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Spinach and Spinach White Rust

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					              Spinach and Spinach White Rust




                     Spinach
Crop
History
and
Production:

                                (adapted
from
Mills,
2001)



    Spinach
is
used
as
a
leafy
green
and
eaten
raw
in
salads
or
cooked
to
be
eaten,
much
like

    turnip
or
collard
greens.
Spinach
is
considered
a
good
source
of
vitamin
A,
calcium,

    phosphorus,
iron
and
potassium.
For
a
leafy
vegetable,
it
is
also
high
in
protein.
Ninety‐one

    percent
of
spinach
weight
is
water.
A
serving
of
spinach
contains
3.2
grams
of
protein,
4.3

    grams
of
carbohydrates,
and
0.3
grams
of
fat.
Spinach
contains
vitamin
A,
vitamin
C,
thiamin,

    riboflavin,
niacin,
calcium,
phosphorus,
iron,
sodium,
and
potassium.

    

    Spinach
originated
in
the
area
now
known
as
Iran.
Cultivation
of
spinach
began
during
the

    Greek
and
Roman
civilizations,
while
the
first
reference
of
spinach
as
a
food
crop
was
over

    2,000
years
ago.
Although
spinach
was
introduced
into
China
in
647
A.D.,
it
wasn't
until
1100

    A.D.
that
it
was
transported
to
Spain.
The
prickly‐seeded
form
was
grown
in
Germany
in
the

    13th
century.
The
smooth‐seeded
form
was
not
described
until
1552.
It
is
the
smooth‐
    seeded
form
that
is
used
today
in
commercial
production.
By
1806,
spinach
had
become
a

    popular
vegetable
and
was
listed
in
American
seed
catalogs.
Advertising
of
spinach
began
in

    the
1920s
to
encourage
more
consumption.
"Popeye
the
Sailorman"
featured
as
a
newspaper

    and
animated
cartoon
was
known
for
consuming
spinach
to
gain
superhuman
strength
and

    added
greatly
to
spinach
visibility
with
the
American
public.

    

    Spinach
is
grown
across
the
USA
from

    California
to
Florida
for
fresh
market
and

    processing.
In
2008,
production
of
fresh

    spinach
reached
500
million
pounds,
while

    spinach
for
processing
totaled
207
million

    pounds
(USDA
NASS).
That
same
year
the

    value
of
fresh
spinach
was
$174.4
million
and

    the
value
of
processed
spinach
was
$12.8

    million
for
a
total
of
$187
million.
In
2007,

    there
was
14,226
acres
of
processing
spinach

    of
and
28,846
acres
of
harvested
fresh

    market
spinach
for
a
USA
total
of
43,
072

    acres.
California
and
Arizona
were
the

    leading
producers
of
spinach,
followed
by

    Texas
and
New
Jersey.
One‐third
of
spinach

    grown
for
the
processing
comes
from
California,
while
Arkansas
and
Oklahoma
produce
the

    remainder
of
the
processed
spinach.
Spinach
production
has
declined
in
recent
years.
In

    2003,
the
USA
grew
close
to
860
million
pounds
of
spinach
on
more
than
52,000
acres

    (Lucier
et
al.,
2004).
The
value
of
the
2003
crop
was
estimated
at
over
$216
million.


    

    In
Oklahoma,
there
are
three
harvest
and
three
planting
periods
(Motes
et
al.,
2004).
Spinach

    for
spring
harvest
is
planted
from
mid‐January
to
late
March
and
harvested
in
April
to
early

    May.
Spinach
for
fall
harvest
is
planted
in
September
to
early
October
and
harvested
in

    November
to
early
December.
Overwintered
spinach
crops
are
planted
during
November
or

    December
and
harvested
in
March.





                                         1

      

      

      

                                      Spinach
White
Rust



Spinach
White
Rust
(causal
organism
‐
Albugo
occidentalis):

      White
rust
is
a
chronic
foliar
disease
problem
for
spinach
production
in
Oklahoma
(Duthie
et

      al.,
2003).
The
fungus
persists
in
soil
as
resistant
spores
that
can
survive
for
many
years
and

      initiate
primary
disease
infection.
Secondary
disease
infection
comes
from
airborne
spores

      that
spread
within
and
between
fields.
Cool
(60
to
77°F)
temperatures
and
wet
weather

      favors
spinach
white
rust
infection
(Sullivan
et
al.,
2002).

      

      Spinach
white
rust
is
a
fungal

      disease
that
produces
white,

      blister‐like
pustules
on
the

      lower
leaf
surface.
Tissue

      surrounding
the
spore‐filled

      pustules
turns
brown
and
dies.

      This
disease
occurs
frequently
in

      Oklahoma,
Texas
and
states
in

      the
Southwestern
USA.

      

      The
primary
infection
of
spinach

      leaves
is
by
oospores
from
soil

      and
contaminated
seeds.

      Research
on
germination
of
the

      oospores
from
soil
has
not
been

      able
to
establish
the

      environmental
parameters
that

      lead
to
primary
infection
of

                                                              Photo
by
John
Damicone,
2001.
Oklahoma
State
University

      spinach
leaves
(Trent,
2004).

      

      Secondary
infection
occurs
when
sporangia
are
released
from
primary
infection
leaf
lesions.

      Sporangia
are
disbursed
by
wind,
rain,
and
insects.
Sporangia
release
and
secondary

      infection
is
closely
correlated
with
environmental
conditions.
These
environmental

      parameters
are
used
in
the
Oklahoma
AgWeather
Spinach
White
Rust
Model
to
predict
the

      likelihood
of
secondary
infection
and
time
protective
fungicide
applications
(Sullivan
et
al.,

      2003).



      To
control
Spinach
White
Rust,
fungicides
are
applied
at
planting
and
post
emergence

      (Russell,
2004).
If
a
fungicide
is
applied
at
planting,
growers
use
Ridomil.
Spinach
is

      typically
sprayed
3
times
during
the
fall
season.
For
these
applications,
Quadris
is
used
for

      the
first
post
emergent
application
and
alternated
with
other
fungicides
in
following

      applications.
Overwintered
spinach
is
usually
sprayed
4‐5
times.
A
spring
spinach
crops

      typically
receives
4‐5
fungicide
applications.























                                               2







                                                       REFERENCES:



Duthie,
J.,
J.P.
Damicone,
and
W.
Roberts.
2004.
Diseases
of
Leafy
Crucifer
Vegetables
(collards,
kale,

mustard,
turnips).
Oklahoma
State
University
Cooperative
Extension
Service.
Fact
Sheet
F‐7666.



Langston,
Jr.,
D.P.
2000.
Photo
from
Commercial
Production
and
Management
of
Cabbage
and
Leafy

Greens:
Cabbage
Disease
Management.
University
of
Georgia
Cooperative
Extension,
Bulletin
1181.



Lucier,
G.,
C.
Plummer
and
A.
Jerardo.
2004.
Vegatables
and
Melons
Situation
and
Outlook
Yearbook,

VGS‐2004.
Economic
Research
Service,
U.S.
Department
of
Agriculture,
Washington
D.C.
July
2004



Mills,
H.A.
2001.
Spinach,
Spinacia
oleracea.
University
of
Georgia,
Department
of
Horticulture,

Vegetable
Crops.
http://www.uga.edu/vegetable/home.html.



Motes,
J.E.,
B.
Cartwright
and
J.P.
Damicone.
2003.
Greens
Production
(Spinach,
Turnip,
Mustard,

Collard,
and
Kale).
Oklahoma
State
University
Cooperative
Extension
Service.
Fact
Sheet
F‐6031.



Russell,
William.
2004.
Verbal
communication.
Allen
Canning
Company.



Sullivan,
M.J.,
J.P.
Damicone
and
M.E.
Payton.
2003.
Development
of
a
Weather‐Based
Advisory

Program
for
Scheduling
Fungicide
Applications
for
Control
of
White
Rust
of
Spinach.
Plant
Disease,

August
2003,
87:923‐928.



Sullivan,
M.J.,
J.P.
Damicone
and
M.E.
Payton.
2002.
The
Effects
of
Temperature
and
Wetness
Period

on
the
Development
of
Spinach
White
Rust.
Plant
Disease,
July
2002,
86:753‐758.



Trent,
M.A.
2004.
Etiology
and
Management
of
Spinach
White
Rust.
Oklahoma
State
University

Master
of
Science
Thesis.



USDA
National
Agricultural
Statistics
Service
Web
site.
November
2009.

http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_Subject/index.asp.



Authors:
Albert
Sutherland,
John
Damicone,
and
J.D.
Carlson.



 
      
         Edited:
November
19,
2009.

Oklahoma
State
University,
Oklahoma
Cooperative
Extension
Service,
University
of
Oklahoma,
and
the
Oklahoma

Climatological
Survey.



Oklahoma
State
University
and
the
University
of
Oklahoma,
in
compliance
with
Title
VI
and
VII
of
the
Civil
Rights
Act
of
1964,

Executive
Order
11246
as
amended,
Title
IX
of
the
Education
Amendments
of
1972,
Americans
with
Disabilities
Act
of
1990,

and
other
federal
laws
and
regulations
does
not
discriminate
on
the
basis
of
race,
color,
national
origin,
sex,
age,
religion,

disability,
or
status
as
a
veteran
in
any
of
its
policies,
practices,
or
procedures.

This
includes
but
is
not
limited
to
admissions,

employment,
financial
aid,
and
educational
services.






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