                         N FK
WATON-                                    0.2 MI N OF                                                09-RURAL
         CSAH 1     83525    006+00.340                  WATONWAN      1992    28.3   32.0    2                   65      2001   2       32      32      9
WAN                                       JCT CSAH 32                                                LOCAL
                                                         RIVER


WATON-                                    0.4 MI E OF    ST JAMES                                    07-RURAL
         CSAH 27    83536    009+00.870                                1996    22.0   44.1    2                   1450    2001   2       40      44.1    9
WAN                                       JCT CSAH 56    CREEK                                       COLL




                                                                           D-40
                                                                                                                                                        Appr.
County              Bridge                              Feature       Year    Max    Deck    Lane   Functional   ADT     ADT    Traf.   Appr.   Road
         Facility            Ref. Point   Location                                                                                                      Algnmt.
Name                No.                                 Intersected   Built   Span   Width   No.    Class        Total   Yr     Dir.    Width   Width
                                                                                                                                                        Rating

                                                        N FK
WATON-                                    0.5 MI W OF                                               09-RURAL
         CSAH 1     83541    007+00.990                 WATONWAN      1998    40.6   31.4    2                   65      2001   2       28      31.4    8
WAN                                       JCT TH 4                                                  LOCAL
                                                        RIVER

                                                                                                    08-
WATON-                                    0.8 MI N OF   BUTTERFIELD
         CSAH 18    90339    000+00.840                               1962    32.5   24.0    2      RUR/MINOR    40      2001   2       30      24      8
WAN                                       JCT CSAH 3    CREEK
                                                                                                    COLL

                                                        N FK                                        08-
WATON-                                    1.9 MI N OF
         CSAH 5     92417    016+00.426                 WATONWAN      1923    44.0   32.4    2      RUR/MINOR    560     2001   2       32      32.4    8
WAN                                       JCT TH30
                                                        RIVER                                       COLL




                                                                          D-41
                          APPENDIX E
Database Query: Fixed-Object and Run-Off-Road Crashes Occurring at
                Sample CSAH Bridges, 1988 - 2002
Table E-1. Fixed-Object and Run-Off-Road Crashes Occurring at Bridges WITH Approach Guardrail, 1988-2002
                        Bridge   Pontis         Acc.   Day of                               Loca-   Light-   Weath-   Road    Veh
Route      Ref Point                      Sev                   Month    Year   Time   SL                                            Acc Num
                        Num.     AADT           Type   Week                                 tion    ing      er       Surf.   Type
02000001   003+00.989   2541     26,758   B     24     7-Sat    4        2003   603    40   4       1        1        1       1      031550079
02000001   003+00.960   2541     26,758   N     26     7-Sat    1        1997   0      40   3       4        1        3       1      970110180
02000001   008+00.904   92164    40,306   B     26     2-Mon    7        2000   700    45   3       1        2        1       2      001850144
02000001   008+00.926   92164    40,306   B     31     7-Sat    11       1988   1000   50   2       1        4        5       1      883100262
02000001   008+00.884   92164    40,306   B     32     7-Sat    11       1988   1800   50   3       4        4        5       1      883100422
02000001   008+00.884   92164    40,306   N     32     7-Sat    11       1988   1900   50   3       4        4        5       1      883100601
02000001   008+00.882   92164    40,306   N     51     1-Sun    4        1990   2300   45   1       6        3        2       2      900980004
02000001   008+00.884   92164    40,306   N     31     5-Thur   10       1991   1200   50   1       1        4        3       2      913040207
02000001   008+00.891   92164    40,306   N     31     6-Fri    3        1992   1500   50   90      1        4        5       2      920730312
02000001   008+00.903   92164    40,306   C     31     6-Fri    5        1992   100    45   1       4        2        1       1      921220265
02000001   009+00.016   92164    40,306   N     31     1-Sun    11       1992   1200   40   1       1        1        1       1      923200172
02000001   009+00.016   92164    40,306   B     34     3-Tue    2        1993   600    45   1       4        5        5       1      930400198
02000002   000+00.200   2523     9,103    A     51     3-Tue    6        1989   100    30   1       4        1        1       11     891780090
02000002   000+00.189   2523     9,103    C     31     2-Mon    1        1999   900    30   2       1        1        5       1      990040503
02000007   007+00.722   2526     8,708    N     51     5-Thur   12       1991   500    55   1       6        5        5       4      913460323
02000007   007+00.644   2526     8,708    B     51     6-Fri    9        1995   500    99   1       99       99       5       2      952650131
02000007   013+00.211   2535     6,241    N     51     6-Fri    3        1993   1500   55   90      1        2        1       4      930780264
02000007   013+00.211   2535     6,241    B     51     1-Sun    4        1994   2500   55   1       4        1        1       1      941070192
02000007   013+00.211   2535     6,241    N     37     3-Tue    7        1995   2000   55   1       3        2        2       1      952060304
02000009   007+00.336   2536     10,380   B     31     5-Thur   2        2002   600    55   1       1        3        2       2      020450216
02000009   007+00.395   2536     10,380   B     51     1-Sun    12       1989   1900   55   1       6        2        2       2      893650221
02000009   007+00.395   2536     10,380   A     30     5-Thur   3        1990   1100   55   1       1        4        3       1      900670367
02000009   007+00.395   2536     10,380   N     31     3-Tue    7        1991   2100   55   1       5        1        1       1      912040171
02000009   007+00.386   2536     10,380   A     51     6-Fri    8        1992   100    55   2       6        1        1       1      922410008
02000009   007+00.395   2536     10,380   N     26     7-Sat    2        1994   300    55   90      6        1        1       1      940360172
02000009   007+00.416   2536     10,380   N     51     3-Tue    1        1996   1900   55   1       6        1        5       2      960300348
02000011   004+00.428   2553     13,770   C     25     2-Mon    11       1996   1600   45   1       1        2        1       1      963230168
02000013   000+00.764   2518     1,976    N     25     1-Sun    12       1992   2100   55   99      6        5        5       1      923480079
02000014   016+00.405   2527     7,201    N     51     4-Wed    12       2000   2300   50   99      6        4        5       1      003480447
02000014   001+00.111   2560     20,076   N     26     1-Sun    11       2000   0      55   2       6        4        3       1      003240528
02000014   000+00.998   2560     20,076   N     35     4-Wed    10       1988   2300   50   3       4        1        1       1      882930297
02000014   000+00.998   2560     20,076   N     28     3-Tue    12       1988   800    55   2       1        2        5       2      883480150
02000014   001+00.149   2560     20,076   N     31     4-Wed    3        1994   1700   45   90      1        5        5       2      940820275
02000014   000+00.993   2560     20,076   B     31     4-Wed    3        1994   1800   40   1       4        5        5       1      940820565
02000014   001+00.111   2560     20,076   B     37     6-Fri    10       1996   1900   55   3       4        1        1       99     962850051




                                                                        E-1
                        Bridge   Pontis         Acc.   Day of                               Loca-   Light-   Weath-   Road    Veh
Route      Ref Point                      Sev                   Month    Year   Time   SL                                            Acc Num
                        Num.     AADT           Type   Week                                 tion    ing      er       Surf.   Type
02000014   001+00.000   2560     20,076   B     30     7-Sat    11       1998   800    55   99      1        1        1       2      983110208
02000018   002+00.596   2549     14,479   N     35     6-Fri    1        2000   800    45   99      1        1        5       1      000210535
02000018   002+00.621   2549     14,479   N     31     5-Thur   12       2000   900    45   1       1        4        5       2      003630748
02000018   002+00.559   2549     14,479   N     32     6-Fri    1        2001   800    45   1       1        4        3       1      010260770
02000018   002+00.554   2549     14,479   C     31     3-Tue    3        2002   2000   45   2       4        4        3       1      020640038
02000018   002+00.564   2549     14,479   N     37     3-Tue    1        2003   1107   45   4       1        2        5       1      031010108
02000018   002+00.621   2549     14,479   N     35     1-Sun    12       1998   1000   45   90      1        4        3       1      983540105
02000021   006+00.111   90734    800      N     28     7-Sat    3        1989   2100   50   90      6        1        5       2      890630425
02000021   006+00.111   90734    800      B     51     1-Sun    10       1989   100    50   1       6        1        1       1      892740237
02000021   006+00.070   90734    800      C     90     1-Sun    5        1998   1900   55   99      3        1        1       1      981370045
02000022   008+00.787   2519     8,586    A     31     3-Tue    1        1990   1400   55   1       1        3        5       1      900160157
02000022   012+00.166   2519     8,586    C     31     3-Tue    9        1992   100    55   1       6        1        1       4      922590283
02000022   008+00.780   2519     8,586    N     31     1-Sun    2        1996   100    55   1       6        2        3       2      960560053
02000022   005+00.020   2548     5,464    K     37     6-Fri    11       1993   100    55   2       6        2        1       2      933230002
02000024   009+00.107   2501     9,400    B     25     5-Thur   3        2000   700    55   90      1        2        3       1      000690103
02000024   009+00.030   2501     9,400    B     27     7-Sat    8        1988   500    55   90      2        1        1       1      882190048
02000024   017+00.590   92730    1,000    N     51     4-Wed    3        2001   1900   55   2       6        1        1       1      010660132
02000024   017+00.608   92730    1,000    N     51     5-Thur   11       1992   2300   99   90      99       99       5       4      923240343
02000116   001+00.952   2545     17,156   C     51     5-Thur   9        2003   1433   55   90      1        3        2       1      032940023
02000116   002+00.077   2545     17,156   N     41     2-Mon    2        1995   900    45   90      1        1        1       1      950580088
02000116   001+00.979   2545     17,156   N     31     6-Fri    2        1998   700    55   2       1        5        5       2      980440065
02000116   001+00.744   2546     17,156   N     31     2-Mon    1        1998   1400   55   1       1        4        3       1      980120602
02000116   005+00.041   2564     20,558   N     51     6-Fri    10       1991   900    99   1       99       99       1       1      912770356
02000116   005+00.111   2564     20,558   B     51     4-Wed    11       1994   1400   55   1       1        1        1       35     943130191
02000116   001+00.869   96834    17,156   N     31     3-Tue    12       2000   900    45   1       1        2        5       2      003470382
02000116   001+00.919   96834    17,156   B     41     5-Thur   4        2003   2106   55   2       6        5        5       3      030950044
18000003   001+00.541   6518     8,600    N     30     3-Tue    12       1993   2300   50   90      6        2        5       1      933620236
18000003   001+00.504   6518     8,600    N     37     3-Tue    12       1993   2300   55   99      6        7        5       1      933620272
18000003   001+00.434   6518     8,600    N     51     3-Tue    2        1997   1700   50   1       3        2        2       35     970490305
18000011   018+00.450   18524    1,050    N     31     7-Sat    4        2001   1800   55   1       6        2        1       1      011180221
18000011   018+00.441   18524    1,050    N     51     3-Tue    1        1992   1500   55   99      1        2        5       2      920140296
18000011   018+00.450   18524    1,050    A     51     3-Tue    8        1993   100    55   1       6        1        1       1      932430171
18000011   018+00.460   18524    1,050    B     51     7-Sat    5        1995   2000   55   2       3        2        1       2      951470372
18000016   012+00.111   18501    2,550    C     25     7-Sat    6        1994   100    30   99      6        99       2       1      941760258
18000016   012+00.160   18501    2,550    A     30     4-Wed    8        1995   1100   50   2       1        1        1       1      952420123
18000021   001+00.111   18523    530      C     30     6-Fri    6        2002   2000   55   1       1        1        1       1      021790249
18000021   001+00.155   18523    530      C     31     1-Sun    1        1994   1700   55   90      6        7        3       1      940090192




                                                                        E-2
                        Bridge   Pontis         Acc.   Day of                               Loca-   Light-   Weath-   Road    Veh
Route      Ref Point                      Sev                   Month    Year   Time   SL                                            Acc Num
                        Num.     AADT           Type   Week                                 tion    ing      er       Surf.   Type
18000031   003+00.495   18506    1,350    C     51     1-Sun    5        1998   2200   55   2       6        1        1       1      981370175
18000036   001+00.111   18518    1,100    N     41     7-Sat    12       2000   2100   55   3       6        99       5       2      003650213
18000036   001+00.100   18518    1,100    N     30     3-Tue    6        1988   100    55   90      6        1        1       2      881800153
18000036   001+00.090   18518    1,100    N     31     2-Mon    3        1999   1000   55   2       1        4        3       1      990670701
18000066   001+00.022   18510    5,100    N     51     4-Wed    4        1991   0      40   1       6        1        1       1      911000221
18000066   000+00.963   18510    5,100    N     90     1-Sun    8        1996   700    45   90      1        1        1       4      962310089
19000009   002+00.171   8433     3,300    N     51     5-Thur   6        2000   1700   55   2       1        1        1       1      001810300
19000009   002+00.170   8433     3,300    B     30     4-Wed    11       1988   1300   55   90      1        2        1       2      883350230
19000042   000+00.933   19511    39,500   N     51     3-Tue    11       2000   2000   50   1       4        4        5       1      003120577
19000046   022+00.246   19502    4,200    N     30     1-Sun    2        1996   0      30   1       4        1        90      1      960490153
19000047   014+00.823   L3170    2,250    N     31     3-Tue    4        2002   700    55   1       1        1        1       1      021060036
19000050   006+00.931   19J07    15,000   N     37     5-Thur   2        1991   2100   55   1       6        1        1       1      910520184
19000085   011+00.222   19504    890      N     31     1-Sun    12       1989   2300   55   2       6        99       99      1      893580035
19000085   011+00.140   19504    890      C     31     7-Sat    3        1996   0      99   1       99       99       1       2      960900036
19000086   009+00.840   L3182    2,200    N     25     5-Thur   10       1991   1500   55   1       1        7        5       2      913040125
23000001   020+00.820   5289     1,300    N     51     6-Fri    4        2003   345    0    0       6        5        5       1      040560320
23000001   020+00.800   5289     1,300    A     51     7-Sat    4        1989   400    55   1       6        2        1       1      891120024
23000001   020+00.770   5289     1,300    B     31     1-Sun    4        1999   2500   55   1       1        2        1       1      991080111
23000001   016+00.150   23507    1,300    B     31     7-Sat    8        1988   100    0    2       6        2        1       1      882400282
23000001   017+00.490   23508    1,300    C     31     1-Sun    12       1989   100    55   1       6        4        3       1      893580012
23000001   017+00.690   23508    1,300    C     31     2-Mon    2        1999   800    55   1       1        2        5       1      990320184
23000001   017+00.690   23508    1,300    C     31     2-Mon    2        1999   600    55   1       1        2        5       1      990460180
23000001   006+00.340   23514    900      N     31     1-Sun    1        2000   700    55   1       2        5        5       1      000090088
25000001   022+00.454   25559    1,100    N     30     4-Wed    12       1997   500    30   1       4        2        5       1      973440107
25000005   005+00.230   25566    650      C     90     6-Fri    12       1998   1700   55   1       6        1        1       2      983520151
25000014   004+00.200   25508    245      A     31     2-Mon    7        1991   600    55   1       2        1        1       31     911890032
25000017   003+00.000   25540    640      A     51     7-Sat    4        1991   1900   55   1       3        1        1       2      911170176
25000018   002+00.140   25505    7,400    B     33     2-Mon    11       1998   1700   55   1       6        3        2       1      983130218
25000018   002+00.690   25506    7,400    B     51     2-Mon    6        1988   9900   55   1       1        1        1       1      881580002
25000018   002+00.770   25506    7,400    B     51     2-Mon    3        1992   2000   55   1       6        2        1       1      920760181
25000030   008+00.887   25564    420      N     35     6-Fri    10       2000   1500   55   90      1        2        1       1      003010337
25000066   000+00.288   25517    6,700    B     26     5-Thur   6        2000   700    55   1       6        3        99      1      001530239
25000066   000+00.252   25517    6,700    N     31     6-Fri    4        1988   2100   30   2       5        3        2       1      881130125
25000066   000+00.300   25517    6,700    C     30     5-Thur   8        1988   200    55   90      4        2        1       2      882170114




                                                                        E-3
                        Bridge   Pontis         Acc.   Day of                               Loca-   Light-   Weath-   Road    Veh
Route      Ref Point                      Sev                   Month    Year   Time   SL                                            Acc Num
                        Num.     AADT           Type   Week                                 tion    ing      er       Surf.   Type
25000066   000+00.360   25517    6,700    N     34     3-Tue    1        1991   1800   40   1       6        1        5       1      910220374
42000002   020+00.090   42557    244      A     51     1-Sun    8        1990   1700   55   1       1        1        1       12     902380189
42000013   019+00.470   42512    145      C     51     4-Wed    9        1998   800    55   2       1        2        1       2      982450176
42000013   017+00.430   42514    145      A     25     7-Sat    11       2001   100    55   1       6        1        1       1      013070259
42000033   003+00.457   42541    3,950    N     31     5-Thur   10       1991   1500   55   1       1        4        5       1      913040929
42000033   003+00.490   42541    3,950    N     26     3-Tue    11       1993   2000   55   1       99       1        5       2      933340371
42000033   003+00.509   42541    3,950    N     90     4-Wed    1        1997   1000   55   1       1        2        5       35     970080150
50000001   002+00.230   50504    410      N     31     2-Mon    8        1989   800    55   2       1        1        1       1      892260077
50000001   002+00.530   50504    410      B     31     2-Mon    3        1997   1700   55   2       1        1        1       2      970900207
50000002   004+00.500   50524    730      N     52     1-Sun    5        1991   1800   55   2       3        3        2       1      911250243
50000005   002+00.232   7016     210      N     35     7-Sat    4        1988   500    55   1       1        3        2       1      881140257
50000005   002+00.185   7016     210      N     31     1-Sun    7        1993   1400   55   1       1        2        1       1      931850211
50000006   002+00.329   7091     640      B     25     2-Mon    10       2002   300    55   90      6        4        3       1      023010229
50000008   010+00.570   4569     315      C     51     3-Tue    9        1988   1100   55   1       1        1        1       11     882570167
50000008   013+00.220   50576    770      C     31     1-Sun    12       2000   300    55   99      6        7        3       1      003520262
50000014   000+00.180   7148     1,200    C     31     4-Wed    12       2001   500    30   2       6        4        3       1      013600097
50000014   000+00.211   7148     1,200    N     51     7-Sat    8        2003   1948   55   1       1        1        1       1      032750269
50000014   000+00.211   7148     1,200    B     26     7-Sat    11       2003   815    55   2       1        2        1       1      040050306
50000016   000+00.861   50503    2,100    C     51     5-Thur   5        1989   1900   30   1       1        1        1       1      891310138
50000023   000+00.930   7048     2,150    N     34     1-Sun    2        1989   1200   30   1       1        2        5       1      890360131
50000023   000+00.930   7048     2,150    B     31     6-Fri    11       1991   1100   30   99      1        5        5       1      913330331
50000023   000+00.945   7048     2,150    N     31     5-Thur   12       1998   2300   30   90      4        1        5       1      983650208
50000025   008+00.730   50507    230      B     31     5-Thur   12       2002   1900   55   1       6        4        5       1      023530505
50000025   008+00.750   50507    230      A     51     7-Sat    9        1988   0      55   1       6        1        1       1      882610038
50000025   000+00.111   50517    750      N     27     7-Sat    8        2001   1900   55   1       1        1        1       1      012370226
50000025   000+00.111   50517    750      B     31     1-Sun    3        1992   2000   30   2       5        6        1       1      920610125
50000029   003+00.748   5368     2,950    N     31     3-Tue    3        1989   1800   30   1       4        7        5       1      890730616
50000029   003+00.742   5368     2,950    N     31     5-Thur   2        1994   500    30   1       4        1        5       1      940340112
55000005   007+00.430   55527    2,300    N     51     5-Thur   3        1988   1900   55   1       4        1        1       1      880910034
55000012   009+00.701   55520    1,950    B     37     6-Fri    7        1991   1700   55   2       1        1        1       4      912000283
55000022   011+00.265   55519    25,500   B     31     5-Thur   10       2000   500    40   1       6        1        1       1      002860335
55000022   011+00.326   55519    25,500   N     31     5-Thur   4        1991   100    40   1       6        2        1       2      911080167
55000022   011+00.315   55519    25,500   N     31     7-Sat    3        1994   0      40   1       6        2        1       1      940850227
55000022   011+00.326   55519    25,500   N     31     7-Sat    6        1994   2200   40   1       6        1        1       1      941620139




                                                                        E-4
                        Bridge   Pontis         Acc.   Day of                               Loca-   Light-   Weath-   Road    Veh
Route      Ref Point                      Sev                   Month    Year   Time   SL                                            Acc Num
                        Num.     AADT           Type   Week                                 tion    ing      er       Surf.   Type
55000022   011+00.265   55519    25,500   B     31     3-Tue    10       1995   2300   99   1       4        3        2       2      953040220
55000022   011+00.282   55519    25,500   C     31     7-Sat    4        1997   2300   40   2       6        1        1       1      971020095
55000022   011+00.288   55519    25,500   N     31     7-Sat    11       1997   300    40   1       6        6        90      1      973330238
55000022   011+00.176   55519    25,500   C     31     2-Mon    1        1998   2200   40   1       6        5        3       1      980260299
55000022   011+00.315   55519    25,500   N     51     6-Fri    4        1998   2500   55   99      6        1        1       1      981000250
55000022   011+00.232   55519    25,500   B     31     2-Mon    1        1999   1300   40   1       1        4        3       2      990110257
67000004   018+00.765   67524    1,450    N     31     4-Wed    2        1993   1900   55   1       6        7        5       1      930410103
67000017   006+00.310   6787     560      B     31     7-Sat    4        1998   1600   55   1       1        2        2       1      981150060
83000012   003+00.477   83513    255      C     51     4-Wed    3        1990   1700   55   90      1        5        5       1      900660447
83000012   003+00.480   83513    255      N     51     4-Wed    4        1998   2200   55   1       6        1        1       1      981190268
83000012   003+00.390   83513    255      N     31     2-Mon    9        1999   2100   55   90      6        2        90      2      992700240
83000019   006+00.920   90343    135      N     31     3-Tue    4        1989   1800   0    99      3        1        99      2      891010207
83000027   003+00.040   83539    1,200    N     31     5-Thur   6        1994   1900   45   2       1        1        1       35     941600143
83000027   003+00.000   83539    1,200    N     34     5-Thur   1        1995   1100   45   2       1        1        5       1      950050076
83000027   003+00.040   83539    1,200    B     31     1-Sun    5        1995   1300   45   2       1        3        2       1      951480159
83000057   000+00.457   8259     2,700    C     34     2-Mon    1        1992   1800   55   90      6        6        1       1      920060019




                                                                        E-5
Table E-2. Fixed-Object and Run-Off-Road Crashes Occurring at Bridges WITHOUT Approach Guardrail, 1988-2002
                        Bridge   Pontis         Acc.   Day of                               Loca-   Light-   Weath-   Road    Veh
Route      Ref Point                      Sev                   Month    Year   Time   SL                                            Acc Num
                        Num.     AADT           Type   Week                                 tion    ing      er       Surf.   Type
02000051   003+00.666   2520     16,500   B     31     6-Fri    3        1995   0      50   2       6        1        1       2      950690128
18000001   015+00.099   6519     2,050    N     51     5-Thur   7        1993   2100   55   1       6        1        1       1      932100206
19000026   006+00.818   97556    10,400   C     90     3-Tue    8        2001   1100   45   1       1        99       1       1      012400274
19000031   002+00.111   19512    9,900    N     26     7-Sat    4        2000   2200   50   3       4        1        1       1      000920053
19000031   002+00.077   19512    9,900    N     38     3-Tue    4        1988   200    50   99      4        2        2       1      881170345
19000031   002+00.111   19512    9,900    N     90     4-Wed    8        1990   1500   50   1       1        1        1       1      902270266
19000054   002+00.640   2951     4,200    B     37     7-Sat    9        1988   300    55   90      6        1        1       1      882610119
19000068   001+00.987   19529    5,200    C     31     2-Mon    9        1988   1600   35   2       1        1        1       1      882700230
19000068   001+00.930   19529    5,200    N     31     1-Sun    4        1991   1600   55   1       1        2        2       1      911040152
19000068   002+00.160   19529    5,200    N     31     6-Fri    7        1994   1400   15   1       1        1        1       1      941820229
19000068   002+00.080   19529    5,200    B     31     6-Fri    8        1994   100    55   2       6        1        1       2      942310046
19000091   001+00.930   7271     120      N     51     1-Sun    10       1993   1700   55   1       1        1        1       2      932970181
19000091   001+00.930   7271     120      N     51     7-Sat    12       1993   0      55   1       6        1        5       2      933380104
23000002   016+00.796   23545    1,400    C     26     7-Sat    2        1989   1000   30   2       1        2        5       1      890490516
23000002   016+00.824   23545    1,400    N     31     7-Sat    3        1991   2200   30   2       4        2        2       2      910750085
23000002   016+00.805   23545    1,400    K     51     5-Thur   5        1991   2300   30   90      4        6        1       1      911290209
23000005   019+00.038   7959     680      N     51     6-Fri    10       2000   2300   99   1       6        3        2       1      002870122
23000005   018+00.968   7959     680      N     51     6-Fri    4        1991   2100   99   1       6        2        1       1      911160253
23000005   010+00.778   23522    430      C     51     6-Fri    1        1995   1400   55   1       1        4        5       1      950060466
23000008   033+00.500   23506    1,250    N     51     6-Fri    11       1997   600    55   99      2        1        5       1      973320317
23000011   012+00.190   23541    310      N     51     5-Thur   5        1989   2000   55   1       3        1        1       2      891310054
23000012   019+00.770   23512    760      A     31     6-Fri    11       1992   2200   55   1       6        1        5       1      923320204
23000012   019+00.770   23512    760      C     51     2-Mon    12       1993   900    55   2       1        4        5       1      933540349
23000012   016+00.481   23538    165      B     51     4-Wed    7        1990   2100   55   90      6        3        2       1      902060253
23000015   009+00.360   7979     245      N     51     5-Thur   11       1992   2300   99   1       99       99       1       1      923100033
23000015   000+00.780   7983     385      N     30     6-Fri    2        1996   1000   55   2       1        1        5       1      960330415
23000015   000+00.780   7983     385      N     37     7-Sat    9        1999   2500   55   99      6        1        99      1      992610193
23000021   023+00.420   23521    120      N     30     2-Mon    10       2001   2500   55   90      6        1        1       1      012950096
23000025   013+00.690   9923     255      N     90     6-Fri    11       1997   1900   55   99      6        4        3       1      973180360
23000027   000+00.420   23559    290      N     51     1-Sun    10       2002   1200   55   90      1        1        1       4      022860099
23000029   002+00.960   9939     50       B     41     1-Sun    1        2000   300    55   1       6        99       5       1      000090158
23000038   003+00.000   23567    105      N     90     7-Sat    12       2001   900    99   99      1        5        5       4      013560635
23000038   002+00.966   23567    105      N     30     6-Fri    10       1994   2000   55   2       6        1        1       1      942870005
23000038   003+00.000   23567    105      N     31     3-Tue    8        1998   600    55   1       6        1        2       2      982160233
25000002   010+00.318   2103     820      N     31     2-Mon    12       2001   1300   55   1       1        1        3       1      013580148




                                                                        E-6
                        Bridge   Pontis         Acc.   Day of                               Loca-   Light-   Weath-   Road    Veh
Route      Ref Point                      Sev                   Month    Year   Time   SL                                            Acc Num
                        Num.     AADT           Type   Week                                 tion    ing      er       Surf.   Type
25000002   010+00.435   2103     820      K     31     7-Sat    2        1993   1600   55   1       1        7        90      1      930440001
25000002   010+00.481   2103     820      N     90     7-Sat    6        1996   1700   55   2       1        1        1       2      961530102
25000006   006+00.018   25532    1,450    N     36     2-Mon    2        2003   1800   55   1       3        2        5       1      030970367
25000006   006+00.011   25532    1,450    N     51     7-Sat    1        1995   1600   55   1       1        7        1       1      950210284
25000007   020+00.407   25522    455      B     51     1-Sun    6        2002   800    55   1       1        1        1       1      021740176
25000007   020+00.417   25522    455      B     34     6-Fri    3        1988   300    55   90      6        99       1       1      880780255
25000007   020+00.429   25522    455      N     51     7-Sat    6        1990   200    55   1       6        1        1       1      901740199
25000007   020+00.407   25522    455      A     90     1-Sun    8        1990   1500   55   90      1        1        1       11     902380115
25000007   020+00.407   25522    455      N     51     7-Sat    11       1991   1600   55   2       3        4        5       1      913270387
25000007   020+00.507   25522    455      B     37     7-Sat    7        1995   1300   55   90      1        1        1       11     952100268
25000007   016+00.937   25530    320      A     51     5-Thur   3        2002   1800   55   2       6        5        5       1      020660229
25000007   017+00.091   25531    320      C     37     1-Sun    1        2002   2200   55   90      6        2        1       1      020270037
25000007   017+00.097   25531    320      B     51     7-Sat    7        2002   1700   55   1       1        1        8       2      022080261
25000007   017+00.097   25531    320      A     51     3-Tue    9        2003   201    55   4       6        1        1       3      032830020
25000007   017+00.197   25531    320      N     37     4-Wed    12       1999   2000   55   99      6        2        1       1      993490275
25000008   007+00.811   25516    395      C     37     7-Sat    8        1991   800    55   1       1        1        1       35     912360218
25000014   011+00.560   25534    1,000    B     51     2-Mon    11       1997   1700   55   1       6        2        1       1      973070180
42000003   012+00.860   7211     420      N     51     4-Wed    5        1994   800    55   2       1        1        1       32     941380225
42000005   015+00.691   42536    425      B     30     2-Mon    1        1990   9900   0    99      6        1        5       1      900010205
42000005   015+00.709   42536    425      A     51     6-Fri    6        1991   1900   30   1       1        1        1       11     911790214
42000008   010+00.630   42546    340      N     31     4-Wed    4        1990   2000   55   1       3        3        2       2      900940191
42000009   018+00.600   42522    245      C     31     6-Fri    5        1993   1900   55   1       3        8        2       2      931270218
42000009   004+00.402   L1705    330      K     30     6-Fri    5        1992   500    55   99      6        1        1       1      921500001
42000010   004+00.709   42505    380      N     31     7-Sat    11       1988   9900   0    99      2        5        3       1      883170689
42000010   011+00.665   42521    215      B     90     1-Sun    8        2000   200    55   90      6        1        1       1      002330051
50000004   017+00.970   92137    370      N     51     2-Mon    7        1988   900    55   2       1        1        1       38     881930193
50000005   000+00.014   89212    220      N     90     1-Sun    10       2001   1200   99   99      99       99       99      1      012870159
50000008   000+00.111   6645     450      C     36     3-Tue    7        2001   2000   99   90      1        1        99      10     012120256
50000012   001+00.670   50540    1,200    N     30     1-Sun    11       1992   1300   55   99      1        3        2       1      923060148
50000016   005+00.550   89225    380      A     51     7-Sat    7        2000   200    55   90      6        1        1       1      001970205
55000001   003+00.460   55536    1,700    N     31     2-Mon    9        2003   630    55   2       1        1        1       2      032930117
55000003   008+00.500   55543    500      B     51     3-Tue    3        2000   600    55   90      1        1        2       2      000740218
55000003   008+00.514   55543    500      N     37     4-Wed    9        2000   400    55   1       1        1        1       1      002710099
55000006   007+00.195   6643     1,400    N     30     7-Sat    1        2003   1248   55   1       1        5        4       2      030590002
55000006   007+00.260   6643     1,400    A     31     4-Wed    7        1997   1300   55   2       1        1        1       1      971970259
55000006   007+00.160   6643     1,400    N     31     1-Sun    8        1993   0      55   90      6        1        1       1      932340125
55000007   005+00.610   55516    940      N     31     1-Sun    11       1988   1000   55   1       1        4        5       1      883320225




                                                                        E-7
                        Bridge   Pontis         Acc.   Day of                               Loca-   Light-   Weath-   Road    Veh
Route      Ref Point                      Sev                   Month    Year   Time   SL                                            Acc Num
                        Num.     AADT           Type   Week                                 tion    ing      er       Surf.   Type
55000015   005+00.800   55508    800      B     31     4-Wed    1        1992   900    55   99      1        2        8       1      920220081
55000015   005+00.813   55508    800      K     31     6-Fri    4        1993   0      55   1       6        1        1       1      931130001
55000020   002+00.250   55518    600      C     31     3-Tue    2        2002   800    55   1       1        7        5       1      020570174
55000022   004+00.766   55561    14,900   N     38     7-Sat    3        1988   1700   50   99      6        7        5       4      880720115
55000025   011+00.156   55522    18,900   N     31     7-Sat    3        1993   1500   35   1       1        1        1       4      930720120
55000025   011+00.196   55522    18,900   N     31     6-Fri    11       1993   700    35   1       1        4        5       2      933090667
55000030   004+00.170   89181    140      B     37     7-Sat    3        1990   1600   55   1       1        1        1       2      900620168
55000032   003+00.430   55535    220      N     31     3-Tue    2        1990   100    55   1       6        1        5       1      900510018
55000036   003+00.111   55551    5,200    B     51     6-Fri    3        1992   2100   55   1       6        6        2       2      920660076
55000036   003+00.111   55551    5,200    C     37     7-Sat    9        1995   1000   55   1       1        1        1       2      952520226
55000036   000+00.250   55023    4,550    C     31     3-Tue    6        2000   1600   55   1       1        3        2       1      001650148
67000001   007+00.618   67501    510      B     31     3-Tue    6        1999   1500   55   1       1        1        1       14     991590215
67000003   016+00.355   67538    470      K     31     4-Wed    7        1996   1800   55   1       1        1        1       1      962060002
67000003   008+00.890   3298     630      N     90     4-Wed    6        1993   1800   55   1       1        1        1       2      931740300
67000003   009+00.080   3298     630      N     31     6-Fri    11       1993   1100   55   1       1        3        5       1      933160297
67000003   012+00.740   3299     245      N     31     1-Sun    9        1991   100    55   2       6        1        1       1      912510175
67000003   001+00.111   67540    190      N     90     4-Wed    3        1989   900    55   2       1        1        5       38     890670284
67000004   013+00.993   5050     3,050    N     31     5-Thur   1        1996   1600   30   1       1        1        5       2      960040284
67000006   008+00.650   67504    415      A     31     3-Tue    3        2000   500    55   1       6        1        1       2      000670151
67000006   008+00.650   67504    415      B     51     2-Mon    12       1996   1800   55   1       3        7        5       2      963510387
67000007   013+00.210   L2106    1,100    C     31     7-Sat    3        1993   2000   55   1       6        6        1       2      930860150
67000008   016+00.210   7122     385      A     31     2-Mon    1        1993   700    55   1       6        1        99      1      930040239
67000008   016+00.210   7122     385      C     51     6-Fri    3        1995   700    55   1       2        2        1       1      950830213
67000008   020+00.590   92760    200      A     31     3-Tue    8        1991   100    55   1       6        2        1       1      912320191
67000009   006+00.870   L2120    440      N     31     1-Sun    9        1996   1500   55   1       1        2        1       1      962730012
67000013   003+00.480   L2135    1,200    C     31     3-Tue    5        1999   300    55   2       6        2        1       1      991240286
67000013   000+00.560   L2136    990      N     31     6-Fri    3        1989   1500   55   2       1        4        1       1      890760525
67000013   000+00.560   L2136    990      N     31     2-Mon    3        1992   1500   55   1       1        7        3       2      920690309
67000013   000+00.560   L2136    990      C     90     2-Mon    11       1997   1400   55   2       1        1        1       1      973210054
67000016   000+00.750   L2146    310      B     31     4-Wed    10       1992   2200   55   99      6        1        1       2      923020220
67000016   000+00.750   L2146    310      A     37     5-Thur   7        1996   200    55   1       6        2        2       1      961860211
67000016   000+00.750   L2146    310      N     31     7-Sat    7        1996   700    55   1       6        1        1       1      962020211
83000005   016+00.426   92417    560      B     30     2-Mon    3        1996   1000   55   90      1        2        1       35     960710083
83000027   009+00.870   83536    1,450    K     31     7-Sat    2        1994   1600   55   1       1        1        1       2      940570336
83000032   002+00.912   4795     105      N     31     7-Sat    6        1989   600    55   2       2        1        1       1      891610272




                                                                        E-8
                             APPENDIX F
Summarized Police Report Information for Crashes at Sample CSAH Bridges
Table F-1. Summary of Crash Reports: Fixed-Object and ROR Crashes Occurring at Bridges WITHOUT Approach Guardrail, 1988 - 2002

                       Did
                       Bridge                                                                                                                 Was Crash on
                       Have                                                                                           Initial                 Approach or
                       App.                 Crash                                                                     Object     Would GR Departure          Pontis
Bridge Num Route       GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                     Struck     have helped? Side?          AADT
                                                               Lost control on icy pavement, ROR and hit "bridge
                                                               guard fence" on the NE corner. (diag shows direct
2519        2000022    No       900160157   1990    A    31                                                           BR         Yes (Atten.) App            8586
                                                               strike on end of BR on right approach but NO GR
                                                               shown)

                                                               ROR on right and struck "end of the bridge" head on
6643        55000006   No       971970259   1997    A    31                                                          BR          Yes (Atten.) App            1400
                                                               approach (diag shows this, clearly no app GR in diag)

                                                               "Swerved to miss deer; struck corner of bridge" (diag
67504       67000006   No       670151      2000    A    31                                                          BR          Yes (Atten.) App            415
                                                               shows strike near end of bridge rail)


                                                               Struck bridge rail (diag shows a head-on strike to end
7122        67000008   No       930040239   1993    A    31                                                           BR         Yes (Atten.) App            385
                                                               of rail)


                                                               Slippery road, lost control, "struck bridge" (diag
23512       23000012   No       923320204   1992    A    31                                                           BR         Yes (Atten.) Dep            760
                                                               shows a side-impact direct strike on rail end)


                                                               "Driver struck bridge railing on opposite side of road"
92760       67000008   No       912320191   1991    A    31    (diagram shows a head-on strike to end of rail on       BR        Yes (Atten.) Dep            200
                                                               opposite side and vehicle continuing off the roadway)


                                                               ROR and struck bank of waterway (diag shows veh
L2146       67000016   No       961860211   1996    A    37                                                           Roadside   Yes (Redir.) App            310
                                                               went to left between two bridges)

                                                               Swerved to miss deer, crossed centerline, ROR into
89225       50000016   No       1970205     2000    A    51    ditch and rolled over; ahead of bridge but no object   Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Dep            380
                                                               struck

                                                               Lost control, ROR and into ditch on left side ahead of
92417       83000005   No       960710083   1996    B    30    bridge, striking several trees and coming to rest near Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Dep            560
                                                               river




                                                                            F-1
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                 Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                           Initial                 Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                     Object     Would GR Departure          Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                     Struck     have helped? Side?          AADT

                                                              ROR and struck tree approx 100 ft from bridge (no
42536      42000005   No       900010205   1990    B   30                                                            Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Unsure         425
                                                              diag)


                                                              "Hit bridge abutment (one lane bridge)" (diag shows
19529      19000068   No       942310046   1994    B   31                                                            BR         Yes (Atten.) App            5200
                                                              head-on strike with end of BR on approach side)

                                                              Swerved to avoid deer, lost control, left roadway,
                                                              struck snow bank, "struck bridge" and overturned
2520       2000051    No       950690128   1995    B   31                                                        BR             Yes (Redir.) App            16500
                                                              down embankment into creek (diag shows strike with
                                                              end of BR on app side….clearly no app GR in diag)

                                                              Swerved to miss deer, "ran head on into the bridge rail
L2146      67000016   No       923020220   1992    B   31     on right side…vehicle was totaled" (diag showed         BR        Yes (Atten.) App            310
                                                              head-on end strike with rail)


                                                              Lost control on slippery road, "hit bridge" (appears to
55508      55000015   No       920220081   1992    B   31                                                             BR        Yes (Redir.) Dep            800
                                                              be rail side-strike from diag) stopped near road edge


                                                              "Tractor hit bridge guardrail throwing veh out of
                                                              control then rolled over the bridge rail and into creek"
67501      67000001   No       991590215   1999    B   31                                                              BR       Yes (Redir.) Dep            510
                                                              (diag show hitting bridge rail and ROR towards
                                                              departure end of rail)

                                                              "Struck end of bridge"; (diag shows direct strike on
9939       23000029   No       90158       2000    B   41                                                            BR         Yes (Atten.) App            50
                                                              end of rail)



                                                              ROR and overturned in ditch near bridge, but no
25522      25000007   No       21740176    2002    B   51                                                            Roadside   Yes (Redir.) App            455
                                                              object struck




                                                                           F-2
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                  Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                            Initial                 Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                      Object     Would GR Departure          Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                      Struck     have helped? Side?          AADT

                                                              ROR near end of bridge rail on departure side, no
55543      55000003   No       740218      2000    B   51                                                             Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Dep            500
                                                              object struck


                                                              Lost control on icy bridge, ROR to right, struck end of
23545      23000002   No       890490516   1989    C   26     bridge on approach (diag shows strike on end of BR BR              Yes (Atten.) App            1400
                                                              on approach side, no GR shown)


                                                              ROR and "hit bridge" (no diag, although other
42522      42000009   No       931270218   1993    C   31                                                             BR         Yes (Atten.) App            245
                                                              portions of the report suggest approach side strike)

                                                              ROR and into ditch; recovered out of ditch and "struck
L2106      67000007   No       930860150   1993    C   31     the bridge" (diag shows driver striking end of bridge BR           Yes (Atten.) App            1100
                                                              and redirecting back onto road)

                                                              "veh in ditch, bridge rail completely wiped out" (diag
                                                              shows that veh crossed road and hit BR (sideswipe) on
L2135      67000013   No       991240286   1999    C   31                                                            BR          Yes (Redir.) App            1200
                                                              opposite side, went into ditch just past opposite
                                                              approach side)

                                                              No description. Diagram shows head-on collision
19529      19000068   No       882700230   1988    C   31     with left side BR on approach. Difficult to tell from   BR         Yes (Atten.) Dep            5200
                                                              diag what is actually struck

                                                              Lost control on ice, "vehicle struck bridge head-on",
55518      55000020   No       20570174    2002    C   31                                                             BR         Yes (Atten.) Unsure         600
                                                              (no diagram included)

                                                              Snowy roadway, ROR "just before the bridge"
23512      23000012   No       933540349   1993    C   51     (diagram shows nearly missing rail), overturned and     Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Dep            760
                                                              landed in creek

                                                              ROR on the right, went into ditch, sideswiped one tree
L1705      42000009   No       921500001   1992    K   30     and struck another head-on, vehicle engulfed in fire   Roadside    Yes (Redir.) App            330
                                                              (diag shows 177' upstream of bridge on approach)




                                                                           F-3
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                       Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                                 Initial                 Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                           Object     Would GR Departure          Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                           Struck     have helped? Side?          AADT
                                                              "Driver lost control and struck bridge" (diag shows
2103       25000002   No       930440001   1993    K   31     driver side impact with end of bridge rail on approach BR               Yes (Atten.) App            820
                                                              side)

                                                              "Driver ROR to left, overcorrected back to right,
                                                              struck bridge rail with rear of veh (sheared off rear of
55508      55000015   No       931130001   1993    K   31     veh) vaulted down river bank striking trees, coming to BR               Yes (Atten.) App            800
                                                              rest submerged in the river" (diag shows impact with
                                                              end of BR on approach side proceeding into river)

                                                              "Swiped bridge guardrail, then went through the
                                                              guardrail and into the creek, a piece of GR went
67538      67000003   No       962060002   1996    K   31                                                           BR                Yes (Atten.) App            470
                                                              through the car" (diag shows head-on strike on end of
                                                              BR on approach - no approach GR)

                                                              "Hit bridge, tore 12' of steel bridge railing off, railing
                                                              came through cab striking driver, ejected him into
83536      83000027   No       940570336   1994    K   31     creek, car flipped and came to rest in creek" (diag          BR         Yes (Atten.) App            1450
                                                              does not show point of impact, but based on the
                                                              description of the "spearing" it’s likely an end hit)

                                                              ROR near bridge (on approach) on left side (but did
                                                              not strike), struck ditch, went airborne, overturned
23545      23000002   No       911290209   1991    K   51                                                                  Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Dep            1400
                                                              (difficult from diag to determine how close vehicle
                                                              was to bridge when ROR occurred)

23521      23000021   No       12950096    2001    N   30     Lost control, ROR near bridge and hit tree                   Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Dep            120



                                                              Too fast around curve, lost control and struck bridge
2103       25000002   No       13580148    2001    N   31                                                                  BR         Yes (Redir.) App            820
                                                              rail, and ROR into ditch




                                                                            F-4
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                  Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                             Initial                Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                       Object    Would GR Departure          Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                       Struck    have helped? Side?          AADT
                                                              Unknown events leading to collision. Vehicle found
23567      23000038   No       982160233   1998    N   31     after "collision with guardrail on bridge" (diag shows   BR        Yes (Atten.) App            105
                                                              head-on strike with end of bridge rail, no GR)

                                                              Driver fell asleep and struck "corner of bridge" (no
3299       67000003   No       912510175   1991    N   31     diag but other portions of the report suggests approach BR         Yes (Atten.) App            245
                                                              side collision)


4795       83000032   No       891610272   1989    N   31     Lost control, "hit edge of bridge and went into creek" BR          Yes (Redir.) App            105

                                                              Lost control ROR on right on approach, struck
                                                              "bridge" on approach side, went down embankment
55522      55000025   No       930720120   1993    N   31                                                              BR        Yes (Atten.) App            18900
                                                              into river (diag shows direct strike on end of BR on
                                                              approach side, no GR)

55535      55000032   No       900510018   1990    N   31     Lost control, ROR, struck end of bridge and into ditch BR          Yes (Redir.) App            220


                                                              "hit guardrail on bridge, veh came to rest approx 135
6643       55000006   No       932340125   1993    N   31     ft from point of impact" (diag shows impact near         BR        Yes (Atten.) App            1400
                                                              leading end of BR, veh stays on road)

L2120      67000009   No       962730012   1996    N   31     Driver struck bridge (no diagram)                        BR        Yes (Atten.) App            440

                                                              "Struck bridge, continued east and then ROR into
L2146      67000016   No       962020211   1996    N   31     ditch" (diag shows sideswipe of left rail and ROR on     BR        Yes (Redir.) App            310
                                                              left after end of rail)

                                                              Veh crossed bridge, struck "bridge guardrail" on the
                                                              right breaking it, then continuing striking the "cement
19529      19000068   No       941820229   1994    N   31     approach barriers" then ROR to the right coming to      BR         Yes (Redir.) Dep            5200
                                                              rest on shoulder (diag clearly shows strike on
                                                              departure side concrete wing-wall connected to BR)




                                                                           F-5
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                  Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                            Initial                 Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                      Object     Would GR Departure          Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                      Struck     have helped? Side?          AADT
                                                              ROR into ditch, turned out of the ditch and "hit the
                                                              GR and bridge on the left side of the road" (diag
23545      23000002   No       910750085   1991    N   31                                                             BR         Yes (Atten.) Dep            1400
                                                              shows a side impact direct hit on end of BR but no
                                                              GR)

                                                              "Struck bridge, minor damage to bridge, veh. totaled,
42546      42000008   No       900940191   1990    N   31     driver uninjured" (diag shows veh ROR on departure      BR         Yes (Redir.) Dep            340
                                                              side after striking bridge)


L2136      67000013   No       890760525   1989    N   31     ROR and "hit bridge with right side", no diag           BR         Yes (Atten.) Unsure         990


                                                              ROR on curve and "went through GR" (diagram
83539      83000027   No       950050076   1995    N   34     shows bridge nearby, but GR does not appear to be       Roadside   Yes (Redir.) App            1200
                                                              connected to bridge)

                                                              ROR into ditch on left side ahead of bridge and
55543      55000003   No       2710099     2000    N   37                                                             Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Dep            500
                                                              crashed into embankment near river


                                                              Driver fell asleep and ROR and overturned (from diag
7211       42000003   No       941380225   1994    N   51                                                          Roadside      Yes (Redir.) App            420
                                                              it appears to ROR very near bridge)


25522      25000007   No       901740199   1990    N   51     ROR into ditch and overturned                           Roadside   Yes (Redir.) Dep            455



                                                              Lost control on wet road, "struck bridge rail" (diag
55023      55000036   No       1650148     2000    C   31                                                             BR         On Bridge   On Bridge       4550
                                                              shows angle hit on BR in middle of bridge)



19529      19000068   No       911040152   1991    N   31     Lost control on bridge and "struck bridge" (no diag)    BR         On Bridge   On Bridge       5200




                                                                           F-6
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                  Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                             Initial                Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                       Object    Would GR Departure          Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                       Struck    have helped? Side?          AADT

                                                              "Lost control on icy bridge and hit guardrail" (no
3298       67000003   No       933160297   1993    N   31                                                              BR        On Bridge   On Bridge       630
                                                              diagram)

                                                              Driver lost control on snowy curve, and "slid into
5050       67000004   No       960040284   1996    N   31     bridge" (diag shows bridge on curve, driver struck BR BR           On Bridge   On Bridge       3050
                                                              nearly head-on on outside of curve)

                                                              Lost control on icy bridge deck, "struck both sides of
55516      55000007   No       883320225   1988    N   31                                                              BR        On Bridge   On Bridge       940
                                                              bridge" (diag doesn't show bridge)


                                                              veh skidded on icy bridge deck, "struck bridge curb"
55522      55000025   No       933090667   1993    N   31                                                              Curb      On Bridge   On Bridge       18900
                                                              (diag shows strike on bridge and redirection)

                                                              Slippery road, lost control, "collided with
L2136      67000013   No       920690309   1992    N   31     bridge…entire railing was removed" (diag shows rail      BR        On Bridge   On Bridge       990
                                                              sideswipe)




                                                                           F-7
Table F-2. Summary of Crash Reports: Fixed-Object and ROR Crashes Occurring at Bridges WITH Approach Guardrail, 1988 - 2002

                       Did
                       Bridge                                                                                                                     Was Crash on
                       Have                                                                                             Initial                   Approach or
                       App.                  Crash                                                                      Object       Did GR       Departure      Pontis
Bridge Num Route       GR?      Acc Num      Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                      Struck       help?        Side?          AADT
                                                                Crossed centerline, ROR onto left shoulder ahead of
                                                                bridge, overcorrected back onto road, struck end of
                                                                                                                                     No (Dep
25508       25000014   Yes      911890032    1991    A   31     "bridge railing" on left side, rolled on roadway and  BR                          Dep            245
                                                                                                                                     ROR)
                                                                overturned, veh came to rest on bridge railing (diag
                                                                shows struck railing on opposite side as approaching)

                                                                ROR on left prior to bridge (about 150' prior), struck
                                                                                                                                     No (Dep
50507       50000025   Yes      882610038    1988    A   51     ditch, tree, and went into creek, rolling multiple times Roadside                 Dep            230
                                                                                                                                     ROR)
                                                                (diag shows no GR)

                                                                Driver slid on snow covered bridge deck, spun around,
                                                                ROR to the right and into ditch striking utility pole                No (Dep
7091        50000006   Yes      23010229     2002    B   25                                                           Roadside                    Dep            640
                                                                (diag shows ROR on right shortly after crossing                      ROR)
                                                                bridge)

                                                                Swerved to miss animal, ROR onto left ahead of
                                                                                                                                     No (Dep
25517       25000066   Yes      001530239    2000    B   26     bridge, striking utility sign, tree, then came to rest in Roadside                Dep            6700
                                                                                                                                     ROR)
                                                                creek, submerged (diag shows this, no app GR shown)

                                                                "Hit guardrail, vehicle skidded along rail for 28 ft,
23507       23000001   Yes      882400282    1988    B   31     jumped rail and rolled" (diag shows hit on approach     GR           No (Vault)   App            1300
                                                                GR)


                                                                Lost control and "collided with bridge" (diag shows
2536        2000009    Yes      20450216     2002    B   31                                                             BR/GR        Yes (Atten.) App            10380
                                                                angle hit on BR near GR/BR connection)


                                                                ROR to the right, took out 18-ft of "guardrail", 4- 6X8
                                                                posts, 1 bridge sign and end panel (diag shows ROR
50504       50000001   Yes      970900207    1997    B   31                                                             GR           Yes (Atten.) App            410
                                                                and strike on end of bridge, but does not show app
                                                                GR)




                                                                             F-8
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                 Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                            Initial                Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                      Object    Did GR       Departure      Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                      Struck    help?        Side?          AADT
                                                              lost control "struck bridge, spun around, stopping in
5289       23000001   Yes      991080111   1999    B   31     opposite lane" (diag shows angle strike on BR/GR        BR/GR     Yes (Atten.) App            1300
                                                              connection on approach side)

                                                              Swerved to miss animal, "struck bridge" (diag shows
55519      55000022   Yes      2860335     2000    B   31                                                             BR/GR     Yes (Atten.) App            25500
                                                              angle hit at GR/BR connection)

                                                              lost control on icy deck, "stuck cement barrier on
                                                              right, crossed road, struck broadside by oncoming veh,
55519      55000022   Yes      990110257   1999    B   31     struck bridge guardrail" (diag shows initial strike on BR/GR      Yes (Atten.) App            25500
                                                              BR in center of bridge, second strike on end of BR
                                                              near GR connection on opposite approach)

                                                              Lost control and "hit the guardrail" (diag shows
                                                              grazing the end treatment of GR, but no bridge in
6787       67000017   Yes      981150060   1998    B   31                                                             GR        No (Short)   App            560
                                                              picture) and proceeded into ditch, through creek and
                                                              into a fence

                                                              started to hydroplane, lost control, slid sideways into
83539      83000027   Yes      951480159   1995    B   31     "bridge guardrail" (diag shows strike on what appears GR          Yes (Atten.) App            1200
                                                              to be a very short section of approach GR)


                                                              Driver ROR and struck "bridge guardrail", (diagram
50517      50000025   Yes      920610125   1992    B   31                                                             GR        Yes (Atten.) Dep            750
                                                              shows end strike on left side GR while approaching)


                                                              "drove car into guardrail of a bridge" (no diag, but
25505      25000018   Yes      983130218   1998    B   33     type = 33 and description implies guardrail strike,     GR        Yes (Atten.) App            7400
                                                              probably on BCT or other type of end treatment)

                                                              Driver skidded on icy bridge deck, crossed centerline,
                                                              ROR to the left after crossing bridge and struck tree
2526       02000007   Yes      952650131   1995    B   51     (diag shows bridge, but no app GR, it appears that     Roadside   No (Short)   App            8708
                                                              driver ROR slightly upstream of where normal section
                                                              of app GR would have begun)




                                                                           F-9
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                 Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                          Initial                  Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                    Object      Did GR       Departure      Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                    Struck      help?        Side?          AADT
                                                              Veh slid through T-intersection, "went through GR
                                                              and came to rest in swamp" (Diag does not show
2519       2000022    Yes      922590283   1992    C   31                                                           GR          No (Vault)   App            8586
                                                              bridge or GR although crash location code is very
                                                              close to bridge reference point)

                                                              lost control and "contacted guardrail" veh redirected
55519      55000022   Yes      980260299   1998    C   31     into opposing lanes coming to rest (diag confirms app GR          Yes (Redir.) App            25500
                                                              GR strike)

                                                              ROR, struck "breakaway guardrail for the bridge"
7148       50000014   Yes      13600097    2001    C   31     (diag shows direct hit on end treatment of approach   GR          Yes (Atten.) App            1200
                                                              GR)

                                                              Lost control, "struck bridge/guardrail" (diagram shows
19504      19000085   Yes      960900036   1996    C   31     what appears to be a strike on GR near rail end on left GR        Yes (Atten.) Dep            890
                                                              side and redirection back to road)

                                                              Driver fell asleep, ROR (diag shows head-on strike on
                                                                                                                                No (Dep
23508      23000001   Yes      893580012   1989    C   31     end of BR on left side while approaching, no GR       BR                       Dep            1300
                                                                                                                                ROR)
                                                              shown)

                                                              lost control on icy road on curve, skidded into "bridge
                                                                                                                                No (Dep
23508      23000001   Yes      990320184   1999    C   31     rail" on outside of curve (diag shows angle strike on BR                       Dep            1300
                                                                                                                                ROR)
                                                              left BR on approach near end)

                                                              lost control on curve, "slid into bridge, bounced off
                                                              and went into ditch and rolled" (diag shows BR strike             No (Dep
23508      23000001   Yes      990460180   1999    C   31                                                           Roadside                 Dep            1300
                                                              on bridge, veh went off road on departure side just               ROR)
                                                              past bridge)

                                                              "Struck guardrail fence and then vaulted below the
                                                              bridge" (diag shows strike on fence, I confirmed this             No (Dep
55519      55000022   Yes      971020095   1997    C   31                                                            Roadside                Dep            25500
                                                              as a fence from photo in Olmsted Co. inspection rept.,            ROR)
                                                              other corners have GR)




                                                                          F-10
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                   Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                             Initial                 Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                       Object     Did GR       Departure      Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                       Struck     help?        Side?          AADT

                                                              ROR and went "up and over GR" (struck near end
8259       83000057   Yes      920060019   1992    C   34     treatment; I can't determine from diag if GR             GR         No (Vault)   App            2700
                                                              associated with bridge)

                                                              "ROR into ditch, collided with culvert wall, went
                                                              airborne and landed on its roof" (no bridge shown in
                                                                                                                                  No (Dep
2548       2000022    Yes      933230002   1993    K   37     diag, but further analysis shows that culvert strike     Roadside                Dep            5464
                                                                                                                                  ROR)
                                                              occurred approximately 100' from departure end of
                                                              bridge)

                                                              Swerved to miss deer, ROR on right into ditch, hit tree
18518      18000036   Yes      881800153   1988    N   30     (diag shows ROR ahead of bridge just missing            Roadside    No (Short)   App            1100
                                                              approach GR on right)

                                                              slid into "bridge rail; after hitting bridge rail, crossed
                                                              to opposite side and hit bridge rail on opp side" (diag
18518      18000036   Yes      990670701   1999    N   31                                                                BR/GR    Yes (Atten.) App            1100
                                                              shows angle strike near BR end on approach side, then
                                                              crossing and hitting left side BR)

                                                              lost control and "struck GR" (diag does not show
2546       2000116    Yes      980120602   1998    N   31                                                              GR         Yes (Redir.) App            17156
                                                              bridge or GR)

                                                              "started to slide on snowy road and slid into side of
42541      42000033   Yes      913040929   1991    N   31                                                              BR/GR      Yes (Atten.) App            3950
                                                              bridge" (diag shows sideswipe on BR near end)


                                                              "struck bridge" (diag clearly shows strike near GR/BR
55519      55000022   Yes      940850227   1994    N   31                                                           BR/GR         Yes (Atten.) App            25500
                                                              connection on approach, redirection back onto bridge)

                                                              swerved to miss oncoming veh, "struck bridge,
55519      55000022   Yes      941620139   1994    N   31     redirected and hit curb on bridge" (diag shows initial   BR/GR      Yes (Atten.) App            25500
                                                              strike on BR end near GR/BR connection)

                                                              "struck GR and slid 106 ft along bridge coming to rest
55519      55000022   Yes      911080167   1991    N   31                                                            GR           Yes (Redir.) App            25500
                                                              against bridge" (diag shows approach GR strike)




                                                                          F-11
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                 Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                            Initial                Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                      Object    Did GR       Departure      Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                      Struck    help?        Side?          AADT
                                                              "Hit bridge with right rear, then hit east guardrail with
                                                              front right, came to rest in ditch" (diagram shows what
7016       50000005   Yes      931850211   1993    N   31                                                               GR      No (Short)   App            210
                                                              appears to be very short section of GR attached to
                                                              bridge rail)

                                                              "trailer swung out and struck guardrail and then bridge
83539      83000027   Yes      941600143   1994    N   31                                                             GR        Yes (Redir.) App            1200
                                                              rail on both sides" (diag shows same)


                                                              Lost control on icy road, "hit guardrail" (diag shows
96834      2000116    Yes      3470382     2000    N   31     hit on bridge-approach GR on left side after crossing   GR        Yes (Redir.) App            17156
                                                              bridge)

                                                              Lost control and "hit the guardrail" (diag shows hit on
                                                              end of BR on approach, but does not discern between
L3170      19000047   Yes      21060036    2002    N   31                                                             GR        Yes (Atten.) App            2250
                                                              BR and GR although it is confirmed to exist at time of
                                                              crash)

                                                              Lost control "hitting bridge" (diag shows sideswipe on
18524      18000011   Yes      11180221    2001    N   31     left side BR near end while approaching, GR shown BR/GR           Yes (Atten.) Dep            1050
                                                              on both app and dep)

                                                              "Struck guardrail, slid along GR, ran into bridge
2519       2000022    Yes      960560053   1996    N   31     abutment, spun around and off the GR" (diag clearly GR            Yes (Redir.) Dep            8586
                                                              shows strike on departure-side GR while approaching)


                                                              Ran stop sign at T-intersection and "hit bridge-
25517      25000066   Yes      881130125   1988    N   31                                                             GR        Yes (Redir.) Dep            6700
                                                              approach guardrail" on opposite side of intersection


                                                              Blown tire, lost control, "stuck bridge guardrail and
                                                                                                                                No (Dep
50504      50000001   Yes      892260077   1989    N   31     then went into ditch", (no diag. although veh damage    GR                     Dep            410
                                                                                                                                ROR)
                                                              pattern suggests collision with right side of veh)




                                                                          F-12
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                 Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                           Initial                 Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                     Object     Did GR       Departure      Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                     Struck     help?        Side?          AADT

                                                              No description. Diagram shows collision with
5368       50000029   Yes      940340112   1994    N   31                                                            GR         Yes (Redir.) Dep            2950
                                                              departure GR


                                                              Driver swerved to miss deer and "hit guardrail" (no
83513      83000012   Yes      992700240   1999    N   31                                                            GR         Yes (Redir.) Unsure         255
                                                              diagram)



                                                              Lost control on bridge, "struck three GR posts
7048       50000023   Yes      890360131   1989    N   34     breaking them off" (diag shows veh crossing bridge, GR            Yes (Redir.) App            2150
                                                              hitting app GR on left and coming to rest on roadway)



                                                              Lost control on icy bridge deck and ROR on right into
7016       50000005   Yes      881140257   1988    N   35                                                           Roadside    No (Short)   App            210
                                                              ditch striking a fence


                                                              Slid on icy road into snow bank on right just ahead of
                                                              bridge (diag shows bridge and approach GR, it
                                                              appears that driver hit snow drifted that had
2526       02000007   Yes      913460323   1991    N   51                                                            GR         Yes (Redir.) App            8708
                                                              accumulated around the guardrail in which case the
                                                              GR was or would have been effective for redirecting
                                                              driver)

                                                              Driver fell asleep, ROR on right ahead of bridge,
                                                              struck trees and overturned, came to rest in water
                                                              (diag shows this, bridge is shown but no app GR
8433       19000009   Yes      001810300   2000    N   51                                                            Roadside   No (Short)   App            3300
                                                              shown, veh appears to ROR slightly upstream from
                                                              where GR would start, ref pt is about 80-ft upstream
                                                              of bridge ID)

                                                              Skidded on ice, ROR into ditch and overturned (diag               No (Dep
92730      2000024    Yes      923240343   1992    N   51                                                            Roadside                Dep            1000
                                                              showed bridge nearby)                                             ROR)




                                                                          F-13
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                 Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                             Initial               Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                       Object    Did GR      Departure      Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                       Struck    help?       Side?          AADT

                                                              slid on icy RR overpass, "went over median, striking
2560       2000014    Yes      940820565   1994    B   31                                                              BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      20076
                                                              wall of bridge in opposite lanes" (diag confirms this)

                                                              Lost control while passing, "struck bridge on opposite
                                                              side" crossed back and ROR near bridge" (diag shows
55519      55000022   Yes      953040220   1995    B   31                                                            BR          On Bridge   On Bridge      25500
                                                              sideswipe on BR and ROR just past end of BR on
                                                              departure side)

                                                              Blizzard conditions, driver lost control and "hit the
18523      18000021   Yes      940090192   1994    C   31                                                              BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      530
                                                              bridge" (diag shows a sideswipe on the bridge rail)

                                                              lost control on icy road, "struck right cement
2523       2000002    Yes      990040503   1999    C   31     guardrail, bounced off and struck left cement            BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      9103
                                                              guardrail" (diag shows same)

                                                              Lost control and "hit cement barrier on side of road,
2549       2000018    Yes      20640038    2002    C   31     bounced and hit barrier on other side" (diag doesn't     BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      14479
                                                              show BR or GR)

                                                              "Drove through snow drift, causing veh to hit concrete
50576      50000008   Yes      3520262     2000    C   31                                                            BR          On Bridge   On Bridge      770
                                                              guard rail on bridge" (no diagram)

19504      19000085   Yes      893580035   1989    N   31     Swerved and "struck bridge" no diag to confirm           BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      890

                                                              "Struck Bridge GR"; (diag shows angle hit on BR
23514      23000001   Yes      90088       2000    N   31                                                              BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      900
                                                              while on bridge)

                                                              Became inattentive while crossing bridge, drifted right
2536       2000009    Yes      912040171   1991    N   31     and side swiped bridge (diag shows swipe with BR on BR             On Bridge   On Bridge      10380
                                                              bridge)

                                                              veh 1 spun on icy bridge deck, "comes to stop upon
2545       2000116    Yes      980440065   1998    N   31     hitting guardrail, veh 2 stops and rear ended by veh 3" BR         On Bridge   On Bridge      17156
                                                              (diag shows striking BR on bridge (not GR))



                                                                          F-14
                      Did
                      Bridge                                                                                                                Was Crash on
                      Have                                                                                            Initial               Approach or
                      App.                 Crash                                                                      Object    Did GR      Departure      Pontis
Bridge Num Route      GR?      Acc Num     Year    Sev Type   Police Description                                      Struck    help?       Side?          AADT
                                                              Lost control on bridge deck, "struck side of bridge"
2549       2000018    Yes      3630748     2000    N   31     (diag shows angle hit on left side BR near end upon     BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      14479
                                                              departing bridge)

                                                              crested hill over RR overpass, "slid into center curb
2560       2000014    Yes      940820275   1994    N   31     median, veered into bridge GR hitting it head-on"       Curb      On Bridge   On Bridge      20076
                                                              (diag doesn't show collision details)


                                                              Veh spun and "struck bridge" (diag shows sideswipe
5368       50000029   Yes      890730616   1989    N   31                                                             BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      2950
                                                              on BR while on bridge, no GR shown)


                                                              swerved to miss vehicle, "collided with wall of
55519      55000022   Yes      973330238   1997    N   31                                                             BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      25500
                                                              bridge" (diag shows sideswipe with BR on bridge)


                                                              Driver hit snow drift on road, veh slid and struck
67524      67000004   Yes      930410103   1993    N   31     "bridge railing" (diag shows huge drift from behind      BR       On Bridge   On Bridge      1450
                                                              railing onto road, veh appears to hit railing on bridge)

                                                              skidded on icy road, struck "cement guardrail on
                                                              bridge, bounced back hitting opposite guardrail,
7048       50000023   Yes      983650208   1998    N   31                                                             BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      2150
                                                              bounced back stopping at opposite guardrail" (diag
                                                              doesn’t show BR or GR)


                                                              Lost control of veh and hit "cement barrier" on bridge
2549       02000018   Yes      010260770   2001    N   32                                                            BR         On Bridge   On Bridge      14479
                                                              (diag shows striking BR while on bridge)

6518       18000003   Yes      970490305   1997    N   51     Semi rolled on roadway                                  BR        On Bridge   On Bridge      8600

                                                              Lost control on icy bridge, struck curb and rolled on
19511      19000042   Yes      003120577   2000    N   51                                                             Curb      On Bridge   On Bridge      39500
                                                              roadway (diag shows this, no bridge or GR shown)




                                                                          F-15
                         APPENDIX G
Explanation of Minnesota Procedure for Coding Crashes with Bridge
                   Components and Guardrail.
           Conversations with Mn/DOT staff1 provided a straightforward explanation for the bridge-
crash coding ambiguity that currently exists in the Minnesota crash database. Prior to 2003, a
separate code was included on the crash report to indicate the type of fixed object struck. On
crash report forms from 1988–1991, FIXED OBJECT TYPE 13 was used to indicate
“bridge/pier (include protective guardrail)”. In 1992, a slight modification was made to the
description for code 13, which was changed to “bridge/pier/guardrail” and remained as such until
after 2002. From 1988–2002 FIXED OBJECT TYPE 14 was used for “other guardrail.” The
use of FIXED OBJECT TYPES 13 and 14 provided distinction between components of a bridge
(including approach guardrail) and guardrail that was not connected to a bridge.
           In 2003, the Minnesota crash reporting form experienced dramatic changes in format and
coding. FIXED OBJECT TYPES 13 and 14 were eliminated and changed to FIXED OBJECT
TYPES 31 “bridge piers” and 34 “guardrail.” The fundamental purpose of this change was to
code all guardrail collisions (including bridge-approach guardrail and other guardrail) together.
All bridge collisions (other than approach guardrail) would be coded by TYPE 31.
           Perhaps the most significant change was the elimination of FIXED OBJECT TYPES 13
and 14 from the Minnesota crash database.                   Crashes previously coded as 13
(bridge/pier/guardrail) were changed to 31 (bridge pier). Similarly, crashes previously coded as
TYPE 14 (other guardrail) were changed to 34 (guardrail). Because the analysis performed here
only included crashes that occurred prior to the major reporting system changes in 2003, it can
be assumed that approach guardrail or bridge rail crashes will be currently coded in the
Minnesota crash database as TYPE 31 unless a coding error occurred in the field or during entry
into the database.




1
    Primary conversation with Loren Hill, Mn/DOT, 4/19/05


                                                      G-1
                         APPENDIX H
Crash Frequencies and Costs by ADT Category, Crash Severity, and
                      Guardrail Presence
Table H-1. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – All Bridges.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002    % of Total       Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          22         46.81                 $4,300                    $94,600
            C Injury                                  9         19.15                $29,000                  $261,000
            B Injury                                 13         27.66                $59,000                   $767,000
            A Injury                                  2          4.26               $270,000                   $540,000
Bridges     Fatal                                     1          2.13             $3,500,000                 $3,500,000
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            47                    Total Cost                        $5,162,600
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           155                    Cost Per Crash                      $109,843
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002        3,152,527,769                    Cost Per Year                      $344,173
            Crashes per 108 veh                   1.491                    Cost Per Bridge                      $33,307
                                                                           Cost/Br/Year                          $2,220
                                                                           Cost/108 veh                        $163,761
            Property Damage                          18         36.73                 $4,300                    $77,400
            C Injury                                  7         14.29                $29,000                  $203,000
            B Injury                                 10         20.41                $59,000                   $590,000
            A Injury                                  8         16.33               $270,000                 $2,160,000
Bridges     Fatal                                     6         12.24             $3,500,000                $21,000,000
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            49                    Total Cost                       $24,030,400
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           243                    Cost Per Crash                      $490,416
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002        1,327,656,551                    Cost Per Year                     $1,602,027
            Crashes per 108 veh                   3.691                    Cost Per Bridge                      $98,891
                                                                           Cost/Br/Year                          $6,593
                                                                           Cost/108 veh                      $1,809,986

Table H-2. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT < 150.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002    % of Total       Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          0                 -              $4,300                        $0
            C Injury                                 0                 -             $29,000                        $0
            B Injury                                 0                 -             $59,000                        $0
            A Injury                                 0                 -            $270,000                        $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    0                 -          $3,500,000                        $0
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            0                     Total Cost                               $0
Guardrail   Total Bridges                            6                     Cost Per Crash                           $0
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002           2,888,633                     Cost Per Year                            $0
            Crashes per 108 veh                      0                     Cost Per Bridge                          $0
                                                                           Cost/Br/Year                             $0
                                                                           Cost/108 veh                             $0
            Property Damage                          3          75.00                 $4,300                   $12,900
            C Injury                                 0           0.00                $29,000                        $0
            B Injury                                 1          25.00                $59,000                   $59,000
            A Injury                                 0           0.00               $270,000                        $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    0           0.00             $3,500,000                        $0
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            4                     Total Cost                          $71,900
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           63                     Cost Per Crash                      $17,975
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002          27,224,725                     Cost Per Year                        $4,793
            Crashes per 108 veh                 14.693                     Cost Per Bridge                      $1,141
                                                                           Cost/Br/Year                            $76
                                                                           Cost/108 veh                       $264,098




                                                      H-1
Table H-3. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 150-299.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002   % of Total       Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          3         60.00                 $4,300                    $12,900
            C Injury                                 0          0.00                $29,000                         $0
            B Injury                                 0          0.00                $59,000                         $0
            A Injury                                 2         40.00               $270,000                  $540,000
Bridges     Fatal                                    0          0.00             $3,500,000                         $0
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            5                    Total Cost                         $552,900
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           14                    Cost Per Crash                     $110,580
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002          16,840,950                    Cost Per Year                        $36,860
            Crashes per 108 veh                 29.690                    Cost Per Bridge                      $39,493
                                                                          Cost/Br/Year                          $2,633
                                                                          Cost/108 veh                      $3,283,069
            Property Damage                          2         50.00                 $4,300                     $8,600
            C Injury                                 1         25.00                $29,000                    $29,000
            B Injury                                 0          0.00                $59,000                         $0
            A Injury                                 1         25.00               $270,000                  $270,000
Bridges     Fatal                                    0          0.00             $3,500,000                         $0
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            4                    Total Cost                         $307,600
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           50                    Cost Per Crash                       $76,900
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002          58,748,895                    Cost Per Year                        $20,507
            Crashes per 108 veh                  6.809                    Cost Per Bridge                       $6,152
                                                                          Cost/Br/Year                            $410
                                                                          Cost/108 veh                       $523,584


Table H-4. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 300-399.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002   % of Total       Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          0                -              $4,300                         $0
            C Injury                                 0                -             $29,000                         $0
            B Injury                                 0                -             $59,000                         $0
            A Injury                                 0                -            $270,000                         $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    0                -          $3,500,000                         $0
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            0                    Total Cost                                $0
Guardrail   Total Bridges                            7                    Cost Per Crash                            $0
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002          12,270,654                    Cost Per Year                             $0
            Crashes per 108 veh                  0.000                    Cost Per Bridge                           $0
                                                                          Cost/Br/Year                              $0
                                                                          Cost/108 veh                              $0
            Property Damage                          2         33.33                 $4,300                     $8,600
            C Injury                                 0          0.00                $29,000                         $0
            B Injury                                 1         16.67                $59,000                    $59,000
            A Injury                                 2         33.33               $270,000                   $540,000
Bridges     Fatal                                    1         16.67             $3,500,000                 $3,500,000
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            6                    Total Cost                        $4,107,600
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           22                    Cost Per Crash                      $684,600
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002          39,815,282                    Cost Per Year                      $273,840
            Crashes per 108 veh                 15.070                    Cost Per Bridge                     $186,709
                                                                          Cost/Br/Year                         $12,447
                                                                          Cost/108 veh                     $10,316,642




                                                     H-2
Table H-5. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 400-749.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002   % of Total    Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          1         25.00              $4,300                     $4,300
            C Injury                                 0          0.00             $29,000                         $0
            B Injury                                 3         75.00             $59,000                  $177,000
            A Injury                                 0          0.00            $270,000                         $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    0          0.00          $3,500,000                         $0
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            4                 Total Cost                         $181,300
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           25                 Cost Per Crash                       $45,325
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002          71,683,848                 Cost Per Year                        $12,087
            Crashes per 108 veh                  5.580                 Cost Per Bridge                       $7,252
                                                                       Cost/Br/Year                            $483
                                                                       Cost/108 veh                        $252,916
            Property Damage                          4         30.77              $4,300                    $17,200
            C Injury                                 1          7.69             $29,000                    $29,000
            B Injury                                 5         38.46             $59,000                  $295,000
            A Injury                                 2         15.38            $270,000                   $540,000
Bridges     Fatal                                    1          7.69          $3,500,000                 $3,500,000
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                           13                 Total Cost                        $4,381,200
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           51                 Cost Per Crash                      $337,015
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002         132,209,352                 Cost Per Year                      $292,080
            Crashes per 108 veh                  9.833                 Cost Per Bridge                      $85,906
                                                                       Cost/Br/Year                          $5,727
                                                                       Cost/108 veh                      $3,313,835


Table H-6. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 750-999.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002   % of Total    Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          0          0.00              $4,300                         $0
            C Injury                                 1         50.00             $29,000                    $29,000
            B Injury                                 1         50.00             $59,000                    $59,000
            A Injury                                 0          0.00            $270,000                         $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    0          0.00          $3,500,000                         $0
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            2                 Total Cost                           $88,000
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           15                 Cost Per Crash                       $44,000
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002          64,828,202                 Cost Per Year                         $5,867
            Crashes per 108 veh                  3.085                 Cost Per Bridge                       $5,867
                                                                       Cost/Br/Year                            $391
                                                                       Cost/108 veh                        $135,743
            Property Damage                          1         16.67              $4,300                     $4,300
            C Injury                                 1         16.67             $29,000                    $29,000
            B Injury                                 1         16.67             $59,000                    $59,000
            A Injury                                 1         16.67            $270,000                   $270,000
Bridges     Fatal                                    2         33.33          $3,500,000                 $7,000,000
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            6                 Total Cost                        $7,362,300
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           12                 Cost Per Crash                    $1,227,050
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002          51,373,731                 Cost Per Year                      $490,820
            Crashes per 108 veh                 11.679                 Cost Per Bridge                     $613,525
                                                                       Cost/Br/Year                         $40,902
                                                                       Cost/108 veh                     $14,330,865




                                                     H-3
Table H-7. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 1,000-1,499.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002   % of Total    Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          5         41.67              $4,300                   $21,500
            C Injury                                 4         33.33             $29,000                 $116,000
            B Injury                                 3         25.00             $59,000                 $177,000
            A Injury                                 0          0.00            $270,000                        $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    0          0.00          $3,500,000                        $0
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                           12                 Total Cost                        $314,500
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           21                 Cost Per Crash                      $26,208
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002         132,194,176                 Cost Per Year                       $20,967
            Crashes per 108 veh                  9.078                 Cost Per Bridge                     $14,976
                                                                       Cost/Br/Year                           $998
                                                                       Cost/108 veh                       $237,908
            Property Damage                          4         44.44              $4,300                   $17,200
            C Injury                                 3         33.33             $29,000                   $87,000
            B Injury                                 0          0.00             $59,000                        $0
            A Injury                                 1         11.11            $270,000                  $270,000
Bridges     Fatal                                    1         11.11          $3,500,000                $3,500,000
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            9                 Total Cost                       $3,874,200
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           17                 Cost Per Crash                     $430,467
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002         104,403,154                 Cost Per Year                     $258,280
            Crashes per 108 veh                  8.620                 Cost Per Bridge                    $227,894
                                                                       Cost/Br/Year                        $15,193
                                                                       Cost/108 veh                     $3,710,807


Table H-8. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 1,500-4,999.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002   % of Total    Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          5         83.33              $4,300                   $21,500
            C Injury                                 1         16.67             $29,000                   $29,000
            B Injury                                 0          0.00             $59,000                        $0
            A Injury                                 0          0.00            $270,000                        $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    0          0.00          $3,500,000                        $0
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            6                 Total Cost                          $50,500
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           29                 Cost Per Crash                       $8,417
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002         385,498,778                 Cost Per Year                        $3,367
            Crashes per 108 veh                  1.556                 Cost Per Bridge                      $1,741
                                                                       Cost/Br/Year                           $116
                                                                       Cost/108 veh                        $13,100
            Property Damage                          0         0.00               $4,300                        $0
            C Injury                                 0         0.00              $29,000                        $0
            B Injury                                 0         0.00              $59,000                        $0
            A Injury                                 0         0.00             $270,000                        $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    1       100.00           $3,500,000                $3,500,000
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            1                 Total Cost                       $3,500,000
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           16                 Cost Per Crash                   $3,500,000
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002         185,931,837                 Cost Per Year                     $233,333
            Crashes per 108 veh                  0.538                 Cost Per Bridge                    $218,750
                                                                       Cost/Br/Year                        $14,583
                                                                       Cost/108 veh                     $1,882,410




                                                     H-4
Table H-9. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT 5,000-9,999.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002    % of Total    Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                          3          37.50              $4,300                   $12,900
            C Injury                                 1          12.50             $29,000                   $29,000
            B Injury                                 3          37.50             $59,000                 $177,000
            A Injury                                 0           0.00            $270,000                        $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    1          12.50          $3,500,000                $3,500,000
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            8                  Total Cost                       $3,718,900
Guardrail   Total Bridges                           20                  Cost Per Crash                     $464,863
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002         719,418,793                  Cost Per Year                     $247,927
            Crashes per 108 veh                  1.112                  Cost Per Bridge                    $185,945
                                                                        Cost/Br/Year                        $12,396
                                                                        Cost/108 veh                       $516,931
            Property Damage                          1          25.00              $4,300                    $4,300
            C Injury                                 1          25.00             $29,000                   $29,000
            B Injury                                 1          25.00             $59,000                   $59,000
            A Injury                                 1          25.00            $270,000                  $270,000
Bridges     Fatal                                    0           0.00          $3,500,000                        $0
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            4                  Total Cost                        $362,300
Guardrail   Total Bridges                            5                  Cost Per Crash                      $90,575
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002         168,774,233                  Cost Per Year                       $24,153
            Crashes per 108 veh                  2.370                  Cost Per Bridge                     $72,460
                                                                        Cost/Br/Year                         $4,831
                                                                        Cost/108 veh                       $214,665


Table H-10. Bridge-Crash Costs vs. Guardrail Presence – ADT > 10,000.
            Severity                 Crashes 1988-2002    % of Total    Cost per Crash      Total Cost
            Property Damage                           5         50.00              $4,300                  $21,500
            C Injury                                  2         20.00             $29,000                  $58,000
            B Injury                                  3         30.00             $59,000                 $177,000
            A Injury                                  0          0.00            $270,000                       $0
Bridges     Fatal                                     0          0.00          $3,500,000                       $0
WITH
Approach    Total Crashes                            10                 Total Cost                        $256,500
Guardrail   Total Bridges                            18                 Cost Per Crash                     $25,650
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002        1,746,903,736                 Cost Per Year                      $17,100
            Crashes per 108 veh                   0.572                 Cost Per Bridge                    $14,250
                                                                        Cost/Br/Year                          $950
                                                                        Cost/108 veh                       $14,683
            Property Damage                          1          50.00              $4,300                   $4,300
            C Injury                                 0           0.00             $29,000                       $0
            B Injury                                 1          50.00             $59,000                  $59,000
            A Injury                                 0           0.00            $270,000                       $0
Bridges     Fatal                                    0           0.00          $3,500,000                       $0
WITHOUT
Approach    Total Crashes                            2                  Total Cost                         $63,300
Guardrail   Total Bridges                            7                  Cost Per Crash                     $31,650
            Est. Traffic 1988-2002         561,177,908                  Cost Per Year                       $4,220
            Crashes per 108 veh                  0.356                  Cost Per Bridge                     $9,043
                                                                        Cost/Br/Year                          $603
                                                                        Cost/108 veh                       $11,280




                                                      H-5
      APPENDIX I
Benefit/Cost Computations
Table I-1. Bridge-Crash Costs from 1988-2002 Separated by ADT Range and Guardrail Presence.
                Total Crashes                                                  Total Cost of Crashes 1988-   Crashes per 108 veh    Crash Cost per 108 veh 1988-
                 1988-2002       Bridges       Total Traffic 1988-2002                    2002                   1988-2002                     2002
                                No
ADT Range       No GR    GR     GR GR          No GR             GR              No GR             GR        No GR         GR          No GR            GR
<150                 4      0    63      6      27,224,725        2,888,633         $71,900             $0   14.69253     0.00000       $264,098              $0
150-399             10      5    72 21          96,561,610       29,111,604      $4,415,200      $552,900    10.35608    17.17528      $4,572,418     $1,899,243
400-749             13      4    51 25         132,209,352       71,683,848      $4,381,200      $181,300     9.83289     5.58006      $3,313,835      $252,916
750-999              6      2    12 15          51,373,731       64,828,202      $7,362,300        $88,000   11.67912     3.08508     $14,330,865      $135,743
1,000-1,499          9     12    17 21         104,403,154      132,194,176      $3,874,200      $314,500     8.62043     9.07756      $3,710,807      $237,908
1,500-4,999          1      6    16 29         185,931,837      385,498,778      $3,500,000        $50,500    0.53783     1.55643      $1,882,410        $13,100
5,000-9,999          4      8     5 20         168,774,233      719,418,793        $362,300     $3,718,900    2.37003     1.11201       $214,665       $516,931
10,000<              2     10     7 18         561,177,908    1,746,903,736         $63,300      $256,500     0.35639     0.57244         $11,280        $14,683
All                 49     47   243 155      1,327,656,551    3,152,527,769     $24,030,400     $5,162,600    3.69071     1.49087      $1,809,986      $163,761



Table I-2. Bridge-Crash Costs from 1988-2002 Separated by Threshold ADT and Guardrail Presence.
                Total Crashes                                                  Total Cost of Crashes 1988-   Crashes per 108 veh    Crash Cost per 108 veh 1988-
                 1988-2002       Bridges       Total Traffic 1988-2002                    2002                   1988-2002                     2002
                                No
ADT Threshold   No GR    GR     GR GR          No GR             GR              No GR             GR        No GR         GR          No GR            GR
<150                 4      0    63      6      27,224,725        2,888,633         $71,900             $0   14.69253     0.00000       $264,098              $0
<400                14      5   135 21         123,786,335       32,000,236      $4,487,100       $552,900   11.30981    15.62488      $3,624,875     $1,727,800
<750                27      9   186 15         255,995,687      103,684,084      $8,868,300       $734,200   10.54705     8.68021      $3,464,238      $708,113
<1,000              33     11   198 21         307,369,419      168,512,286     $16,230,600       $822,200   10.73627     6.52771      $5,280,486      $487,917
<1,500              42     23   215 29         411,772,572      300,706,462     $20,104,800     $1,136,700   10.19981     7.64866      $4,882,501      $378,010
<5,000              43     29   231 20         597,704,410      686,205,240     $23,604,800     $1,187,200    7.19419     4.22614      $3,949,243      $173,009
<10,000             47     37   236 18         766,478,643    1,405,624,033     $23,967,100     $4,906,100    6.13194     2.63228      $3,126,910      $349,034
All                 49     47   243 155      1,327,656,551    3,152,527,769     $24,030,400     $5,162,600    3.69071     1.49087      $1,809,986      $163,761




                                                                              I-1
Table I-3. 30-year Cumulative Traffic Forecasts and Estimated Crash Benefits at Bridges Without Approach Guardrail
Separated by ADT Range (boldface indicates “benefit” used in B/C ratio).
                                                                               Estimated                                              Estimated 30        Estimated 30        Estimated 30
                                                                               30 year                                                year crash cost     year crash cost     year crash cost
                                                             30 year           crash costs    Estimated 30 year    Estimated 30       per bridge          per bridge          per bridge
                30 year               30 year                cumulative        for bridges    crash costs for      year crash costs   without             without             without
                cumulative            cumulative             traffic,          w/o            bridges w/o          for bridges w/o    approach            approach            approach
                traffic, assuming     traffic, assuming      assuming 2%       guardrail,     guardrail,           guardrail,         guardrail,          guardrail,          guardrail,
                no growth (w/o        2004 growth rates      annual growth     assuming no    assuming 2004        assuming 2%        assuming no         assuming 2004       assuming 2%
ADT Range       GR)                   (w/o GR)               (w/o GR)          growth         growth rates         annual growth      growth              growth rates        annual growth
<150                     59,554,131            72,219,261        80,533,223        $157,281            $190,730        $212,686.77               $2,497              $3,027              $3,376
150-399                211,124,560           255,758,470        285,497,262      $9,653,496         $11,694,345     $13,054,126.91            $134,076            $162,421            $181,307
400-749                289,424,401           351,660,179        391,379,734      $9,591,048         $11,653,439     $12,969,679.21            $188,060            $228,499            $254,307
750-999                113,331,977           140,102,921        153,255,354    $16,241,452          $20,077,960     $21,962,817.57           $1,353,454          $1,673,163          $1,830,235
1,000-1,499            229,497,320           281,466,092        310,342,182      $8,516,204         $10,444,665     $11,516,200.78            $500,953            $614,392            $677,424
1,500-4,999            409,188,018           503,152,936        553,332,398      $7,702,597          $9,471,403     $10,415,985.89            $481,412            $591,963            $650,999
5,000-9,999            375,570,639           473,275,639        507,872,647        $806,220          $1,015,959      $1,090,227.20            $161,244            $203,192            $218,045
10,000<              1,244,972,525         1,558,089,982      1,683,538,134        $140,431            $175,750        $189,900.50              $20,062             $25,107             $27,129
All                  2,932,663,571         3,635,725,478      3,965,750,934    $53,080,805          $65,806,128     $71,779,543.59            $218,440            $270,807            $295,389

Table I-4. 30-year Cumulative Traffic Forecasts and Estimated Crash Benefits at Bridges Without Approach Guardrail
Separated by ADT Threshold (boldface indicates “benefit” used in B/C ratio).
                                                                                                                                       Estimated 30        Estimated 30         Estimated 30
                                                                               Estimated 30                                            year crash cost     year crash cost      year crash cost
                  30 year             30 year               30 year            year crash       Estimated 30       Estimated 30 year   per bridge          per bridge           per bridge
                  cumulative          cumulative            cumulative         costs for        year crash costs   crash costs for     without             without              without
                  traffic,            traffic,              traffic,           bridges w/o      for bridges w/o    bridges w/o         approach            approach             approach
                  assuming no         assuming 2004         assuming 2%        guardrail,       guardrail,         guardrail,          guardrail,          guardrail,           guardrail,
                  growth (w/o         growth rates          annual growth      assuming no      assuming 2004      assuming 2%         assuming no         assuming 2004        assuming 2%
ADT Threshold     GR)                 (w/o GR)              (w/o GR)           growth           growth rates       annual growth       growth              growth rates         annual growth
<150                    59,554,131          72,219,261            80,533,223        $157,281           $190,730          $212,686.77              $2,497              $3,027             $3,376
<400                   270,678,691         327,977,731           366,030,486      $9,811,764        $11,888,783       $13,268,147.84             $72,680             $88,065            $98,283
<750                   560,103,092         679,637,910           757,410,220     $19,403,304        $23,544,275       $26,238,493.00           $104,319            $126,582           $141,067
<1,000                 673,435,068         819,740,831           910,665,573     $35,560,646        $43,286,302       $48,087,570.69           $179,599            $218,618           $242,867
<1,500                 902,932,388       1,101,206,922         1,221,007,755     $44,085,683        $53,766,439       $59,615,715.94           $205,050            $250,076           $277,282
<5,000               1,312,120,407       1,604,359,858         1,774,340,153     $51,818,824        $63,360,071       $70,073,005.59           $224,324            $274,286           $303,346
<10,000              1,687,691,045       2,077,635,497         2,282,212,800     $52,772,586        $64,965,799       $71,362,748.22           $223,613            $275,279           $302,385
All                  2,932,663,571       3,635,725,478         3,965,750,934     $53,080,805        $65,806,128       $71,779,543.59           $218,440            $270,807           $295,389




                                                                                              I-2
Table I-5. 30-year Costs per Bridge With Approach Guardrail and Associated Benefit/Cost Ratio by ADT Range (boldface
indicates “cost” used in B/C ratio).
                    Min. Cost for          Max. Cost for
                    Installing and         Installing and        30-year crash    30-year crash cost    30-year crash
                                                                                                                         B/C – No    B/C – 2004       B/C – 2%
                Maintaining Approach Maintaining Approach       cost per bridge    per bridge with     cost per bridge
                                                                                                                          growth     growth rates   annual growth
                Guardrail at a Bridge Guardrail at a Bridge     with approach         approach         with approach
                (assume: 30-year life- (assume: 30-year life-     guardrail –        guardrail –         guardrail –
                cycle and installation cycle and installation     assuming no      assuming 2004        assuming 2%
ADT Range          at all 4 corners)      at all 4 corners)          growth         growth rates       annual growth     Min Max Min       Max       Min   Max
<150                          $27,100                $45,000                 $0                  $0                 $0    0.06 0.09 0.07 0.11         0.08 0.12
150-399                       $27,100                $45,000            $55,691             $67,465            $75,310    1.33 1.62 1.44 1.72         1.51 1.77
400-749                       $27,100                $45,000            $14,353             $17,439            $19,409    3.17 4.54 3.66 5.13         3.95 5.47
750-999                       $27,100                $45,000            $12,820             $15,848            $17,336   23.41 33.90 27.50 38.96     29.36 41.19
1,000-1,499                   $27,100                $45,000            $32,117             $39,390            $43,431    6.50 8.46 7.28 9.24         7.66 9.60
1,500-4,999                   $27,100                $45,000             $3,350              $4,120             $4,530    9.96 15.81 12.05 18.96     13.14 20.58
5,000-9,999                   $27,100                $45,000           $388,288            $489,302           $525,070    0.37 0.39 0.38 0.39         0.38 0.39
10,000<                       $27,100                $45,000            $26,114             $32,682            $35,314    0.28 0.38 0.32 0.42         0.34 0.43
All                           $27,100                $45,000            $19,764             $24,502            $26,726    3.37 4.66 3.90 5.25         4.12 5.49



Table I-6. 30-year Costs per Bridge With Approach Guardrail and Associated Benefit/Cost Ratio by ADT Threshold (boldface
indicates “cost” used in B/C ratio).
                    Min. Cost for          Max. Cost for
                    Installing and         Installing and        30-year crash    30-year crash cost    30-year crash
                                                                                                                         B/C – No    B/C – 2004       B/C – 2%
                Maintaining Approach Maintaining Approach       cost per bridge    per bridge with     cost per bridge
                                                                                                                          growth     growth rates   annual growth
                Guardrail at a Bridge Guardrail at a Bridge     with approach         approach         with approach
                (assume: 30-year life- (assume: 30-year life-     guardrail –        guardrail –         guardrail –
                cycle and installation cycle and installation     assuming no      assuming 2004        assuming 2%
ADT Threshold      at all 4 corners)      at all 4 corners)          growth         growth rates       annual growth     Min Max Min     Max         Min     Max
<150                          $27,100                $45,000                 $0                  $0                 $0    0.06 0.09 0.07 0.11         0.08   0.12
<400                          $27,100                $45,000            $34,643             $41,976            $46,846    0.91 1.18 1.01 1.27         1.07   1.33
<750                          $27,100                $45,000            $21,323             $25,874            $28,835    1.57 2.15 1.79 2.39         1.91   2.52
<1,000                        $27,100                $45,000            $16,595             $20,200            $22,441    2.92 4.11 3.35 4.62         3.60   4.90
<1,500                        $27,100                $45,000            $15,875             $19,361            $21,468    3.37 4.77 3.89 5.38         4.17   5.71
<5,000                        $27,100                $45,000             $9,827             $12,016            $13,289    4.09 6.07 4.81 7.01         5.20   7.51
<10,000                       $27,100                $45,000            $24,960             $30,727            $33,753    3.20 4.30 3.64 4.76         3.84   4.97
All                           $27,100                $45,000            $19,764             $24,502            $26,726    3.37 4.66 3.90 5.25         4.12   5.49




                                                                              I-3
Table I-7. Revised Benefit/Cost Ratio Based on ADT 150-299 and ADT 300-399.
                                                                                           30-year     30-year
                     Estimated 30      Estimated 30      Estimated 30       30-year       crash cost  crash cost
                    year crash cost   year crash cost   year crash cost    crash cost    per bridge  per bridge
                      per bridge        per bridge        per bridge       per bridge        with        with       B/C – No      B/C – 2004      B/C – 2% annual
                       without            without           without           with        approach    approach       growth       growth rates        growth
                      approach           approach          approach        approach      guardrail – guardrail –
                      guardrail,        guardrail,         guardrail,     guardrail –     assuming    assuming
            Bridges  assuming no      assuming 2004      assuming 2%      assuming no   2004 growth 2% annual
ADT Range   w/o GR      growth         growth rates     annual growth        growth         rates      growth      Min    Max     Min     Max     Min      Max
150-299         50          $13,440          $16,250           $18,174        $84,273      $101,895     $113,960   0.10    0.12    0.11    0.13    0.11     0.13
300-399         22         $388,186         $471,636          $524,931             $0            $0           $0   8.63   14.32   10.48   17.40   11.67    19.37
<150            63           $2,497           $3,027            $3,376             $0            $0           $0   0.06    0.09    0.07    0.11    0.08     0.12
<300           113           $7,340           $8,883            $9,926        $46,599       $56,396      $63,014   0.08    0.10    0.09    0.11    0.09     0.11
<400           135          $72,680          $88,065           $98,283        $34,643       $41,976      $46,846   0.91    1.18    1.01    1.27    1.07     1.33




                                                                                I-4

								
To top