S00VISION-20040607-006 Flying Carpet Ver200 by mmcsx

VIEWS: 65 PAGES: 159

									Towards the 4 th Generation Mobile Communications Systems


                       Ver.2.00




                      2 April, 2004




    4 th Generation Mobile Communications Committee
Flying Carpet
This brochure was named “Flying Carpet” because we thought with its magical power to fly
the sky, we might be able to foresee our new lives and the underlying mobile technologies in
a decade from now.
Introduction


 This report was compiled to introduce the results obtained through the activities undertaken
by the 4 th Generation Mobile Communications Committee of Mobile IT Forum           (since its
inauguration in 2001 up to March 2004) to the external communities.


  The objectives of 4th-Generation Mobile Communications Committee are to clarify the
system configuration and applications of the fourth-generation mobile communications
systems    (hereinafter “4G mobile” or “4G mobile systems”) and to propose concrete
near-term activities envisioning its commercial introduction around 2010, so as to lay the
groundwork for the R&D and standardization activities by the industry and academia.      Two
sub-committees, System Sub-Committee and Application Sub-committee, were created under
the committee to proceed with the studies collaborating with each other.


  System Sub-Committee primarily performs research and investigation aimed at facilitating
the R&D and standardization of 4G mobile systems, which include surveys, studies and
evaluation on required element technologies, and clarification of technical requirements and
the system configuration method for 4G mobile systems.       Application Sub-Committee, on
the other hand, in developing the concept for 4G mobile systems, analyzes the business
environments surrounding mobile systems in ten years from now to explore the needs of
users, and identifies the requirements for the mechanisms or tools that make it possible to
satisfy such needs without being bound by the constraints of technical compatibility, in a bid
to contribute to creating new business markets.


  Under the aforementioned organizational structure, we revised “Flying Carpet Ver. 1.00”
and compiled its second version with a goal to enrich its contents.   In this second version,
new descriptions were added in Chapters 4, 7 and 8.


  Assessments and expectations by the users, society and industry were explored based on
the images of future mobile communications services, users’ requirements were studied for
some of the business models, and issues relating to 4G mobile systems were extracted taking
users into account, which are described in Chapters 1-3.     Based on the outcome of these
studies, features and social environments required for the realization of 4G mobile systems
are proposed in Chapter 4.
   In Chapters 5,6 and 7, in addition to the requirements mentioned above, other
requirements were analyzed from the viewpoint of technically required features, and
technical challenges in terms of R&D and standardization were extracted from the
perspective of service platform   (Layers 4 and above) and system infrastructure      (Layers
1-4) to present examples of reference models for the service platform and system
infrastructure.   At the same time, functional roadmap toward 4G mobile systems and the
roadmap of element technologies of important research items are described to determine the
feasibility of 4G mobile systems.   In Chapter 8, the reference models for 4G mobile systems
are presented as a comprehensive outcome of the aforementioned studies.
Contents


1. Visions for Future Mobile Communications Systems............................................... 1
  1.1 Image of Future Mobile Communications Systems ............................................. 1
    1.1.1 Education, Arts and Science ......................................................................... 1
    1.1.2 Business Use................................................................................................ 2
    1.1.3 Entertainment ............................................................................................. 2
    1.1.4 Visual Communication ................................................................................. 3
    1.1.5 Mobile Commerce ......................................................................................... 3
    1.1.6 Daily Life ..................................................................................................... 4
    1.1.7 Work ............................................................................................................ 4
    1.1.8 Nursing and Health Care ............................................................................. 5
    1.1.9 Emergency Medical Treatment ..................................................................... 5
    1.1.10 Utilization in a Disaster ............................................................................ 6
  1.2 People’s Lifestyles and Mobile Communications................................................. 6
  1.3 Industry, Social Activities and Mobile Communications ..................................... 7
2. Images and Acceptability of Future Mobile Communications Services .................... 9
  2.1 User ’s Assessment and Expectations .................................................................. 9
    2.1.1 Acceptability of Usage Scene Images ............................................................ 9
    2.1.2 General Users’ Expectations for 4G Mobile Services .................................. 10
    2.1.2.1 Huge Expectations for Freedom in Time, Place and Use of Features ....... 10
    2.1.2.2     Broader        Bandwidth          Does      Not     Necessarily         Imply       More      Fun      and
    Convenience ....................................................................................................... 11
    2.1.2.3 “Cost” is a Decisive Factor for User Demand ........................................... 11
    2.1.2.4 Expectations for Real Communications with “Persons” ........................... 11
    2.1.2.5 Agent Feature is a Must .......................................................................... 11
    2.1.2.6 4G Needs to Offer Something More Than “Faster Speeds” ....................... 11
    2.1.3 Users’ Expectations for Lifestyles Leveraging Future Mobile Services ....... 11
    2.1.3.1 Enriched and Cultural Life ..................................................................... 12
    2.1.3.2 More Flexible and Diversified Life .......................................................... 12
    2.1.3.3 More Comfortable and Safer Life ............................................................ 12
    2.1.3.4 More Personal and Convenient Life......................................................... 13
  2.2 Application Model of Future Mobile Communications Systems......................... 14
  2.3 Evaluations and Expectations from the Society and Industry .......................... 16
    2.3.1 Evaluation on Each Application and Business Model ................................. 16
    2.3.1.1 Medical Data Provision Service ............................................................... 16
    2.3.1.2 Ultimate Content Player ......................................................................... 19
    2.3.1.3 Navigation System .................................................................................. 23
    2.3.1.4 Mobile Ordering ...................................................................................... 26
    2.3.1.5 Food Manager ......................................................................................... 28
    2.3.1.6 Disaster Insurance .................................................................................. 30
     2.3.1.7 Mobile Administrative Services ............................................................... 32
     2.3.2 Industry’s Expectations and Requests to 4G Mobile Systems ..................... 34
     2.3.2.1 Expectations and Request to Communications Capabilities..................... 34
     2.3.2.2 Expectations and Requests to Terminal Features .................................... 35
     2.3.2.3 Expectations and Requests to Authentication and Other Peripheral
     Techniques ......................................................................................................... 35
     2.3.2.4 Expectations and Requests to Authentication/Billing Model.................... 36
     2.3.2.5 Expectations and Requests to Revision of Legal System .......................... 36
     2.3.2.6 Expectations and Requests to Other Important Issues ............................ 36
3. Studies on the Requirements to Realize Applications............................................ 38
  3.1 Requirements from the Perspective of Business Models ................................... 38
     3.1.1 Categorization of Requirement and Primary Features ............................... 38
     3.1.2 Requirements for Each Business Model...................................................... 39
     3.1.2.1 Medical Data Provision Service ............................................................... 39
     3.1.2.2 Navigation System .................................................................................. 39
     3.1.2.3 Ultimate Content Player ......................................................................... 39
     3.1.2.4 Mobile Ordering ...................................................................................... 39
     3.1.2.5 Food Manager ......................................................................................... 40
     3.1.2.6 Disaster Prevention/Countermeasures .................................................... 40
     3.1.2.7 Mobile Administrative Service ................................................................ 40
     3.1.3 Main Feature Category for Each Business Model ....................................... 40
     3.1.3.1 Medical Data Provision Service ............................................................... 40
     3.1.3.2 Navigation System .................................................................................. 41
     3.1.3.3 Ultimate Content Player ......................................................................... 41
     3.1.3.4 Mobile Ordering ...................................................................................... 41
     3.1.3.5 Food Manager ......................................................................................... 41
     3.1.3.6 Disaster Prevention/Countermeasures .................................................... 41
     3.1.3.7 Mobile Administrative Service ................................................................ 41
     3.1.4 Core Main Feature Categories ................................................................... 42
  3.2 Requirements from Users’ Perspectives ........................................................... 42
     3.2.1 Examples of 4G Mobile Users                        (User Groups Requesting Service) ........... 42
     3.2.2 Required Conditions for Each User Group                               (type of users) .................... 45
  3.3 To Expand Use Opportunities of 4G Mobile Services ........................................ 47
     3.3.1 Expected Benefits from 4G Mobile ............................................................. 47
     3.3.2 Requirements to Realize the Expected Benefits ......................................... 49
  3.4 Requirements from Social/Institutional Perspectives ....................................... 50
4. Features and Social Environments Required for the Realization of 4G Mobile
Systems .................................................................................................................... 57
  4.1 Quality Required for 4G Mobile Systems ......................................................... 57
     4.1.1 Realization of Transmission Rate Deemed Ideal for Various Service Fields 57
     4.1.2 Ensuring Certainty and Stability of Connection......................................... 57
    4.1.3 Realization of Multi-point, Interactive Real-Time Communications ........... 58
    4.1.4     Provision        of    Flexible        Communications              Environments             Responding           to
    Diversified Service Usage ................................................................................... 58
    4.1.5 Highly Secure Communications ................................................................. 58
    4.1.6 Sufficient Memory and Storage Capacity in Mobile Handsets .................... 58
    4.1.7 Realization of Lowe Power Consumption Terminals and Large-Capacity
    Battery ............................................................................................................... 59
  4.2 Interface Required for 4G Mobile Systems ....................................................... 59
    4.2.1 Realization of Seamless Environment for Use of Communications ............. 59
    4.2.2 Coordination with Ubiquitous Devices/Home Appliances............................ 60
    4.2.3 Realization of an Advanced Human Interface ............................................. 60
    4.2.4 Realization and Implementation of Accessible Human Interface ................ 61
    4.2.5 Realization of an Interface Capable of Responding to Users’ Specific Needs
    ........................................................................................................................... 61
    4.2.6 Utilization as Interface for Public Services ................................................ 62
  4.3 Intelligence Required for 4G Mobile Systems ................................................... 62
    4.3.1 Realization of Personal Agents ................................................................... 62
    4.3.2 Advanced Utilization of Location Information ............................................ 63
    4.3.3 Mechanism for Ensuring Safety Without Requiring Expert Knowledge ...... 63
    4.3.4 Intelligence Adaptive to Environment ........................................................ 63
    4.3.5 Intelligent Coordination Between Business Systems and 4G Mobile Systems
    ........................................................................................................................... 63
  4.4 Business Operations Required for 4G Mobile Systems ..................................... 64
    4.4.1 Charge Setting that Promotes Use ............................................................. 64
    4.4.2     Creation        of    a    Common           Debugging          Environment            based       of    Unified
    Specifications ..................................................................................................... 64
    4.4.3 Operation of an Adaptive Authentication Mechanism ................................. 64
    4.4.4 Realization of a Human-Like User Address Structure ................................ 65
  4.5 Social Challenges for the Realization of 4G Mobile Services ............................ 65
    4.5.1 Unification of Standards in Related Industries .......................................... 65
    4.5.2 Use of Personal Information in the Field of Personal Services ................... 66
    4.5.3 Social Consensus Regarding the Use of Mobile Services in Public Space .... 66
    4.5.4 Creation of an Environment for Maintaining Healthy Use of Mobile Services
    ........................................................................................................................... 67
5. Requirements and Technical Challenges in Realizing a Service Platform ............. 68
  5.1 Approach of Studies ......................................................................................... 68
  5.2 Visions for the 4G mobile system ..................................................................... 68
  5.3 Roadmap toward the 4G Mobile Systems ......................................................... 69
  5.4 Study Subjects for the Service Platform and Outcome of Study........................ 69
    5.4.1 Security, Authentication, Authorization and Accounting ............................ 70
    5.4.2 User Interface ............................................................................................ 71
   5.4.3 QoS        (Quality of Service) .......................................................................... 71
   5.4.4 Location and Navigation ............................................................................ 71
   5.4.5 Database and Remote Servers .................................................................... 72
   5.4.6 High-Quality Multimedia ........................................................................... 72
   5.4.7 HMI        (Human-Machine Interface) ............................................................. 72
   5.4.8 Remote Sensing and Control ...................................................................... 73
   5.4.9 Agent ......................................................................................................... 73
   5.4.10 Processing Capability and Local Interfaces of Mobile Terminal ................ 74
   5.4.11 Terminal Reconfigurability ....................................................................... 74
   5.4.12 Support of Social / Public / Environmental Services ................................. 75
 5.5 Requirements on the System............................................................................ 75
6. Requirements and Technical Subjects Required for the System Infrastructure ..... 94
 6.1 Important Technical Research Issues ............................................................... 94
   6.1.1 Frequency Refarming ................................................................................. 95
   6.1.2 High-Performance Adaptive Modulation/Demodulation Techniques ........... 96
   6.1.3 Multi-Carrier Techniques .......................................................................... 96
   6.1.4 Interference and Fading Countermeasure Techniques ............................... 96
   6.1.5 Advanced Adaptive Array Antenna ............................................................ 97
   6.1.6 Advanced Multiplexing Techniques                        (MIMO) ............................................ 97
   6.1.7 Error Control Techniques........................................................................... 97
   6.1.8 High-Speed Packet Radio Techniques ........................................................ 97
   6.1.9 Fast Handover Techniques ......................................................................... 98
   6.1.10 Radio Access Networking Techniques ....................................................... 98
   6.1.11 Robust Networks ...................................................................................... 98
   6.1.12 Ad Hoc Networks ..................................................................................... 99
   6.1.13 Seamless Networking Techniques ............................................................ 99
   6.1.14 Approach link technologies .................................................................... 100
   6.1.15 High-Speed Transport Technologies ....................................................... 100
   6.1.16 Circuit and Device Technologies............................................................. 100
   6.1.17 Battery................................................................................................... 100
   6.1.18 Human Interface .................................................................................... 101
   6.1.19 Terminal Security Techniques................................................................ 101
   6.1.20 Terminal Software Technologies ............................................................ 101
   6.1.21 Multi-System Wireless Terminal Technologies ....................................... 102
   6.1.22 Software Defined Radio .......................................................................... 102
   6.1.23 Quality of Service              (QoS) ....................................................................... 103
   6.1.24 Mobility Control ..................................................................................... 103
   6.1.25 Mobile Multicast Techniques.................................................................. 103
   6.1.26 Location Determination and Navigation................................................. 104
   6.1.27 Security, Encryption and Authentication ............................................... 104
 6.2 Key Technical Issues from the Perspective of Standardization ....................... 104
  6.3 “Seeds” Technologies for New Services ........................................................... 105
7. Roadmap of Features and Element Technologies of Important Research Subjects
toward 4G Mobile Systems ..................................................................................... 106
  7.1 Functional Roadmap ...................................................................................... 106
  7.2 Roadmap of Element Technologies of Important Research Subjects................ 106
8. Reference Model and Proposals for 4G Mobile Systems ....................................... 130
  8.1 Four Domains of Reference Model .................................................................. 130
     8.1.1 Service & Application Domain .................................................................. 132
     8.1.2 Service Platform Domain ......................................................................... 132
     8.1.3 Packet-based Core Network Domain ........................................................ 132
     8.1.4 New Radio Access Domain ........................................................................ 132
  8.2 Reference Model from the Viewpoint of Service Platform ............................... 133
     8.2.1 User Convenience .................................................................................... 135
     8.2.2 Advanced Services.................................................................................... 137
     8.2.3 System Management ................................................................................ 139
  8.3 Reference Model from the Viewpoint of System Infrastructure ...................... 141
     8.3.1 Typical examples of Introduction Scenarios and Interface for New Radio
     Access .............................................................................................................. 141
     8.3.2     Functional        Configuration          of    Nodes/Terminals            Comprising          4G     Mobile
     Systems ............................................................................................................ 142
  8.4 Proposals for 4G Mobile Systems ................................................................... 143
     8.4.1 Service & Application Domain .................................................................. 143
     8.4.2 Service Platform Domain ......................................................................... 143
     8.4.3 Packet-based Core Network Domain ...................................................... 143
     8.4.4 New Radio Access Domain ...................................................................... 144
9. Toward the Future .............................................................................................. 145
References .............................................................................................................. 146
Organizational Structure of Mobile IT Forum......................................................... 147
1. Visions for Future Mobile Communications Systems

1.1 Image of Future Mobile Communications Systems
  In the 2001 Report on Future Mobile Communications Systems, compiled by the Ministry
of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications’ Telecommunications
Council, the scenes how future mobile communications systems are projected to be used in
social activities around 2010 are illustrated in ten pictures.   The pictures below depict
various visions and concepts targeted by the future mobile communications systems, which
serve as the foundation of studies performed by the Mobile IT Forum.


1.1.1 Education, Arts and Science
  This is a scene where a Japanese school is holding an outdoor class on “insects” jointly
with its Chinese counterpart. The students in the two schools are exchanging information
using a wrist watch-type mobile terminal with a built-in camera and an automatic translation
function. Children can receive related information (encyclopedia) and researchers are able to
obtain necessary information from the information center.




                                             1
1.1.2 Business Use
  Mobile services are used for business activities outside the office.    Users are able to
access corporate networks from outside, for example, to instantly retrieve design drawings
from a construction site, or to receive necessary business data to make presentations at the
client’s office.




1.1.3 Entertainment
  Mobile systems are used for network games and music/video content downloading.
Virtual image games can be enjoyed anywhere via the network.             A rich variety of
music/video contents stored in the network can be downloaded in an instant anywhere and
anytime.




                                             2
1.1.4 Visual Communication
  Mobile systems are utilized for communication between remote places.          A video of a
sport event can be taken by the camera embedded in a handset and be sent to other family
members living abroad or in a remote town.




1.1.5 Mobile Commerce
  Mobile systems are also used for merchandise purchase and settlement.            By simply
holding up the mobile handset toward the posters at a station or a mail-order magazine, users
can obtain information pertaining to the product, place an order and settle the account on the
spot.




                                              3
1.1.6 Daily Life
  Sophisticated personal authentication technology allows users to securely purchase
expensive items and settle the account through a mobile network.      Data downloaded onto
mobile terminals can be used as an entry pass in lieu of a physical ticket.   Mobile services
are also used in various other scenes of people’s lives, e.g., to download TV data stored in
home servers onto mobile devices and watch them outside the home, or to use mobile
handsets to control robots.




1.1.7 Work
  A typical day for a businessman is depicted below.   Various features of the handset, which
can be customized depending on the requirements of the user, are used in different occasions
in a day.




                                              4
1.1.8 Nursing and Health Care
  Mobile technologies are used for nursing and health care purposes.        Health data can be
sent automatically to hospitals in real time from the patient’s wearable device, so that doctors
can perform a routine health check or respond immediately in the event of an emergency.




1.1.9 Emergency Medical Treatment
  Mobile communications means are used for emergency medical treatment after a traffic
accident. The location of the accident is automatically notified through the use of location
information, while a doctor at the medical center gives first-aid instructions watching the
patient on a screen. Medical data can also be transmitted immediately to the ambulance or the
hospital through mobile networks.




                                               5
1.1.10 Utilization in a Disaster
  Mobile networks serves as an important information infrastructure in case of a disaster,
enabling the transmission of real-time video of disaster-stricken areas.    Anyone including,
for instance, government leaders traveling overseas, administration officials, mass media,
and general citizens, can share information on the disaster no matter where they are.




1.2 People’s Lifestyles and Mobile Communications
  It may not be too much to say that the service that has most dramatically transformed
people’s lifestyles in the last decade is mobile communications such as cellular phones and
PHS.    Ten years ago, cellular phones were still too expensive and too bulky to carry around,
thus, they were used only by limited number of business users and others.            After the
explosive growth in the late 1990’s, however, mobile communications have turned into the
most frequently used means for communications for many users.            Furthermore, with the
creation of email, content services, e.g., ringing tones and games, and other applications such
as web information services for cellular phones, mobile communications have provided a lot
of fun and conveniences to people’s daily lives, and even caused some changes in the power
balance among various information medium.
  In the next ten years, mobile communications services are expected to make further
progress and cast an even greater impact on people’s lives, leading to changes in lifestyles
and transforming our living environments, way of business and the social system.
  Due to the advancement of mobile services, 4G mobile systems are expected to be much
more widely used in and closely related to our daily lives than today.    For instance, through
the use of mobile terminals equipped with full-scale settlement capabilities, people would be
able to use mobile devices as a secure electronic settlement means for the purchases they
make from shops or vending machines in town.      If a solid personal authentication becomes a


                                              6
reality through the use of biological authentication technologies, people may be able to
access a variety of services including administrative services of local governments from their
mobile terminals at hand.       A significant enhancement in data transmission rates will allow
users to obtain and enjoy video software and advanced game contents, etc., in an instant
regardless of their location.    Transactions of business mail with a huge data attachment can
be performed without any stress in mobile environments, which may make the word
“desk-work” obsolete.     People will be able to receive necessary navigation information in a
simple manner whenever they go out, and may no longer feel inconvenient due to a lack of
information.    In addition, in the event of abnormalities, such as an accident or a natural
disaster, people will be able to make necessary contacts immediately from virtually anywhere,
improving the safety standard of our lives.
 As described above, 4G mobile systems are likely to widely and deeply penetrate our daily
lives, to create a new information and communications environment in our society.          The use
of mobile communications services will be taken for granted in the daily lives of people, and
their behavior may be significantly change from the conventional behavioral patterns.
 Traditionally, people used a number of life spaces of different functionality or significance
(home, school, workplace, bank, department stores, hospitals, to name a few) for specific
purposes.        Mobile services, however, can provide many of these functionalities
transcending spaces.    In other words, it enables people to literally study, play, work, and
shop anywhere they want.        As a consequence, people will be liberated from the limitations
and restrictions of space, and be able to more freely choose where they want to be.
 This is a transformation from a “space-based lifestyle” with lots of restrictions to a freer
and more flexible “object–oriented lifestyle”.       Naturally, schools, offices and homes will not
disappear as a physical space, but the significance of “place” and “space” could be much
different from our conventional thinking.


1.3 Industry, Social Activities and Mobile Communications
  From the viewpoint of industries, this change implies a great transformation of business
structure, particularly in industries targeted at consumers, and an emergence of new
businesses.
 First of all, it will become possible for entertainment      (such as music or video) businesses
to deliver products to the consumers in a moment using fast-speed 4G mobile systems.
Conventional package distribution could be replaced by distribution through mobile networks,
which may develop into one of the pillars of the entertainment businesses.
 In services offered to people—such as medical, education, government services—the form
of service offering may shift in varying degrees into a structure where “a service is delivered
to the user” instead of “users are required to go out to receive service”.     Mobile government
services and remote education are likely to be provided purely as an application on mobile
networks.     Although it may be difficult to realize full-scale on-line medical service right
away, an environment where doctors with advanced mobile medical devices visit patient’s
homes to provide treatment using special mobile services is considered sufficiently possible.

                                                 7
 In the fields of life support and security, new services that have not been possible on
conventional telecommunications networks, e.g., shopping assistance linked with home
information appliances, or round-the-clock health management services, etc., could be
realized by 4G mobile systems.     These services are projected to acquire a large number of
users given the current social trends, e.g., an aging society and people’s increasing awareness
of health and safety.
 4G mobile systems and the development of mobile services are thus projected to facilitate a
conversion from old industry/business structures, and lead to a creation of new industries and
markets.   Furthermore, such change in industry structure is also expected to stimulate
capital investments not only in the telecommunications sector but also in various other
industries, and create new demands amongst the consumers for terminal equipment to receive
a wide range of mobile services. The advancement in mobile services is likely to enlarge the
markets for a wide range of products that are often used in daily life, including mobile
terminals, information appliances, home network, intelligent vehicles, among others.
 In the 2001 Report on Future Mobile Communications Systems, drafted by the
Telecommunications Council of the Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and
Telecommunications, the size of the markets to be created by the 4G mobile systems and the
development of mobile services is estimated at 42 trillion yen.   There are huge expectations
for the 4G mobile systems and mobile services to become a driving force for the Japanese
economy in the near future.




                                              8
2. Images and Acceptability of Future Mobile Communications Services

2.1 User’s Assessment and Expectations
  In the previous chapter, the images as to how 4G mobile systems would be realized in the
future and the prospects of the society were presented.      These future images, which provide
the foundation for the studies on 4G mobile systems performed by the Mobile IT Forum,
were illustrated based on the work undertaken by knowledgeable persons in related industries
or academia.
  Before starting detailed studies on 4G mobile systems, it is necessary to fully examine
whether these future images match with the service images or lifestyles desired by general
users, and sort out the items that need to be discussed.
  Mobile IT Forum thus carried out a survey of “users’ preference and trend of service
acceptability in the media environments of the near future” on general users and
knowledgeable persons who are in a position to know the preference and expectations of
general users.
 This   chapter   summarizes    the   main   issues   ,   which   were   identified   through   the
above-mentioned survey, concerning the acceptability of the usage scene image among the
users as well as the service images and lifestyles expected by the users.


2.1.1 Acceptability of Usage Scene Images
  General users demonstrated high acceptability to all of the assumed usage scenes, and
showed extremely high expectations for 4G mobile services.
Concrete assessments for each of the usage scene image are summarized in the table below.




                                                9
                        Table 2-1:   Acceptability of Usage Scene Images


      Usage Scene                                Evaluation by General User
 (1)Education, Art and       Many users appreciated the convenience of being able to obtain a
         Science             wide range of information without any constraints of location.
                             Many had an impression that knowledge and information
                             comparable to those provided by school classes can be obtained
                             through mobile communications.
 (2)Entertainment            Some highly evaluated this usage image for being able to watch
                             movies anywhere using their spare time. Its “ubiquitous
                             nature” (able to enjoy service anytime, anywhere) and “personal
                             nature” (realizing a wide range of entertainment services on
                             individual terminals) were well accepted.
 (3)Business                 Many highly evaluated the elimination of the need to carry
                             around bulky paper information.
 (4)Visual                   Many recognized the necessity of the service—especially to
       Communications        show videos of themselves to relatives living far away in real
                             time—from their own experience.
 (5)Work                     Many appreciated the convenience of being able to implement
                             mobile phone, commuter pass, MD, wallet, and keys, which are
                             carried separately today, in a single terminal.
 (6)Mobile EC                Received high valuation because of the convenience of being
                             able to make purchases from mobile terminals and also due to the
                             prospects of creating new businesses. It was seen so attractive
                             that some voiced concerns of shopping too much from a mobile
                             handset.
 (7)Daily Life               Regarded as a very convenient usage image. Many wanted this
                             to be realized with sufficient level of security through retinal
                             authentication, etc.
 (8)Nursing and Health       Many shared a sense of relief for being able to confirm the health
      Care                   conditions of elderly relatives from a remote place.
 (9)Emergency Medical        Many felt it necessary to be able to swiftly grasp the state of the
      Treatment              site and the condition of injured person in case of an emergency,
                             or access medical record information.
 (10)Use in Disasters        Many considered it necessary to be able to make contacts to
                             confirm the safety of others and obtain information regarding
                             evacuation routes in the event of a disaster.



2.1.2 General Users’ Expectations for 4G Mobile Services
 Based on the results of surveys on general users and knowledgeable persons, general users’
requirements for the features and services offered by 4G mobile systems were identified,
which are presented below:


2.1.2.1 Huge Expectations for Freedom in Time, Place and Use of Features
 The point that received the highest appreciation across all usage scene images was the
so-called niche services that would be realized by the properties of 4G mobile systems, i.e.,
the “freedom in time and place”.      In particular, strong interests were shown for convenient
services that can eliminate the labor spent today and security that ensures people’s health and

                                               10
safety.   Terminals with integrated functions realized by 4G’s high-speed and large-capacity
transmission were also highly evaluated, proving the existence of demand amongst users for
“freedom in use of functions and support of multiple features”.      In short, what users require
for 4G mobile systems can be expressed by “freedom in time, place and use of features”.


2.1.2.2 Broader Bandwidth Does Not Necessarily Imply More Fun and Convenience
  What is technically feasibly does not necessarily match with user acceptance.             It is
therefore important to take into account users’ preferences and acceptability in designing a
communications system or new service images.


2.1.2.3 “Cost” is a Decisive Factor for User Demand
  The cost of terminals and contents cast a significant influence on their uptake.    No matter
how convenient and advanced the services are, a wide uptake cannot be expected unless they
are provided at affordable prices to the users.


2.1.2.4 Expectations for Real Communications with “Persons”
  “A mechanism for a more ‘real’ communication” will likely develop into an important
application.     “Real” here means communications that can express human feelings or
emotion , which cannot be conveyed only by the resolution quality of moving images.


2.1.2.5 Agent Feature is a Must
  In line with the growth in the number of available contents, an agent feature that searches
one that fits users’ need from an abundance of information is expected to become
indispensable.    From general users’ point of view, it is most desirable in many senses if a
human could play the role of such agent.               When this capability is provided by an
information system, therefore, a flexible interface must be realized so that users can feel as if
a real human is providing guidance.


2.1.2.6 4G Needs to Offer Something More Than “Faster Speeds”
 As mentioned above, expectations of general users cannot be satisfied only by faster
transmission speeds.    When designing a communications system or a new service image, the
benefits offered by its realization must never be forgotten.



2.1.3 Users’ Expectations for Lifestyles Leveraging Future Mobile Services
 Based on the previous section that summarized general users’ expectations for 4G mobile
services, the future lifestyles, in which mobile services are utilized, envisioned by the users
are described in this section.      These future lifestyles are divided roughly into four
categories.




                                                  11
 2.1.3.1 Enriched and Cultural Life
 - Enriched life—able to communicate with friends and families anytime
     Due to the enhancements of mobile services, it will become possible to provide an
 environment in which people can communicate with another person in a distant location with
 a sense of reality as if the person is nearby.       In such an environment, mobile users will be
 able to enjoy richer lives being able to feel the bond with family members and friends
 anytime no matter where they are.


 - A cultural life—able to receive information of your choice and easily obtain the right
 entertainment anytime you like
     Advancements in mobile networks will enable people to obtain a wide range of information
 at any location without constraints, or receive education of their choice.        Such a cultural life
 enabled by mobile communications will be realized in an environment where intellectual
 property rights are protected to ensure free and secure exchange of information and
 knowledge.



 2.1.3.2 More Flexible and Diversified Life
 - Flexible and Diversified Life—able to work regardless of home circumstances
     Monitoring through visual communications, work at home by interactive communications,
 and controlling robots from mobile terminals are all expected to become a reality.            In such
 environments, people can work in a more flexible manner regardless of the circumstances,
 e.g., work at home while nursing infants or elderly family members with health concerns.


 -      Environment that enables various people to freely participate in social activities
     The realization of electronic governments will make it easier for people—including the
 elderly or handicapped—to participate in social activities from mobile terminals.           An active
 and rigorous society can be created through voluntary dissemination of information from
 individuals and people’s spontaneous participation in society building.



 2.1.3.3 More Comfortable and Safer Life
 - More Comfortable and Safer Life—safety is ensured anytime, anywhere
     The realization of a society where connections to medical institutions, private organizations
 or police can be made anytime from anywhere will give assurance for people’s lives, health,
 safety and crime prevention, enabling them to live a more comfortable and safer life.


 - Convenient and Comfortable Life—able to access services on highly convenient networks in a
 secure manner
      Through secure authentication and billing systems, people will be able to carry out
commercial transactions on mobile networks without worries, and easily enjoy convenient

                                                    12
services with a high degree of reliability.



 2.1.3.4 More Personal and Convenient Life
 - Personal Life—possible to freely select from a wide range of services based on individual
 preferences
  Users’ needs for service—the type of service, the frequency of use and payment method,
 etc.—vary among individuals.            It will become possible to freely customize the usage style,
 e.g., the type/provider of service, place of use, terminal, etc., depending on individual
 preferences.


 - Extremely convenient life—what you want to do now can be done right away
   Almost every service you want to use right now—ranging from advanced information
 search as if you were in a large library to net shopping with a feeling as if you went out to a
 shop—will be made available with the mobile terminal at hand.                      Request and wishes of
 individuals will be realized in a convenient fashion through the use of various services
 anytime and anywhere.




     Service and features expected for                        New Lifestyles Realized by
            4G mobile                                              4G Mobile

       ・Freedom in Time                             (1)Enriched and Cultural Life

       ・Freedom in Space                            (2)More Flexible and Diversified Life
       ・Freedom in Use of Features                  (3)More Comfortable and Safer Life

                                                    (4)More Personal and Convenient Life




                        Figure 2-1: Users’ Expectations for 4G Mobile Systems




                                                     13
2.2 Application Model of Future Mobile Communications Systems


 As presented in the previous chapter, the Mobile IT Forum developed more concrete images
on the usage scenes of 4G mobile systems     (based upon the study results by the Committee
of Future Mobile Communications Systems, Telecommunications Council, Ministry of Public
Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications), and studied the elements
required for 4G mobile systems from the viewpoint of the business models of applications.
 First of all, assumptions on specific application models that take advantage of 4G mobile
systems were developed based upon the future images.      As a consequence, 22 application
models were extracted and divided into twelve social activity fields from A to L.   Table 2-2
below summarizes these application models.


                           Table 2-2:   List of Application Models


      Social Activity Field                            Application Models
Medical Service, Welfare            A-1 Mobile Health Checker
                                    A-2 Medical Data Provision Service
                                    A-3 Location Information Service
                                    A-4 Nursing Care Information Service
Education                           B-1 On-Demand Knowledge Center
Crime Prevention                    C-1 Mobile Guard
Transportation                      D-1 Navigation System
Entertainment                       E-1 Ultimate Content Player
                                    E-2 Mobile Game Gate
                                    E-3 Music Research
Mobile E-Commerce                   F-1 Mobile Ordering
                                    F-2 Beauty Match
Business                            G-1 Ultra-light PDA
                                    G-2 House Construction Management System
Daily Life                          H-1 Inter-operation of car navigation system, home
                                    server and PDR
                                    H-2 Food Manager
Disaster Prevention/                I-1 Real-time Disaster Information Delivery Service
Countermeasures                     I-2 Disaster Insurance
Communications                      J-1 Citizen Communicator
                                    J-2 Communicate Navigator
Government                          K-1 Mobile Administrative Services
Information Delivery                L-1 Show-Biz Agent




                                             14
 Business models were studied for each of the 22 application models that were identified
through the studies mentioned in the previous section.
 Sample models of the service provider or revenue structure that are considered promising
were created, based on which, items listed in the table below were further studied.



                         Table 2-3:     List of Items Studied in Business Model


        Study Items                                         Content of Study
Revenues                              What kind of service charges will the service provider collect
                                       from consumers or related entities?
Expenditures                          What kind of expenses will the service provider need to pay to
                                      related entities for the realization or operation of services?
Conditions     for   a     viable     For the sample business model to be viable, what kind of
business                              technical or systematical conditions need to be satisfied?
Challenges                            What kind of technical/systematical/social issues needs to be
                                       resolved to meet the conditions above?
Assumed target                        The user segment targeted by the service.
Corporations expected          to     Under the assumption that the sample business model can be
participate                            realized, what kind of provider (in which field or industry)
                                       is likely to participate?
Market Estimates                      Assuming that the sample business model can be realized, are
                                      there any statistics, calculation results or user demand data
                                      that can be used to estimate the size of market?
Existence of similar services         Are there any existing services that have a relatively similar
                                      application model and business model? If yes, what are the
                                      characteristics of the business model of such service?




                                                    15
2.3 Evaluations and Expectations from the Society and Industry


2.3.1 Evaluation on Each Application and Business Model


2.3.1.1 Medical Data Provision Service
- Service Overview
  When visiting a drug store or medical institutions, users who have pre-registered to use the
service can access personal information management servers from their mobile terminals in
an instant to present their own medical records to pharmacists or doctors to receive adequate
treatment or prescriptions.
  Eventually, in line with the progress in advanced genetic medical treatment technologies, it
may become possible for users to download their own genetic information instantaneously to
receive adequate treatment.

     User            Service charge (paid from insurance)

                           Access personal medical data

                                                                  Medical data
                             Send personal medical data           storage center

                                                                            Personal medical data


                      Advice/information/health analysis

                      Introduction to doctors, provision of
                          adequate medicine                     Hospital/drug store

                 Figure 2-2:      Medical Data Service      (Conceptual Drawing)


- Overview of Evaluation by Potential Service Providers
 The certainty and stability of connection were raised as the primary requirements on the
communications infrastructure in order to realize medical services that take advantage of
mobile communications.        While it may be feasible to provide full-fledged remote medical
treatment easily through the use of high-quality images enabled by faster transmission speeds,
stable uninterrupted communication was regarded indispensable and more important in the
medical field.
 Also, it is widely known that provision of medical services is subject to lots of legal and
regulatory restrictions.     Consequently, services that can be offered by private entities are
currently very limited.     It has been pointed out on various occasions that this has hindered
the flexible offering of new services in the medical field.     This issue remains unsolved today,
and no significant change can be expected in the immediate future, either.         According to the
opinions of potential service providers, the first steps to be taken would be to develop

                                                  16
technologies and services and educate the medical industry so that consumers could generally
share the recognition that high-quality medical service can be provided safely and securely
through the use of electronic medical records and networks.



                   Table 2-4: Evaluation on Medical Data Provision Service

             Related Entities’ Evaluations and Expectations on this Application
Evaluation on the The system features to handle medical information have nearly been
assumed application made available by existing services. However, due to laws/regulations
                       and mindset of medical industry, the offerings in actual services are
                       limited.
Evaluation          on If these services are to be offered by telecommunications equipment
assumed       business manufacturers, etc., network management/content access charges will
model                  probably become their central source of revenues.
Required conditions The provision of service must lead to realizing high-quality medical
for the service to be services that place patients at the center.      Social environment
viable                 (consumers’ awareness) need to change and the realization of service
                       should be requested by society.
                       Changes in the mindset of medical industry and legal/regulatory system
                       are needed.
Issues/    Communi- Certainty and stability of connection (i.e., never disrupted, accessible
requests cation        anytime from anywhere) are indispensable for full-fledged application in
and        function    medical services.      Transmission speeds of about 8Mbps are required to
require-               send CT images of the chest region. If transmission speed of 100Mbps
ments                  is realized, individual physicians can easily provide full-scale remote
                       medicine.
           Terminal    Miniaturization of terminals and reduced power consumption.
                       Automatic biometric information recording feature must be added.
           Other       Robust security that does not allow data tapping must be provided on
           technolog mobile networks. Automatic data backup features are also required.
           y
           Tariff      Dedicated bandwidth for public use (such as medical use) must be
           structure,  secured, which shall have a different tariff structure from that of private
           etc.        use.     Communications costs are better the cheaper. It is more
                       desirable if services can be used almost free of charge.
           Legal       Authorization of mixed treatment (with and without insurance
           system      coverage) is required. Covering remote medical service by medical
                       insurance and counting insurance points should be permitted.
                       Expand the types of medical services permitted to private entities
                       (Today, medical service that can be provided by private institutions are
                       limited to home-care services only). Allow medical examination
                       through networks (Currently, only face-to-face examinations are
                       allowed).
                       Legal framework that strictly punishes hacking/leakage of information is
                       needed.      Strict protection of intellectual property right at least
                       comparable to advanced Western markets is necessary.




                                                17
Others   Standardize the description format of medical records.
         Besides the above, revisions of laws and regulations concerning service
         provision and various procedures should be promoted backed by the
         change of recognition in the society.
         Generally speaking, the medical industry is reluctant to move into the
         direction of medical care in which disclosure to patients is a
         prerequisite.   Change in consumer (patient) awareness is
         indispensable to make progress in these areas.




                                18
2.3.1.2 Ultimate Content Player
- Overview of Service
  Simply by instructing the name of video                        (which does not necessarily have to be precise;
ambiguous input will do) of users’ choice                           (TV programs broadcast in the past, news,
dramas, movies, or concerts, etc.) through voice input, etc., users will be able to watch it on
a mobile terminal through streaming from the network anytime and anywhere they like.
  The charges for the content—which should be decided taking into account the requests of
the rights holder, the number of accesses from users                              (popularity), video quality, the number
of copies, the time of viewing, location, etc.—will be presented on the spot, and if the user
agrees, the video will be made available for viewing.
  Also, when the user wants to see a movie using some spare time, for instance, during a
business trip, he/she can search information concerning the movies currently on show and see
a preview on the player.               If he/she decides to watch the whole movie in a cinema, it is
possible to search the theater that can be reached from the current location before the start of
the movie, and if necessary, make a seat reservation and purchase electronic tickets, too.
The videos can be viewed in trains on a spectacles-type display, which can be suspended for
a moment when changing trains.


                                         Movie distributor
       User      Movie delivery
                                             content
                                                              Movies on show・
                                                                                      Theater
                                              server                                       映画館
                                                              Congestion status
                              User request
                                  Purchase data               Seat reservation
                                                                                  Various movie distributors
              Movie info. search Service provider                                                                        Rights holders

                                            Speech analysis                                                                 Show biz
                                                                                             Rights Clearance.              agencies
                                                                                 Content
                Ambiguous search           Search server                                         System
                                                              User request
                                                                                 Server                   Delivery log
                by voice                                                                                                 Actors, etc.

                Ticket purchase           Member DB
                                                                                 Content                                   Hollywood
                                                                                 Server

                    Content streaming delivery                                                                            Broadcasters
                                                                             Convenience store, stations, etc.
                           Real media content distribution                             コンビニ・駅 等
                                        /
                           by compact high-density disc memory cards, etc.

                 Figure 2-3: Ultimate Content Player                              (Conceptual Drawing)


- Overview of Evaluation by Potential Service Providers
 One of the largest obstacles for content delivery service today is the clearance of rights.
Establishment of a system and mechanism for rights clearance was raised as a necessity in
the opinions of potential service providers.
  Based on the presumption that the above-mentioned issue can be resolved, potential

                                                                19
service providers considered that content delivery is a promising service for the future, as
they could establish a business model on the extension of today’s rental video businesses and
there are strong needs for the delivery of video contents to mobile terminals amongst the
users.
 To realize these services in an even more attractive manner, as well as to alleviate the
burdens on the service providers, e.g., content holders, various requirements were raised for
4G mobile systems, including the availability of transmission speeds of approximately
100Mbps, standardization of terminal specifications     (e.g., description language, format of
files handled, etc.), and the provision of security technologies, among others.




                                              20
Table 2-5: Evaluation on Ultimate Content Player

            Related Entities’ Evaluations and Expectations on this Application
Evaluation on the Demand for service exists as an extension of existing rental video
assumed application     services.     From the viewpoint of rights handling, music delivery
                        service, which does not involve video content, may become a reality
                        earlier than video service.
                        Content search feature in the conceptual drawing gives an impression
                        that it can intelligently collect information like an agent. This is
                        based on the presumption that personal preferences are pre-registered
                        in the terminal in one way or another.
Evaluation          on The business seems to be viable from the following perspectives:
assumed       business With transmission rates of about 100Mbps, richer content delivery
model                   including movies will become technically feasible. Today’s rental
                        video service has developed into a viable business receiving payment
                        from users.      There are needs for “being able to see content on the
                        spot when desired”, which is one of the strengths of mobile
                        communications. The other side of the coin of “being able to see
                        anytime, anywhere” is “possible to see only on the spot at this
                        particular moment”. This property of mobile communications may
                        lower the threshold of paid services.
Required conditions Costs related to rights clearance. The costs for maintaining and
for the service to be operating the system that performs delivery and billing in conjunction
viable                  with authentication must be adequate for the expected revenues. The
                        proliferation of service is heavily affected by the uptake amongst the
                        youth segment, thus it is important that both hardware and software are
                        provided in an affordable price range for the youth. Since an
                        environment to deliver attractive content will be realized, new social
                        and technical mechanisms for rights clearance should be created.
                        The provision of “video” per se is not the driver of needs. Content
                        providers should rather focus on offering attractive “contents” that can
                        actually draw the interest of users.
                        It is necessary to make sufficient consideration as to what kind of
                        content could be valuable when it is offered in motion images.
Issues/   Comm.         Transmission speeds that can handle the delivery of rich content are a
requests feature        prerequisite. Provision of always-on traffic.
and       Terminal      Technical specifications of mobile terminals (e.g., description
require-                language, format of files handled, encoding schemes, etc.) must be
ments                   standardized amongst different carriers, terminal manufacturers, and
                        different generations of standards (2.5G<->3G<->4G).
                        Seamless linkage must be provided between stationary terminals (like
                        home game consoles) and mobile terminals.
                        Realization of sufficient memory/storage capacity.
          Other         Security and rights protection technologies must be established.
          technology    Translation feature that operates in coordination with GPS feature to
                        enable content access both in domestic market and foreign countries.
                        Compatibility with previous generations must be secured. (Terminals
                        and personal information for users, description language or
                        compression method for content providers).
          Tariff        Both communication charges and terminal prices should be set at
          structure     affordable levels for the youth segment. Billing system that is not
                        monopolized by carriers is required.
          Legal         None
          system



                                               21
Other    Establishment of a system/framework for rights clearance relating to
issues   the delivery of music/video contents.
         Establishment of a legal framework for the protection of personal
         information is indispensable.




                              22
2.3.1.3 Navigation System
- Overview of Service
  Users will be able to access the following information services from inside moving
vehicles.   The information will be provided adequately depending on time, location and
properties of user.   Users may also be able to receive discounts at shops by presenting the
information retrieved through the above.
        - Location information service             (locating service, route guide, traffic information,
            etc.)
        - Vehicle information service           (automobile information, vehicle tune-up information,
            etc).
        - Entertainment service            (radio, TV programs, etc).
        - Control service       (vehicle control in the event of earthquake, accident, etc).
        - Emergency service          (accident, sudden illness, etc).
        - Logistics service       (parcel delivery, etc).
                                                                                                Right holder
            User

                        Monthly charge
                                                 Service Provider          content charge      Content provider

                                                 Deliver optimal                                 TV broadcaster, etc.
                      ・Location info.            depending on time,                              ・
                      Vehicle info.              sondition, taste of       Content delivery        Content        Rights cleara
                        ・                        user, vehicle location                            server          system
                          ン
                      Entertainment
                                                                                Ad charge
                        ・                                                                          ー
                        ・
                      Control info.                                                           Distributor, shop
                        ・
                      Emergency info.ー
                                                                           Shopping info.      Dept. store, supermarket, etc.
                        ・
                      Logistics info.                                       coupon              ・
                      - Shopping info.


                                                      ITS           logistics

                    Figure 2-4:          Navigation System            (Conceptual Drawing)


- Overview of Evaluation by Potential Service Providers
 In order to provide new services to vehicles, the two points below must be taken into
consideration in comparison with other services                         (1) Because the cycles of car model
change and users’ replacement of vehicles are both long, these new services are likely to take
longer to become widely used than for the case of cellular phones and other media.                                                Some
respondents commented that it must be fully noted that this service may take long to
permeate the market, because the model is predicated upon the presumption that advanced
car-mount devices would proliferate eventually.                     (2) Stress inflicted upon users due to the
operations inside the vehicle have a great impact on safety, and there are numerous users
among the driving population who are not accustomed to using information devices.                                                 This
concern was common to the “Food Manager” application.                                  A user-friendly interface that
takes safety into account is thus required.
 As mentioned above, because it is expected to take a while for the spread of the application,

                                                        23
it was requested for the 4G mobile systems to establish a communication technology that can
be used as a standard over a time span of ten years rather than focusing primarily on brand
new advanced functionalities.    Furthermore, these technologies were requested to be studied
as a transportation infrastructure suitable for vehicles that travel a wide area at fast speeds,
including the implementation of buffer processing in case of disruption and voice/data
multi-access capabilities as standard features.     The existing mobile systems   (including the
third-generation systems) are regarded insufficient for use as a transportation infrastructure,
so 4G systems are required to fulfill the above.
 In addition, because offering visual information services to vehicles could result in serious
consequences in terms of safety, voluntary restrictions are currently put in place.       While
there are strong demands for visual services, many safety concerns must be resolved before
they are actually provided.


                        Table 2-6:   Evaluations on Navigation System

            Related Entities’ Evaluations and Expectations on this Application
Evaluation on the The service image is fully conceivable as an extension of existing
assumed application   services. In a decade from now, cars could comprise a part of a
                      network. As an extension of car navigation or cellular services, which
                      to a certain degree received public recognition, these advanced features
                      are likely to permeate the market gradually over time.     Traffic
                      information distribution services like VICS should be promoted as a
                      service indispensable for transportation infrastructures regardless of size
                      of demand.
Evaluation         on The standard model—whether the communication charges should be
assumed      business born by users or providers—is not visible at this point.
model
Required conditions User acceptability. Due to long replacement cycle, new information
for the service to be services for vehicles in many cases take long to become widely used
viable                after their introduction. Another point that needs consideration is the
                      huge number of users unaccustomed to IT.
Issues/   Comm.       Enhanced communication speeds are welcome, as it takes long to
requests feature      download contents on 2.5G networks. A mobile infrastructure fully
and                   equipped with features for vehicle communications is required, e.g.,
require-              functions to suspend downloading before interruption and resume after
ments                 reconnecting to the network where the radio conditions are favorable.
                      In the PDC system, connections can be made virtually everywhere, but
                      often disrupts during data access. It costs a lot to add capabilities to
                      car-mount devices to take care of this problem, so carriers should be
                      responsible for this.
                      More base stations need to be installed in obvious coverage holes like
                      tunnels. Simultaneous voice/data interactive communications should be
                      implemented. This is indispensable for car information services, but to
                      realize this today, expensive special modems are required, making it
                      difficult to offer as a generic service.
                      It is difficult to adopt a new communication standard unless it is going
                      to be used for more than ten years. The replacement cycle of cars is ten
                      years for some long-term users.
          Terminal    The interface of car equipment must be extremely simple. (There are
                      many users who are poor at operating devices. Requiring the ability to
                      use complicated devices involves danger).

                                               24
Other        The interface for car-mount equipment should be standardized like PC
technology   cards.
Tariff       None.
structure
Legal        Related government bodies are slow in taking practicable actions.
system       In the distribution sector, regulations and customary practices unique to
             the sector have become the impediment for utilizing IT for improving
             business efficiency.
Other        Needing to wait for the completion of download during driving is quite
issues       stressful for users compounded with others stresses like congestion. In
             addition to faster transmission speeds, other improvements, including
             faster response and easier use, would be needed to alleviate the stress of
             users.    Due to safety concerns in the provision of image/video
             services, voluntary restrictions are implemented today. Current
             voluntary regulations are highly necessary in view of safety.




                                    25
2.3.1.4 Mobile Ordering
- Overview of Service
  Enables easy purchase of products or obtainment of information simply by holding a
mobile terminal toward printed materials                     (magazines, brochures, posters, etc.) or images.
  Information pertaining to the product                      (video, CM, specifications) will be automatically
delivered to the mobile terminal from the product center, and displayed in 3D images, which
can be viewed from multiple angles.                    Users, if they like, can order the product on the spot,
make the payment and settle the accounts from a mobile terminal.
  Sales status in the areas nearby, and other related information on the product could also be
obtained.
  The use of retinal authentication makes it possible to purchase expensive products without
any security concerns.


   Provider                                            Product delivery

                                                              Ad cost
                Inquiry                                                                           Delivery charge
                                                             Product info.
                Purchase application                                            Manufacturer                        Transporter
                                                          Application info.
                                                                                              Product delivery request
                                        Service         Product charge, postal fee
     User                                                       Ad cost                           Delivery charge
                 Product info.          provider
                                                              Product info
                                                                                Seller
                 Ads
                                                         Application info                       Product delivery request

                                                          Product /delivery charge
              Product/Delivery charge

              Commission                                                      Product delivery request
                                                   Server utilization fee


                               Platform provider




                       Figure 2-5:           Mobile Ordering                 (Conceptual Drawing)


- Overview of Evaluations by Potential Service Providers
  From the viewpoint of the potential providers of settlement service, the reliability and cost
of authentication hold the key for the settlement of purchases made at shops through mobile
terminals, and ordering service linked with brochures and posters in the streets. When
compared with credit card payments at shops or shopping from PCs/TV, the purchases to be
made from mobile terminals are expected to be lower in amount but more frequent.                                                  It is
therefore essential for the providers of settlement services that the authentication of the
terminal and the users themselves, which have to be conducted every time a purchase is made,
can be realized at a low cost commensurate with the low unit purchase amount.


                                                                 26
                          Table 2-7: Evaluations of Mobile Ordering

            Related Entities’ Evaluations and Expectations on this Application
Evaluation on the Mobile settlement is already provided in existing mail-order service
assumed application   through product bar codes in the catalogs. This service is realistic as
                      an extension of such existing services, enabling users to order more
                      easily.
Evaluation         on Landline Internet became wide spread before the establishment of a
assumed      business content billing mechanism. On the other hand, wireless Internet
model                 provided a billing mechanism from the beginning, thus users developed
                      the recognition to pay for premium contents. If services leveraging the
                      display feature of mobile terminals that cannot be provided by ordinary
                      credit cards (such as provision and display of coupons) can be realized,
                      it may be possible to enlarge the market size.
Required conditions A low-cost authentication method must be realized. Because the
for the service to be amount of unit purchase is projected to be small, the authentication
viable                scheme is the better the cheaper.
Issues/   Comm.       None
requests feature
and       Terminal    Advancements in terminal processing speed is more important than
require-              enhancing the transmission bit rate. Processing speeds that match the
ments                 faster transmission rate must be provided. Not only cellular phone-type
                      terminals but also wearable terminals, e.g., wrist watches, seem to be
                      viable.
          Other       Authentication techniques that confirm the authenticity of cards and
          technology users themselves at low cost must be realized.
                      Interoperability between different carriers or services in other countries
                      is required.
          Tariff      None
          structure
          Legal       None
          system
          Other       Mobile terminals with small screens have many limitations in displaying
          issues      product information.




                                              27
2.3.1.5 Food Manager
- Overview of Service
  Enables users to access the home refrigerator using a mobile terminal from outdoors—to
see what is left with visual images or to confirm whether the consumption deadline for some
food has expired or not.        Users can also obtain recipes of menus that can be cooked with the
food available in the refrigerator from the mobile terminal.                        Lacking food items will be
presented on the screen, and if ordered, they will be delivered to the home by the evening.
  If the users register in the mobile terminal the food items that they want to keep always in
stock, when they pass in front of this item at a supermarket, its purchase may be
recommended automatically.             Or, just by holding the terminal close to the refrigerator, list
of food items out of supply could be sent to food delivery companies to have them delivered
to the home on the same day or in a few days.
  After a few order placements, it will become possible to estimate the user’s consumption
behavior.   From the next time, therefore, an inquiry could be sent from the server center,
asking, for example, “do you still have plenty of beer?”


                                                                                           Supermarket, convenience store
    User                                              Service provider                     , shopping arcade, etc.
                      Product info.
                       Order placement
                                                                         Order placement
                         Purchase                         User
                                                         membership      Product charges
                                                           DB
                                                                           Commission
                       Product delivery                                    Subscription fee
                              Service registration/
 Menu suggestion                entry fee                   Commission
                              Food purchase charge

                   Service register/entry fee
                       Billing for purchase       Platform
                                                     Provider
                        Payment




                         Figure 2-6: Food Manager                  (Conceptual Drawing)


- Overview of Evaluations by Potential Service Providers
 Comments were collected from both home appliance manufacturers, who provide
info-appliances that serve as the foundation of this service in the home, and food retailers
and food delivery companies.              The provision of this service assumes the involvement and
coordination of various players from different fields, including the two entities mentioned
above as well as service platform providers.                          Comments from service providers also
suggested that this service could be offered in diverse patterns, and various entities could
become the primary provider of this service.                      While this service is considered sufficiently

                                                             28
viable for the future, no concrete steps have been taken for offering the service through the
coordination amongst multiple players at this point.
 From the perspective of user convenience, it was proposed for 4G mobile systems to create
a mechanism in which the IDs and passwords for multiple services be managed in a
comprehensive manner by a dedicated authentication organization.        Also, since the service
is rooted in people’s lives at home, it was regarded important to deploy business and create
billing models that fit the behavioral patterns of those who primarily do the grocery shopping
such as housewives and the way information is used at home.


                          Table 2-8:   Evaluations on Food Manager

            Related Entities’ Evaluations and Expectations on this Application
Evaluation on the Mobile communications is suited for timely provision of information
assumed application   such as clearance of inventory.     Ensuring reliability (traceability) of
                      food is a great challenge for food retailers in general. Being able to
                      convey information precisely is important to gain confidence, and
                      mobile service may be able to play a role here. Mobile phones could be
                      used for the settlement of commodity purchase at shops.      In home
                      networks, it is important to understand that network configuration or
                      service lineup may vary depending on family composition, or the degree
                      of unity among individual members in the family.
Evaluation         on Demand for service should exist as it can heighten users’ convenience.
assumed      business Home appliance makers may be able to provide service by themselves
model                 under own brand, but there could be other options including joint service
                      offering with other players such as food retailers. Making a business
                      by “supplies” (e.g., food, food information, traceability information,
                      and various others) may also be feasible.
Required conditions When the behavioral patterns of housewives are taken into account,
for the service to be hooking up not only large-scale store chains but also local shopping
viable                arcades to the information network is important.
Issues/   Comm.       None
requests feature
and       Terminal    An input interface easy to input characters for ordering or selecting
require-              products. Must develop into a media that can display not only
ments                 character information on small screens but also a wide range of other
                      information.
          Other       A service mechanism or authentication technique that avoid the need for
          technology users to input multiple IDs or password for each different service.
          Tariff      Inexpensive communication charges. Could be better if two billing
          structure   mechanisms (one for individuals and another for household) are
                      provided.
          Legal       None
          system
          Other       Establishment of an authentication scheme that allows users to use the
          issues      service securely and easily. It has to be a reliable mechanism for the
                      user, and should not need to perform different ID authentication for each
                      service.
                      A mechanism to comprehensively manage personal authentication for
                      various services by a public third-party organization. (This ensures
                      safe authentication for users, and avoids the need for them to manage
                      multiple IDs for each service. The bill to users can be bundled into a
                      single bill, too).

                                              29
2.3.1.6 Disaster Insurance
- Overview of Service
  For example, when somebody is crushed under the debris in a large-scale earthquake, the
  locating capability of cellular phones can provide precise information as to the location of
  this person—the terminal is always connected to the Internet unless it is broken—and
  enables rescue activities to be undertaken swiftly.
  This service enables search of people holding a terminal within a certain area regardless of
  the carrier.


                   Rescue, paramedics                           Service provider                      Disaster Site (user)
    Displays                   Designate wanted area
    current location             thru pen input….
             (
    and destination                                                            Search terminals                       ting,ring !
                                                                                  within area

                                                       search
                                                                                     Location info.
                                                                                     Personal info        ting,ring         ting,ring

                                                       search
                                                       result

                                                                                                                       ting,ring
                           Terminal location is
                              indicated in blinks
      Family    Contact family                                          Disaster insurance premium           ting,ring
             using personal info.
                                                                                 Insurance premium


                                                                   Platform      Carrier terminal
      Hospital                                                     provider
                 Obtain medical record                                             Entry fee          Notifies location by
                   from home doctor                                                                       ring tone
                   using personal info.

                                                                      Rescue


                             Figure 2-7: Disaster Insurance               (Conceptual Drawing)


- Overview of Evaluations by Service Providers
 Entities who are requested to provide safety and reliability service for consumers
commented that they might participate in offering these services in case of infrequent
disasters or accidents.              The most likely candidates are government institutions.                          Officials in
information sections of municipal governments covered in the survey pointed out that this is
one of the areas that draws the largest attention of municipalities.
 Private institutions, on the other hand, suggested that while the needs for such services
amongst users are strong, they are not likely to be used on a paid basis.                                A business model
predicated upon automatic subscription upon the purchase of mobile phones                                     (without users
being aware of it) may therefore be desirable due to the strong user needs and social
necessity for such services.                And since this is a highly important service to cater to potential
emergencies, it was also considered desirable to equip not only cellular phones and PDAs but
also wrist watches, etc., with communications capability in the future.

                                                                 30
                         Table 2-9: Evaluations on Disaster Insurance

            Related Entities’ Evaluations and Expectations on this Application
Evaluation on the The application is assumed sufficiently viable.         Being able to access
assumed application   primary information is important in disasters, thus mobile phones carried
                      by people all the time could be a vital means for obtaining information.
Evaluation         on About 90% of the respondents of the user survey said disaster
assumed      business information is necessary, but only 5% were willing to pay for the use of
model                 service. It is therefore desirable for carriers to implement a business
                      model in which subscription to this service is made automatically upon
                      the purchase of mobile devices.
                      Entities that are responsible for providing safety and reliability to users,
                      such as government bodies and mass media, showed interests in
                      providing disaster information as content, or introducing a mechanism
                      for service provision.
Required conditions A business model in which subscription is made without users’
for the service to be awareness. Meticulous consideration must be given to the structure of
viable                the service (such as the entities operating the service/system) to ensure
                      that it works in the event of a disaster. If the information network
                      cannot function normally in daily use, it will never work in a disaster.
Issues/   Comm.       Certainty and stability of connection. (Connectible from anywhere, and
requests feature      never disrupted even in traffic concentration).
and       Terminal    Terminals that can always be carried by user are required from the
require-              viewpoint of providing disaster information and insurance.
ments                 Communications capability and service features must be embedded in
                      various products carried by users such as watches.
          Other       None
          technology
          Tariff      There are needs for disaster information, but the service may not be used
          structure   on a charged basis. Business model that is not based on billing to users
                      is essential.
          Legal       None
          system
          Other       Social acceptance for receiving emergency information (such as
          issues      disaster information) in public space.




                                               31
2.3.1.7 Mobile Administrative Services
- Overview of Service
  Users can instantly access information and receive various administrative services from
national/local governments from a mobile terminal from home or offices.
            - Application for various documents/certificates
            - Tax payment, filing for income tax return
            - Issuance of maternity health record book, submission of birth report, application
              for baby health examination, and other health services
            - Voting, etc.




                Seal impression certificate
                Resident certificate                                                                          Settlement companies
     User       Copy of family register         Service provider (Gov. offices)
                Tax payment                                                                                          Bank
                Voting                                            Revenues &       Proxy settlement
                Application for benefits                          expenditures
                                                                                                                 Card companies
                     Authentication/issuance                      Residents


                     Provision of terminal                        Health/welfare                                Medical institutions
                                                                                    Birth report, apply for
                     (or partial subsidy)
                                                                                    maternity health record book
                                                                  Election
                     Automatic delivery
                     of related info.
                     to users
                                                                             Authentication
                                                                                                                      Money flow

                                                      Authentication bodies                                           Service flow


                Figure 2-8:          Mobile Administrative Service                       (Conceptual Drawing)


- Overview of Evaluations by Service Providers
 Many requirements were raised for the terminals in order to apply mobile communications
to administrative services.              Easy-to-use terminals for anyone, regardless of age or literacy of
technology, were pointed out as indispensable to allow use of mobile communications for
administrative services.                    Existing cellular phones are insufficient in this regard.
Furthermore, since the service assumes transactions of important information, realization of
security levels that allow the use of terminals only by their true owners was also called for.
 In addition, it was suggested that if governments could provide a very generic personal
authentication service as an evolved version of the above service, it might become a highly
useful service.       The image of this service is that government bodies realize simple personal
authentication methods needed for various social activities through the use of mobile
terminals and mobile communications.




                                                                   32
                  Table 2-10: Evaluations of Mobile Administrative Service

            Related Entities’ Evaluations and Expectations on this Application
Evaluation on the The application seems realistic as a future image.         The use of mobile
assumed application   phones, which can be carried by people all the time, seems most useful
                      and highly feasible for government services that ensure the “safety” of
                      residents. “Safety applications” may be more important than
                      introducing electronic/mobile communications means for government
                      procedures. It would be useful if administrative bodies could realize
                      generic personal authentication services through the use of mobile
                      communications.
Evaluation         on In the case of services that use dedicated terminals (like PDAs), the
assumed      business cost shall be born partly by users or the terminal may be provided free of
model                 charge to users.
Required conditions Revision of legal system is needed.
for the service to be Terminals that can be used by anyone need to be developed.
viable
Issues/   Comm.       None
requests feature
and       Terminal    Terminals easy to use for anyone regardless of age or technical literacy
require-              are indispensable for administrative services.     Security that guarantees
ments                 the use only by the terminal owner must be established.
                      Simple but advanced authentication techniques should be implemented
                      in terminals as standard features to use as a generic means for
                      authentication.
          Other       None
          technology
          Tariff      None
          structure
          Legal       Revision in legal system is needed to receive service via networks
          system      instead of visiting government offices.
          Other       None
          issues




                                               33
2.3.2 Industry’s Expectations and Requests to 4G Mobile Systems


    This section summarizes the expectations and requests from the industry concerning 4G
mobile systems, based on the evaluations and expectations raised for each application and
business model in the previous section.       The opinions and requests here were made from the
standpoints of the business entities in various industries irrespective of their feasibility.
Sufficient consideration should be given to these requirements for mobile services to flourish
in full scale in each industry.



2.3.2.1 Expectations and Request to Communications Capabilities


- High Expectations for Transmission Speeds in the Order of 100Mbps
    Many industry sectors showed great expectations for the transmission rate of about
100Mbps targeted by 4G mobile systems.                This enables, for instance, the delivery of
high-quality video content or remote medical service transcending conventional concepts in
the medical industry.       However, as described below, many viewed that the transmission
speed is not necessarily the utmost priority for realizing mobile services in various sectors.


-     Certainty   and   Stability   of   Connection     is   Most   Important   in   Medical/Disaster/
Transportation-Related Sectors
    For some sectors, the certainty        (connectible from anywhere) and stability           (never
disrupted) of connection were regarded more important for providing full-scale mobile
services than enhanced transmission speeds.           These were considered indispensable for using
mobile communications in the sectors related to medical service or disaster.                   In the
transportation sector, where a number of mobile communication techniques have been
introduced or studied in conjunction with ITS          (Intelligent Transport System), it was pointed
out that various existing technologies are not well designed as a communications
infrastructure in moving environments like cars, and that this point must be given sufficient
consideration by carriers in studying the specifications for 4G mobile systems.


- Bandwidth Dedicated for Public Service should be Secured for a Public Infrastructure
    4G mobile systems are also assumed for use as a public infrastructure in the event of a
disaster, or for administrative services and emergency medical services.                There was a
proposal indicating the need to secure a dedicated bandwidth for use as a public service
infrastructure that provide with sufficient level of connection certainty and stability.


- Security of Communications is Indispensable Particularly for Medical/Settlement/Content
Services
    Ensuring security with no fears of data tapping was strongly requested by many industries.
In particular, this was regarded indispensable for the realization of medical services,

                                                  34
settlement for mobile ordering, and content delivery.



2.3.2.2 Expectations and Requests to Terminal Features


- Terminal/File Specifications Must be Unified among Carriers and Manufacturers
 The use of different description languages, file formats and encoding specifications by
carriers, terminal manufacturers and different generations of technologies has imposed a
significant burden on the content providers for existing 2.5G and 3G mobile services.        The
4G mobile systems are assumed to provide services to a wide range of terminals, including
cellular phones, information appliances, car-mount terminals and wearable terminals like
watches.      It is requested that studies be performed with an aim to achieve unified
specifications, so that content, applications and other services can be smoothly provided to
various terminals.


- Sophisticated Features must be Offered at Affordable Prices
 Setting the terminal prices within affordable levels for the youth segment hold the key for
proliferation particularly in entertainment services, which are primarily used by youngsters.
Enhancements of available features due to technical innovation and provision of terminals at
acceptable price levels for users should be achieved simultaneously.


- Mobile Terminals Need to Become a Media to Present Product Information Attractively and
Effectively
   From the viewpoint of service providers, existing cellular phones are not satisfactory to
effectively present product information.    Many providers have great expectations that future
mass-user terminals be realized as media capable of presenting a wide range of product
information in an attractive and effective manner.


- Universal Input Interface Easy to Use for Anyone is a Must
 An input interface that can be used easily by anyone, including entry-level IT users, the
elderly and handicapped, is called for.    Especially, in administrative services, there must not
be any barriers that discriminates a certain user group, thus an interface must be developed
taking into account that the level of technical literacy or physical conditions may vary
significantly among the users.   This is also true for the Food Manager application as well as
other services targeted at a wide range of ordinary users.



2.3.2.3 Expectations and Requests to Authentication and Other Peripheral Techniques


- Advanced Authentication Techniques Must be Provided at Low Cost
 Highly sophisticated authentication techniques are required in some fields of services, such

                                                35
as the settlement of “mobile ordering” or content delivery.        In these services, authentication
and billing must be realized at an adequate cost vis-à-vis the expected revenues from the
settlement/delivery of services.         In other words, highly sophisticated authentication
techniques make business sense only if they can be realized at a reasonable cost.         The upper
limits of such cost are expected to become evident in due course in each industry.


2.3.2.4 Expectations and Requests to Authentication/Billing Model


- Billing Model with a Great Degree of Flexibility Not Monopolized by Carriers Need to be
Studied
 The current system in which carriers solely performs billing on one hand offers convenience
to users providing them with a single contact for billing. On the other hand, however, this
system is considered inflexible from the standpoint of service providers.               Studies on a
mechanism that offers more flexibility are requested for the billing model of future mobile
services.


- Expectations for Collective Management of ID/Password by Third-Party Authentication Bodies
 Today, the need to manage separate IDs and passwords for each individual service is
considered a burden on the part of users.        It is thus requested to establish a mechanism and
authentication    technologies   that    allow   the   use   of   multiple   services   with   simple
authentication.



2.3.2.5 Expectations and Requests to Revision of Legal System


- Establishment of a Legal Framework for Personal Information Protection is Important
 Creating of an adequate legal framework is indispensable for introducing network services
in medical/administrative fields.       This is also a vital issue for many other service sectors
that handle user information such as settlement and content delivery.


- Revision of Legal System is Indispensable to Realize Medical/Administrative Services
Leveraging IT
 Medical and administrative services are the two sectors that have many legal restrictions
when the use of networks is considered.       The first step to be taken therefore is to technically
verify that the use of mobile communications for these services is safe and offers great
convenience to users.    And this message should be conveyed widely to users and related
industries as the second step.



2.3.2.6 Expectations and Requests to Other Important Issues


                                                  36
- Establishment of a Mechanism for Rights Clearance is Indispensable for Content Delivery
 The issue of rights clearance in online content delivery has been a huge impediment for
creating new types of content delivery businesses.    Since there are strong demands for this
service amongst the users, coordination towards the establishment of a mechanism in the
industry should be facilitated on the back of social expectations, while preparing necessary
legal frameworks at the same time.




                                              37
3. Studies on the Requirements to Realize Applications

3.1 Requirements from the Perspective of Business Models


3.1.1 Categorization of Requirement and Primary Features
   In the studies on the requirements for each business model, the requirements were largely
divided into the five categories below, putting similar items in the same category for the sake
of easy handling.


-Interface      (Open, connectible with various devices))
Interface      between     devices,   human-machine         interface    (HMI),     formats   of
documents/protocols, etc.
-Intelligence    (User-friendly, Autonomous)
Voice recognition, image recognition, voice synthesis, AI, HMI, search, authentication, data
compression/extension algorithms, etc.
-Quality     (Stable, Inexpensive)
High reliability, security, authentication, tariff/charges, etc.
-Social Issues     (Security protection, legal framework)
Protection of personal information, copyright protection, accessibility, etc.
-Operation
Standardization of data format, data update, social rules, etc.


 Take note that some requirements are included in more than one category; for example,
“human-machine interface” is included in both “Interface” and “Intelligence” categories.
 To ensure consistency with Chapter 4, each requirement is expressed as “main features”.
Similar items in the “main features” were put together, to extract the “main features
categories”.       Then, the “main feature categories” were classified into the five requirement
categories mentioned above, which are presented in Table 3-1 below.


                 Table 3-1:    Categorization of Requirements and Main Features


               5 Requirement Categories                   Main Feature Categories
       Interface                                Standard format
                                                Network protocol standardization
                                                Standardization of external interface
                                                specifications
                                                System compatibility
                                                Media compression
       Intelligence                             Enhancement of man-machine interface
                                                Enhancement of database
                                                Automatic information delivery/receiving
                                                Search engine
                                                Location determination

                                                 38
        Quality                                Network quality
                                               High reliability
                                               Authentication/security
                                               Display device
        Social issues                          Cost
                                               Administration
                                               Laws and regulations
                                               Protection
                                               Commonly accepted idea in society
        Operation                              System management
                                               Radio power control
                                               Large-capacity battery
                                               Passive power supply

3.1.2 Requirements for Each Business Model
 To find out and analyze the requirements for each business model, a survey was conducted,
whose results are presented in this section.


3.1.2.1 Medical Data Provision Service
 Many requirements were found in the “Interface” category         (such as a “human-machine
interface that can be used by anyone without errors” or “formats to describe medical
information”) and the “Social Issues” category      (such as “all medical institutions need to
take part in the scheme” “unified format for medical information”, “a mechanism for data
update after service is provided --e.g., information to be written by medical institutions and
approved by user” and “digital divide”).


3.1.2.2 Navigation System
 There were many requirements that could be classified into the “Intelligence” category,
(e.g., “cruising assistance, driving support, driver monitoring”, “mechanism to provide
dispersed information including multiple detour routes to avoid heavy traffic in a specific
detour route when traffic information is provided”) and the “Interface” category      (like “an
intelligent human-machine interface that does not disturb driving” or a “unified data
input/output interface that can handle various information on the car, peripheral areas or user,
etc.)


3.1.2.3 Ultimate Content Player
 Many of the requirements came from the “Social Issues” category          (like “mechanism to
protect copyrights and intellectual property rights and prevent storage of information” and
“protection of users’ personal information”), and the “Quality” category       (such as “a safe
authentication/billing system that prevents accidents upon the purchase of contents/tickets”
and “a system that prohibits copying”).


3.1.2.4 Mobile Ordering
 There were many requirements related to the “Intelligence” category         (e.g., “The agent

                                               39
feature automatically obtains information after making a judgment on the required product
from printed materials, and can respond to questions from users          (AI)”, “a search engine
which can send necessary information to users and is equipped with electronic settlement
capabilities”, and “image recognition to identify products”) as well as the “Social Issues”
category    (including “protection of personal information”, “coexistence with existing
distribution systems” and “communications charges”).


3.1.2.5 Food Manager
 Many requirements were raised in relation to the “Intelligence” category               (such as
“mechanism to propose the best menu based on user’s taste or the food items currently
remaining in the refrigerator” and a “human-machine interface that can be easily used by
people who are uncomfortable using computers”) and the “Social Issues” category
(including “communications charges” “the service may deprive users of the fun of shopping
based on the mood of the day” and “digital divide”).


3.1.2.6 Disaster Prevention/Countermeasures
 There were many requirements that can be classified into the “Intelligence” category       (e.g.,
“location determination inside the area” and “the system should be able to confirm whether
or not the terminal and user are distant from each other”) and the “Quality” category         (for
example, “terminal should be robust so that it would not break in a disaster but still be small
and light   enough for daily use”, “terminals should be able to communicate even if they are
buried under ground”)


3.1.2.7 Mobile Administrative Service
 The requirements were mostly found in the “Social Issues” category          (e.g., “the need for
enhancing existing systems and promoting their demand”, and “review and compliance of
legal system in light of the migration to a new system for administrative work including
election management”) and the “Quality” category               (including “security and history
management feature for electronic documents” and “high-level authentication feature for
access”).


3.1.3 Main Feature Category for Each Business Model
 Next, the survey results showing the primary requirements in the “main feature categories”
for each business model are presented below.


3.1.3.1 Medical Data Provision Service
 The survey results showed that there were many requirements whose “main feature
categories” can be classified into “authentication/security”     (such as “selection of data to be
provided based on the recognition or qualification of the person inputting the data” or “the
ability to distinguish and authenticate the user by fingerprints”), or into the “enhancement of
man-machine interface”    (such as “a human-machine interface allowing input/output without

                                               40
errors for anyone” or “voice recognition/synthesis), or, into the “standard format”                  (like
“unified framework for semantic expression of documents so that documents of different
formats can be converted        (semantic web, etc.)” or “format of medical information”).


3.1.3.2 Navigation System
 There were many requirements whose “main feature categories” can be classified into
“automatic information delivery/receiving”               (like “mechanism to provide dispersed
information including multiple detour routes to avoid heavy traffic in a specific detour route
when traffic information is provided”) and into “enhancement of man-machine interface”
(such   as    “cruising   assistance,   driving    support,      driver   monitoring”   or    “intelligent
human-machine interface that does not disturb driving”)


3.1.3.3 Ultimate Content Player
 Many of the requirements were related to “authentication/security” under the “main feature
categories”       (such    as     “protection     of    users’    personal    information”,     “a   safe
authentication/billing system that prevents accidents upon the purchase of contents/tickets”,
and a “system that prohibits copying”).


3.1.3.4 Mobile Ordering
 There were many requirements relating to “authentication/security” under the “main feature
categories”    (e.g., “protection of personal information”, and “a search engine which can
send necessary information to users and is equipped with electronic settlement capabilities”).


3.1.3.5 Food Manager
 Many of the requirements came from the “enhancement man-machine interface” under the
“main feature categories”       (like “mechanism to propose the best menu based on user’s taste
or the food items currently remaining in the refrigerator” and a “human-machine interface
that can be easily used by people who are uncomfortable using computers”


3.1.3.6 Disaster Prevention/Countermeasures
 There were many requirements associated with “high reliability” under the “main feature
categories”    (such as “terminal should be robust so that it would not break in a disaster but
still be small and light enough for daily use”, “terminals should be able to communicate even
if they are buried under ground”).


3.1.3.7 Mobile Administrative Service
 There were many requirements that are classified into “authentication/security” under the
“main feature categories”        (e.g., “security and history management feature for electronic
documents” and “high-level authentication feature for access”).




                                                   41
3.1.4 Core Main Feature Categories
 As a result of the above, it was concluded that the following are the core “main feature
categories” for each business model:


-Medical Data Provision Service
“Authentication/security”, “Enhancement of man-machine interface” and “Standard format”


-Navigation System
“Automatic information delivery/receiving” and “Enhancement of man-machine interface”


-Ultimate Content Player
“Authentication/security”


-Mobile Ordering
“Authentication/security”


-Food Manager
“Enhancement of man-machine interface”


-Disaster Prevention/Countermeasures
“High Reliability”


-Mobile Administrative Services
“Authentication/security”


 The above indicates that “Authentication/security” is required as the “main feature
categories” for four business models    (“Medical Data Provision Service”, “Ultimate Content
Player”, “Mobile Ordering” and “Mobile Administrative Service”), while “Enhancement of
man-machine interface” was raised for three            (“Medical Data Provision Service”,
“Navigation System” and “Food Manager”).       Put it another way, the result also suggests that
these two categories can cover the “main feature categories” for most of the business models
except for “Disaster Prevention/Countermeasures”.
 In summary, when the requirements are considered by the “main feature categories”,
“authentication/security” and “enhancement of man-machine interface” bear importance.



3.2 Requirements from Users’ Perspectives


3.2.1 Examples of 4G Mobile Users      (User Groups Requesting Service)
 As part of the requirements for the assumed 4G mobile services, the user groups requesting
the use of service have been analyzed for each of the seven business models.              As a

                                              42
consequence, the user groups were categorized into the five categories of users,
manufacturers, operators, service providers and public service providers from the viewpoint
of the persons using the service, the provider of the service and the system used for the
provision of service.
    The respective user groups requesting the use of service in each application were
categorized as follows.


-Medical Data Provision Service: Physicians, pharmacists, patients and system designers
were divided into categories of “users” and “manufacturers”.
-Navigation System: Advertisers, drivers/users, equipment manufacturers, service operators,
government entities, the handicapped and elderly          (who are in weaker positions in the
transportation system), delivery companies and automakers were categorized into “users”,
“manufacturers”, “service providers” and “public service providers”.
-Ultimate Content Player: Content developers, content distributors, equipment users, content
provider industry, movie theaters, content creators and the entire industry were put into the
categories of “users”, “manufacturers” and “service providers”.
- Mobile Ordering: Users/consumers and the distribution industry were classified into “users”
and ”operators”.
- Food Manager: Users/consumers, home appliance manufacturers, food retailers, system
developers for Food Manager, food manufacturers, shops and copyright holders were
categorized as “users”, “manufacturers” and “service providers”.
-     Disaster   Prevention/Countermeasures:    Divided    into   the   categories   of   “users”,
“manufacturers” and ”public service providers”.
- Mobile Administrative Service: Government institutions, users/residents, municipal
employees, related political parties and stakeholders were categorized into “users”,
“manufacturers” and “public service providers”.


    Table 3-2 provides a systematic list of user groups described above.
    In compiling this list, the user groups were classified into different categories based upon
the following perspectives; requests relating to the use of service; requests arising from the
development and production of system and equipment; requests from the operation of system
and networks; request relating to the provision of general services, and; requests from the
viewpoint of providing public services.
    Also, because it was necessary to consider the requirements that may apply horizontally
across different applications, the users groups were categorized based on their commonality
with respect to the service.
    Furthermore, an example of the relationship amongst different user groups is illustrated in
Figure 3-1.      Please be noted that this is merely an example, and various other types of
relationship could apply depending on the structure of the business model.




                                                43
              Table 3-2:   Categorization of User Groups Requesting Service


                                                                               Public
 Business                                                     Operat Service
             User Groups Requesting Service      User Maker                   Service
  Model                                                         or   Provider
                                                                              Provider
Medical       Physician                           X
Data          System Designer                           X
Provision     Nurse                               X
Service       Patient                             X
              Pharmacist                          X
Navigation Advertiser                                                   X
System        User/driver                         X
              Equipment manufacturer                    X
              User                                X
              The weak (handicapped, elderly)     X
              Service provider                                          X
              Delivery companies                                        X
              Automakers                                X
              Government institutions                                            X
Ultimate      Content developer                         X
Content       Content distributor                                       X
Player        Equipment user                      X
              Content usage industry              X
              Movie theater                                             X
              Entire industry                                           X
Mobile        User/consumer                       X
Ordering      Distribution industry                             X
Food          Food Manager users (consumer)       X
Manager       Home equipment manufacturer               X
              Food retailer                                             X
              System     developer    for Food          X
              Manager
              Food manufacturer                         X
              Shops                                                     X
Disaster      User/residents                      X
Prevention/ Manufacturer                                X
 Countermea Government bodies                                                    X
         sure
Mobile        Government bodies                                                  X
Administrat User/residents                        X
ive
Service       Municipal employee                                                 X
              Related political party             X
              Related stakeholder                       X




                                           44
                                       Fee/ charges
                                     Service/equipment                  Service
                                                                        provider
                      End                     Operator
                      user
                                                                      Public service
                                                                      provider




                                              Manufacturer


                  Figure 3-1:   Relationship among User Groups               (Example)


3.2.2 Required Conditions for Each User Group              (type of users)
 The starting point toward the realization of 4G mobile services should be the analysis of
user groups requesting the service.         To create values in the service, it is important to
understand that different needs and values exist amongst the users             (who receive the service),
the service provider, the operator providing the system, and manufacturers that supplies the
system equipment.     The required conditions for each user group, which were compiled
taking the above into consideration, are summarized below.


- Operators’ Requirements
Robust authentication, interoperability between systems and information communications
with high security levels.


- Requirements from Public Service Providers
Safety, cryptography features, unification of specifications among different models,
ubiquitous environment, authentication system, highly reliable info-communications, and
mobile networks that can operate in disaster situations


- Requirements from Service Providers
User authentication, protection of copyrights/intellectual property rights, mechanism that
prevents storage of images, privacy protection, security, QoS, and info-communications with
high reliability and security


- Manufacturers’ Requirements
Rights protection, standardization


- Users’ Requirements

                                                      45
Standardization of protocols, easy-to-use HMI, voice recognition/synthesis, agent feature,
multi-connectivity, database/search engine, highly reliable info-communications, personal
authentication and disclosure of data


  These requirements are summarized in a systematic list in Table 3-3 below.


  User acceptance is a critical factor for the spread of system.       However, the requirements
above suggest that users want to see enhancements in HMI and ease of use.             Furthermore,
reduction in costs and ensured security for privacy protection were also deemed important.
  As for other areas, operators attached importance on system interoperability, public service
providers on authentication/security and standard formats, and manufacturers rights
protection and standardization.
  For the users, seamless communication environments and ensured security for privacy
protection ranked higher in importance over the fast-speed large-capacity communications
capabilities of 4G mobile systems, due to their needs to be ale to communicate without being
aware of any restrictions.   Enhancement in security levels was regarded more important for
the providers of the service than for the receivers of service.
  Moreover, enhanced compatibility between systems is important for creating many services
on 4G mobile systems.


                       Table 3-3:   Requirements from Each User Group


                                                                                        Public
                                                                           Service
                Requirements                    User Maker Operator                     service
                                                                           provider
                                                                                       provider
QoS                                                                            X
Safety                                              X                                     X
Unification between various models                                                        X
Mechanism that prevents image storage                                          X
Agent feature                                       X
Voice recognition/synthesis                         X
Advanced authentication                                            X
Personal authentication and data disclosure         X
Mobile networks that works in disasters                                                   X
System compatibility                                               X
Highly reliable info-communication                  X                          X
Security                                                                       X
Info-communication with high level of                              X           X
security
Protection of intellectual property rights                                     X
Rights clearance                                         X                     X
Easy-to-use HMI                                     X
Database/search engine                              X
Authentication system                                                                     X
Cryptography features                                                                     X
Standardization                                          X

                                               46
Privacy protection                                                          X
Standardization of protocols                       X
Multi-connectivity                                 X
User authentication                                                         X
Ubiquitous environment                                                                 X


3.3 To Expand Use Opportunities of 4G Mobile Services


3.3.1 Expected Benefits from 4G Mobile
 The benefits and effects expected by the adoption of the requirements described in the
previous section were identified based on the five categories in Section 3.1.     The results of
this analysis are presented in Table 3-4 below together with some sub-category information.


                         Table 3-4:    Expected Benefits by Category


            Category           Sub-category                   Expected benefits
         Interface       User interface        Improved ease of use
                                               Better acceptance of interface
                         System interface      Enhanced connectivity
                                               Acceptance of equipment from multiple
                                                  vendors
                         Service interface     Facilitates information sharing
         Intelligence    System                Enhancement in system capabilities
                                               Better coordination between systems
                         Service               Improved database search feature
                                               Enhancements in recognition/authentication
                                               techniques
                                               Improvements          in       ”manner”-related
                                               technologies
         Quality         System                Higher reliability for system
                                               Highly reliable path/channels
                         Service               Multi-grade service offering
                                               Protection of information
         Social Issues   System                Accelerates fair dissemination of system
                                               Encourages enrichment of information
                         Security              Prevents leakage of information, protects
                                               personal information
         Operation       System                Flexibility               in             system
                                               maintenance/administration
                                               Flexibility            in           information
                                               maintenance/management
                                               Accelerates spread of service

   The “Interface” category above includes the features that help improve the ease of use of
human interface so that anyone would be able to fully utilize the requested service, and other
service features, such as credible authentication to facilitate the acceptance of advanced
services and the feature that enables users make judgment based on image information, etc.


                                              47
The “system interface” in this category includes the acceptance of multiple vendors, so that
basic service could be used regardless of the carriers due to enhancements in interoperability.
The required features for “Enhanced connectivity” encompass protocol standards, expanded
interconnectivity with ubiquitous devices/information appliances through various gateways
(including home networks), and better response to emergencies by permitting access to
certain information in such circumstances through implementing a hierarchical structure in
information access authority.
   As for the “Intelligence” category, there are expectations for coordination amongst
systems and services, which enable automatic coordination between, for instance, the spot
where medical service is provided and personal information stored in hospitals, etc.
Automatic customization through personal agents was also requested, which, for example,
enables using personal preference data in the Food Manager service.          The use of location
information in advanced navigation systems also drew considerable expectations, as it could
eliminate the need for parcel delivery service providers to revisit the destination due to
absence, or provide early warning of accidents in conjunction with car-mount sensors, and
help prevent serious accidents.
   In the “Quality” category, in addition to higher reliability, the introduction of various
tariff structures depending on the provided quality was requested, which could develop into a
critical factor for introducing diversified services in the future.       For instance, disaster
prevention service could be offered to a certain degree as a public service, hence it is
requested to be ale to handle a portion of the billing separately.    The required image quality
may also vary depending on the type of service—the Food Manager or Mobile Ordering
applications are expected to offer superior quality so that users can adequately see images of
products, while the quality of images in mail attachments may not need to be as high.
Features capable of reflecting these differences of quality in the charges are required.       In
terms of terminal features, the ability to receive power supply from external sources through
contactless solutions will be needed in a disaster or other emergencies.      In other words, the
service quality could be offered in varying levels through a         separate control, such as an
emergency mode that runs with low power consumption and another mode for ordinary
circumstances.
   The central requirements in the “Social Issues” category included the enrichment of
offered functional classes so that anyone could fully utilize the desired features as the service
bears an increasingly public nature, acceleration of the uptake of service through
customization, and prevention of information leakage and use of personal information for
illegal purposes.
  From the viewpoint of “Operation”, flexibility of operation in terms of tariffs is of utmost
importance, because this is essential for providing services of a highly public nature, such as
disaster prevention and medical services.      Secondly, it is also required to operate services
in coordination with other businesses and industries    (e.g., bar codes, etc.)




                                               48
3.3.2 Requirements to Realize the Expected Benefits
Based upon the expected benefits for each category introduced in the previous section, the
requirements that need to be explored more deeply were roughly extracted, as they are
considered to hold the key for expanding usage opportunities going forward.         Take note that
qualitative changes in the technical requirements due to the evolution of services were not
particularly mentioned in detail in this section, although they are important because of the
expected growth in needs for higher reliability and safety as the services take root and play
an increasingly important role in the society as a life infrastructure.       This is because we
believed these items have already received great consideration in general.


- Enhancement/Establishment of Interoperability           (Particularly from the Viewpoint of
Interface)
    In case of a disaster, coordination of basic communications functions, for example, across
different carriers is required.    There are also strong requests in higher-layer services, like
medical applications, to enable an operator to access and make reference to the precious data
that had been set and input by another operator after converting them into a standard format.
As described above, there are expectations for enabling interoperability of basic features in
the infrastructure and to share and commonly use services and information in the higher
layers.    If this is enabled, it could be possible to provide a mobile service infrastructure that
serve as a more important lifeline for people’s lives, which may result in expanded usage
opportunities.


-    Coordination    between   Ubiquitous   Equipment/Information      Appliances      (From   the
Viewpoint of Interface, Intelligence)
    When we consider the coordination between ubiquitous devices         (such as wireless tags),
which will likely be used more widely going forward, and information appliances, it is
important to establish the higher-layer standard for the interface connecting ubiquitous
devices with home gateways and other equipment.         Because the functionality of many of the
ubiquitous devices is limited to very simple features, in some cases, it may not be possible to
communicate       using the conventional interface conditions applied between communications
terminals and servers.     Even in such cases, it would be possible to cultivate new attractive
services     (like Mobile Ordering or Content Player) by improving the connectivity control
and automatic processing features on the system side.                These features draw huge
expectations not only for the improvement of service quality, but also because of the
possibility of lowering equipment costs.


- Use of Location Information      (From the Perspective of Intelligence)
    If location information is used, not necessarily for the purpose of establishing
communications, but for more proactive purposes, it could lead to an expansion of usage
opportunities.      To date, many studies have been performed on this subject, and it is
important to explore possible ways of expansion through improving the precision of locating

                                                 49
or through the coordination with higher-layer services.        For example, improved precision
will make it possible to predict a pedestrian suddenly rushing out in front of the car and give
a warning to the driver beforehand, or precisely tell the location of a victim in an earthquake
or other large disasters to the rescue team.      In addition, through service coordination, as
mentioned earlier, it would become possible to eliminate the need of repeated delivery in
delivery services, or send emergency notices in the event of an accident by linking with the
car-mount sensors.       Opportunities for providing new services may further increase if users’
behavioral patterns are applied to not only navigation services but also to information
processing by personal agents explained below.
 The increasing trend of mobile utilization in daily lives and the reduction in the size of
mobile terminals to wearable levels will all contribute to enabling the above.       However, in
addition to improvements in the location determination accuracy, implementation of a
detection function to know whether the user is carrying a mobile device needs to be
considered as well.


- Diversification of Operation Modes           (From the Viewpoints of “Social Issues” and
“Operation”)
 As the areas in which mobile communications is employed expand, various ways of usage
(including the operation conditions for various qualities or emergencies, as described above)
need to be supported.     The ability that allows meticulous control of terminals, i.e., to change
tariff rates between high/ordinary qualities, or force the terminal to turn on the power or
vibrate in the event of an emergency, is desired.     It is also necessary to suppress the output
power in medical institutions and limit the use to receiving or off-line modes only.           To
ensure that anyone could easily use these capabilities, intelligent assistance features such as
the coordination with agent features explained in the next section may be needed not only in
the terminal but in the system side as well.


- Personal Agent      (From the Viewpoint of “Intelligence”)
 It is important to further promote customization without imposing burdens on the users in
order to fully take advantage of mobile’s closeness to people’s lives.     Expectations on agent
technologies that support users who may be in various conditions are mounting from the
perspective of accessibility, too.   However, when the required amount of processing and the
volume/types of data that need to be referred to are taken into account, function sharing
between the system and terminals may be necessary to realize service economically with an
adequate response time.      In this case, it is extremely important to implement all possible
measures in the system for the protection of personal information referred to             (profile
information).


3.4 Requirements from Social/Institutional Perspectives


 A number of issues need to be resolved for the realization of 4G mobile systems.         Among

                                                50
them, the requirements from social/institutional perspectives are summarized in this section
as the challenges seen from the users side.
 The social/institutional requirements were first extracted based on the analysis of
requirements, and then classified into the following nine categories after putting together
similar ones.


- Requirements Relating to Law
Revision of the Medical Practitioners Law, legal issues concerning disclosure of medical
information to individuals, revision of laws associated with the migration of administrative
operations to a new system, punishment for violation of information protection obligations,
etc.


- Requirements Relating to Government Administration
Administrative policies, electronic file-based resident’s card/seal impression certificate, etc.,
collaboration between central and local governments for existing administrative services
including the Basic Residential Registers Network System, etc., countermeasures for
unemployment, among others


- Requirements Relating to Coordination
Coexistence with conventional distribution systems, upgrading and promotion of acceptance
of existing systems


- Requirements Relating to Fairness
Digital divide, priority in selecting from similar files and products, rule-making for rescue
activities, etc.


- Requirements Relating to Socially Accepted Ideas/Practices
Disturbance of other walkers due to viewing/listening in public areas, awkwardness of using
3D spectacles in trains, privileged access to personal information in emergencies, depriving
fun of shopping, etc.


- Requirements Relating to Unified Standards
Unification of medical information data, unified Radio Frequency Identification         (RFID),
etc.


- Requirements Relating to Protection    (of Information, Rights, Users)
Personal authentication and data disclosure, copyrights, Intellectual Property Rights     (IPR),
protection of personal information, prevention of leakage of personal information, highly
reliable and secure communication paths, etc.


- Requirements Relating to Costs

                                                51
Communication charges, content service charges, billing system, etc.


- Requirements Relating to Harmful Effects from Use
Concerns against possible occurrence of visual/hearing difficulties.
Table 3-5 below summarizes the extracted requirements relating to social issues by category.


               Table 3-5: Requirements from Social/Institutional Perspectives


      Category                   Requirements                          Business Model
   Law               Revision of laws, e.g., Medical          Medical Data Provision Service
                     Practitioners Law
                     Revision     of    laws    concerning    Mobile Administrative Service
                     administrative procedures
                     Establishment of legal framework for     All models
                     information protection
   Government        Promotion by government’s initiative     Mobile Administrative Service
                     Re-employment         countermeasures    Mobile Administrative Service
                     against rationalization
   Coordination      Coexistence and compatibility with       Mobile Ordering
                     existing systems                         Mobile Administrative Service
                                                              Ultimate Content Player
   Fairness          Improved accessibility                   All models
                     Priority                                 Ultimate Content Player
                                                              Mobile Ordering
                                                              Disaster
                                                              Prevention/Countermeasure
   Socially          Countermeasures for use in public        Ultimate Content Player
   Accepted          areas
   Ideas/Practices   Permission of access to personal         Disaster
                     information in emergencies               Prevention/Countermeasure
   Unified           Unification of data formats              Medical Data Provision Service
   Standard          Unification of RFID                      Food Manager
   Protection        Highly reliable communication paths      All models
   (information,     Advanced authentication techniques       Medical Data Provision Service
   rights, users)                                             Disaster
                                                              Prevention/Countermeasure
                                                              Mobile Ordering
                                                              Mobile Administrative Service
                     Prevention of information leakage        All models
                     Privacy protection for individuals       All models
                     Protection of copyrights, IPRs           Ultimate Content Player
                     User      protection   from    illegal   Food Manager
                     transaction
   Cost              Inexpensive communication charges        All models
                     Inexpensive content service charges      All models
   Harmful effect    Prevention of occurrence of physical     Ultimate Content Player
   from use          difficulties

- Issues Relating to Law


                                              52
 To disseminate 4G mobile services, there are some legal issues to be resolved including the
revisions of laws.
 For the “Medical Data Provision Service”, since patients’ treatment information will be
exchanged between medical institutions and centrally managed by specific servers, revisions
need to be made in the Medical Practitioners Law and Medical Service Law in relation to the
storage and disclosure of patient’s treatment information.
 “Mobile Administrative Service” requires revisions in laws concerning the authorization of
electronic voting or law related to administrative works.
 Furthermore, it is requested to enforce strict legal measures against crimes that could cause
serious damages to the promotion of IT such as cyber terrorism, alteration and pretending,
which are also related to the “Issues Relating to Protection           (Information, Rights, User)”
below.


- Issues Relating to Government Administration
 There are certain roles to be played by the government for the proliferation of 4G mobile
services.
 Making various types of information available in electronic formats for the “Mobile
Administrative Service” is something that has to be promoted under government policies, and
of course the government is responsible for making necessary efforts to gain the
understanding on this matter from the general public.       Re-employment measures may also be
required,    as   the   realization   of   “Mobile    Administrative    Service”   could   facilitate
rationalization in administrative jobs.


- Issues Relating to Coordination
 From the viewpoint of protecting and maintaining compatibility with existing systems, 4G
mobile needs to create a system in which it can coordinate with existing technologies.
 “Mobile Ordering” is expected to accelerate direct distribution in which products are
delivered directly to the user from manufacturers or service providers without involving
retailers.   On the other hand, the conventional way of sales with products displayed at shops
will also remain, and so will the conventional distribution pattern in which merchandises are
delivered to retailers from manufacturers or distribution centers.         The coexistence of both
systems must be ensured to avoid the dysfunction of only either of them due to regional
differences or gap in use.
 As for “Mobile Administrative Service”, because the existing administrative system will
never disappear, good connectivity with existing systems and compatibility are required to
carry over streamline operations.
 A good example of coordination with existing industries would be the “Ultimate Content
Player”.     If it is possible to create a “request theater” where movies are run on the request of
multiple guests, coordination with movie theaters can be achieved and may lead to promoting
the use of theater facilities.


                                                 53
- Issues Relating to Fairness
 To ensure fair service provision to all, improvement in accessibility is necessary.
 In “Mobile Administrative Service”, there should not be any inequalities in the service
offering between different municipalities to make sure that the entire population can equally
benefit from the service.
 In the “Food Manager” service, the availability of service may differ between urban cities
and rural areas due to the gap in the number of shops.      The mobile terminals in this service
must be able to be used by the handicapped or elderly.         Proactive measures needs to be
taken to improve accessibility in order to avoid the “digital divide” problem, especially
amongst people who are in a weaker position in accessing information, such as those living
in remote areas, the handicapped or the elderly.
 Another element in fair service is the fairness of the priority of service.
 In “Disaster Prevention/Countermeasures”, who should be rescued first if locations of
multiple people were notified at once?       Traditionally, rescue activities were undertaken
depending on the circumstances; basically rescuing victims in the order of discovery, but
giving priority to the seriously wounded or others in weaker positions.        The priority issue
would become a new problem caused by the ability of 4G mobile to determine the locations
of multiple persons at the same time.      Naturally, rules must be created so that weaker or
severely injured persons could be given higher priority.
 Also, in the “Ultimate Content Player” or “Food Manager” services, the order of displaying
search results could become an issue.     A mechanism that does not mar fairness is necessary
for these issues, too.


- Issues Relating to Socially Accepted Ideas/Practices
 An environment that precludes improper use of services in light of today’s socially accepted
ideas and practices must be created for 4G mobile.
   To prevent users of “Ultimate Content Player” from disturbing others by enjoying the
service in certain public areas like trains or sidewalks, it is necessary to establish an
environment that encourages users to use the service while abiding by the moral codes.
 In “Disaster Prevention/Countermeasures”, when an emergency situation arises, personal
information will be accessed and used to make contacts to medical institutions or family
members, or location may be searched without the permission from the person.                It is
therefore necessary to provide an environment to gain the understanding of the public that
this is a mechanism limited for use in emergencies.        To this end, a solid system in which
these features operate only in emergencies must be constructed.


- Issues Relating to Unified Standards
  Depending on the usage of some 4G mobile services, there are certain fields that cannot be
realized unless the standards for the related technologies are unified.
 To enable the retrieval of patient’s medical information from anywhere in the “Medical Data
Provision Service”, a database is required for the exchange of information between medical

                                               54
institutions and to centrally control data written in certain data formats.    For this purpose,
the data of the medical information handled in this service must comply with a unified
format.
   In “Food Manager”, RFID          (Radio Frequency Identification) needs to be attached to
products to enable the refrigerator to control the information concerning the food items
inside, or to receive information at stores.   Just like the bar codes, which are now attached
to nearly every merchandise thanks to the creation of rules for bar codes, if RFIDs are
standardized, they will probably be attached to virtually every product, and a system that
take advantage of RFIDs would be made available.


- Issues Relation to Protection    (of Information, Rights, Users)
 What is indispensable for the spread of 4G mobile services is the protection of information,
rights and users.      Protection of information is applicable to all of the models introduced
herewith.   As personal data and location and commercial transaction data will be exchanged
electronically, the confidentiality of such information in the communication path must be
guaranteed with advanced security technologies.      It should also be possible to easily manage
the confidentiality of information at the side handling data.           On the other hand, an
environment that prevents and prohibits illegal conducts must be created by imposing severe
punishments for the leakage and alteration of information and pretending.
 In addition to the above, “Ultimate Player” requires some technical measures to protect
copyrights, as video information will be delivered to individual terminals in this service.
 “Mobile Ordering” is to some extent built upon the mutual trust between shops and users,
thus it would be beneficial if it is possible to construct a system that monitors sales activities
to prevent sellers from deceiving the users who are in a weaker position, and in the event of
an illegal practice, keeps evidence to prove such illegal acts.


- Issues Relating to Cost
 Users believe costs of service hold an important key for the spread of 4G mobile.            The
current level of cellular penetration was achieved primarily because the basic monthly fees
and communication tariffs had been lowered to affordable levels.        The remarkable increase
of mobile Web and mail users is also attributable to their reasonable price setting.           4G
mobile, too,      must therefore be offered at reasonable prices.    Its communication charges
should be comparable to the current levels, and content service should be made available at a
low price or free of charge.
 “Mobile Administrative Service” must be able to be used by virtually everyone.        Therefore,
for instance, when a user is to obtain a copy of resident card, the charges for issuance must
be the same as that of the existing method.     Otherwise, the service will not be accepted by
the population.


- Issues Relating to Harmful Effects from Use
 There might possibly be some harmful effects caused by the improved convenience of 4G

                                                55
mobile services.
 With the “Ultimate Content Player”, users will be able to see videos of their choice anytime
and anywhere.      As a consequence, they may end up staring at the screen for long hours, or
listening to music through headsets in large volume.      This could potentially cause some
problems in their physical conditions, such as visual/hearing difficulties, so actions to
provide users with caution for use will be needed.




                                              56
4. Features and Social Environments Required for the Realization of 4G
Mobile Systems

   In view of the studies undertaken hitherto, this Chapter contains the proposals concerning
the features and social environments required for 4G mobile systems from the five
perspectives of quality, interface, intelligence required for 4G mobile systems, and
operational and social challenges.
   The items raised below include many items that have already been addressed in the
conventional studies by experts or visions that have been promoted.             Nevertheless, we
believe that it still bears significance to reorganize them herewith in view of the expectations
from both users and the industry.      The items below are proposed with an aim to realize 4G
mobile systems that are truly useful for users and facilitate the creation of new markets.


4.1 Quality Required for 4G Mobile Systems
   4G mobile systems are required not only to offer higher transmission speeds, expressed
by “100Mbps”, but also to realize comprehensive and well-balanced service qualities, which
are represented by communications stability, safety, cost performance, usability in various
environments, and data storage, etc.


4.1.1 Realization of Transmission Rate Deemed Ideal for Various Service Fields
   4G mobile systems are required to enable use of large-capacity content, including
high-quality images, both on the move and in stationary environments.            The delivery of
content   assumed    here   is   not    only   uni-directional;   end-to-end    uni-cast/multicast
communications should also be provided without posing stress to users.         The system targets
to achieve super high-speed, interactive communications at 100Mbps on the move, and 1Gbps
in stationary environments in terms of communications speed that satisfy these requirements.


4.1.2 Ensuring Certainty and Stability of Connection
   The 4G mobile systems are required to constantly maintain stable communications
environment, regardless of the use environment—either on the move or stationary.           Use of
services comparable to what is already provided on desktop PCs, e.g., business
communications, viewing of TV and other video images, or playing games, should be enabled
even when users are traveling at high speeds, for instance, on highways or in bullet trains.
   The system is also required to provide tolerance against congestion, to enable stable
mobile communications even during a sudden increase of traffic caused by users’
concentration in certain areas (e.g., when users simultaneously download large volume of
data, or send and receive images at concert halls, etc.)   Stable connection must be secured in
mountainous areas and other locations that have not been sufficiently covered by
conventional mobile communications systems, too.           These requirements are essential to
utilize mobile communications as a lifeline service in the event of an emergency, and should
be realized by 4G mobile systems in order to enhance the reliability of mobile

                                                57
communications.


4.1.3 Realization of Multi-point, Interactive Real-Time Communications
   Use of video-based multimedia communications is projected to become commonplace in
4G mobile systems.       In addition to video mail and videophone service, smooth conversation
should be enabled in multi-point videoconferencing, which imposes a greater load on the
network.       In other words, video and voice of sufficiently high quality need to be
communicated in real time among multiple locations, keeping the delay to a level that does
not impede natural conversation among the users.


4.1.4 Provision of Flexible Communications Environments Responding to Diversified Service
Usage
   In 4G mobile systems, various types of communications for different purposes will be
realized     on   a   single   mobile   communications   infrastructure.    In   enabling   this,
communications quality sufficient for the service should be automatically provided without
the need for the users to make instructions or be aware of it.
   Communications performed by the users can be classified into different types, i.e.,
“high-speed/ wide-bandwidth” or “low-speed/narrow bandwidth”, and “real-time” or
“non-real time”, and the required bandwidth and other resources vary significantly depending
on the type of communications.          The 4G mobile networks are required to enable these
various forms of communications in an efficient manner through automatic allocation of
optimal bandwidth and routing.           One of the approaches considered for this is the
prioritization of guaranteed bandwidth.      An image of this is to attach priority depending on
the form of usage: users performing interactive, real-time video communications will be
given the highest priority, for instance, and the next in rank are the users receiving streaming
video.      It is also necessary to create a mechanism to separately assure bandwidth for highly
emergent communications, such as communications for medical purposes.


4.1.5 Highly Secure Communications
   Ensuring security is one of the most important issues for 4G mobile systems.        Personal
information, logs and paid contents stored in mobile terminals must be protected with a high
degree of certainty by leveraging highly accurate user authentication as a basis, and measures
to prevent illegal accesses to mobile terminals and servers from external devices should be
realized.      Sufficient protection against interception and cyber terrorism must also be
provided.


4.1.6 Sufficient Memory and Storage Capacity in Mobile Handsets
   Among the qualities required for the terminals of 4G mobile systems, achieving a good
balance between the processing capability for video and other contents and storage capability
is expected to become particularly important, when compared with systems prior to 3G.
   Enabling users to use video content without difficulty will be a critical factor for 4G

                                                58
mobile systems.      To enable this, mobile terminals need to provide a storage capacity for
storing music, movies, TV programs, games and other attractive contents.        An image of this
capacity is to allow users, for example, to carry around TV programs worth of one week or
multiple movie titles of their choice, and replay them anytime as they like.     For this, storage
with a capacity of over 100GB will have to be built inside a palm-size mobile terminal.        In
addition, processing capability and memory capacity to enable downloading such contents
without stress and read them out from the storage will also be required, and a well-balanced
configuration suitable for the service offerings of 4G mobile systems must be achieved as
well.


4.1.7 Realization of Lowe Power Consumption Terminals and Large-Capacity Battery
       Because 4G mobile systems will likely be used not only for simple communications but
also for listening/viewing of a wide variety of contents and videoconferencing, stricter
requirements will be applied on power consumption, including the extension of use hours to a
longer level than that of conventional mobile communications services.         The ideal solution
is to minimize the need for battery recharging through the development of low power
consumption battery and power generation techniques, and enable the use of terminals over a
sufficiently long period (e.g., one week without recharging) with a short battery recharge
time (e.g., approximately five minutes).
       To this end, multilateral approaches will have to be taken, including the development of
small-size, light weight, large-capacity batteries, rapid charging technology, reduction of
terminal power consumption, and implementation of fuel cells and solar batteries in terminals,
etc.


4.2 Interface Required for 4G Mobile Systems
       For 4G mobile systems, which aim to provide seamless and user-friendly services,
interface is an extremely important element.           The “seamless” aspect leads to the
requirements on inter-network or inter-system interfaces, while “user friendliness” is deeply
related to human interface.      On both of these aspects, 4G mobile systems are required to
offer remarkable advancements in the interfaces over conventional mobile communications
systems.


4.2.1 Realization of Seamless Environment for Use of Communications
       4G mobile systems are required to realize “seamless” communications environment and
features, which enable users to access service over multiple networks without the need to pay
attention to the difference of circuit types or carriers.      For instance, users may freely
combine or switch between wireless LAN, 4G mobile systems, PHS and 3G mobile systems
on the move, to always communicate over the optimal network route.               It may also be
conceivable to provide services aimed at enhancing users’ convenience by enabling the
connection with public telephone networks as a backbone, depending on their use conditions,
e.g., the area of use or calling toll free numbers.

                                                59
       In addition, communications systems and services that do not impose restrictions on the
available services due to the difference of circuits or carriers should also be realized.   Users
should always be able to access consistent services without any disruption caused by
authentication procedures, etc., regardless of the difference of service areas (e.g., city centers,
mountain areas, home market or abroad), or the difference of circuits and carriers.      This is a
requirement applicable not only to basic communications services but also to the entire
applications provided by 4G mobile services.
       On the other hand, in a seamless communications environments mentioned above, it is
also required to allow users to intentionally control the connection/disconnection to the
network at the users’ side.       For example, while the switching of circuits may be done
without users’ notice, it is necessary to allow users to easily confirm to where and how the
connection is made.       Also, for users who wish to control the communication circuits and
carrier, etc., on their own, the method to do so should be clearly presented.


4.2.2 Coordination with Ubiquitous Devices/Home Appliances
       4G mobile systems will not only serve as a media for communications, but also provide
means for connecting users with home appliances and various systems via the home network,
etc.     In other words, the system itself is required to function as a highly advanced interface
system.      To realize such features, it is required to establish a unified interface for
connecting 4G mobile systems with a wide range of other systems made available to the users.
In a ubiquitous network environment, in addition to conventional information devices, home
appliances, security equipment and car-mount terminals, any product or device (ubiquitous
devices) may possibly become an object of communications.
       For instance, in order to control home appliances and home security equipment using
mobile terminals, or to operate them from outside via home gateways, etc., the interface
between information appliances of different manufacturers must be aligned to realize a
unified connection between mobile terminals and various home appliances or security
equipment.
       The same applies to vehicular space such as inside private cars; to enable access and
control of various car-mount terminals from 4G mobile terminals, and from car-mount
terminals to various home appliances, the network protocol for the vehicular network must be
standardized, and a unified interface with 4G mobile system needs to be established to realize
the interconnection between car-mount terminals, mobile terminals, and home gateway.
       These interfaces should of course be interactive, and 4G mobile terminals should be able
to receive information from the connected information appliances, car-mount terminal, or
ubiquitous devices located indoors and outdoors, as necessary, and utilize such information.


4.2.3 Realization of an Advanced Human Interface
       Information provided over the 4G mobile systems is expected to be considerably larger in
volume and more diversified compared to the traditional mobile communications systems.
The percentage of non-text information like video is also projected to rise, it will thus

                                                60
become increasingly difficult to search the necessary information based on the conventional
“entire document search” or “directory” type approaches for presenting or searching
information.
   A conceivable way of information search for the future is a method based on matching of
voice or images.   A mechanism, which allows users to present key information by voice or
image, and the search system carries out the search after interpreting the key information, is
required.   In addition, not only the search system, but also the contents provided by 4G
mobile services are required to provide such new type of navigation or search key
information, which can handle intelligent search.


4.2.4 Realization and Implementation of Accessible Human Interface
   As the features and services offered by 4G mobile systems advance and diversify further
in the future, the average age of users is expected to rapidly increase in line with the aging of
the entire Japanese population.   The human interface of 4G mobile systems, therefore, must
be easy to use for anyone, including the elderly and the handicapped, regardless of their
operational literacy or physical conditions.
   First of all, because users need to make various types of inputs and instructions to 4G
mobile terminals, an input method that are less burdensome (or alleviates the burdens) to the
users must be realized and implemented.        For example, voice inputs instead of key operation,
or reduction of the times of operational inputs through the use of advanced operation
prediction schemes, are requested.
   Similarly, interface that supports users, enabling the use of various features and services
regardless of operational literacy, needs to be developed as well.     An interface that presents
the candidates of operation or assists operation, by intelligently predicting what users want to
do or what they do not understand, based on ambiguous instructions or questions is called for,
to assist users who are not well versed in the operations of equipment.
   Because of the small size of screens and keys, today’s mobile handsets are generally
difficult for use by the elderly or handicapped, but 4G mobile handsets should overcome this
issue and be easy to use for these users as well.       For example, it is necessary to consider
implementing the ability to read aloud the information on the screen by voice, input data
through voice recognition, and equipping the handsets with folding-type or roll-type displays,
or a connection interface with input devices for the handicapped.
   In addition, while user authentication is a centerpiece of security, we must avoid causing
excessive burdens to the users for the sake of security.       The user ID and password-based
authentication widely used today is too burdensome for the users; a more secure and
burden-free authentication method to replace the current solution must be realized in 4G
mobile systems.


4.2.5 Realization of an Interface Capable of Responding to Users’ Specific Needs
   The usage, features and services provided by 4G mobile systems are diverse.         Therefore,
universal terminal equipment usable by anyone needs to be provided.           On the other hand,

                                                 61
however, it is also important to prepare a wide range of interface options specialized for
users’ attributes or purpose of use.
   For instance, it is requested to provide users with various single-function terminals (e.g.,
terminals dedicated for voice calls) specialized in certain functions with an optimal form
factor or interface for the applicable function, and let users make a selection.
   Terminals suitable for each user’s needs and attributes that can be operated with a certain
interface (such as terminals operated only by voice commands) are also required.             The
interface function of these terminals will not be fixed; the terminals will be customizable in
the context that the interface will have to be easily replaceable with the required interface
suited for the attributes or usage of the user.       In other words, when designing mobile
terminals, the terminals have to be devised to enable easy customization to meet the special
needs of users.


4.2.6 Utilization as Interface for Public Services
   With the realization of an interface usable by anyone and advanced security less
burdensome to users, 4G mobile systems will be required to support not only private services
but also to serve as an interface for public services, i.e., we should aim to provide public
services, such as electronic government, and eventually, voting at elections, over 4G mobile
systems.     To this end, the interface and security of 4G mobile systems need to be advanced,
and the systems for public electronic services also have to be designed assuming their use
over 4G mobile systems.


4.3 Intelligence Required for 4G Mobile Systems
   4G mobile systems are required to realize a mechanism to intelligently assist users, so
that advanced services and information can be provided in a safe environment without
causing burdens on the users.     Also, in order to ensure that services in various fields can be
smoothly utilized in a way conforming to social lives, intelligent coordination with public
space or various business systems must be achieved.


4.3.1 Realization of Personal Agents
   The types and volume of information accessible from the network have increased hitherto
at a pace much faster than the growth of users’ information processing capabilities.          In
addition, in a ubiquitous environment where devices and goods used in daily life are
connected to the network, the information environment for users is expected to become
increasingly complex.      In 4G mobile systems, an intelligent information collection and
management support feature (personal agent), which selects information catered to users’
individual needs, and automatically stores or associates them, will become indispensable.
Realization of a feature that helps user’s individual information processing by estimating his
or her intention or use status, and presenting the optimal information in an optimal fashion is
requested.    To achieve this, it is required to have an intelligent search system, which, for
example, presents user’s past search instructions/results, records user’s degree of satisfaction

                                                 62
vis-à-vis the outcome of search, and automatically learns from such practice.


4.3.2 Advanced Utilization of Location Information
   Various mobile services leveraging location information are expected to become available
with 4G mobile systems.     It is required to use location information in order to automatically
establish the optimal means for communication, as well as to create a service environment in
which users can find information pertaining to the neighborhood of their locations or the
services available in the area, no matter where the users are, and without the need to know
their own location or making complex inputs.         In order to achieve this, a mechanism that
safely utilizes location information as a service platform will be required.    This mechanism
must be realized in a way that prevents third parties from illegally accessing or otherwise
infringe on user’s location information.


4.3.3 Mechanism for Ensuring Safety Without Requiring Expert Knowledge
   Mobile services have been taken up by broad user segments, ranging from children to the
elderly.   In reality, however, the vast majority of users do not possess special knowledge on
the mechanism of communications or its detailed settings.       The security mechanism for 4G
mobile systems needs to be designed based on the presumption that users do not have expert
knowledge     concerning   communications      or    information   systems.      For   example,
countermeasures against viruses or security holes should be executed automatically upon the
activation of the mobile terminals without involving special operations by the users.
Additionally, because users are likely to use mobile services via various media or service
providers, the security mechanism for 4G mobile systems must be designed in a way so that
the mechanism is coordinated and carried over between multiple media or carriers.


4.3.4 Intelligence Adaptive to Environment
     Refraining use of mobile communications in public space, and avoiding disturbance of
social activities or malfunctions of equipment due to the use of mobile communications are
currently left to the behavioral manners of mobile communication users.          In 4G mobile
systems, however, mobile terminals are required to offer features that determine the
characteristics of the space of use or the existence of other equipment in the neighborhood,
and automatically switch to the best format for use in the given environment.           Mobile
terminals are desired to automatically adapt to the degree of public nature or other
circumstances of the space, such as to automatically switch over to train wireless LAN
connections inside trains in view of the possibility to affect pace makers or other medical
devices.


4.3.5 Intelligent Coordination Between Business Systems and 4G Mobile Systems
   A wide range of services taking advantage of mobile communications—incomparably
more diversified than mobile systems prior to 3G—are expected to become available in
various service fields with 4G mobile systems.       The coordination between various business

                                              63
systems and 4G mobile systems is indispensable to realize such services.            For example,
mobile communications is expected to be widely used in emergency medical service, disaster
rescue and other fields of highly public nature.     To enable these, however, a mechanism that
automatically links the site of medical service and personal information stored in hospitals,
etc., will be needed.      It is requested to create a mechanism that intelligently links the
business systems in various fields with 4G mobile systems, while ensuring high level of
security at the same time.


4.4 Business Operations Required for 4G Mobile Systems
   One of the principal characteristics of 4G mobile systems is that the applications realized
by mobile communications are expected to become available in various service fields.          The
system therefore must be operated in the most suitable manner for the diverse usage patterns
and service fields.


4.4.1 Charge Setting that Promotes Use
   With 4G mobile systems, it is requested to create an environment, which enables users to
flexibly select the communications circuit (carrier) each time, depending on the service used
(required communication quality) or the condition of use (communication environment of the
location of use).     When this presumption is taken into account, a flexible way to set the
price range or unit price for the use of communications will be necessary.
   Given that mobile communications is likely to become an infrastructure closely related to
users’ daily lives, it is requested to provide flat-rate service as an option for using general
services that do not impose an extremely large burden on the system.           Also, because the
communications quality required for each service varies, an approach to charge users based
on the quality of the communication services used will be desirable.


4.4.2 Creation of a Common Debugging Environment based of Unified Specifications
   To facilitate the development and provision of attractive mobile contents, it is also
important to reduce the burden of debugging on the part of content developers, which is
currently   considerably     large   because   different   communication      protocols,   content
(music/video, etc.) replay file formats, and screen size specifications are employed for each
carrier, manufacturer or terminal models.
   With 4G mobile systems, it is desirable to realize unified specifications for the
content/communications system of various mobile terminals, and create a standard debugging
environment that can be commonly used by content developers.           Alignment with overseas
specifications is also called for in view of the globalization of services.


4.4.3 Operation of an Adaptive Authentication Mechanism
   In order to realize mobile services in various fields, an adaptive authentication
mechanism is necessary, because different types of authentication will be required depending
on the service used or the environment of use.       A mechanism which can present the type of

                                                64
authentication required for each access among various schemes, e.g., user authentication,
network authentication, authentication for service provision, etc., should be established and
adopted.
   User authentication in particular must be realized in a way that does not impose burdens
on users.   For instance, it may be possible to reduce the burden on users resulting from the
need to manage multiple IDs and passwords, by assigning a third party to centrally
administer user authentication for services provided in multiple fields.           A seamless
communications environment less burdensome to the users is also needed, which can be
created by establishing a unified authentication method assuming the use of different circuits.
In this way, users will be able to continue communications without being aware of the
switching of circuits, free of the need to perform authentication every time the circuit is
switched on the move.      And these authentication methods should not have a framework
specific to mobile terminals, but instead support authentication from personal computers,
car-mount terminals, and various home appliances in a comprehensive manner.           Another
direction conceived besides the above is the establishment and adoption of authentication
techniques based on user-specific information (such as fingerprints, iris and other biometric
information).


4.4.4 Realization of a Human-Like User Address Structure
     In today’s mobile services, phone numbers, mail addresses and URLs are used as a
method to identify the destination of conversation or accesses.   These methods, however, are
based on the assumption of requiring number/address entry and other terminal operations,
which are created almost irrespective of human’s way of recognition or memory.      In addition,
each of these methods are realized in different structures, thus, there is no coordination
among them, which results in the need for the user to memorize (or register) each of them
separately or input them for each purpose.
   To allow users to use various mobile services with little burdens in a convenient fashion,
it is desirable to realize a user address structure more closely related to human behavior,
which, for instance, can connect to the destination by calling the name by voice, separately
from the address structure coded in the above-mentioned format.              Furthermore, the
convenience of service could improve dramatically, if a mechanism that allows the use of
multiple address structures in coordination with one another can be established.


4.5 Social Challenges for the Realization of 4G Mobile Services
   For 4G mobile systems to be utilized in various service fields and become widely adopted
in conformity with various social activities, it is indispensable to prepare an appropriate
environment in other fields of industries where mobile services are used and in the society at
large.


4.5.1 Unification of Standards in Related Industries
   With 4G mobile systems, it is expected that mobile services will be realized in various

                                                65
service fields.     At present, however, in some principal service areas, there are concerns that
a lack of industry rules or incompatibility of standards may become a large barrier for the
realization of mobile services.
   One of the issues is the rights clearance in the content industry.    To enable users to enjoy
various contents taking advantage of the communications capabilities and features of 4G
mobile systems, it is desirable to clarify the rights management arrangement within the
industry, and create standards for the processing of meta data, etc., to smoothly executes
rights clearance.
     There are also expectations for realizing mobile services in the field of medical
information.      To realize practical services, however, it will be indispensable to prepare
appropriate data formats for medical records or medical prescriptions together with
operational rules.
   In addition, RFID tag is also expected to provide a rich service platform when linked with
4G mobile systems.        It is therefore desired to standardize its specifications taking into
account the linkage with 4G mobile systems, and use as a platform for a wide range of
services.


4.5.2 Use of Personal Information in the Field of Personal Services
   The principles for protecting personal information were presented by the enactment of
Law for the Protection of Personal Information.          In reality, however, the best way of
practically handling personal information in individual service fields have not yet been
identified nor taken root.       Various trials and attempts must therefore be sought on a
continual basis going forward.       For example, in fields offering public services, such as
medical or governmental services, handling of personal information, such as information
contained in medical records or various types of applications, are expected to become
available as part of 4G mobile services.     It is therefore requested to establish the operational
rules, supported by legal backing and social recognition, concerning how to administer
personal information and operate services.


4.5.3 Social Consensus Regarding the Use of Mobile Services in Public Space
   The use of services based on mobile communications is becoming increasingly
indispensable for people’s daily lives.      This trend is expected to gain further momentum
after the introduction of 4G mobile systems, which realizes even more advanced
communications and diversified services.
   For 4G mobile systems to be utilized as an infrastructure for the society and people’s
lives, matched with the social activities or lives of the people in the community, it is
necessary to form a social consensus on various aspects, including locations to use the
service, manner, how to function as an infrastructure in the case of an emergency, etc.         By
forging a consensus on these matters related to mobile communications, it will become
possible to study the implementation of a feature that intelligently comply with such
consensus.        For example, in public areas or other areas where the use of mobile

                                                 66
communications is deemed to cause problems, it may be possible to activate an automatic
restriction on the use of features or services.     In the case of an emergency, a mechanism that
enforces a restriction on the use of mobile terminals in certain areas may also be considered
as a way to secure sufficient bandwidth for emergency circuits.


4.5.4 Creation of an Environment for Maintaining Healthy Use of Mobile Services
   With 4G mobile systems, the features made available in mobile environments will be
enhanced dramatically, enabling users, for example, to access high-quality multimedia
services anytime and anywhere as they like.         While improvement of user convenience, and
creation of new service markets are expected on one hand, it is on the other hand necessary
to pay attention to prevent new social problems such as privacy infringement or the abuse of
mobile communications for criminal purposes, etc.
   While    countermeasures       for   these     issues   should   be   studied   sufficiently   by
telecommunications carriers, content providers and service providers, some of such measures
should be undertaken not as an individual solution of carriers but rather be incorporated as
part of the social environment.     For instance, it will be necessary to create a legal structure
that could be strictly applied to network crimes abusing the advanced capabilities of mobile
communications.     Studies on the framework for administering and restricting the contents or
services used by juvenile users are also a challenge to be tackled.




                                                  67
5. Requirements and Technical Challenges in Realizing a Service Platform

5.1 Approach of Studies
  The visions and images of the new services to be provided by the 4G mobile systems were
presented in Chapters 1 and 2.    In Chapter 3, the requirements that need to be satisfied for
these new services were described from the perspective of users, business model and others
based upon the analysis on the visions and images presented in the previous chapters.          In
Chapter 4, proposals pertaining to the realization of the 4G mobile systems were presented.
This Chapter contains the results of studies, which have been performed using a different
approach than those applied in Chapters 1-4.
  The studies were carried out in order to clarify the high-level requirements in view of the
functional elements that would be required by new services, after defining the layers 4 and
above of the 4G mobile systems as the service platform.
    First of all, a user survey on the services and functionality to be required for the 4G
mobile system was carried out in order to identify the necessary functional items.         Then,
these functional items were classified into technically common sets of features in order to
draft the requirements for the service platform of the 4G systems.        “Features” are usually
treated as a basic functional unit to provide services, and often described completely
independently from technical implementation.        In this study, however, from the objective of
identifying the technologies that require a breakthrough in the technical requirements of the
higher layers, a methodology to sort out the features in a worksheet format was adopted, in
which the basic technology units that realize the assumed applications and satisfy the
requirements associated with the applications are listed up.
    Each worksheet consists of the following description items: main features as an
independent major functional unit; sub-features; assumed related entities; list of services
where the features can be adopted; main functional elements required and technical
challenges, etc.   Studies were conducted based on the above to figure out to the extent
possible the requirements for the system from the viewpoint of the platform.
    Finally, the basic concepts for the 4G mobile systems from the viewpoint of service
platform were compiled based upon the results above, and the frameworks of principal
services assumed for the next generation were listed up.


5.2 Visions for the 4G mobile system
    Design of the 4G mobile systems should take the following approach:
    (Service framework for the 4G mobile systems should be structured based on the visions
below:)


    •     User-centric
          4G mobile systems should be designed from the perspective of users, rather than
          following the traditional approach led by operators.
    •     Service-driven

                                               68
                                                                                                                               (Ditto.     Design must be driven by services rather than infrastructure.
                                 •                                                                                             Deeper consideration on market needs
                                                                                                                               Market requirements should be sufficiently fulfilled.
                                 •                                                                                             Provision of seamless and flexible access via appropriate radio interfaces.


                                 •                                                                                             Reflect social requirements, e.g., ensure public safety/security, resolve digital divide
                                                                                                                               problems, and help protect earth environment, etc.



5.3 Roadmap toward the 4G Mobile Systems
                                The 4G mobile systems are expected to offer higher transmission capabilities in different
phases building upon the evolution from the second- and third-generation systems, and
provide users with an optimal access depending on their locations through linkage of
multiple systems.                                                                                                                             Figure 5-1 presents the roadmap of transmission rate enhancements in the
course of evolution toward the 4G mobile systems.

             st                                                                                                                                          2nd Generation                 3rd Generation         4th Generation
 Generation 1 Generation
                                                                                                                                                                Digital voice &            Voice & High speed data ALL-IP Broadband
  (Cellular)                                                                                                                         Analog voice
                                                                                                                                                                Low rate data                    Multime dia      Ubiquitous & Seamless


                                                                                                           1000                                                                                           WLAN++


                                                                                                                                                                                              WLAN+
      TTTT RRRR mmmm aaaa xxxx MMMM bbbb pppp ssss
          MMMM aaaa xxxx iiii mmmm uuuu mmmm tttt rrrr aaaa nnnn ssss mmmm iiii ssss ssss iiii oooo nnnn rrrr aaaa tttt eeee




                                                                                                                               100                                                                            4G
  (                                                                                                                                                                                          Super
                                                                                                                                                                          WLAN              Hi Speed

  )                                                                                                                            10                       Nomadic                                3G+



                                                                                                                                 1                              Hi Speed           3G
                                                   
                                                                                                                                                       Local

                                                                                                                               0.1
                                                                                                                                                                     2G+
                                                                                                                                              Mobile
                                                                                                                                                       2G
                                                                                                                         0.01
                                                                                                                                       ~1990
                                                                                                                                       ~1990             1995
                                                                                                                                                         1995             2000
                                                                                                                                                                          2000               2005
                                                                                                                                                                                             2005           2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2010          2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2015     Year


      Figure 5-1: Roadmap of transmission rate enhancements toward the 4G mobile systems


5.4 Study Subjects for the Service Platform and Outcome of Study
 The functions that are required for the 4G mobile systems are summarized in Table 5-1.
Those functions that are related to the service platform are marked with “X” in the Table,
while the requirements that can be satisfied by the handling of Layers 4 and below were
categorized as part of system infrastructure studies.


                                                                                                                                                                                  69
         Table 5-1; Classification of Fourth-Generation Mobile System Technologies
                                                                               System
                                                          Service Platform
 No.                  Functional categories                                 infrastructure
                                                              (>Layer 4)
                                                                             (Layers 1-4)
   1    Security/authentication/authorization/accounting         X
   2    User interface                                           X
   3    Seamless network                                                          X
   4    QoS                                                      X                X
   5    Multimode operation                                                       X
   6    Location determination/navigation                        X                X
   7    Database remote server                                   X
   8    Fast-speed, large-capacity transmission                                   X
   9    High-quality multimedia                                  X
  10    Human-Machine Interface                                  X
  11    Remote sensing control                                   X
  12    Agent                                                    X
  13    Terminal processing power                                X                X
  14    Terminal reconfigurability                               X                X
  15    Ad hoc network                                                            X
  16    Support of social/public/environmental services          X                X
  17    Network construction/deployment                                           X
  18    Multicast                                                                 X
  19    Others                                                                    X

  Table5-2 lists the major items extracted from the worksheets     (such as main features) and
the requirements on the system.    Primary features in each category are described below.



5.4.1 Security, Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
 In the area of security, authentication, authorization and accounting, it is required to
implement advanced security that can enhance not only the authentication capability but also
the integrity and confidentiality of the system to unprecedentedly high levels.    The use of
Public Key Infrastructure       (PKI) based on public keys and biometrics information
(fingerprints, voiceprints, face, retinas, and irises) is thus assumed for authentication.   A
function to widely prevent illegal copying of content information to protect copyrights is also
required, and the application of Digital Rights Management          (DRM) to large-capacity
memory devices is called for.     On the other hand, in addition to the technology, it is also
pointed out that a mechanism for rights clearance is also needed against this background.
Furthermore, compatibility with existing systems     (including administrative systems such as
Basic Residential Registers Network System, etc) is also considered necessary in proceeding
with this matter.
 Also, from the perspective of authorization, the 4G mobile systems are required to have a
structure capable of handling various authorization methods in view of a seamless
connections with a wide range of access schemes, to enable operators to independently create
arbitrary billing schemes in response to market requests.

                                              70
5.4.2 User Interface
 In the studies on the user interface, a number of functional elements to enhance terminal
functionality were identified.        First of all, for the external input/output      (I/O) interface, a
function that carries out input/output of information and control connecting the terminal
locally with external devices via a high-speed interface is needed.                   The challenge in
enabling this is the interface with various external devices and also the case where multiple
devices are used simultaneously.         It was also assumed that the terminal itself might take the
shape of e-paper to read out or write in information.
 As part of other support systems, a function to perform sign language interpretation for the
handicapped using image processing and voice recognition at the server side, and more
generally, a function that could mitigate the digital divide problem through the use of
voice/text recognition and image/voice synthesis were raised as necessary.                It is desired to
implement these features on the terminal side eventually, and for that it would be necessary
to develop processing systems of high accuracy with low power consumption.                     A similar
function that stores advertisements, etc., into mobile terminals and automatically recognizes
the downloaded content        (automatic content recognition) was also included as a necessary
feature.
 Various other intelligent processing capabilities are also called for, including morphological
analysis engine for various languages and characters, interpretation between different
languages, a language-learning feature to learn language elements               (dialects, etc) other than
the user’s standard language, and a feature that predicts the behavior of the users based on
their circumstances      (user context awareness).         To bring these into reality, a breakthrough
in   the    field   of   artificial   intelligence        (AI)     that   realizes    highly    advanced
recognition/translation engines is needed.


5.4.3 QoS     (Quality of Service)
 In the category of QoS, bandwidth control, technologies that automatically provide a setup
which guarantees bandwidth, delay and jitter adequate for the user’s applications or service,
the radio link at that particular instant and the load on the network, without users being
aware of it, were identified as necessary.             The principal challenges here are the QoS
guarantee technology per se, the negotiation and roaming between networks, as well as the
standardization of QoS control protocols between the applications and systems.



5.4.4 Location and Navigation
 Basic locating functions such as location determination and navigation are already
implemented in third-generation mobile           systems.        In this study, however, high-precision
location determination was identified as necessary.               Identification of altitude as well as
high-precision location determination techniques in indoor environments in particular are the
areas where a breakthrough is required.              While location determination technologies are

                                                     71
already widely applied in vehicles, the use of high-precision location determination
capability in mobile terminals to notify the location of terminals and users or to navigate
users and vehicles to the destination via the optimal route depending on users’ needs is called
for.
 From the viewpoint of higher layers, such functions as to deliver music, content,
advertisement and other related information based on the detected location     (location-based
content delivery) were listed as required functions.     In providing these capabilities, it is
necessary to establish a framework to enable service provision based on the location
information of users while protecting their privacy and a mechanism to control the delivery
of unwanted advertisements.


5.4.5 Database and Remote Servers
 A database function to freely handle multimedia contents was described as necessary in the
area of database and remote servers.    In addition to a multimedia storage, which manages
multimedia data that basically have varying formats in a user-friendly manner, distributed
computing, distributed database synchronization and the backup for such data       (multimedia
data backup and rescue) were identified as necessary functions.       To realize these highly
efficient database systems, parallel processing, synchronization between databases, efficient
address management and indexing techniques hold an important key.
 Moreover, to provide the content desired by the user on top of this, adaptive content control
which enables the delivery of contents based on users’ preference, and digest preview
function which automatically creates and presents a digest of contents, and a function that
allows users to watch high-quality contents     (high-quality content view) will be required.
Access control feature is also pointed out as necessary when users access such contents.
High-speed search engine is also important for the users to access the contents of their choice.
Such engines are widely used today in the Internet, but this capability will likely be used to
search users’ own data going forward.


5.4.6 High-Quality Multimedia
 In view of the need to replay contents in superior quality, in the area of high-quality
multimedia the following were included as part of the desired requirements: high-resolution
display; high-quality video distribution; high-quality video play; and virtual reality that
provides a sense of presence. A function to change the voice quality depending on users’
choice, network condition or terminal capability    (voice quality selection) is also required.
Multimedia has already become a commonplace service in PC environments, but to enable
processing fit for practical use in future mobile handsets, a tremendous leap must be achieved
in lowering power consumption and video processing technologies.           To provide QoS, a
technique that guarantees users’ quality in real time must be developed.


5.4.7 HMI   (Human-Machine Interface)
 In the area of human-machine interface for information input, high-end digital cameras

                                              72
enabling users to shoot high-quality images, voice recorders and a function to transmit
information captured by these devices       (captured digital information transmission) were
raised as necessary requirements in order to realize a highly sophisticated human-machine
interface.    Because these capture devices are already today widely used among end users,
more advanced processing, e.g., 3D processing, will likely be facilitated, and virtual reality
is expected to be provided in the future.
 Furthermore, in the future, various sensors capable of detecting not only images but also
other information will be required.     These include, among others, a scent sensor offering
performance comparable to human’s multiple scent receptors, a tactile sensor capable of
detecting not only pressure but also the feel and touch when holding an object, and a taste
sensor for analyzing various different tastes such as sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness,
or other flavor..   Five-sense communications that enable the transmission of the detected
senses is expected to become one of the largest technical development subjects in the future.
To realize this, signal processing for compressing the information obtained by the sensors,
and QoS assurance by the network will be necessary.


5.4.8 Remote Sensing and Control
 Remote sensing and control capabilities—which enables the control of various equipment
from a remote location—is another candidate that allows the provision of new forms of
communication services.     A function to remotely control video equipment like cameras with
built-in communication capability and wheel chairs or other medical/welfare equipment
attached with IPv6 addresses through IP network connection is requested.            Similarly, a
remote service discovery function, which searches and discovers from a remote location
home appliances, sensors and meter equipment as well as services that run on top of such
devices, is described as necessary.    These functions are already available in a number of
implementations for conventional personal computers, and they are expected to be applied
eventually to cellular phones, too.    Embedding radio devices in automobiles, bicycles and
other vehicles to coordinate the functions with peripheral devices    (embedded radio module)
was also requested.


5.4.9 Agent
 A category that received a great deal of expectations was “agent”.     In this category, a basic
information collection function was deemed necessary for the agent to collect and store
personal profile of individuals of different age, gender and preference.      For this purpose,
currently at W3C and OMA, the standardization on formats to describe the profile and
protocols is ongoing, and studies on its management method are being made.
 First of all, a proxy/gateway function which assists users to access the most suitable service
provider for their circumstances or preferences from their terminals or via proxy servers
taking advantage of these information must be provided.               At the same time, an
access/terminal capability-aware content delivery function, which automatically delivers
contents based on the capabilities of the terminals and access circuits, will also be required.

                                               73
Automatic content updates—in which the agent constantly manages the state of contents
between the terminal and server or proxy and whenever the content is updated on the server,
the new content is reflected in the proxy or terminal—and content administration by proxy
agent, where all contents residing on the terminal are managed by the proxy side, are also
conceivable.
 The ability to select contents most suitable for the user is also required, including for
instance, a recommendation function which selects and recommends content based on users’
preferences, age or nationality, etc., and a function that filters inadequate contents, e.g.,
those containing discriminatory expressions.        Along with recommendation capability,
intelligent multimedia information processing is also identified as one of the most important
agent features, which collates and searches obtained images and other contents to expand
users’ information collection activities.   An advanced mechanism for protecting personal
information is required, particularly for services provided to the general public.
  In addition, as future agent services, personalization function with a pseudo-personality
based on artificial intelligence (AI) that can understand human feelings was also raised as a
challenging technical subject.


5.4.10 Processing Capability and Local Interfaces of Mobile Terminal
 Many requests were made for the processing capability and local interface of the mobile
terminals, too.   One of the targets for the performance of the mobile terminal itself is the
extension of battery hours, which could be achieved by the miniaturization and power
consumption reduction of display, input device, or electric circuits, the use of long-life
batteries such as fuel cells, or self-power generation function.   Water-proof terminals taking
into account practical use, customized mobile terminals for special purposes, such as to listen
to music, etc., terminals with a printer capability, and appliance control features to control
home appliances were also identified as desirable.       Furthermore, it is also necessary to
standardize the interface between the network and various devices, as well as a common
peripheral interface for the connection between peripheral devices.
 One of the goals through achieving the above was the development of wearable computers
that can be worn by users without a sense of awkwardness.



5.4.11 Terminal Reconfigurability
 Terminal reconfigurability is one of the greatest objectives of 4G mobile handsets. The
required functional elements raised in this area include the realization of a heterogeneous
program runtime environment, in which application programs         (byte codes or bit codes) that
are hardware-independent or nearly hardware-independent can be downloaded from the
network and executed, realization of a flexible emulation environment, where a system
emulation environment is made available on the terminal so that various equipment can be
emulated, and a feature that enables the attachment/detachment of various devices by having
a radio unit/module in the terminal.

                                               74
5.4.12 Support of Social / Public / Environmental Services
Healthcare/biometric information sensors and emergency medical system were raised as part
of the functional elements required for satisfying social and environmental needs.           These
systems are expected to help users maintain their health and lead a safer life, because their
body temperature, pulse and other biological data are detected and transmitted to hospitals in
real time, so that users’ health conditions can be checked on a regular basis, and in the event
of an emergency, a notice will be sent automatically.
 A feature for earth environment protection was also addressed as a required function.           In
particular, there were requests to achieve environmental conservation through such features
as safety assurance linked with sensors and environmental monitoring.            Reducing burdens
on the environment by minimizing users’ physical movement through the provision of a
remote communications environment was also requested.             In addition, a vision, which aims
to adapt the system to the environment by reducing the power consumption of the entire
system, and making system upgrade easier through software rewriting, was also presented.
   .


5.5 Requirements on the System


 The following are the main requirements on the system infrastructure that became evident
through the studies on the features in Section 5.4.


 (1) As for security, the amount of information required for authentication is expected to
       grow in the future, resulting in the need for the system to support large-capacity
       transmission.
 (2) In the area of user interface, there are strong requests to achieve low delay particularly
       from the viewpoint of user satisfaction.     At the same time, robust security in the lower
       layers is required for a secure exchange of information.
 (3) In order to realize QoS, which may not necessarily be easy, it is required to implement
       functions that can identify the actually required bandwidth and measure the traffic and a
       QoS control function on both Layers 1 and 2 in the radio interface.
 (4) For location, features that should be realized by the system include shortening the time
       needed for location calculation, and timing estimation technologies to enhance the
       precision of location calculation through the use of Advanced Forward Link
       Trilateration   (AFLT), etc.
 (5) In database systems, low-delay transaction, fast response and scalability are considered
       important elements that determine the performance of the system.                 The major
       requirements for achieving high-quality multimedia include multiple QoS support to
       assure QoS, low-delay, and jitter control.
 (6) In the area of agent, a function that recognizes the agent existing nearby is needed.       A
       seamless network environment is also called for to enable access regardless of the

                                                  75
   location.
(7) From the viewpoint of terminal reconfigurability, the means for realizing a terminal
   hardware of low power consumption and high processing speed as well as implementing
   multiple virtual machines on the terminal are the technical subjects to be solved.




                                            76
                                                       Table 5-2: List of Primary Feature Items
1.Category        2.Funcion     3.Main feature        4.Description on main feature    5.Sub-feature        6.Desciption on       Requirements on
                     item                                                                                     sub-feature               system
 Security,     Authorization   Communication       Use IC chips for communicating                                              Security/authentication,
Authenticati   , accounting    media upon          authorization/accounting data and                                           terminal       processing
    on,                        authorization,      storing data. IC chip must be                                               power, usable hours,
Authorizatio                   accounting, and     robust against tampering, and should                                        peripheral interface
     n,                        storage of          support multiple communication
Accounting                     various data.       schemes (wireless/wired, etc.).
               Copyright       Copyright           Unique copyright IDs are embedded     Large-capacity   A large-capacity     High-speed processing
               protection      protection/manag    in content using electronic           memory           memory equipped      in terminals
                               ement using         watermarks. An environment in                          with a function to
                               copyright content   which copyright of content can be                      protect personal
                               ID                  claimed and billing is done based on                   information and
                                                   such copyright IDs should be created.                  copyrights.
               Security/       Biometrics          A technology that performs personal                                         Biometrics information
               Authenticatio   authentication      authentication using biometric                                              generally carries large
               n                                   information of individuals                                                  amount of information.
                                                   (fingerprint, voiceprint, face, retina,                                     When collating is done
                                                   iris).                                                                      by the authentication
                                                                                                                               server in the network,
                                                                                                                               large- capacity
                                                                                                                               transmission is required
                                                                                                                               to minimize delay.




                                                                              77
1.Category     2.Funcion     3.Main feature         4.Description on main feature      5.Sub-feature         6.Desciption on        Requirements on
                  item                                                                                         sub-feature                system
   User      Interface      External             Interfaces with various external      Voice input        Interfaces with voice Radio-based fast-speed
 Interface                  input/output I/F     devices to input/output information   device I/F,        input device to        external I/F function
                                                 or to control the terminal.           wireless           perform voice
                                                                                       pointing device    recognition.
                                                                                       I/F, touch         Interfaces with
                                                                                       panel I/F, large   wireless pointing
                                                                                       display I/F,       device to control
                                                                                       large output       programs.
                                                                                       AMP I/F            Interfaces with touch
                                                                                                          panels to select
                                                                                                          services such as
                                                                                                          contents. Interfaces
                                                                                                          with large displays to
                                                                                                          present greater
                                                                                                          amount of
                                                                                                          information.
                                                                                                          Interfaces with large
                                                                                                          output amplifiers to
                                                                                                          realize better-quality
                                                                                                          audio environment.
             Incoming       Incoming             Reject the termination of call/mail   Confirm face       Read mails after       - User convenience
             call/mail      call/mail            from undesired caller.                of mail sender     confirming the face    - Economical system
             rejection      rejection function                                                            of sender              with good response
             function




             Advanced       Agent function       A function to take advertisements,    Automatic          Automatically         - Accurate assessment of
             image/                              etc., seen by the users into mobile   recognition        recognizes contents   user’s intention and a
             character                           terminals.                            function           that were taken in.   convenient, economical
             recognition,                                                                                                       system with good
             agent                                                                                                              response



                                                                          78
1.Category     2.Funcion      3.Main feature       4.Description on main feature        5.Sub-feature        6.Desciption on           Requirements on
                  item                                                                                         sub-feature                  system
             Media           Media conversion   Voice/character conversion, media                                                  Low-delay network,
             conversion                         conversion function for the                                                        server with super
                                                elderly/handicapped.                                                               high-speed processing
                                                                                                                                   capability, real-time
                                                                                                                                   media conversion speed,
                                                                                                                                   securing media quality,
                                                                                                                                   a flexible system
                                                                                                                                   configuration for
                                                                                                                                   providing services etc.
             Behavior        A prediction       A function that predicts user’s         Artificial         Improvement in          - Psychology prediction
             prediction      function           behavior based on the assessment of     Intelligence       behavior prediction     of user
                             commencing         situation                               (AI)               precision
                             before input




             Hands-free      Voice              A function that allows voice            Echo canceller     Some sort of echo       -Wide bandwidth and
                             input/output       input/output without the need to hold                      canceling processing    low-layer (L3,etc.)
                             without use of     the handset.                                               is technically needed   security for (super)
                             handsets                                                                      to offer convenience    low-delay transaction
                                                                                                           of being able to        and high-quality voice
                                                                                                           converse naturally.
             Electronic      Electronic paper   Browsing of electronic files such as    Light and          Construction of an      User convenience
             paper                              newspapers, magazines, etc.             small 4G air       economical system       Simple air protocol
                                                                                        interface
                                                                                        associated with
                                                                                        e-paper
             Easy            Easy attachment    Enables easy browsing of attachment     Attachment         Stores and delivers     - User convenience
             attachment      file browsing      files on the terminal.                  files are stored   attachment files        - Economical system
             file browsing   function                                                   in server                                  with good response
             function




                                                                         79
1.Category     2.Funcion      3.Main feature        4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature      6.Desciption on          Requirements on
                  item                                                                                         sub-feature                  system
             Translation     Language            A function that learns languages         Artificial      A function to            Advanced context
             function        learning function   other than standard language such as     intelligence    comprehend the           recognition engine
                                                 dialects, abbreviations.                 (AI)            meaning of text
                                                                                                          based on the context
                                                                                                          of input.
             Voice/          Function to         A function to alleviate digital divide   Voice/          Recognizes natural       - Noise tolerance,
             character/      alleviate digital   by making terminal input/output          character/      conversation using       high-speed processing
             image           divide              easier. Enables obtaining output from    image           high-performance         algorithm
             recognition                         terminal without seeing the display      recognition     voice recognition        - Total enhancement of
             and synthesis                       through the use of voice synthesis                       system. Recognizes       recognition probability,
                                                 system.                                                  images with              tolerance against
                                                                                                          high-performance         erroneous input,
                                                                                                          image recognition        recognition speed
                                                                                                          system.
             Image           Sign language       A sign language interpretation                                                    Low-delay translation,
             processing,     interpretation      function based on an integrated                                                   lower-layer (L3, etc)
             voice                               image processing/ voice recognition                                               security
             recognition                         system.
             Translation     Translation         Has an engine to analyze the             Voice           Recognizes input         Real-time translation
             function        function            morpheme of various languages and        synthesis,      voice, and coverts
                                                 a translation engine, and converts the   voice           into text data in
                                                 input language to another designated     recognition     designated language.
                                                 language.                                function        Or, text data is
                                                                                                          converted into voice
                                                                                                          after voice synthesis.
   QoS       Application     Application QoS     The application adequately controls
             QoS                                 content quality and QoS requirement
                                                 to the network, depending on the
                                                 terminal capability, load, or traffic
                                                 conditions.




                                                                          80
1.Category     2.Funcion      3.Main feature         4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature   6.Desciption on       Requirements on
                  item                                                                                       sub-feature               system
Location/    Location        Estimates            - A terminal in a radio network                                            - Faster location
navigation   determination   location of          connects to location determination                                         calculation speed
             function,       terminals, users     server or its functional elements via                                      - Base station allocation
             Distance        and objects with     the network, and estimates the                                             and timing estimate
             measurement     high precision.      location of terminal, devices                                              technology to improve
             function                             equipped with terminal function                                            location calculation
                                                  (e.g. car) or user, using GPS signals                                      precision.
                                                  received by terminal or information                                        - Security
                                                  from radio system.
                                                  - A terminal in radio network
                                                  connects to a functional element for
                                                  distance measurement via the
                                                  network, and estimates the distance
                                                  between terminals or distance with
                                                  equipment/object equipped with
                                                  terminal function that needs to be
                                                  measured using radio system
                                                  information received by terminal.
             Navigation      Display user and     Displays location of user or terminals                                     - Navigation precision
             function        terminal location,   equipped with location measurement                                         - Enrichment of
                             and guidance to      function on a map, and guides to a                                         navigation database
                             other locations      specific destination.                                                      -Enrichment of
                                                                                                                             application database

                                                                                                                             -Base station allocation,
                                                                                                                             timing estimation
                                                                                                                             technology for
                                                                                                                             improving location
                                                                                                                             calculation precision
                                                                                                                             - Security




                                                                           81
1.Category     2.Funcion      3.Main feature        4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature      6.Desciption on          Requirements on
                  item                                                                                         sub-feature                 system
             Location        Notifies location   Notifies location of vehicles, devices   Automatic       Information on          - Respond to new needs
             notification,   of vehicles,        equipped with terminal function or       information     location/time is        and applications
             delivery        devices equipped    user.                                    delivery        obtained by terminal.   - Dissemination of
             function        with terminal                                                                Automatic delivery.     terminals capable of
                             function, and                                                                                        notifying location
                             user.                                                                                                information.
                                                                                                                                  - Enhance speed of
                                                                                                                                  location calculation
                                                                                                                                  - Base station allocation,
                                                                                                                                  timing estimate
                                                                                                                                  technology for
                                                                                                                                  improving calculation
                                                                                                                                  precision
                                                                                                                                  - Security




                                                                          82
1.Category     2.Funcion      3.Main feature        4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature   6.Desciption on       Requirements on
                  item                                                                                      sub-feature              system
             Information     Automatic           - A function to obtain and store                                           - Location determination
             delivery        information         available music information, etc.,                                         of terminals
             (receiving)     receiving           through location determination or                                          - Automatic delivery of
             function        (delivery from      short- distance communication                                              pre-set information from
                             server side)        capabilities.                                                              terminal
                                                 - Server side detects current location                                     - Obtain location
                                                 using location determination function                                      information, etc., of
                                                 (GPS, base station being connected),                                       terminals automatically,
                                                 and notifies related information                                           and store in database of
                                                 through short-distance                                                     server.
                                                 communication function, etc.
                                                 Server side pre-registers keyword on
                                                 terminals to deliver information
                                                 catered to individual preference.

                                                 - Obtains and manages data related
                                                 to terminal’s or user’s peripheral
                                                 information.
                                                 - Function to link product and
                                                 customer information (including
                                                 location information), net POP
                                                 advertisement function to promote
                                                 sales by delivering information to a
                                                 specific target.
                             Sharing of          - Location determination, personalize                                      - Management of user
             Security/       information         function, reliable security                                                information
             Authenticatio   including privacy   - Coordination with distributors
             n function/     information, and    - Information sharing function among
             certainty,      information that    patient, medical institutions, people
             urgency         requires            on site.
                             certainty,          - Provision of service requiring
                             urgency             urgency/certainty through use of
                                                 location information. Inclusive of
                                                 QoS usable in tunnels, etc.

                                                                          83
1.Category       2.Funcion    3.Main feature       4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature     6.Desciption on          Requirements on
                    item                                                                                     sub-feature                  system
 Database/     Database      Access control     Manages authorization to access data,                                           - Fast response
  Remote       function                         authenticates people requesting                                                 - Low-delay transaction
  server                                        access, and controls degree of access                                           - Scalability
                                                based on authentication result.
               Video/music   Adaptive content   Provides function to adapt content    Content digest     Provides a function    NA
               storage/      control            (video/music, etc.) to user           viewing/           to view/ listen to a
               delivery                         preference, terminal performance, or listening           digest of video,
               server                           network conditions.                                      music and other
                                                                                                         content.
               Data backup   Data backup        Automatically backs up data on a                                                - DB
               server                           distributed multimedia storage, and                                             - Efficiency with low
               function                         automatically repairs detected data                                             load on network
                                                failure.                                                                        - Low-delay transaction
               Database      Multimedia         Data storage/ management system                                                 - Fast response
               function      storage            that manages data collected and                                                 - Low-delay transaction
                                                managed on the network in various                                               - Scalability
                                                formats in an easy-to-use manner.
               Distributed   Distributed        Realizes transparent access to data                                             - Fast response
               database      computing          stored in distributed multimedia                                                - Low-delay transaction
               function                         storages on various systems ranging                                             - Scalability
                                                from cellular terminals to large-scale
                                                database systems.
               Distributed   Distributed        Realizes synchronization of data                                                - Fast response
               database      database           stored in distributed multimedia                                                - Low-delay transaction
               function      synchronization    storages on various systems ranging                                             - Scalability
                                                from cellular terminals to large-scale
                                                database systems.
               Video/music   High-quality       Provides a function that enables                                                Fast-speed,
               storage/      content view/      viewing/listening of high-quality                                               large-volume
               delivery      listening          content such as video or music.                                                 transmission
               server
High-quality   High          High-definition    Provides a function to display
multimedia     resolution    image display      high-quality video, stills on 4G
               display                          terminals.

                                                                         84
1.Category      2.Funcion       3.Main feature         4.Description on main feature        5.Sub-feature      6.Desciption on          Requirements on
                   item                                                                                          sub-feature                system
              High image       High-definition    Provides a function to deliver
              quality          image              high-definition video/still images
                               distribution       such as satellite images to 4G
                                                  terminals
              High sound       sound quality      Provides a system to select the
              quality, sound   selection function optimal quality ranging from
              quality                             traditional cellular phone quality to
              selection                           FM radio quality, depending on
              function                            user’s selection, network conditions,
                                                  or terminal performance.
              High-quality     Virtual reality    Provides sense of presence through        3D sound field   A function to
              AV                                  cellular terminals.                       control          reproduce 3D sound
                                                                                                             field with cellular
                                                                                                             terminals.
Information   Camera           High-                Terminal with camera capable of                                                - High-definition
   input                       definition picture   high-definition picture taking
                               taking
              3D               3D information       Coding and replay function of 3D                                               NA
              information      processing           information processing
              processing
              Sensor           Sensor               Sensors to monitor environment, etc.                                           - A function to connect
                                                                                                                                   with ubiquitous network
                                                                                                                                   to retrieve information
                                                                                                                                   when necessary.
              Coding/          Five sense           Enable communication of senses of                                              High-speed
              reproduction     communication        smell, touch and taste in addition to                                          communication suitable
              of five sense                         communicating auditory/ visual                                                 for transmitting large
              information                           senses that are already realized                                               volume of bursty
                                                    today.                                                                         information.




                                                                              85
1.Category     2.Funcion     3.Main feature       4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature      6.Desciption on             Requirements on
                  item                                                                                       sub-feature                   system
 Remote      Remote         IP network         Provides a function to make an IP                                                  NA
 Sensing     control        connection         connection between terminal
 Control                                       equipment (e.g., cellular phones)
                                               and visual equipment (e.g., camera)
                                               or medical/welfare equipment (e.g.,
                                               wheelchairs) via the Internet or
                                               private networks.
             Remote         Machine control    Provides a function to remotely                                                    NA
             control                           control visual devices (e.g.,
                                               camera) or medical/welfare
                                               equipment (e.g., wheelchair).
             Information    Machine            A function to register, search and use   Service search   A function to search     - A “zeroconf” service
             appliances     control            home appliances, sensors, meters and                      the IP address of        search and registration
                                               services running on such devices.                         terminal of a specific   - Universal key
                                                                                                         name, or a terminal      management
                                                                                                         providing a certain
                                                                                                         service, based on the
                                                                                                         name of terminal or
                                                                                                         service.
                                              Provide visual and/or location based                                                Wide bandwidth
                                              services from vehicles, by embedding                                                communictions for
                            Services provided
             Information                      small-light-weight radio                                                            transmitting images,
                            by radio mounted
             vehicle                          communications fuctions in                                                          image recognition,
                            on vehicles
                                              automobiles, motor bikes, and                                                       location measurement.
                                              bicycles, etc.
  Agent      Personalized   Information       Holds detailed personal properties of                                               - Function to recognize
             Agent          collection        various individuals of varying age,                                                 the agent nearby.
             Function                         gender and preferences, and an agent                                                - A seamless network
                                              collects various necessary                                                          environment
                                              information.




                                                                        86
1.Category     2.Funcion     3.Main feature      4.Description on main feature          5.Sub-feature     6.Desciption on            Requirements on
                  item                                                                                      sub-feature                  system
             Personalized   Rating            A mechanism to exclude harmful                                                    NA
             Agent                            information such as abusive, sexual
             Function                         or discriminatory expressions.
                                              Database containing rating conditions
                                              based on users’ age, nationality, etc.,
                                              shall be provided, and an agent
                                              selects information using personal
                                              information.
             Personalized   Customized        Customizes terminal functions based                                               NA
             Agent          terminal          on user’s personal information.
             Function       functions
             Personalized   Proxy/gateway     Terminal or proxy server functions as      Gateway        Makes terminal          Gateway/routing
             Agent          function          an adequate gateway, and supports         function        function as an          function in lower layers
             Function                         making connection to an adequate                          application gateway     of terminal.
                                              terminal connected to a cellular                          between the server
                                              phone or service provider on the                          and external
                                              network.                                                  equipment, and
                                                                                                        provides data cycle.
                                                                                        Dynamic proxy   Selects service
                                                                                        function        provider suitable for
                                                                                                        age, gender,
                                                                                                        preference and
                                                                                                        performs connection
                                                                                                        support at the proxy
                                                                                                        server in the
                                                                                                        network.
             Personalized   Recommendation    Provides a function to recommend                                                  NA
             Agent                            video, music and other content to
             Function                         users.




                                                                        87
1.Category     2.Funcion      3.Main feature         4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature   6.Desciption on       Requirements on
                  item                                                                                       sub-feature              system
             Content         Automatic            Updates content stored in server or                                        - Low-delay transaction
             synchronizati   content update       proxy from time to time and realizes                                       - Network compatible
             on                                   synchronization with terminal data.                                        with broadcast delivery
                                                                                                                             - Function to guarantee
                                                                                                                             continuity of
                                                                                                                             communication
                                                                                                                             - Automatic
                                                                                                                             re-connection function
                                                                                                                             in the event of link
                                                                                                                             disruption
             Optimal         Automatic            Automatically delivers content after                                       Low-delay transaction
             content         delivery aligned     adapting with terminal processing
             delivery        with terminal        capability, or access link capability.
             aware of        capability, access
             terminal        link capability.
             capability/
             access link
             capability
             Content         Content              Manages all contents on the terminal                                       - Large-capacity data
             management      management by        side using a proxy on the network.                                         storage
                             proxy                                                                                           - Security
                                                                                                                             - ID for each terminal
                                                                                                                             - Network compatible
                                                                                                                             with broadcast
                                                                                                                             distribution
             Intelligent     Intelligent          Performs sophisticated multimedia                                          - Management of user
             search/data     multimedia           search (e.g., performs image search                                        information
             processing      information          based on image input such as exterior                                      - Function to recognize
                             processing           of a building, and conducts                                                agents nearby
                                                  navigation).                                                               - A seamless network
                                                  .                                                                          environment




                                                                            88
1.Category        2.Funcion      3.Main feature        4.Description on main feature        5.Sub-feature      6.Desciption on           Requirements on
                     item                                                                                         sub-feature                system
                User personal   User personal       Prepares a database containing users’   Automatic       Automatically make
                information     information         personal information, e.g., age,        contact with    contacts with
                management      management          hobby, taste, contact, etc.             multiple        multiple related
                                                    Terminal agent selects information or   destinations    destinations only by
                                                    make contacts based on such personal                    a simple instruction
                                                    information.                                            by natural language
                                                                                                            or code input, etc.
                Agent/ user     Pseudo-person       Equipped with artificial intelligence   Agent           Based on user profile   A compact and highly
                interface       function            (AI) such as neuro-system, and                          (hobby, taste, age,     advanced neuro-system
                                (personalization)   understands human feelings, etc.                        etc.), automatically
                                                                                                            creates portal site
                                                                                                            etc., on behalf of
                                                                                                            user, using rule
                                                                                                            engine and linking
                                                                                                            with AI.
 Processing     Long-hour       Long-life battery   -Various types of adaptive power                                                NA
 capability,    operation                           supply methods
usable hours,                                       - Contactless power supply function
  and local                                         - Power supply through terminal’s
interfaces of                                       self power generation
   mobile       Wearable        Wearable            Terminals sufficiently small, light     Wearable        Small and light         High-speed and low
  terminal      terminal        computer            and of low power consumption to be      display,        wearable display.       power computer system
                                                    worn by human. With the built-in        wearable        Information input       and external I/F
                                                    computer capability of terminal,        keyboard        and output to be        (wireless).
                                                    computing can be done freely                            done anywhere
                                                    regardless of location. Small and                       without constraints.
                                                    light enough to be worn stress free.    Self power      Supply power to         NA
                                                    Target: 10cc, 10g.                      generator       wearable terminals
                                                                                                            through self- power
                                                                                                            generation.




                                                                             89
1.Category     2.Funcion        3.Main feature        4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature      6.Desciption on           Requirements on
                  item                                                                                           sub-feature                 system
             Ubiquitous        Ubiquitous          - Terminal with a powerful AI            Linkage with    Sensors that            NA
             function                              capability, which are small, light and   sensors         recognize the
                                                   consumes low power so that it can                        environment in
                                                   link with various sensors or adapt to                    which the terminal is
                                                   applications.                                            located.
                                                   - To be supported in various scenes
                                                   of daily life.
             A function to     Identification of   A function to distinguish service type   Contactless     Equipment to detect     Coordination between
             identify the      user or object      or user of terminal by other system      tag, IR, bar    main features           terminal and sub-feature
             target            (terminal)          terminals.                               code reader,                            equipment, and
             (“object” or                                                                   card reader                             coordination with server
             “human”).
             High-             LSI with high       LSI that can handle broadband data                                               - Enhancement in
             processing        processing power    without stress                                                                   terminal functionality
             power LSI                                                                                                              and services provided.
             Virtual reality   Advancement in      Improve ease of use by enhancing         Development     Development of          - High-speed linkage
                               man-machine         terminal screen or input keys, and       of scheme,      scheme, devices that    with terminals
                               interface           improve reality by 3D display, etc.      devices.        can be applied to
                                                                                                            mobile phone
                                                                                                            terminals.
             Dedicated         Dedicated           Terminals dedicated for a single or                                              NA
             terminal for      terminals for       limited usage purpose, such as
             specific          specific purposes   music-only, image-view-only, etc.
             purposes
             Data              Data compression    Provides a function to                                                           NA
             compression                           compress/extend large volume of
             function                              data while minimizing load on
                                                   terminal. Speed fast enough to
                                                   avoid stress of users.
             Remote            Embed remote        Embed various remote control                                                     NA
             control           control function    functions in terminals to enhance
             function          in terminals.       convenience.
             Water-proof       Water-proof         Provide waterproof facility for at                                               NA
                               facility            least daily use. Enables use without
                                                   constraint of weather and place.
                                                                            90
1.Category       2.Funcion    3.Main feature         4.Description on main feature        5.Sub-feature     6.Desciption on            Requirements on
                    item                                                                                      sub-feature                  system
               Printer       Terminal with        Build printer functions in terminals,   Content edit    Function to edit        NA
               function      printer capability   or provide connectible interface.       function        necessary content
 Terminal      Download      Heterogeneous        Has a virtual machine that responds     Interpreter     Converts byte code      Fast-speed terminal
Reconfigura    function      program              to byte or bit codes depending on                       programs to object      hardware of low power
   bility                    execution            downloaded program, and enables                         codes    and            consumption
                             environment          execution of programs written in                        executes them           - Efficient system
                                                  different languages.                                                            architecture
               Customize     Flexible             Terminals are equipped with system      Fast-speed      Executes flexible       Flexible terminal system
                             emulation            emulation environments, which can       emulation       emulation at fast
                             environment          be altered and executed flexibly by     environment     speed (through
                                                  an editor.                                              downloaded
                                                                                                          firmware, micro
                                                                                                          code, circuit
                                                                                                          information, etc.)
               Flexible      Flexible radio       A card type radio module with a       RAN selection     Possesses means to      - Flexible card system
               hardware      access network       built-in radio module compatible      function          realize various radio   and common I/F
                             function             with each mobile device, and also has                   access (RAN)            specifications
                                                  a common I/F with the applicable                        schemes by software,
                                                  mobile device.                                          and selects the
                                                                                                          applicable RAN
                                                                                                          system compatible
                                                                                                          with the I/F device.
               Flexible      Video transmit       Automatically selects the optimal       Video           Guarantees optimal      Stable image
               hardware      module selection     module for video transmission, and      streaming       conditions in the       transmission
                             function             sends information taken by the          function        transmission quality
                                                  terminal to TV, etc.                                    of consecutive
                                                                                                          images.
 Support of    Medical,      Emergent             An emergent medical system capable      Remote          Give urgent medical     - Fast-speed
   social/     security      medical system       of notifying medical institutions       medical         treatment directions    transmission function,
environment                                       based on information from medical       treatment       to medical              - Secure communication
 al services                                      equipment/ medical records in the       system          institutions or         path
                                                  event of emergency.                     (pathological   ambulance.
                                                                                          activity
                                                                                          support
                                                                                          system)
                                                                            91
1.Category    2.Funcion     3.Main feature        4.Description on main feature         5.Sub-feature   6.Desciption on        Requirements on
                 item                                                                                     sub-feature              system
             Compulsory    Restrictions on     Temporarily suspends call                                                  NA
             manner mode   call origination/   origination/termination by terminals
                           termination         that satisfy certain conditions. Also,
                                               make it possible to exclude from
                                               scope of restriction depending on
                                               degree of urgency.
             Reliability   Highly reliable     Provides a highly reliable                                                 - Capacity expansion of
                           network against     communication network so that the                                          radio transmission.
                           disasters, etc.     network used ordinarily is less likely                                     - Seamless
                                               to be interrupted even in the event of                                     communications,
                                               a disaster. Provides a                                                     multi-hop
                                               comprehensive, highly reliable                                             communications
                                               communication network through
                                               which necessary communication can
                                               be made with certainty from a
                                               terminal using all possible means,
                                               even when the network used
                                               ordinarily is disrupted due to
                                               congestion, etc.
                                               - Emergency access to other systems
                                               in disaster cases.
                                               - Network capacity expansion or
                                               provision of variable capacity in
                                               response to a disaster.
                                               - Wide-area ad hoc network to
                                               respond to a disaster.




                                                                        92
1.Category     2.Funcion     3.Main feature      4.Description on main feature       5.Sub-feature   6.Desciption on        Requirements on
                  item                                                                                 sub-feature              system
             Emergency      Multicast         Provides communications to prevent                                       NA
             response       communication     expansion of disaster and help save
             function       in the event of   people’s lives by multicasting
                            disaster          information on disaster situation or
                                              evacuation methods, in the event of
                                              man-made/natural disaster.
                                              Especially useful when the affected
                                              area is broad. By providing disaster
                                              information through push, congestion
                                              on network can be alleviated.
             Emergency      Biometric         Monitors biometric information                                           NA
             information    information       (e.g., body temperature, pulse,
             transmission   sensor            perspiration), and detects emergency
             sensor                           conditions so that automatic
                                              emergency notification can be made
                                              when a person is at risk.




                                                                      93
6. Requirements and Technical Subjects Required for the System
Infrastructure

 The features and performance targets to be provided by the fourth-generation         (4G) mobile
systems and related technical issues were studied from the viewpoint of building a system
infrastructure for the 12 categories relating primarily to Layers 1-4 among the 19 categories
presented in Table 5-1.   With regard to these numerous technical subjects that are necessary for
the realization of 4G mobile systems, an analysis was made from the viewpoint of leading technical
development subjects for the future, technical issues to be standardized, and element technologies
that could sow the seeds for new services.


6.1 Important Technical Research Issues
 With regard to the numerous technical subjects that are necessary for the realization of 4G mobile
systems, the importance of each technical issue was evaluated attaching utmost emphasis on the
following points; technologies that could provide a breakthrough; globally unprecedented or
extremely leading-edge technologies that are important in terms of technical strategies; and
technologies that are indispensable   (with no alternatives) for realizing the system.   Technical
issues that were ranked highly important are summarized in Table 6-1 below in the four major
categories of “high-speed and large-capacity wireless transmission technologies”, “network
constructional technologies”, “high-performance and advanced-function terminal technologies”,
and “mobile system technologies”.     As shown in the Table, a total of 27 items were included as
key technologies.




                                                94
                                  Table 6-1:   Major Research Issues


                                                                     Key Technologies
                                                1        Frequency refarming
                                                2        High-performance adaptive
                                                         modulation/demodulation techniques
                                                3        Multi-carrier techniques
                                                4        Interference and fading countermeasure
          High-speed and large-capacity                  techniques
  I
         wireless transmission technologies     5        Advanced adaptive array antenna
                                                6        Advanced multiplexing techniques     (MIMO)
                                                7        Error control techniques
                                                8        High-speed packet radio techniques
                                                9        Fast handover techniques
                                               10        Radio access networking techniques
                                               11        Robust networks
         Network constructional                12        Ad hoc networks
  II
         technologies                          13        Seamless networking techniques
                                               14        Approach link technologies
                                               15        High-speed transport technologies
                                               16        Circuit and device technologies
                                               17        Battery
                                               18        Human interface
          High-performance and advanced        19        Terminal security technologies
 III
           function terminal technologies
                                               20        Terminal software technologies
                                               21        Multi-system wireless terminal technologies
                                               22        Software defined radio
                                               23        Quality of Service   (QoS)
                                               24        Mobility control
 IV         Mobile system technologies         25        Mobile multicast techniques
                                               26        Location determination and navigation
                                               27        Security, encryption, and authentication


A technical overview for each of these items is given in the following sections.


6.1.1 Frequency Refarming
       In order to secure frequency bands needed for broadband mobile communications, it is
  required to understand the radio propagation characteristics and carry out research and
  development of devices to newly use microwave bands              (up to approximately 6GHz) for mobile
  communications. Frequency bands suitable for future mobile communications systems must be
  selected based on these data and technologies.
                                                    95
6.1.2 High-Performance Adaptive Modulation/Demodulation Techniques
     High-performance adaptive modulation/demodulation techniques adopt multi-level quadrature
  modulation for high-speed wireless transmission, and enables efficient utilization of spectral
  resources.   As it performs communications adaptive to the propagation environment           (e.g.,
  received power levels, interference signals, etc.), quality of communication and spectrum
  utilization efficiency can be improved while reducing transmit power.      Modulation techniques,
  coding techniques, adaptive control techniques, and automatic repeat request               (ARQ)
  techniques are included in this technology.


6.1.3 Multi-Carrier Techniques
    Multi-carrier is a technique to transmit signals after dividing them over multiple carriers.   In
  particular, the technique in which orthogonal carriers are used is called Orthononal Frequency
  Division Multiplexing     (OFDM).    When this is combined with Code Division Multiple Access
  (CDMA), it is called Multi-Carrier CDMA        (MC-CDMA) or Orthogonal Frequency and Code
  Division Multiplexing      (OFCDM).      The technique that transmits Direct Spread CDMA
  (DS-CDMA) signals in multiple bands is called separately as MC/DS-CDMA.
    These techniques have a characteristic of being highly tolerant against frequency-selective
  fading due to the use of multiple carriers, and OFDM achieves high spectral efficiency because
  each sub-carrier is orthogonal to each other.       On the other hand, there is a setback that the
  characteristics deteriorate significantly when the orthogonality cannot be maintained.
    With MC-CDMA          (OFCDM), which was devised in order to be adopted to cellular systems
  while taking advantage of the benefits of OFDM, high-speed transmission over 100Mbps is
  expected to be made possible in mobile communications environments enabling various
  multimedia services including the transmission of high-definition video.


6.1.4 Interference and Fading Countermeasure Techniques
    Interference and fading countermeasure techniques include key technologies such as
  interference cancellers to counter interference and distortions like multipath caused by
  high-speed traveling or wideband communications, fading-tolerant modulation/demodulation,
  adaptive array antennas, adaptive equalizers, etc., as well as the combination of these key
  technologies.
  By taking a countermeasure against multipath and other interference or fading in wideband
  communications, it is possible to enhance the spectral efficiency and transmission rates, resulting
  in the realization of high-speed, large-capacity data transmission.    Additionally, the following
  effects can also be expected:
     -Greater capacity per cell and reduction in base station equipment costs;
    -Improved transmission quality in mobile communications environments, and expansion of
        system capacity; and
     -When these techniques are implemented in mobile terminals, greater number of users can be
                                                 96
        accommodated than the case when adopted to base stations.


6.1.5 Advanced Adaptive Array Antenna
    Adaptive array antenna is a technology that improves signal quality through enhancing the
  gains of desired signals and removing interference depending on the communication environment
  by adaptively controlling the directivity of multiple antennas placed in an array.             It also
  contributes to expanding system capacity and improving spectral efficiency by suppressing the
  transmission of undesired signals.    On the other hand, by estimating the direction of arrival of
  signals based on the phase difference between antenna elements, this technology can be applied
  to location determination functions.     The performance of this technology enhances as the
  number of antennas increases, but since this results in an increase of circuit elements      (such as
  antennas) and signal processing volume, it will be necessary to downsize elements and simplify
  functions.


6.1.6 Advanced Multiplexing Techniques (MIMO)
   Multiple Input Multiple Output       (MIMO) is a technology intended for capacity expansion,
 which is achieved by transmitting and multiplexing different information on the same frequency
 through the use of multiple transmit/receive antenna branches.     Areas where this technology can
 be applied include variable multiplexing transmission, high-speed downloading, and interactive
 high-speed transmission.        An actual implementation has already been made in which a
 maximum of four channels are multiplexed                (4.8Mbps x 4).           Further performance
 enhancements can be expected as the number of multiplexing increases, but the resulting increase
 in complexity of signal processing will become an issue to be overcome.             Miniaturization of
 mobile terminals to install multiple antennas is another issue that needs to be solved, thus, a
 breakthrough will be required for its realization.


6.1.7 Error Control Techniques
     Error control is a technique that protects the transmitted information from errors that could
  occur in radio transmission while guaranteeing the effective transmission rate        (throughput) or
  signal quality   (transmission delay, etc.) at above a certain level.     Error control techniques are
  requested to maintain the required throughput or signal quality, while efficiently avoiding
  transmission errors through the use of retransmission control techniques such as Forward Error
  Correction    (FEC) or Automatic Repeat Request           (ARQ) and fast cell selection, or the
  combination of them.


6.1.8 High-Speed Packet Radio Techniques
    A technique aimed to efficiently use limited spectrum resources, increase system capacity,
  achieve high-speed radio transmission, and satisfy communication quality by dynamically
  allocating radio resources depending on traffic status, service quality     (QoS: Quality of Service)
  or radio conditions.   Resource allocation techniques can be classified by the subject of control
                                                 97
 such as cell-level   (inter-cell, intra-cell) allocation, or allocation by channel, user or packet.
 Specific examples for these are dynamic channel assignment, adaptive asymmetric traffic
 assignment , scheduling taking delay/priority into account, and high-speed packet radio
 multiplexing    (random access control), respectively.      Each of these is dependent on the
 multiplexing method employed           (time/frequency/code/space-division multiple access).    In
 relation to this, radio channel configuration techniques   or technologies relating to up/downlink
 duplex scheme to realize efficient assignment control are also included.   Furthermore, to control
 congestion, traffic control based on load is carried out to prevent a reduction in throughput when
 there is excessive load in packet channels.


6.1.9 Fast Handover Techniques
    Fast handover is a handover technique with enhanced handover speed to realize seamless
 high-speed mobile communications services, which can be adopted to the following:
 large-capacity communications services without interruption for fast downloading in high-speed
 moving environments such as in airplanes, trains, buses and automobiles, or uninterrupted
 large-capacity communications when a large number of users in such moving vehicles consists a
 moving network as a whole; communications services through software defined radio which
 enables seamless handover between different systems; seamless communications services
 between various systems on IP         (Internet Protocol) networks; and seamless communications
 services in high-density three-dimensional cells, etc.     Major technical subjects to enable fast
 handover include realization of automatic switching functions for moving networks, mobility
 control, coordination function between Layers 2 and 3 to realize fast handover, fast routing
 switching of packets, packet loss compensation techniques, fast handover control, handover
 sequence between moving networks and fixed base stations, fast cell search in and out of moving
 networks, and fast cell selection techniques, etc.


6.1.10 Radio Access Networking Techniques
     In the age when 4G mobile communications systems become necessary, transmission speeds
  of several Mbps per user will be required in cellular environments due to the projected
  proliferation of wired Internet and multimedia services among the public.      In addition, in hot
  spots speeds of about several tens of Mbps, about ten times faster than the speeds available
  today, is expected to be required.    Radio access networking techniques, through the use of the
  above-mentioned modulation schemes, adaptive array antennas, coding techniques or the
  combination thereof, enable dynamic construction of multiple continuous cells or isolated cells
  depending on the distribution of users or the environment.      The coexistence of such different
  cells should also be made possible.     Through the use of the above, a radio access network of
  variable system capacity can be constructed.


6.1.11 Robust Networks
    Going forward, it is expected that variable-capacity networks that can flexibly adapt to a
                                                 98
  temporary rise in traffic will be required for mobile communications.         One method to achieve
  this is to dynamically change the cell size, etc., through the use of adaptive array antennas or by
  adaptively employing transmit power/modulation schemes.            On the other hand, technologies
  that can secure a highly reliable communication network even in extraordinary conditions such
  as disasters are also drawing attention.    Techniques for congestion control or traffic dispersion
  are some of the basic techniques for this.       Recently, research on multi-hop communications
  using ad hoc networks has been undertaken aggressively, which is expected to provide an
  effective solution for building robust network even in the event of an emergency or a disaster.


6.1.12 Ad Hoc Networks
     A technology in which multiple terminals located in a certain area temporarily create a
  network    (ad hoc network) to perform communications amongst the terminals in the network.
  Since this does not involve the use of existing networks, communication networks can be
  constructed even in extraordinary conditions like a disaster.               To perform multi-hop
  communications via the terminals in the network, routing protocols suitable for ad hoc networks
  are needed.   Also, frequency-sharing techniques that allow multiple terminals in the network to
  communicate simultaneously, methods to participate in or leave from network, and methods to
  discover services available in the network must be established.        Because packets are relayed
  between terminals in multi-hop communications, it is also indispensable to realize security,
  encryption and authentication techniques from the perspective of privacy protection.
  Furthermore, the routing scheme between networks to connect ad hoc networks with existing
  network infrastructures is another technical issue that needs to be solved.


6.1.13 Seamless Networking Techniques
      Seamless networking is a technique to connect packet-based backbone networks with other
    radio access systems or networks         (such as existing or future cellular-type radio access
    systems or wireless LAN access systems), so that users can use such radio accesses or
    networks in a seamless manner.      The following are included as part of key technologies in
    this area: a technique to connect with the optimal combination of access systems depending on
    the context of users and terminals       (e.g., place, terminal capabilities, etc.), the application
    being used and the condition of access system; fast handover technique between different
    access systems; a technique to collect and manage context information; coordination
    techniques between access systems and networks; portability techniques like addresses, etc.
    Seamless networking techniques will make it possible to for the terminal, in coordination with
    the network, to automatically select and communicate with the most suitable access for the
    situation in environments where different access systems are made available.          Furthermore,
    by enabling automatic selection of and handover to the optimal access system when users are
    traveling, users will be able to continue communications without interruption.



                                                  99
6.1.14 Approach link technologies
      Approach link is the transmission technology between radio base stations or remote antennas
   and control stations, which can be realized by optimal fiber, microwaves to millimeter waves,
   or optical free-space transmissions, etc.     Approach links based on optical fiber enable to
   perform modulation/demodulation of radio signals and circuit control of base station in a
   concentrated manner at the controller station, which contributes to reducing the size of base
   station equipment, improving ease of installation and enhancing flexibility of the use of
   spectrum or technologies.    A technical issue that must be solved is to achieve data speeds in
   the order of giga-bits per second on optical fibers.


6.1.15 High-Speed Transport Technologies
      High-speed transport is a technology to transmit and switch large volume of packet data      (of
   giga to tera bits) at fast speeds at the network side, as high-speed transmission in the order of
   100Mbps becomes a reality in the radio interface.        Technologies to convert wireless protocols
   into IP to reduce overhead, improvement of header compression efficiency, overhead reduction
   techniques, and highly efficient transmission through large-capacity mobile IP multicasting are
   included in this category.


6.1.16 Circuit and Device Technologies
     Terminals for future mobile communications systems are required to support ubiquitous
  communications services, which enable users to access information anytime and anywhere.           In
  other words, they are requested to be equipped with multi-band and multi-mode capabilities and
  handle various contents such as those for terrestrial digital TV.      To this end, devices that are
  compatible with multiple spectrum bands and communication schemes need to be developed.
  On the other hand, their form factor may no longer be confined to the conventional phone shape,
  and wearable terminals may become necessary.            To realize this, high-density implementation
  technologies, downsizing of batteries, and development of small and high-visibility displays are
  needed.    High-performance display devices must also be developed to fully take advantage of
  high-quality contents.   For the processing of the above, and to process radio signals transmitted
  at high speeds, it is indispensable to develop new semiconductor devices that utilize
  nano-technology.


6.1.17 Battery
     Battery technology is one of the necessary key technologies for realizing mobile
  communications terminals.         Batteries will be used as a means to supply power to mobile
  terminals, and realize wearable terminals and communications amongst terminals through ad
  hoc networks, etc.    The technical challenges in this area include the enhancement of battery
  capacity, efficiency, operation hours and reduction of size and price in order to improve the
  portability and ease of use of terminals.         Also, research and development on material
  technologies that are environment friendly, fuel cells and solar batteries is called for in view of
                                                 100
  the growing need for environmental conservation.


6.1.18 Human Interface
    Terminals for future mobile communications are expected to work not only on a single system,
  as was the case for conventional systems, but also support multi-band and multi-mode
  capabilities.   This goes beyond the ability to handle multiple communication systems; it
  includes the capability to make access to contents residing in multiple systems, so that new
  contents, e.g., terrestrial digital broadcast contents, can be viewed on mobile terminals.
  Therefore, in addition to functions especially tailored to conventional voice communications,
  more enhancements need to be made on the terminal features.        Also, to provide a more secure
  environment when terminals are used for mobile e-commerce, in addition to the conventional
  network-to-terminal security, security between terminals and users       (i.e., security function of
  terminal per se) has to be realized, thus personal authentication function based on biometric data ,
  etc., will be needed.   The form factor of terminals is also projected to develop into various
  shapes, like a wearable terminal for example, depending on the usage environment.         It would
  therefore be indispensable to come up with methods to attach devices to human body, develop
  high-density batteries to get rid of limitations in input/output, reduce battery sizes, and invent
  small-sized high-visibility displays and voice/image/character recognition functions.          The
  uptake of these new functions, however, may be limited no matter how superior the functions
  themselves are, unless they offer splendid ease of use, i.e., human interface.
  The human interface technologies—i.e., to realize new advanced terminal features in an
 easy-to-use system for user—are considered to play an extremely important role for the spread of
 new mobile communications systems.


6.1.19 Terminal Security Techniques
     In 4G mobile service environments, terminal security is expected to hold greater importance
  due to the dissemination of mobile computing and the realization of all IP networks in the future.
  In particular, from the viewpoint of confidentiality and reliability of communications, it would
  be necessary to develop technologies that provides performance at least equal to that of
  traditional cryptography technologies employed on networks and systems such as public
  key-based infrastructure technologies.          Furthermore, from the perspective of user
  authentication, protection of personal information, personal authentication/signature in
  e-commerce transactions, and measures to protect intellectual property rights and prevent them
  from being altered will become increasingly important, and the development of technologies
  that further enhance user authentication or access permission based on biometrics including
  fingerprints and voiceprints is requested.


6.1.20 Terminal Software Technologies
     The key technical elements for the 4G mobile terminals are the execution of downloaded
  software written in various languages, the ability for the terminal itself to select and execute
                                                101
  features compatible with the application and to support more advanced user interface and
  security. As part of the underlying software technologies to enable the above, it is considered
  necessary to establish common operating systems and platforms for protocols and application
  software compatible with software defined radio.     One of the important related technologies for
  the former is the emulation technology that use high-speed, lower-power CPU, while that of the
  latter is software defined radio compatible with multiple systems.


6.1.21 Multi-System Wireless Terminal Technologies
     This is a technology related to terminals with multi-band, multi-mode capability, which can
  handle a number of services including wireless LAN, 4G mobile communications systems, and
  digital broadcasting.   Terminals have features to connect with multiple systems in a seamless
  manner, as well as short-distance communication feature        (via networks including temporary
  networks, or multi-hop), Personal Area Network        (PAN) function, functions to handle mobile
  digital broadcasting, and simultaneous link feature with multiple systems.          These terminals
  should also be reconfigurable in the field in response to the advancements or updates made in
  the system.
     The technical issues in the air interface side in relation to the above-mentioned terminals
  include frequency sharing among multiple air interfaces and multi-systems, dynamic frequency
  assignment, sharing of radio parameters, and other issues related to broadband radio
  transmission to other peripheral devices.    The technical challenges for the terminal itself are
  seamless connection between systems, multi-system radio technologies for handling multiple
  modulation schemes/ protocols/frequencies, multi-band antennas, coordination with peripheral
  equipment and various sensors, receiving of mobile digital broadcasting, use of software defined
  radio, IC chips that realize reconfigurability, and technical issues related to small,
  high-performance IC cards.


6.1.22 Software Defined Radio
    Software defined radio enables easier expansion of base station facilities, flexible handling in
  the air interfaces and terminals to support multiple systems, which make it possible to construct
  seamless networks and use multiple communication schemes.              It also provides an effective
  means for expanding functions for multi-mode operations, as terminals can be reconfigured in
  the field.   This change of terminal feature can be done without users being aware of it through
  software download.
     Technical issues that must be solve to put this into commercial use are the transceiver
  architecture,    technologies   to   implement     radio   functions     in   software,   multimode
  modulation/demodulation technologies realized in software, multi-band transmit/receive
  technologies, and issues related to the downloading method.            These technologies must be
  researched and developed going forward in conjunction with the standardization of the radio
  equipment and the establishment of equipment certification method.            Software defined radio
  was initially developed as a military communication technology. However, its deployment for
                                               102
  civil purposes has recently been promoted by the SDR       (Software Defined Radio) Forum of the
  United States, TRUST (Transparently Re-configurable Ubiquitous Terminal) of Europe and
  Software Radio Study Group of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication
  Engineers of Japan, etc.


6.1.23 Quality of Service (QoS)
     Quality of Service      (QoS) is a technology to control and guarantee transmission speeds,
  bandwidth, delay, and packet loss rates in packet communications.      An adequate QoS setting is
  performed between the radio link and core network depending on the quality class required by
  user and application, and users are able to receive services without being aware of this
  technology. Due to the increase in services that require high-speed large-capacity transmission
  and rising demand for packet communications in the future, there remain concerns against
  degradation in service quality resulting from congestion in spite of the expansion of radio
  transmission circuits.     QoS secures the required bandwidth in the transmission line and
  provides transmission speeds necessary for the application.       It also makes the adoption of
  real-time applications easier through controlling transmission delays and jitters.    The QoS in
  the radio link when the terminal makes handover between base stations is also controlled.
  End-to-end QoS from the radio to the core network is guaranteed.        Furthermore, high-quality
  services are provided by carrying out adequate QoS negotiations between layers depending on
  the application.


6.1.24 Mobility Control
      A technique to perform communications after identifying the movement status of terminals
    and establishing a connection via an adequate network.     Especially, technologies like Mobile
    IPv6, which realizes mobility transparency by the protocols in the IP layer, are drawing
    attention on the premise of further advancements in IP    (Internet Protocol) networks.      While
    handover is a necessity to continue communications on the move, some of the basic issues
    related to handover are its realization while maintaining the QoS         (Quality of Service),
    realization of fast handover to provide handover capabilities in micro-cells or in fast moving
    environments, and efficient handover for moving networks in which a large number of users in
    trains, buses, etc., move as a whole.   Moreover, by employing these techniques not only in a
    single access system but also between different ones, seamless communications becomes a
    reality, enabling users to communicate anytime, anywhere with any equipment.


6.1.25 Mobile Multicast Techniques
      A broadband radio transmission technique to distribute non-real-time data      (e.g., character
    news, etc.), as well as real-time data including voice and video to a large number of designated
    users with accuracy and certainty.      In wireless communications, which has limitations in
    available spectrum resources, highly efficient transmission through large-capacity mobile IP
    multicast is considered necessary to distribute information efficiently to numerous users.
                                                103
      This technique enables multiple users to share common information                (broadcast-type
   service).    In addition, it can be used to provide various services that could stimulate the spread
   of mobile communications services, including the delivery of electronic papers or news at
   stations, airports and hotels, an efficient provision of character information or still/moving
   images to a number of users, for example, at business shows, and on-demand video/music
   distribution.


6.1.26 Location Determination and Navigation
      Through the use of fast and highly accurate location determination techniques       (calculation
    speed: 1-2 seconds, error: several-several tens of meters) and distance measurement techniques,
    it will become possible to provide terminals that are able to quickly obtain information
    regarding the precise location and direction, etc., without any constraints from being indoor or
    outdoors.      A variety of applications can be realized, too, by employing such techniques as
    optimal route search, advanced information collection/search, and multicast, etc.             The
    following are some specific examples: a navigation function that guides to the destination in
    the shortest time by the most suitable means through the linkage with Intelligent Transport
    Systems     (ITS), enabling safe and comfortable travel with less congestion or accidents; an
    agent function which provides information tailored to the taste of drivers or pedestrians; net
    advertisements that aims to promote sale through pinpointed information delivery linking
    products and customer information            (including location information), and; emergency
    notification services linked with information from biometric sensors, etc.


6.1.27 Security, Encryption and Authentication
      A technology aimed to create a safe mobile communications environment by preventing
    tapping, alteration, pretending, denial and illegal accesses.     This technology is particularly
    important for wireless environments as they are more vulnerable in terms of security compared
    to wired environments, and is indispensable for realizing such service functionality as user
    authentication, personal information protection, electronic commerce, billing control and
    copyright protection in mobile communications environments.               Specifically, advanced
    encryption algorithms, highly reliable authentication, and network security protocols for
    wireless communications are the major technical issues under Layer 4.


6.2 Key Technical Issues from the Perspective of Standardization


  As part of basic studies the importance of each technical subject is evaluated from the viewpoint
of standardization.     As a consequence, it was recognized that the majority of issues that were
regarded important from the perspective of advanced research and development themes were also
important from the viewpoint of standardization, but the importance of some items did not
necessarily match between these two approaches.
Technical items that were considered important especially from the standardization perspective
                                                  104
rather than research and development were mainly system-related techniques and items related to
the platform technologies for mobile communications.       To name a few, the following items were
included in this classification: security, authentication mechanism, paging in multiple access
systems, communication interface in ad hoc networks, data conversion format between terminals,
IP-related protocols, overhead reduction/header compression for high-speed packet access, etc.
  On the contrary, there were items that were ranked highly important in terms of technical
research and development, but no as much so in standardization.                  Some examples are
high-performance antennas, performance and functional enhancements of terminals, fuel cells,
multi-system    terminal   technology,     location   determination    and    navigation,   information
collection/retrieval by terminals, route search and memory techniques.             Most of these, as
described, were related to terminals.


6.3 “Seeds” Technologies for New Services


     Each technical issue was evaluated from the viewpoint whether it has the possibility to hold
  the key for deploying and creating new services in the age of 4G., and the following technologies
  ranked high as a consequence: software defined radio in terminals; multi-system terminals,
  technologies for reducing terminal size/weight/battery consumption; terminal input/output
  interface techniques such as 3D and five senses; wearable terminals; terminals for receiving
  mobile broadcasting; biometric authentication techniques            (like fingerprints) on terminals;
  interface technology between terminals and various sensors; automatic selection of various radio
  accesses by terminal; multi-hop access techniques; location information techniques; highly
  reliable radio accesses; MIMO, and; authentication/security techniques.
  Obviously, many of the items that ranked high were issues relating to terminals, which are
  directly associated with services.     Going forward, it will be necessary to study which among
  them would truly match the needs of users.




                                                  105
7. Roadmap of Features and Element Technologies of Important Research
Subjects toward 4G Mobile Systems

7.1 Functional Roadmap
       In order to clarify the feasibility of the features required for the realization of 4G mobile
systems, and highlight the characteristics of 4G mobile systems from the perspective of features, a
functional roadmap was created based on the studies on the functional evolution up to around 2010.
Important functional items and keywords were raised for the 19 functional categories presented in
Chapter 5, and an analysis was performed for each of the items for three different time periods of
2002-2003, 2005-2006, and 2010 and beyond.        The outcome of the studies is summarized in Table
7-1.
   In this section, one of the main characteristics of 4G mobile systems, seamless network, is cited
as an example to provide an explanation on the evolution of features.      Currently, handover and
roaming between different radio accesses are provided only on a limited basis, but functional
evolution will be made in the future to enable flexible handover and roaming between a larger
number of different radio accesses and systems.         Features to control QoS together are also
expected to become available.      In addition, an inter-terminal service migration control feature,
which enables the migration of services among different compatible terminals, is also expected to
become available as part of the features provided by seamless services.


7.2 Roadmap of Element Technologies of Important Research Subjects
  In order to contribute to the studies on the performance targets and system requirements of 4G
mobile systems, a roadmap of element technologies of important research subjects was created.
The roadmap includes an analysis on the level of enhancements to be achieved gradually by 2010
in these important element technologies required to realize the distinctive features of 4G mobile
systems.     In Chapter 6, 27 technical elements in four technology categories were raised from the
viewpoint of system infrastructure.    Here, important aspects and points were addressed for each of
them as keywords, and the roadmap for their evolution was analyzed for the three different time
periods of 2002-2003, 2005-2006 and 2010 and beyond.              The results of this exercise are
summarized in Tables 7-2a – 7-2d.
  In this section, an explanation concerning the evolution of the element technologies of important
research subjects is provided, taking high-speed, large-capacity wireless packet transmission—one
of the important characteristics of 4G mobile systems—as an example.             In terms of radio
transmission speeds, it is expected that packet transmission of up to 100Mbps in outdoor cellular
environments, and up to 1Gbps in indoor/stationary environments can be achieved by around 2010,
owing to the advancements in multi-carrier techniques, MIMO techniques and adaptive array
antenna techniques, among others.




                                                 106
                                                                 Table 7-1: Functional Roadmap toward 4G Mobile Systems
No. Functional category          Functional item/keyword                                    2002 - 2003(3G)                        2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                                2010 - (4G)
 1   Security, authentication,   Advanced authentication                      Practical implementation phase of fingerprint -Practical implementation of advanced            Emergence of compound recognition
     authorization, accounting     -Biometrics authentication                 authentication system                         authentication techniques based on voice,        techniques
                                                                                                                            venous and iris authentication, etc.
                                 Authorization, accounting                    Authentication based on login ID, password. Facilitate integration of ID+password,             Enable connection to ubiquitous networks
                                   -User access management/control            ID and password are required for each         accounting structure, toward the realization     with a single sign-on. Accounting for
                                   -Accounting/control for ubiquitous service service.                                      of single sign-on used in ubiquitous networks    content utilization charge, etc., will be
                                                                                                                                                                             managed together. Biometric
                                                                                                                                                                             authentication (e.g., fingerprint) to be used.
 2   User interface              High-speed external I/F                      Implement independent I/F schemes             Implementation of autonomous selection           Enhancement of autonomous selection type
                                   -High-speed multi-I/F function                                                           type multi-interface (WLAN, etc.)                multi-interface(software-defined radio
                                   -Wireless I/F (High-speed WLAN, etc.)                                                                                                     technique), practical implementation of new
                                                                                                                                                                             technologies, e.g. UWB.
                                 Language learning function                   Research on natural language processing AI    Practical implementation of specific             Practical implementation of multiple
                                    -Artificial intelligence (AI)             for specific languages (English, etc).        languages (English, etc.) and research on        language processing
                                    (inference engine, natural language                                                     multiple language processing.
                                 understanding)
                                 Voice recognition                            Study phase toward practical implementation Practical implementation of                Apply speaker-dependent recognition to
                                    -speaker dependent/speaker independent    of speaker-independent recognition          speaker-independent recognition system and authentication systems, etc, through
                                    recognition                                                                           mail text drafting.                        enhancements in training techniques.
                                    -Background noise tolerance (High
                                 recognition rate))
                                    -High-speed recognition algorithm
                                 Image recognition (character recognition)    Emergence of mega-pixel images (100M or   Apply image recognition application                  Enhance image recognition techniques to
                                    -High-speed, high-precision image         more), and studies on its application     software compatible with mega-pixel images           enable application to personal authentication
                                 recognition algorithm                        (application, contents).                  (character recognition, face image                   systems, emergence of multi-modal systems
                                                                                                                        recognition) to mobile services.                     combined with voice recognition, etc.
                                 Translation                                  Accuracy of meaning analysis: Approx. 70% Accuracy of meaning analysis: 80% or                 Accuracy of meaning analysis: 90% or
                                    -Real-time translation (high-speed)                                                 higher, integration of rule-based engine and         higher,
                                    -Advanced inference engine                                                          corpus-based engine
                                 (morphological analysis + generation
                                 algorithm)
 3   Seamless Network            Seamless service                             None                                           -Practical implementation of adaptive service   Realization of inter-terminal service
                                    -Service discovery                                                                       using service discovery                         migration control, which enables movement
                                    -Adaptive service                                                                        -Practical implementation of adaptive service   of service among compatible terminals
                                    -Connection policy                                                                       utilizing user-defined connection policy
                                                                                                                             (service quality & billing conditions, etc.)
                                 Handling of multiple communications          Compatibility with limited communication       Compatibility with greater number of            Ability to flexibly handle future radio access
                                 schemes                                      schemes/features                               existing access systems                         systems
                                                                                                                             Function for receiving terrestrial digital      Realization of a common network/radio
                                                                                                                             broadcast                                       system interface for different systems
                                 Seamless connection (automatic switching)    Function for the terminal to detect and select Establishment of AAA mechanism common           Automatic selection of an optimal radio
                                                                              compatible radio access systems                 to various radio access systems                system using user profile, system
                                                                                                                                                                             information, state information.



                                                                                                      107
No. Functional category     Functional item/keyword                                   2002 - 2003(3G)                          2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                                2010 - (4G)
                            Handover and roaming                        Realize best-effort handover between           Realize QoS assured handover between same        Realize QoS assured handover between
                                                                        different access systems.                       access systems                                  different access systems
                                                                        Global roaming based on 3G handsets            Fast handover on IP networks (in low-middle      Fast handover on IP networks (in fast
                                                                                                                       speed moving environments)                       moving environments)
                            Coordination between different systems      Realize coordination between different         Coordination with home network,                  Realization of ubiquitous network
                                                                        systems in service offering                    information appliances
 4   QoS                    QoS control technique                       Practical implementation phase of content      Standardization of QoS control, network load     Practical implementation of network load
                                                                        quality control technique, network load        measurement, terminal load measurement           prediction technique
                                                                        measurement technique, terminal load           API.
                                                                        measurement technique
                            Rate, bandwidth assurance                   Assurance by circuit-switched connection,      Assurance by scheduling, polling.                Assurance of several 100 kbps – several
                                                                        resource reservation                                                                            Mbps, Handling of movement between
                                                                                                                                                                        different systems
                            Delay, jitter assurance                     Assurance by buffering, traffic shaping        Packet priority control                          Radio interface (single link): 50msec or
                                                                                                                                                                        below, Domestic NW: approx. 20msec,
                                                                                                                                                                        Between E-E: approx.100msec or below
                            Packet loss rate assurance                  RED, unprioritized packet discard function     Adoption of H-ARQ and AMC.                       Provide packet loss rate depending on
                                                                                                                                                                        application
                            Best   Effort                               Best-effort packet services being provided     Advanced scheduling aimed at improved            Control that achieves improved efficiency
                                                                        on2G and 3G systems. In 3G, common             efficiency and fairness of radio resource        and fairness of radio resource allocation at a
                                                                        channels and dedicated channels are switched   allocation                                       higher level.
                                                                        depending on packet traffic.
                                                                        Adoption of Proportional Fairness (EV-DO)
                            QoS provision function (responding to       Voice is provided by circuit-switched, and     In HSDPA, interactive,background,and             QoS control responding to diverse rates
                            application)                                data by circuit or packet-switched             streaming are targeted.                          (delay) required by various applications,
                                                                        connections. For packets, retransmission is                                                     including videophone, high-definition
                                                                        performed in radio interface. (Application                                                      streaming, etc.
                                                                        and lower layers perform control together).
                            Inter-layer QoS coordination                Each layer operates in unison                  Radio conditions are estimated by indirect       QoS requests are conveyed to lower layers
                                                                                                                       methods, e.g., RTT, etc., and higher             by inter-layer communication via API. In
                                                                                                                       application performs rate control, etc., based   lower layers, parameter selection, etc., is
                                                                                                                       on the estimates.                                performed based on QoS request.
 5   Multi-mode operation   Digital broadcast receiving function        -Launch of 2.6GHz-band satellite digital       -Extension of 2.6GHz-band satellite digital      -Receiving of both satellite digital/terrestrial
                               - Digital broadcast receiving function   broadcast service (primarily received by       broadcast service (received by cellular).        digital is made possible due to cellular
                            (Satellite digital broadcast receiving)     mobile).                                       -Spread of partial receiving of terrestrial      equipment supporting multimode operations.
                               - Digital broadcast receiving function   -Launch of terrestrial digital TV broadcasting digital broadcasting by cellular receivers.      -Receiving of SDTV/HDTV becomes
                            (Terrestrial digital broadcast receiving)                                                                                                   possible due to enhancement of display
                               -Arbitrary replay of program digests                                                                                                     devices, etc.
                            (server type broadcast method)
                            Multi-band/multi-mode function              - Multiple air interfaces are handled by       -Mainstream move from circuit-switched           -Commonality with multiple air interface
                               - Multi-band/multi-mode function         multi-hardware radio device (W-CDMA/           network to IP network, and rollout of            specifications, including W-LAN. Possible
                            including wireless LAN, 4G                  GSM, W-CDMA/PDC, W-LAN/PHS, etc.)              network including voice makes progress.          to handle by change of terminal parameters.
                                                                        -Realized direct conversion method, Low-IF     - Scheduled launch of HSDPA service (late        -Handles multiple air interfaces, effectively
                                                                        scheme.                                        2004-2005)                                       utilizing limited spectrum bandwidth.




                                                                                                108
No. Functional category               Functional item/keyword                                    2002 - 2003(3G)                          2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                              2010 - (4G)
                                      Short-range communications function          -Studies on technical issues for ad hoc         - Standardization work to make progress        -Carries out part of mobile communications,
                                        -Short-range communications via network    network are proceeding. A wide range of                                                        mutually supplementing infrastructures for
                                        -Short-range communications including      technical issues exists, including autonomous                                                  high-speed communications.
                                      multi-hop                                    distributed network architecture, routing,
                                                                                   media access control, coding,
                                                                                   modulation/demodulation, and antenna, etc.
                                                                                   -Multi-hop connection is being studied as a
                                                                                   method to overcome the distance limitation
                                                                                   (approx. 10m-100m) of short-range
                                                                                   communications
 5   Multi-mode operations            PAN function                                 - Communications using UWB (Ultra Wide        - UWB products are expected to become            - UWB to be widely adopted as a means for
                                                                                   Band) under study with an aim to achieve      available.                                       high-speed communications in PAN.
                                                                                   wide-bandwidth (high-speed) PAN functions.    -Standardization of local short distance         -“IEEE802.15.4”: To be used in areas
                                                                                   -Draft specifications of local short distance wireless communication to commence to            invisible from users as a means for
                                                                                   wireless communication were fixed in Dec.     enhance transmission rates to up to 10Mbps.      low-speed “object-to-object”
                                                                                   2002.                                         -“IEEE802.15.4”: To be practically               communications
                                                                                   -“IEEE802.15.4”: Standardized as low-speed    implemented in remote controllers for home
                                                                                   wireless specifications                       appliances, and various remote controllers
                                                                                                                                 for factory, buildings, etc., from 2003 second
                                                                                                                                 half onwards.
                                      Software defined radio                       - Prototypes realizing multiple radio systems - Channel assignment control mechanism           -Cognitive mechanism (environment-
                                                                                   have been developed.                          (autonomous distributed channel                  adaptive type: differentiated use of flexible
                                                                                                                                 differentiation between different systems) to    autonomous distributed channel between
                                                                                                                                 be realized in addition to carrier sense         different systems) will be realized by
                                                                                                                                 mechanism (autonomous distributed channel        advanced software defined radio.
                                                                                                                                 differentiation between same systems).
 6   Location detection- navigation   Information delivery (receiving) function    Automatic receiving of related information, Automatically performs selective receiving          Automatic receiving of optimal related
                                         -Automatic information receiving          route search information, triggered by the    of only related information based on location     information based on radio access
                                                                                   obtainment of location information through information, user’s needs, or preference.            environment of each location (including
                                                                                   GPS or connected base stations, etc.                                                            indoor, underground) and terminal used by
                                                                                                                                                                                   user.
                                      Personalized location information            Confirmation of location of person(s)           Select to transmit/not transmit location        Assured delivery of highly accurate location
                                        -Privacy                                   requiring protection, medical treatment, etc.   information based on user’s needs or            information using optimal means for
                                        -Urgency                                                                                   circumstances. Assured delivery of highly providing location information and radio
                                        -Assured delivery                                                                          accurate location information in                access means, depending on radio access
                                                                                                                                   emergencies, such as accidents, disasters, etc. environment of each location, and terminal
                                                                                                                                                                                   used by user.
                                        -Location detection/distance measurement Accuracy (outdoor); several meters                Accuracy (outdoor); several centimeters         Accuracy (indoor and outdoor); several
                                                                                 Measurement time: approx. 10 sec.                 Measurement time: Approx. a few seconds         centimeters
                                                                                                                                                                                   Measurement time: less than 1 sec.
                                        -Location-based information                Information delivery based on location          Information delivery based on location          Information delivery based on location
                                      delivery/sharing                                                                             +static information.                            +dynamic information.
                                                                                                                                   Sharing of ad hoc information in stationary Sharing of ad hoc information in moving
                                                                                                                                   circumstances.                                  environments
                                        -Personalization/Security/Authentication   Store limited personal information in           A lot of personal information is stored in       A lot of personal information is managed on
                                                                                   SIM/UIM cards                                   cellular terminal or IC cards.                  the network.
                                                                                   Personal authentication using password, IC      Biometrics authentication                       Personal authentication unnoticed by users
                                                                                   cards.

                                                                                                           109
No. Functional category           Functional item/keyword                                      2002 - 2003(3G)                          2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                             2010 - (4G)
 7   Database/Remote Server       ※ No.7 Database/Remote Server was
                                  merged with No. 9 High-quality multimedia
 8   High-Speed, Large-capacity   Broadband and wide-range transmission         -When moving: 384kbps/Stationary                 -When moving: 5Mbps/Stationary                 -When moving: 100Mbps/Stationary
     transmission                                                               environment: 54Mbps                              environment: 100Mbps                           environment: 1Gbps
                                                                                -Switching; several 10 giga bits                 -Switching; several 100 giga bits              -Switching; tera bits
                                                                                -Backbone circuit: 128Gbps                       -Backbone circuit: 5Tbps                       -Backbone circuit: 400Tbps
                                  Network system                                -Coexistence of circuit and packet switch        -Packet switching (HSDPA、MBWA)                 -IP-based hierarchical architecture
                                                                                (1X EVDO)                                        -Mobility control: micro, personal mobility    -Mobility control: mobile IP + AAA
                                                                                -Routing: RIP, OSPF
                                  High-speed download function                  -Communication rate: several 100kbps             -Communication rate: several Mbps              -Communication rate: several 100Mbps
                                                                                -Low jitter transmit; Approx. 1Mbps              -Low jitter transmit; Approx. 10Mbps           -Low jitter transmit; Approx. 100Mbps
                                  Interactive high-speed transmission           Reliability enhancement in radio interface       Radio transmission of up to 2Mbps (uplink)     Radio transmission of up to 30Mbps (uplink)
                                                                                through radio transmission of max. 384kbps       and 14.4Mbps (downlink), and                   and 100Mbps (downlink)
                                                                                (up/downlink), ARQ and Turbo coding.             high-reliability radio transmission adopting
                                                                                                                                 Hybrid ARQ.
                                  High-speed transmission in fast moving        Realization of radio transmission of max.        Radio transmission of 413 kbps or higher       Large-capacity transmission of more than
                                  environments                                  384kbps (up/downlink and radio link              (downlink) using HSDPA.                        30Mbps (up/downlink), high-speed/
                                                                                switching.                                                                                      high-quality radio link switching function,
                                                                                                                                                                                and high-speed/large capacity transmission
                                                                                                                                                                                within moving networks, high-speed multiple
                                                                                                                                                                                channel switching function.
 9   High-quality multimedia      High sound quality, sound-quality selection   Adaptive switching of Codec, coding rate         High-sound quality scalable coding             Autonomous fine-grained scalable (FGS)
                                  function                                      depending on circuit capacity, errors,                                                          Codec, which provides users with optimal
                                     -Scalable coding                           application.                                                                                    quality
                                     -Quality metric
                                  High-quality AV                               -Stereo replay                                   Wide bandwidth and high sound quality +        High sense of presence, high-quality
                                    -Terminals capable of replaying sense of    -Videophone                                      simplified replay of sense of presence         multi-modal replay
                                  presence                                      -3D display
                                  Database/remote server                        -Access to database of predefined systems        -Synchronization of data in multimedia         -Content adaptive control
                                     -Wideband transmission                     (e.g., for content delivery) via the Internet.   storages between multiple predefined           -Synchronization of data managed in
                                     -High-resolution display                                                                    systems, and information collection based on   multimedia storage distributed in various
                                     -DRM                                                                                        user information.                              systems, including personal broadcast
                                                                                                                                                                                stations and other DB, access without paying
                                                                                                                                                                                attention to data, information collection.
10   Information input            Three-dimensional information processing    Stereo sound                                       Three-dimensional image coding                 Three-dimensional display using holography
                                    -3-dimensional information coding
                                    -3-dimensional information replay
                                    -3-dimensional information display device
                                  Five-sense information communications       Voice, image only                                  Realization of communicating sense of touch Realization of pseudo five-sense
                                    -Five-sense sensor                                                                                                                       communications (including sense of touch,
                                    -Five-sense coding                                                                                                                       scent).
                                    -Five-sense reproduction device




                                                                                                          110
No. Functional category             Functional item/keyword                                       2002 - 2003(3G)                        2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                                2010 - (4G)
11   Remote sensing/control         Remote sensing/control                         -Start using RFID in logistics, etc., as a     -Equipment control and equipment                 -Coordination of distributed functions that
                                      -IPv6                                        replacement of bar codes.                      management from remote places.                   mutually supplement functions, by forming a
                                      -Sensing network                                                                                                                             small network through attaching sensors and
                                      -RFID                                                                                                                                        ID to every equipment to enable search of
                                                                                                                                                                                   equipment/service and obtain information on
                                                                                                                                                                                   equipment status, etc.
                                    Sensor network                                 -Practically used in abnormality monitoring    -Construction of networks linked with IPv6
                                      -Inter-sensor communication technique        system for buildings, preventive medical
                                                                                   service
12   Agent                          Optimal content delivery                       -Content conversion based on terminal          -Seamless content delivery to various            -Content digest delivery catered to user
                                      -Terminal capability description, circuit    display capability.                            terminals                                        preference
                                    capability description, (high-speed) content   -Frame rate conversion based on feedback       -Content conversion based on user                -High-speed, highly scalable content
                                    conversion                                     from client                                    information                                      conversion
                                                                                   -XML conversion technique
                                    Information collection                         -Information collection based on               -Practical implementation of information         -Information collection by moving agent
                                       -Privacy policies                           combination of indexing robot and search       collection using user-defined privacy policies   -Information collection through collaboration
                                       -Agent language                             engine                                         -Use of information broker agent                 of heterogeneous agents
                                                                                   -Receiving of broadcast information through    -Information collection by autonomous agent
                                                                                   applications residing permanently              using automatic learning/prediction
                                                                                                                                  techniques
                                    Content administration                         -Photos and videos taken by cellular           -Manage downloaded contents by proxy             -Effective proxy scheduling, content
                                      -Proxy, DB                                   terminals are managed by server (with time                                                      replication
                                                                                   limitation).                                                                                    -Effective management of dynamic content
                                                                                   -Access control by network
                                     Pseudo-personality feature                    User agent based on knowledge database,        Trial introduction of pseudo personality         Practical implementation of advanced
                                       -Advanced artificial intelligence           information management agent                   algorithm (artificial intelligence, autonomous   pseudo-personality feature including network
                                     (Neuro-system/autonomous thinking type                                                       type, learning adaptation) compatible with
                                     pseudo personality algorithm)                                                                multi-modal communications
13   Terminal processing capability, Long-hour operation/Long-life battery         -Compact fuel cell in research phase           -Practical implementation of compact fuel        -Practical implementation of various adaptive
     usable hours, external I/F                                                    -Li-ion battery used as mainstream             cells                                            power supply schemes
                                     -Fuel cell                                    Optimization of air interface, such as         -Studies on power-saving operation (change       -Further reduction in operational voltage of
                                     -Contactless power supply, e.g.               intermittent reception, etc., and optimization of operation modes, power control).              integrated circuits
                                      electro-magnetic wave                        of signal processing are facilitated.          -Development of adaptive signal processing       -Studies on highly efficient supply schemes
                                     -Self power generation                                                                       techniques depending on communication rate       to perform contactless power supply from
                                     -Various adaptive power supply schemes                                                       -Development of man-powered generation           external equipment, using electro-magnetic
                                                                                                                                  feature.                                         waves, etc.
                                    Wearable terminals                             -SD card/Memory Stick have been realized        -Implementation of multiple modules in a        -Miniaturization to a size of approx. 10g,
                                    -Compact/light-weight input device (thin       as wireless LAN/PHS/data communications similar peripheral interface as left to become          10cc is needed.
                                    type/high resolution)                          modules. GPS/PHS modules for location          possible.                                        -Emergence of naturally wearable terminals
                                    -Compact/thin type/high-resolution output      determination have been practically             -Start being used by general users              through coordination with network,
                                    device                                         implemented.                                   (conference, voice communication, health         simplification of features, and weight
                                    -High-speed/low power consumption LSI          –Commercialization tests in some industries management, etc.), wearable provider,               reduction. Promote use in various fields
                                    -PAN                                           (shipbuilding, etc.), using W-LAN              linkage with home appliances                     (education, medical treatment, etc.)
                                    -High-speed radio multi-I/F (High-speed
                                    WLAN, etc.)




                                                                                                            111
No. Functional category           Functional item/keyword                                      2002 - 2003(3G)                         2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                              2010 - (4G)
                                  Large-capacity memory                          Internal memory made open to users:          External memory media offering the same          A capacity of several Gbtyes is required for
                                                                                 approx.16Mbyte, External memory:             level of capacity as a DVD is required.          internal memory. It shall be possible to
                                                                                 1Gbyte.Exchange of data can be done by       High-speed short-range wireless media, e.g.,     automatically determine the optimal one
                                                                                 external memory or infrared transmission.    UWB, might possibly be realized replacing        from multiple communications media, and
                                                                                 Downloaded data, e.g., video Java programs,  infrared transmission. A method to extract       exchange stored data. Copyright clearance,
                                                                                 basically cannot be extracted to external    video and other data, copyright clearance,       authentication schemes will also be required
                                                                                 devices.                                     authentication schemes are considered            for these cases.
                                                                                                                              necessary to encourage users to download
                                                                                                                              using wireless means instead offixed-line
                                                                                                                              networks.
                                  Terminals wearable by human body               Such module types as SD card/Memory Stick Implementation of multiple modules in a             -Miniaturization to a size of approx. 10g,
                                                                                 have been realized for wireless              similar peripheral interface as left to become   10cc is needed.
                                                                                 LAN/PHS/data communications. GPS/PHS possible.
                                                                                 modules for location determination have
                                                                                 been practically implemented.
                                  High-functionality LSI, enabling service       Signal processing to demodulate signals of   To achieve both high-speed signal processing     High-speed processing circuits using
                                  processing without giving stress to users      several MHz of bandwidth is realized, but    and reduced power consumption, practical         0.10-0.035μm processes, large-capacity
                                                                                 consume large amount of power vis-à-vis      implementation of next-generation                memory, high-performance CPU techniques,
                                                                                 battery capacity.                            semiconductors using nano-technology (<          super low power consumption device
                                                                                                                              0.10μm process) is indispensable.                technique must be developed.
                                  Virtual reality feature                        3D LCDs and surround sound source LSIs       -To be realized via connected external           3D virtual surround
                                                                                 have been practically implemented.           equipment (controller, display device,
                                                                                                                              headset, etc.)
                                                                                                                              -2D virtual surround
                                  Dedicated terminals specialized in sound       Besides handsets for voice transmission,     Various terminals to be realized for different   Modulation/demodulation technique with
                                  quality, usage patterns.                       videophone handsets, card-type terminals for usage purposes, e.g., dedicated terminals for    small signal processing load suitable for
                                                                                 data communications have been made           receiving TV broadcast, built-in chip type       low-middle speed communications.
                                                                                 available as commercial products.            terminal, terminal for location information,     Dedicated terminals that can flexibly set
                                                                                                                              etc.                                             power consumption and equipment size by
                                                                                                                                                                               varying the spectrum resources used
                                                                                                                                                                               depending on communication rate.
                                  Terminals enabling incoming call               Termination of incoming voice calls is         A mechanism that notifies incoming call to
                                  termination/outbound call origination during   possible on terminals equipped with multiple   the communication media being used by
                                  communication                                  communication media.                           other media is required.
                                  Large-volume data compression/ extension       MPEG-4 has been practically implemented.       Hierarchical coding depending on degree of     Coding techniques that can re-edit/search
                                  feature                                                                                       importance, compression efficiency 5-10        contents without associated information, and
                                                                                                                                times superior to current techniques, and      perform search/filtering by structurization.
                                                                                                                                coding technique capable of handling
                                                                                                                                terminal/congestion status.
14   Terminal Reconfigurability   Software defined radio                         Experimental prototype for software            Standardization of software defined radio      Practical implementation of multi-band,
                                                                                 implementation of EV-DO physical layer,        standard interface                             multi-protocol terminals.
                                                                                 and MAC layer
                                  Platform-free environment (absorbance of       Emergence of CPU with partial emulation        Promote reconfigurability of application core Reconfigurable terminals adaptive to service
                                  language difference)                           function                                       (voice, video streaming, etc.)                or use environment (platform-free:
                                  Flexible emulation                                                                                                                          communication protocols, application
                                  Video streaming                                                                                                                             language).
                                  Voice streaming


                                                                                                        112
No. Functional category       Functional item/keyword                                      2002 - 2003(3G)                        2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                               2010 - (4G)
                              Hardware reconfigurability                    Dual-mode PDC/PHS, W-CDMA/PDC                  Multi-function terminals combining PDC,          Same as left
                                                                            handsets, etc. Wireless access points with     W-CDMA, PHS, and wireless LAN, etc.,
                                                                            combo chips for 802.11a, b, g, etc.            might be practically implemented.
15   Ad hoc network           Inter-terminal communications feature         -Authentication encryption algorithm           -Realization of compact and low power            -Control techniques to automatically select
                                                                            -Frequency sharing technique                   consumption modems which can arbitrarily         required transmit techniques (hybrid ARQ,
                                                                            -Adaptive selection of radio communication     set transmit bandwidth                           time and space diversity, MIMO) and cell
                                                                            scheme                                         -Realization of algorithm to determine           depending on link conditions.
                                                                            -Communication feature automatic selection     optimal transmit rate                            -Securing spectrum for community
                                                                            technique                                      -Convergence with software defined radio         -Handling of Zero Administration techniques
                                                                                                                           techniques
                                                                                                                           -Development and practical implementation
                                                                                                                           of protocols for ad hoc communications
                              Inter-terminal relay feature                  -Frequency sharing technique                   - Convergence with software defined radio        -Control techniques to automatically select
                                                                            -Relayed terminal (route) selection method     techniques                                       required transmit techniques (hybrid ARQ,
                                                                            -Retransmission scheme, congestion             -Routing protocol, access control protocol,      time and space diversity, MIMO) and cell
                                                                            avoidance                                       pico cell formation algorithm                   depending on link conditions
                                                                            -Transmission method of relayed packets        -Scheme for network participation/               -Routing taking QoS into account
                                                                                                                           detachment                                       - Securing spectrum for community
                              Network construction feature                  -Studies on routing method                     -Traffic discrimination, link condition          -Address scheme suitable for wireless ad hoc
                                                                            -Construction of mobile-type server feature    estimation                                       networks
                                                                            -Studies on MAC protocol                       - Development and practical implementation       - Securing spectrum for community
                                                                            -Communication interface with various          of protocols for ad hoc communications           - Handling of Zero Administration
                                                                            medical equipment                              - Routing protocol, access control protocol,     techniques
                                                                            -Service discovery protocol                    pico cell formation algorithm                    -Plug-and-work techniques
                                                                                                                           - Scheme for network participation/
                                                                                                                           detachment
                              Central management/autonomous distributed -Studies on method to link routing between         - Routing protocol, access control protocol,     -Enhancement of accounting techniques
                              system coexistence feature                    infrastructure and ad hoc networks             address scheme suitable for wireless ad hoc      -Support techniques for integrating mobile
                                                                            -Research on efficient multi-hop               networks                                         communications and ad hoc communications
                                                                            communication algorithms (AODV, DSR,           - Scheme for network participation/
                                                                            DSDV, etc.)                                    detachment
16   Support of social/       Emergent medical system                       Remote medical treatment by sending/           Limited coordination with medical                Comprehensive coordination with and
     environmental services      -High-speed transmission feature           receiving voice as well as image data,         equipment in hospital. Utilization of robust     remote operation of medical equipment in
                                 -High-reliability transmission feature     medical data is in the introduction phase.     communication path (guaranteed type),            hospitals. Enhancement of emergency
                              tolerant against congestion                                                                  high-speed transmission schemes (up to           vehicles, utilization of high-speed
                                 -Secure communication path                                                                14.4Mbps)                                        transmission schemes (up to 100Mbps)
                              High-reliability network for disasters, etc.  Transportable base stations used in disaster   Capacity expansion, compatibility with           Securing emergency circuits by roaming over
                                 -High-reliability network tolerant against situations.                                    variable traffic of emergency circuits used in   multiple systems
                              disasters                                     Distributed placement of switches, routers.    disasters. Load balancing.                       Construction of autonomous emergency
                                                                            Diversified routes for transmission lines.                                                      circuits by mesh network.
                                                                            Access restriction function during traffic
                                                                            concentration, etc.
                              Broadcast communications in disaster          Practical implementation of terminals with     Practical implementation of disaster             Realization of anti-disaster systems, which
                                 -Conditions, evacuation method to be       broadcast receiving feature.                   broadcast using broadcast infrastructure.        can instruct and broadcast in real time the
                              multicast in the event of a disaster                                                                                                          place to evacuate and method of evacuation,
                                                                                                                                                                            regardless of the location of disaster.



                                                                                                    113
No. Functional category        Functional item/keyword                              2002 - 2003(3G)                         2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                              2010 - (4G)
                               Silent mode                            Terminals that can be easily switched into Prospects for practical implementation of           Realize schemes to inform manner areas to
                                                                      manner mode by user’s manual operation are weak radio transmitters to notify areas to          terminals from base station, and improve
                                                                      used widely.                               observe manner.                                     detection accuracy of manner areas through
                                                                                                                                                                     manner area determination based on terminal
                                                                                                                                                                     location information, etc.
                               Reliability                            -Feature to avoid system-down through          -Autonomous control feature when part of
                                                                      connection restriction                         facility fails.
                                                                      -Maximize number of users accommodated         -Self-healing feature.
                                                                      through restricting transmission rates         -Multi-hop ad hoc communications
                                                                      -Feature to switch transmission line path in
                                                                      the event of failure.
                                                                      -Base stations mounted with battery
                                                                      -Redundant configuration in transmission
                                                                      lines, switching equipment
                               Emergency calls                        -Same handling is applied to emergency calls   -Priority connection feature for emergency      -Introduce emergency alarm function using
                                                                      and ordinary calls in the radio interface      calls to be introduced in radio/wired           broadcast/multicast features.
                                                                      between terminals and base stations.           interfaces.                                     -Introduce features to accommodate
                                                                      -BCMCS feature is being standardized for       -Practical implementation of location           emergency calls from non-subscribers
                                                                      1xEV-DO at 3GPP2.                              determination feature of cellular phone from
                                                                                                                     which emergency call was placed.
                                                                                                                     -Practical implementation of broadcast/
                                                                                                                     multicast feature, and explore possibility to
                                                                                                                     apply them to emergency alarms.
                               (Emergency information notification    -Safety confirmation using electric thermos                                                -Automatic sensing feature of emergency
                               sensor)”Automatic emergency call       pots.                                                                                      condition.
                               origination feature”.                  -Notification system to emergency centers                                                  -Automatic call origination in case of
                                                                      from car-mount transmitters.                                                               emergency (automatic transmission of
                                                                                                                                                                 subscriber information, location information,
                                                                                                                                                                 state, etc).
17   Network                   Flexible cell construction mechanism   Study phase                                  Location management based on Ipv6/Ipng        -Location management and tracking between
     construction/deployment                                                                                       within a single system                        different access systems, adaptive location
                                                                                                                                                                 management.
                                                                                                                                                                 -Realize a radio access scheme capable of
                                                                                                                                                                 realizing hot spotenvironments and cellular
                                                                                                                                                                 environments in a single system.
18   Multicast                 Broadcast type service feature         Broadcast feature to unspecified mass users. Feature to broadcast local information within Integrated multicast feature (inter-system,
                                                                                                                   system                                        broadcast, ITS).
                               User group-based service feature       Grouping feature combined with               Grouping feature for multicast within single Grouping feature for multicast over multiple
                                                                      authentication, key delivery feature         system                                        systems
                               Handover, roaming support feature      Unaccomplished                               Seamlessreceiving in handover                 Seamless receiving feature during roaming
                                                                                                                                                                 (or interruption for a short period).
19   Others




                                                                                             114
Table 7-2a:          Roadmap of Element Technologies of Important Research Subjects for 4G Mobile Systems (High-Speed, Large-Capacity Radio
                                                                            Transmission Techniques)
No. Technology Item      Keywords                                              2002 - 2003(3G)                    2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                  2010 - (4G)
 1 Frequency             Candidate frequency bands for 3G           800MHz band                              800MHz band                           700MHz band (2012 or later)
    pioneering           systems (including bands being used))      1.5GHz band                              1.5GHz band                           800MHz band
                                                                    2.0GHz band                              2.0GHz band                           1.5GHz band
                                                                                                             1.7GHz band, 2.5GHz band (Assigned as 2.0GHz band
                                                                                                             frequency used for IMT-2000,          1.7GHz band
                                                                                                             approximate timing)                   2.5GHz band
                         Candidate frequency bands for 4G                                                                                          5 -6 GHz or below
                         systems
                         Required frequency demand for mobile       Approx. 270MHz                           330- 340MHz (2008)                       1.06-1.38GHz ( 2013)
                         communications systems (estimated)
                         Frequency demand for Wireless LAN          Approx. 160 - 200MHz                     Approx. 480MHz ( around 2008)            Bandwidth of 540-740 MHz primarily in
                                                                                                             ( To cope with enhancements in           5GHz band (To cope with enhancements
                                                                                                             wireless LAN, NWA using 5GHz bands,      in best-effort type wireless LAN, NWA,
                                                                                                             expanded usage) .                        and expanded usage)
                         Propagation characteristics of candidate   -Contribution on propagation loss and    Propagation characteristics in bands
                         frequency bands for 4G mobile systems      spectrum characteristics in 3-15GHz      between 5-6 GHz or below to be
                                                                    bands was submitted to ITU-R WP8F        clarified at ITU-R WP3K.
                                                                    (2001.10).
 2   Highly efficient    Communication environment estimation       -Adaptation by RSSI (11a)                 -Use of channel quality factor in HSDPA -Beam forming, SDM.
     adaptive                                                       -Estimation by CNR measurement, BER                                                -Adaptive multi-level modulation
     modulation/                                                    measurement                                                                        techniques with DSRC
     demodulation        Improved toleranceagainst                  -Block turbo coding LSI                   -Turbo coding, space-time coding         -Tolerance against propagation
     techniques          characteristics degradation factors                                                  -Iterative equalization frequency domain distortion due to wideband modulation
                                                                                                              equalization techniques                  -Transmit parameter dependent on QoS
                         Wideband transmission techniques           -Super high-speed wireless LAN in         -10Mbps with HSDPA, HDR                  -Spatial control techniques in fast
                                                                    38GHz band.                               -Direct modulation/demodulation          moving environment.
                                                                                                              techniques.                              - Adaptive multi-level modulation
                                                                                                                                                       techniques
 3   Multi-carrier       Improvement of multipath tolerance         OFDM         used       in     commercial Practical implementation of              Overcome outdoor wideband multipath
     techniques                                                     implementations in WLAN/NWA mainly OFDM-based WLAN/NWA in outdoor                  environments, using multi-carrier CDMA
                                                                    in indoor environments.                   multipath environments, mobile data      techniques, such as OFCDM.
                                                                    Terrestrial digital broadcasting (OFDM) communications (802.11, 802.20 etc.)
                                                                    (launched Dec. 2003)
                         Improvement of spectrum utilization        Efficiency enhancement due to adoption Standardization of techniques realizing Realize speeds of order of up to
                         efficiency                                 of multi-level modulation (up to          throughput of around 100Mbps using       100Mbps in fast moving environments,
                                                                    64QAM), up to 54Mbps@20MHz in             MIMO, etc. (802.11n)                     and up to 1Gbps in low-speed/stationary
                                                                    WLAN/NMA.                                                                          environments through the combination of
                                                                                                                                                       bandwidth expansion, multi-level
                                                                                                                                                       modulation, MIMO, etc.
                         Sub-carrier orthogonality compensation     Reduce impact by the use of pilot         Same as left                             Establish optimal compensation
                                                                    signals, AFC compensation, and error                                               techniques capable of supporting
                                                                    correction.                                                                        fast-speed movements



                                                                                           115
No. Technology Item    Keywords                                               2002 - 2003(3G)                      2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                        2010 - (4G)
                       Improvement of PAPR tolerance             Reduce level fluctuation by data            Improve required backoff of amplifier by   Establish PAPR lowering techniques for
                                                                 scrambling, and handle by securing          practical implementation of PAPR           several hundreds of subcarriers.
                                                                 amplifier backoff.                          lowering techniques.
 4   Techniques to     Interference canceller, adaptive          -Adaptive equalizer has been practically    -Realize interference canceller/adaptive   - Realize interference canceller/adaptive
     counter           equalizer                                 implemented in GSM, EDGE.                   equalizer of level of 30Mbit/s, capable    equalizer of level of 100Mbit/s, capable
     interference,                                               -In 3G systems, interference canceller is   of handling 16QAM.                         of handling 256QAM and achieve cost
     fading                                                      in R&D phase.                                                                          reduction
                       Techniques for effectively utilizing      -Multipath diversity is realized in RAKE    -Multipath effective utilization           -Multipath effective utilization
                       multipath (Multipath diversity)           receiving in CDMA-based 3G systems          techniques combining interference          techniques of the level of 100Mbit/s,
                                                                                                             canceller, adaptive equalizer, and         supporting 256QAM
                                                                                                             multipath diversity.
                       Fading-tolerant                           -Timing recovery in fast fading, fading     -Realize fading compensation for           - Realize fading compensation for
                       modulation/demodulation (fading           compensation using pilots have been         enhancement of 3G (HSDPA), highly          enhancement of 4G systems, highly
                       compensation techniques for fast moving   realized.                                   efficient adaptive                         efficient adaptive
                       environment, high-speed radio transmit                                                modulation/demodulation, ARQ, etc.         modulation/demodulation, ARQ, etc.
                       techniques).
 5   Advanced adaptive Direction of arrival estimation           -Applied in some PHS base stations          -To be applied in EV-DO/HSDPA base         -To be applied in 4G base
     array antenna     technique, pinpoint beam forming                                                      stations                                   stations/terminals
                       technique, high-accuracy tracking                                                     -Improvement of SINR                       -SINR improvement
                       technique                                                                                                                        -SDMA
                       Overcome complexity, simplify features,   -Practically implemented in satellite       -To be equipped in base stations where     -To be equipped in both base stations
                       miniaturization of antenna elements       communications, PHS base stations, etc.     gains in processing capabilities can be    and terminals to realize MIMO
                                                                 -ESPAR antenna                              expected
                       Accuracy improvement of direction of      -MUSIC, ESPRIT methods under                -To be used together with TDOA          -To be used together with TDOA,
                       arrival estimation                        research                                                                            quasi-zenith satellite
 6   Advanced          Convergence with transmit/receive         -Selective diversity scheme, which          -Establish a scheme that optimizes      -Practical implementation of a scheme
     multiplexing      diversity                                 selects combination of transmit channels    quality and capacity based on momentary that optimizes quality and capacity based
     techniques                                                  offering good favorable characteristics     conditions of propagation path and      on momentary propagation path/traffic
     (MIMO)                                                      depending on propagation conditions to      traffic.                                conditions
                                                                 transmit information, is currently under
                                                                 theoretical study.
                       Adaptive space-time coding depending      -Adoption of static STCB that does not      -Establish adaptive space- time coding     -Practical implementation of adaptive
                       on transmit channel fluctuations          take changes in propagation path into       techniques dependent on propagation        space-time coding techniques based on
                                                                 account, turbo codes, and LDPC codes is     path fluctuation                           fluctuation in propagation path.
                                                                 under study.                                -Realize improvement in gains for static   -Realize improvement in gains in actual
                                                                 -Studies on adaptive (space- time)          space-time coding that does not take       equipment
                                                                 coding depending on propagation path        fluctuation in propagation path into
                                                                 changes are at a theoretical level.         account
                       Practical implementation of transmit rate - 4.8Mbps×4 channel multiplexing is         -Practically implement and                 -Practically implement 100Mbps systems
                       of approx. 100Mbit/s                      realized in experimental level.             commercialize transmit speeds of over      adopting MIMO techniques to be used in
                                                                 -Potential of MIMO transmission at over     100Mbps for radio access in hot            fast-speed moving environments
                                                                 100Mbps under ideal conditions has been     spotenvironments.                          (250km/h).
                                                                 referred in theoretical studies.            -Practically implement MIMO systems        -Emergence of 300Mbps - 1Gbps
                                                                 -Transmission of 100Mbps has been           of approx. several mega –20 Mbps in        systems in limited areas/communications
                                                                 verified in some experiments.               mobile communications environments.        environments.
                                                                                                             -Commence field trial for over 100Mbps
                                                                                                             transmission in mobile communications
                                                                                                             environments.

                                                                                        116
No. Technology Item   Keywords                                              2002 - 2003(3G)                         2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                         2010 - (4G)
                      MIMO with multipath tolerance            -MIMO wideband transmission based on          -Practically implement system that         -Further            performance/accuracy
                                                               single-carrier system+timedomain              performs frequency domainequalization      improvement      in    propagation   path
                                                               equalization is difficult.                    as MIMO systems with multipath             estimation/distortion        equalization
                                                               -Adoption of MIMO is studied primarily        tolerance.                                 techniques.
                                                               to multi-carrier transmission with            -Establish and practically implement       -Contribute to practical implementation
                                                               multipath tolerance due to guard interval     highly accurate propagation path           of MIMO techniques performing wide
                                                               addition+ frequency equalization.             estimation, distortion equalization        bandwidth transmission in wide-area
                                                               -Adoption of MIMO to single-carrier           techniques.                                cells in fast moving environments.
                                                               transmission with multipath tolerance         -Prospects for practical implementation    -Implementation in low power
                                                               due to CP( Cyclic Plefix) addition +          of MIMO system that performs time          consumption chips due to reduction of
                                                               frequency domain equalization is also         domain equalization, due to the            computing volume.
                                                               being studied.                                emergence of super high-speed DSPs,
                                                                                                             etc., capable of handling high-speed
                                                                                                             computing.
                      Overcome antenna correlation and         -Most of the studies ideally treat that       -Further ripen R&D on MIMO systems         -Overcome inter-symbol interference
                      realization of compact mobile stations   there is no correlation between the           taking correlation between antennas into   caused by antenna correlation.
                                                               multiple antennas mounted in transmitter      consideration. –Establish techniques to    -Implement small-sized MIMO antennas
                                                               and receiver (Propagation path of each        remove inter-symbol interference caused    into handheld terminals (Realize
                                                               MIMO channel is ideally uncorrelated).        by antenna correlation.                    implementation in terminals of 100g or
                                                               -Considerable         degradation        of   -Technique to build MIMO antennas into     less.)
                                                               characteristics    due    to    correlation   handheld terminals is expected to make
                                                               between antennas (making propagation          advancements, but not to a sufficient
                                                               path estimation difficult).                   level for practical implementation.
                                                               -Adoption to car-mount terminals is
                                                               possible, but antenna correlation will be
                                                               a problem for adoption to handheld
                                                               terminals.
                      Overcome complexity                      -Circuit scale increases depending on         -Establish computing algorithm that        -Further development in various
                                                               number of antennas                            enables reduction of computing volume.     computing algorithms.
                                                               -Experimental level. Not yet achieved         -Emergence of dedicated chips              -Emergence of dedicated chips
                                                               commercial level.                             containing MIMO (Chips for mobile          containing MIMO for large-capacity,
                                                               -Reduction of computing volume for            communications: up to 20Mbps. Chips        high-speed mobile communications
                                                               propagation path estimation, distortion       for high-speed wireless access: over       systems (300Mbps-1Gbps).
                                                               equalizer, and downsizing of circuit          100Mbps).                                  -Power consumption issues to be
                                                               scale remain as challenges to be              -Reduction in power consumption is         overcome, realize implementation in
                                                               resolved.                                     expected to make progress, but still       handheld terminals.
                                                               -Increased power consumption due to           challenges remain for use in handheld
                                                               growth in computing volume is another         terminals.
                                                               issue.




                                                                                       117
No. Technology Item      Keywords                                              2002 - 2003(3G)                     2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                        2010 - (4G)
                         Realize cellular area deployment        -Currently being studied as a capacity      -Substantial advancements can be          -Practical implementation of cellular
                                                                 expansion technique in the case one user    expected in R&D on MIMO systems           systems adopting MIMO
                                                                 can occupy spectrum over time axis in a     predicated upon cellular systems          -Practical implementation of interference
                                                                 single cell. -Considerable degradation in   -Co-channel interference removal          canceller removing co-channel
                                                                 characteristics when cellular area           technique to be established on a         interference
                                                                 deployment is attempted, due to              theoretical study level.                 -To contribute to improving spectral
                                                                 same-channel interference.                  -Verification experiments on MIMO         efficiency of cellular systems.
                                                                 -Interference tolerance techniques have     interference canceller to be started.     -Realize continuous MIMO transmission
                                                                 not been studied.                                                                     even when moving across cells
                                                                 -Studies on impact on inter symbol                                                    (establishment of MIMO handover
                                                                 interference when adopted to CDMA has                                                 technique).
                                                                 not been started.
 7   Error control       Error correction                        -Turbo codes have been practically          -Space-time coding to be adopted as an -Aim to practically implement LDPC,
     techniques                                                  implemented                                   option.                              because LDPC codes will become
                                                                 -Applied research on LDPC is ongoing.       -Adoption of dynamic coding linked withsuperior to turbo codes, due to growth of
                                                                 -Research on space-time coding is           AMC (Adaptive Modulation and           packet size.
                                                                 ongoing                                     Coding).                               -Dynamic coding rate control based on
                                                                                                                                                    radio conditions, transmit rate, tolerable
                                                                                                                                                    error rate.
                         Retransmit control                      -Pure ARQ has been practically            Practical implementation of packet       -Memory size will increase in line with
                                                                    implemented.                           combining type hybrid ARQ                growth of packet size, but packet
                                                                 -Practical implementation of packet                                                combining type hybrid ARQ will still be
                                                                 combining type hybrid ARQ is under                                                 adopted owing to improvements in
                                                                 study                                                                              integration degree.
                                                                                                                                                    -Max. retransmission times will be
                                                                                                                                                    controlled based on packet QoS
                                                                                                                                                    (tolerable delay time, error rate).
                         Radio resource control                  Transmit power control techniques based Transmit power control based on target Global resource control taking into
                                                                 on target error rate has been practically error rate and target delay time to be   account (user) QoS of not individual
                                                                 implemented.                              practically implemented.                 packets but all packets to be realized.
                         Fast cell selection                     A mechanism enabling the selection of     Prediction type cell selection algorithm Fast cell selection, using information
                                                                 best cell/sector for each packet from     to be introduced or improved, so that    other than adjacent cell information or
                                                                 among cell/sectors in soft handover has momentary fluctuations can be followed received power information (such as
                                                                 been implemented.                         even faster.                             location, traffic) to be developed.
 8   High-speed radio    Adaptive dynamic channel assignment     Channel selection based on carrier        Resource assignment by adaptive          Channel assignment combined with
     packet techniques                                           detection                                 modulation depending on radio            adaptive array antenna
                                                                                                           conditions
                         Adaptive resource assignment handling   Symmetric up/downlink.                    Addition of downlink high-speed packet Asymmetric up/downlink (downlink
                         asymmetric up/downlink traffic (        No distinction of up/downlink (WLAN) channel                                       traffic is generally larger than uplink
                                                                                                                                                    traffic) or dynamic control
                         Downlink low-delay scheduling           FIFO                                      Scheduling taking radio conditions into Scheduling taking tolerable delay for
                                                                                                           consideration                            each packet into consideration
                         Uplink high-speed radio packet          Cellular: Idle signal control-based       Access protocol corresponding to QoS     Highly efficient access protocol
                         multiplexing technique                  reservation protocols or slotted          (HCF, EDCF)                              corresponding to QoS.
                                                                 ALOHA
                                                                 W-LAN: Distributed control based on
                                                                 CSMA or reservation type by AP


                                                                                         118
No. Technology Item    Keywords                                          2002 - 2003(3G)                   2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                       2010 - (4G)
                       Radio channel structure              Dedicated or shared channel (TDMA,         Downlink shared packet channel         Shared packet channel for up/downlink
                                                            CDMA)                                                                             that can multiplex many rates freely.
                       Congestion control                   Traffic control algorithm based on queue Flow control between base station and    Traffic control that can follow fast
                                                             length or packet discard                RND                                      fluctuations based on traffic estimation
 9   Fast handover      Mobility control                    -IP mobility protocols such as MIPv6     -Dynamic assignment of IP                -Inter-system handoff technique
     control techniques ( Technology Item no. 24)           (Mobile IP support for IP version 6),    address/routing                          -Roaming between different networks,
                                                            HMIPv6 (Hierarchical Mobile IPv6         -Standardization of Mobile IPv6 and      implementation technique for
                                                            mobility management), etc.               compact and low-cost implementation      international roaming
                                                            -Implementation of Mobile IPv6           technique to mobile terminals.           -Handover feature for moving networks
                                                                                                     -Standardization of fast handover in     (NEMO, etc)
                                                                                                     Mobile IPv6( Fast Handovers for Mobile
                                                                                                     IPv6, etc.)
                                                                                                     -Security (IPSEC, etc.) adoption
                                                                                                     technique in Mobile IP
                       Packet loss compensation technique   -Buffering in node during handover       -Buffering technique, transfer technique -Connection control, buffering, transfer
                                                            -Scheme that transfers packets remaining in network upon handover                 techniques between different networks
                                                            in source AP to the destination AP in    -Multi-link handover technique           -Packet loss compensation technique
                                                            handover.                                                                         between different networks
                                                            -Fast cell search technique, multi-link
                                                            handover
                       Moving network                       -Inter-system switching taking multicast -Location management/tracking control - Location management/tracking control
                                                            into account.                            techniques in moving networks            techniques in fast moving mobile
                                                            -Studies on IP mobility management in                                             networks
                                                            moving networks                                                                   -Location management/tracking
                                                                                                                                              technique of moving network between
                                                                                                                                              different access networks




                                                                                   119
Table 7-2b: Roadmap of Element Technologies of Important Research Subjects for 4G Mobile Systems( Network Configuration Techniques)
No. Technology items   Keywords                                                2002 - 2003(3G)                    2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                         2010 - (4G)
10 RAN configuration   High-speed transmission access scheme      Transmission experiment using              HSDPA:14Mbps, Wireless LAN:               Cellular: 100Mbps, Wireless LAN:
    techniques         (Technology Item no. 2, 3)                 multi-carrier                              420Mbps                                   1.2Gbps using multi-carrier transmit
    (coexistence of                                               Wireless LAN already realized                                                        technique.
    cellular           Adaptive antenna                           Prototype development, experiment and      Realization of adaptive array antenna,    Interference suppression and
    environments and   Adaptive cell                              studies on adaptive array antenna,         Studies on MIMO at 3GPP                   establishment of dynamic control
    hot spot           (Technology Item no. 5)                    adaptive zone configuration, etc.                                                    technique for radio zone
    environments)                                                                                                                                      expansion/contraction
                       Space-time equalization                    Introduction of STTD in 3GPP              Studies on MIMO at 3GPP
                       (Technology Item no. 6)                                                              MIMO-OFDM in IEEE802.11n
                       Packet distribution techniques             Research on traffic distribution facility Standardization of method for seamless     Seamless Mobile IP communications
                       (Technology Item no. 8, 9, 15)                                                       IP routing
                       Location management techniques             Location management service using GPS Location management based on                   Location management/tracking between
                       (Technology Item no. 9, 26)                                                          IPv6/IPng between same type of access      various access systems, adaptive
                                                                                                            systems                                    location control
                       IP switching techniques (Technology        Studies on mobile IP                      Fast handover on IP networks                Handover within and between various
                       Item no. 9, 13, 15, 24)                                                                                                         systems
11 Robust network      Variable system capacity                   Studies on adaptive modulation scheme,     Realize AMC with 3.5G system              Establish of dynamic control technique
   techniques          (Technology Item no. 8)                    adaptive zone configuration system, etc.                                             for radio zone expansion/contraction
                       Adaptive array antenna (Technology         Studies and experiment on adaptive         Realize adaptive array antenna, Studies   Pinpoint transmit
                       Item no. 5)                                array antenna, Standardization at 3GPP     on MIMO at 3GPP
                                                                  also in progress
                       Congestion control, traffic distribution   Handled by IPv4-based techniques           Establish end-to-end congestion control   Management facility based on
                       (Technology Item no. 8)                                                                                                         end-to-end multicast, traffic, or charge
                       Multi-hop communications                   Study phase                                Realize ad hoc between host and           Realization of community area network
                       Technology Item no. 12)                                                               multiple terminals in certain
                                                                                                             range/regions, etc.
                       Routing protocol (Technology Item no.      OSPF, mobile IP                            OSPF2, Hierarchical-Fast mobile IP        Manage routing address and terminal ID
                       9, 24)                                                                                                                          separately.
                       Self configuration, self healing           -Networking technology that connects       IPv6 auto configuration,                  Realization of Plug-Play, traffic
                                                                  computers and electronic devices           Protocol translation                      redirection
                                                                  automatically, without any configuration
12 Ad hoc network      Security, encryption, authentication       -Encryption algorithm such as common       -Encryption techniques for high-speed    -Advancement in encryption techniques
                       techniques                                 key encryption, public key encryption      stream systems                           -Advancement in personal authentication
                                                                                                             -Biometric authentication PKI system     -Advancement in accounting techniques
                                                                                                             techniques and compact, low-power
                                                                                                             biometric information acquisition sensor
                                                                                                             -Rights clearance in mobile terminals
                                                                                                             and simplified accounting protocols




                                                                                         120
No. Technology items   Keywords                                              2002 - 2003(3G)                     2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                          2010 - (4G)
                       Communication feature automatic           -Research and development on adaptive     -Traffic identification, link condition     -Efficient monitoring of traffic, link
                       selection technique                       modulation/TPC                            estimation                                  conditions
                                                                 -Prototype multiband, multimode           - Realization of compact and low power      -Faster    optimal    transmission     rate
                                                                 terminals                                 consumption modems which can                determination algorithm
                                                                                                           arbitrarily set transmit bandwidth          -Control techniques that automatically
                                                                                                           -Realization of algorithm to determine      select required transmit techniques or
                                                                                                           optimal transmit rate                       cells depending on link conditions
                                                                                                           -Convergence with software defined
                                                                                                           radio techniques
                       Multi-hop communications                  -Development of routing protocols         -Protocols for ad hoc communications     -Techniques for realizing seamless ad
                                                                 -Development of multicast                 -Routing protocol, access control        hoc communications
                                                                                                            protocol, pico cell formation algorithm -Techniques for supporting integration
                                                                                                           -Address scheme suitable for wireless ad of public and ad hoc communications
                                                                                                           hoc networks                             -Routing taking QoS into account
                                                                                                           -Recognition of terminal at the other end- Address scheme suitable for wireless
                                                                                                                                                    ad hoc networks
                                                                                                                                                    -Securing spectrum for community
                       Ad hoc network construction technique - UPnP, Rendezvous, Zero-Configuration - Scheme for network participation/             -Handling of Zero Administration
                                                                 -Service discovery protocol              detachment                                techniques
                                                                 -Built-in middleware DECENTRA            -Terminal naming resolver                 -Plug-and-work techniques
                                                                                                          -Service discovery protocol               -Adaptive type service automatic
                                                                                                                                                    generation techniques
13 Seamless            Technique for supporting multiple         Individual techniques for handling       Realization of multi-system wireless      Realization of flexible software radio
   Networking          communications systems                    limited communications                   terminals, receiving of digital broadcast device,
   Techniques                                                    systems/features, such as                (terrestrial, satellite)                  Realization of network/radio system
                                                                 multi-mode/multi-band terminals, etc.                                              interface common to different access
                                                                                                                                                    systems
                       Automatic selection/switching             Progress and partial establishment of    Optimal access selection technique using Establishment of a coordination facility
                       techniques                                technology components for optimal        user profile/network condition            and interface relating to resource
                                                                 access selection                         information including mobile networks     management between network, terminal
                                                                                                          as well,                                  and base station, etc.
                                                                                                          Establishment of techniques providing
                                                                                                          common AAA and QoS control for
                                                                                                          switching between systems.
                       Fast handover technique between           Realization of best-effort type handover Realization of fast handover techniques Realization of fast handover techniques
                       different access systems                  between different access systems         for low-middle speed moving               for fast moving environments,
                                                                 Global roaming using 3G terminals        environments.                             Establishment of mobility management
                                                                                                          Establishment of techniques for           techniques on layer 3 independent of
                                                                                                          coordinating/ integrating mobility        access techniques (Layers 1 and 2).
                                                                                                          control, security, QoS control, etc.
                       Techniques for coordination between       Realization of inter-system coordination Establishment of techniques for           Realization of ubiquitous network
                       different systems                         techniques linking individual service    coordinating cellular networks, home
                                                                 elements                                 networks and in-vehicle networks.
14 Entrance link       Giga bit transmission in entrance circuit FWA P-P(22,26,38GHz, 156Mbps)                                                      Realization of wireless entrance circuit,
   technology                                                                                                                                       optical digital entrance link




                                                                                        121
No. Technology items   Keywords                                            2002 - 2003(3G)                  2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                       2010 - (4G)
                       High-speed radio signal transmission   Optical fiber entrance link for PDC     Wide dynamic range transmission          Eliminate base station power supply
                       using optical fiber                    EO/OE of 60GHz or higher                Increase link capacity using optimal SSB from entrance circuit.
                                                                                                      technique
                                                                                                                                               Support of software defined radio
                                                                                                                                               systems
15 High-speed          High-speed packet transmit/switching   Standardization of GMPLS (Generalized Optical cross connect (burst) switch       Optical packet switch
   transport                                                  MPLS)                                   Transmit rate: 40Gbps (1 carrier) ,      Transmit rate:100Gbps( 1 carrier) ,
   techniques                                                 Transmit rate: 10Gbps (1 carrier),      10Tbps( WDM)                             50Tbps( WDM)
                                                              1.6Tbps( WDM)                           Switching rate: 2.5Tbps                  Switching rate; 10Tbps
                                                              Switching rate: 640Gbps- 1 Tbps
                       Conversion of mobile network to IP     Realize IP transport in mobile networks Progress of IP conversion of mobile      Realization of seamless mobile/fixed
                                                              Header compression protocol             networks                                    networks
                                                              Mobile IPv6 standardization (IETF)      Practical implementation and spread of   Development of seamless mobile IP
                                                                                                      IPv6                                     communications architecture and
                                                                                                      Large-capacity mobile IP multicast       protocol
                                                                                                      protocol




                                                                                     122
    Table 7-2c: Roadmap of Element Technologies of Important Research Subjects for 4G Mobile Systems( Performance & Functionality
                                                                     Enhancement of Terminals)
No. Technology items   Keywords                                           2002 - 2003(3G)                         2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                          2010 - (4G)
16 Circuit/Device      High-density mounting techniques       Achieved miniaturization through             High-density packaging is required to        To realize development of palm-size
    techniques                                                reduction of component size, surface         maintain the peripheral interface at         ubiquitous terminals, breakthrough in
                                                              mounting, and multi-layered board.           almost the same size as that of today’s      mounting techniques is necessary.
                                                                                                           mobile terminals, even if terminal
                                                                                                           functionality becomes more advanced
                                                                                                           (e.g., enabling multiple media access,
                                                                                                           receiving of broadcast service, etc.) and
                                                                                                           number of mounted components
                                                                                                           increases.
                       Sharing of devices                     Devices exist independently for each         Possible to share the same circuit even if   Same as left
                                                              communications systems, but combo            frequency bands or communications
                                                              card (for wireless LAN/PHS/data              schemes are different, as long as
                                                              communications/voice) with a unified         coding/modulation- demodulation
                                                              peripheral interface has been realized.      schemes are the same.
                                                              Antenna device compatible with wide
                                                              bandwidth has also been developed.
                       Super low-power consumption device     Operational voltage: Approx. 3V or less      Operational voltage: Approx. 1V or less      Operational voltage: Approx. 0.5V or
                                                                                                                                                        less
                       Capacity Expansion of storage device   Achieved approx. 4Gbyte in compact           Size of external memory device is            Same as left
                         (internal, external memory, etc.)    flash type, and approx. 1Gbyte in SD         expected to reach approx. 10Gbyte due
                                                              card/Memory Stick.                           to price reduction and increased density
                                                              Approx. 64 Mbyte of internal memory is       of flash memory. More reliable device
                                                              made openly accessible to users.             of the same capacity, or about several 10
                                                                                                           Gbyte may also become available due to
                                                                                                           miniaturization of disk devices. The
                                                                                                           same applies to internal memory
                                                                                                           capacity.
                       Processor speed enhancement            Clock speed: Approx. several GHz.            Clock speed: Approx. 10-20GHz             Clock speed: Approx. 100GHz
                       (CPU/DSP/Application processor)
                       Battery Saving Techniques              Battery saving when no communication         Possible ways of battery saving for the      Same as left..
                                                              is performed during sleep mode, and in       required features must be studies.
                                                              short-range communications, such as
                                                              multi-hop relay, etc.
                       Miniaturization of communication       SD card/Memory Stick type were               Multiple communications modules to be        Miniaturization to approx. 10g, 10cc is
                       module                                 realized as a module for wireless            mounted in CF card/SD card/Memory            needed, in view of attachment to human
                                                              LAN/PHS/data communications.                 Stick.                                       body, goods.
                       TV broadcasting receiving feature      Prototype development of cellular            Integration with voice/data                  Same as left
                                                              terminals capable of receiving terrestrial   communications terminals to be
                                                              digital broadcasting is ongoing.             achieved. However, power
                                                                                                           consumption/usable hours, etc., will
                                                                                                           remain as challenges.




                                                                                      123
No. Technology items   Keywords                                              2002 - 2003(3G)                       2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                          2010 - (4G)
                       Bandwidth expansion of A/D                                                           The necessity to expand bandwidth of         Same as left
                                                                                                            A/D for voice communications, when the
                                                                                                            used spectrum bandwidth is expanded,
                                                                                                            needs to be studied.
                      FPGA scale expansion                                                                  FPGA of several 10M gates
17 Battery techniques Chemical cell                              Practical implementation of lithium-ion Price reduction, capacity expansion, and        Further price reduction, shortened
                                                                 batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries. extended standby time of batteries in the    battery recharging time
                                                                                                            column left.
                       Fuel cell                                 Prototype of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Commercialization of DMFC products               Functional advancement of DMFC fuel
                                                                 (DMFC)                                                                                  cell
                       Physical cell                             Practical implementation of solar battery Research and development of selenium          Practical implementation of physical cell
                                                                                                            cell, thermal cell, nuclear battery, etc.    other than solar battery.
18 Human interface     Improvement of man-machine interface,     Various form factors have been tried in Wearable terminal to be realized through        To achieve further minaturization and
                       wearable terminal form factor (such as    prototypes, including wrist watch-type     further reduction of size/weight of main     weight reduction in PCs, positioning
                       wrist watch, spectacles).                 PHS, wearable PC, etc.                     unit, input/output device, and connecting    sensors, communication unit, battery
                                                                                                            each device via wireless as necessary.       unit, etc., to be integrated with clothing.

                       Voice recognition, natural language       Implemented in network side service as      Recognizes continuous speech voiced in      To provide electronic personal secretary
                       processing feature in noise environment   voice portal.                               noise environment, searches appropriate     feature, which can comprehensively
                       /hands-free environment                                                               contents, and provide them after            manage personal information, by
                                                                                                             converting into media suitable for user’s   recognizing continuous speech through
                                                                                                             terminal or use condition.                  voice recognition techniques in
                                                                                                                                                         hands-free environment, advanced
                                                                                                                                                         natural language processing techniques,
                                                                                                                                                         etc.
                       Wireless interface between main unit      Terminals equipped with Blueetooth or       Development toward realization of UWB
                       and input/output device                   infrared I/F have been implemented as       to make progress.
                                                                 part of short-range wireless I/F.
                       Display device development, 3D image      Practical implementation of                 Due to improvement of electron              By further enhancing electron movement
                       display feature                           low-temperature poly-silicon TFThas         movement of low-temperature poly-si,        of low-temperature poly-silicon, sheet
                                                                 made progress.                              driver IC, etc., installed outside LCD      computer integrating CPU, memory and
                                                                 -3D display function based on parallax      can be formed on glass board, and           other high-speed, high-density LSI on a
                                                                 barrier has been implemented in cellular    miniaturization of transistors can be       single glass board can be realized.
                                                                 terminals.                                  achieved.
19 Terminal security   Encryption technique                      Progress made in encryption algorithms      More powerful encryption techniques to      Advanced encryption techniques
   techniques                                                    with reduced power consumption for          be developed, corresponding to              compatible with applications on open
                                                                 mobile communications equipment, and        expansion of electronic commerce, etc.      networks to be developed and
                                                                 support of Internet security protocols.                                                 introduced.
                       Authentication technique                  In addition to user ID+password             In response to expansion of electronic      Due to progress in biometrics
                                                                 authentication, biometrics authentication   commerce, etc., authentication              authentication techniques, user
                                                                 using fingerprints, etc., have been         techniques applicable to digital            discrimination could be done only by
                                                                 implemented in cellular terminals.          signatures, to become more advanced         holding the terminal, without users being
                                                                                                             and lower in cost.                          aware of authentication.
20 Terminal software Operating System technique                  Standardization is proceeding in the        Standardization to make progress in the     Development of common OS, service
   technique                                                     fields of browsing, messaging,              area of security, download techniques,      provision techniques.
                                                                 application execution environments.         authentication and accounting, etc.



                                                                                        124
No. Technology items   Keywords                                             2002 - 2003(3G)                     2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                          2010 - (4G)
                       Technique for handling multiple systems Dual mode handsets with fixed features,    Platform that can dynamically handle        Downloadable multi-band, multi-mode
                                                               such as PDC/PHS and WCDMA/PDC,             different interfaces, protocols will be     terminals to be realized.
                                                               etc., have been commercialized.            developed.
                       Application techniques                  Content mark-up languages currently        Content mark-up language compatible         More advanced mark-up language
                                                               used include HDML, XML, WML,               with composite media, and highly robust     capable of handling larger-capacity
                                                               HTML, etc.                                 and secure agents will be developed.        content, various services, and highly
                                                                                                                                                      intelligent mobile agents enabling global
                                                                                                                                                      distributed processing will be developed.
21 Multi-system radio -Frequency sharing technique             - Carrier sense mechanism (autonomous      - Develop into channel assignment           - Cognitive mechanism to develop in
   terminal technique ( Between multiple air interfaces,       distributed channel segregation within a   control mechanism (autonomous               phases (environment adaptive: more
                      multiple systems) .                      single system is primarily used.           distributed channel segregation between     flexible autonomous distributed channel
                      -Dynamic spectrum assignment                                                        different systems).                         segregation between different systems).
                      -Multi-system radio technique
                      (compatible with multiple
                      modulation/demodulation schemes,
                      multiple protocols)
                      -Radio parameter sharing
                      -Multiple frequency transmit/receive
                      technique
                      -Multi-channel setting technique
                      -Mobile broadcast receiving              -Satellite digital broadcasting using      -Expansion of satellite digital             -Receiving of SDTV/HDTV broadcast
                                                               2.6GHz band was launched.                  broadcasting to be received by cellular     -Handle information from multiple
                                                               -Terrestrial digital broadcasting          terminals.                                  sources, including digital broadcasting,
                                                               launched.                                  -Partial receiving of terrestrial digital   in real time.
                                                                                                          broadcasting by cellular receiver.
                       -Use of software define radio           See Technology Item no. 22, “Software      See Technology Item no. 22, “Software       See Technology Item no. 22, “Software
                                                                  defined radio)                             defined radio)                              defined radio)
                       -Compact, high-functionality IC card    - IC cards are used as commuter pass,      - Chip sharing information with IC          - To become a card without power
                                                               charge cards, etc., in commercial          Wireless card will be mounted on            supply, using electronic paper as a
                                                               applications. Provides decoding,           cellular terminals, etc., sharing the       display.
                                                               encryption, security features, and         network.
                                                               multi-application services.
                       -RF ID (chip, tag)                      - R&D and standardization of RFID are      - Verification trial of RFID to make  - Services processing information
                                                               promoted by organizations such as Auto     progress. To be used for internationalconcerning persons/goods on the
                                                               ID Center, Ubiquitous ID Center, etc.      logistics, etc.                       network will increase, and RFID will
                                                                                                                                                become the underlying technology.
                       -Wideband radio transmission between    - Communication using UWB (Ultra           - UWB products are expected to become - UWB to become widely used as a
                       peripheral equipment                    Wide Band) aimed at wideband               available.                            means for high-speed communications in
                                                               (high-speed) PAN features has been                                               PAN.
                                                               studied.




                                                                                       125
No. Technology items   Keywords                                              2002 - 2003(3G)                      2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                         2010 - (4G)
                       -Coordination with various sensors      - “Sensor-net”, a way of operation to        - “Sensor-net” combined with power         - Brick and mortar world will be
                                                               make cellular handsets function as “the      supply-free IC card (chip) to become       supported in the network on a real-time
                                                               gateway between brick-and-mortar world       available.                                 basis in a considerable number of fields.
                                                               and service network” to transmit
                                                               information related to surrounding
                                                               environment, e.g., temperature, images,
                                                               CO2, scent, etc., on the network has
                                                               been under study.
                                                               - Super compact sensor modules are
                                                               being developed. Equipped with radio
                                                               communications feature using optical
                                                               signals, and solar power in addition to
                                                               sensor features.
                       -Multi-band antenna                     - Compact multi-band antennas                - Multiband antennas combining multiple -Antennas that perform active switching
                                                               containing multiple elements in a small      elements that achieve high gains only in and active directivity control to become
                                                               capacity size have been developed.           specific frequency bands, and products   widely used.
                                                               - Prototype UWB antennas that are            equipped with UWB antennas with flat
                                                               omni-directional in horizontal patterns      VSWR above a certain frequency are
                                                               with VSWR<1.4 in frequency bands             expected to become available.
                                                               between 3GHz-20GHz or higher have            - Prototypes of MIMO antennas that can
                                                               been developed.                              be accommodated in a small size, and
                                                               - Prototype of compact USB antennas of       treat multiple antennas with no
                                                               10 x 8mm, with VSRC <2.2 in 3-11GHz          correlation, to be developed.
                                                               frequency bands have been developed.
22 Software defined    (Base Station)                          -Baseband part is configured by FPGA,        - Development of baseband part             - Plug-and-play base stations to be
   radio technique     -Hardware development, establishment DSP instead of ASIC, due to uncertainty         (development of advanced digital signal    realized using software defined radio
                       of      radio     software     download of revision of specifications/use            processing hardware, variable part for     techniques.
                       protocol/procedures                     environment.                                 changing frequency) to be performed.
                       -Enable software downloading in short   - Case of developing prototype of            - Development of intermediate frequency
                       time in a secure manner.                software defined radio based on              part (high-speed and variable AD/DA
                       -Technique for reconfiguration (e.g.,   differential information for terminals has   converter, wideband quadrature
                       radio download based on differential    been reported.                               modulator that operates flexibly between
                       information                                                                          several 10 – several 100 MHz) to be
                                                                                                            performed.
                       ( Air interface)                         -Technical studies on each element          Prospects for production implementation    - Seamless service to be achieved by
                       -Adaptive modulation scheme              technology have been carried out.           have become clear. Focus of discussion     using software defined radio techniques,
                       -Coding technique                                                                    has moved to optimization of system and    etc., to allow users to freely utilize
                       -Technique to automatically identify                                                 network by adopting SDR,                   optimal wireless services for each usage
                       modulated signals                                                                    sharing/coexistence of products from       scene.
                       -Modulation scheme estimation                                                        different manufacturers, and economic
                       algorithm                                                                            benefits, etc.
                       -Adaptive multi-sampling processing




                                                                                       126
No. Technology items   Keywords                                                  2002 - 2003(3G)                    2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                        2010 - (4G)
                       ( Terminals)                                 -IF sampling (under-sampling), direct     - Development of baseband part             Replacement of software can be done
                       -Transmitter/receiver architecture           conversion, low IF have been studied as   (development of advanced digital signal    without being noticed by users, so that
                       (super-heterodyne receiver, IF sampling      the receiving method suitable for         processing hardware, variable part for     new communications systems can be
                       scheme, direct conversion scheme), and       software defined radio. As for direct     changing frequency) to be performed.       handled or coexist.
                       techniques to implement radio features       conversion scheme, such issues as DC      - Development of intermediate frequency
                       in software.                                 offset, I/Q mismatch, 1/f noise, second   part (high-speed and variable AD/DA
                       -Multi-mode modulation/demodulation          intermodulation ratio have been pointed   converter, wideband quadrature
                       technique performed by software.             out as challenges.                        modulator that operates flexibly between
                       -Multi-band transmit/receive technique       As for low IF scheme, image frequency     several 10 – several 100 MHz) to be
                       performed by software.                       signal suppression remains an issue.      performed.
                       -Verification    of     radio     features   Studies on these issues are ongoing.
                       implemented       in    software,      and
                       optimization techniques.
                       -Establishment of radio software
                       download protocols/procedures
                       - Enable software downloading in short
                       time in a secure manner
                       -Technique for reconfiguration (e.g.,
                       radio download based on differential
                       information)
                       -A mechanism to prevent users from
                       arbitrarily modifying radio software.




                                                                                          127
         Table 7-2d: Roadmap of Element Technologies of Important Research Subjects for 4G Mobile Systems (System Techniques)
No. Technology items   Keywords                                             2002 - 2003(3G)                  2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                            2010 - (4G)
23 QoS techniques      Error rate/bandwidth assurance in air   Guaranteed by circuit switched            Bandwidth assurance using polling          Error rate and bandwidth assurance
                       interface                               connection                                                                           based on scheduling and link control.
                       Radio resource assignment and traffic   Adoption of acceptance control and        Downlink packet scheduling                 Resource assignment based on QoS, and
                       control                                 interference margin                                                                  traffic control depending on radio
                                                                                                                                                    conditions.
                       Delay and jitter assurance              Resource reservation, buffering                                                      Inter-network node, and end-to-end
                                                                                                                                                    delay /jitter assurance.
                       QoS management method during handoff Soft handoff, retransmission by RLC          Transfer of terminal information           Packet loss and packet sequence control
                                                                                                         between APs                                Switched cell selection based on used
                                                                                                                                                    resource
                       Coordination of radio control and                                                                                            QoS control based on each
                       IP-QoS                                                                                                                       packet/session
                       Inter-layer parameter control method                                                                                         Parameter control form application to
                                                                                                                                                    lower layers
24 Mobility control    Coordination and integration with QoS   Realization of best-effort handover       Realize QoS-assured handover within the    Realize QoS-assured handover between
                       control feature                         between different access systems          same access system                         different access systems
                       Fast handover on IP network                                                       Realize fast handover on IP networks (in   Realize fast handover on IP networks (in
                                                                                                         low-middle speed moving environments)      fast moving environments)
                       Efficient mobility control              Efficiency improvement of location        Establish common signaling/paging          Realize mobility control on Layer 3 and
                                                               register traffic for moving networks      techniques for multiple radio access       higher layers that are independent from
                                                                                                         systems.                                   radio access techniques)
                       Mobile IPv6                             Standardization of Mobile IPv6 (IETF)     Standardization and implementation of      Implementation and dissemination of
                                                                                                         Mobile IPv6                                Mobile IPv6
25 Mobile multicast    IP multicast technique                  IGMP (landline systems)                   Extension of IGMP to mobile                Unspecified mass user grouping
   techniques                                                                                            communications                             management technique between multiple
                                                                                                                                                    air interfaces
                       Multicast routing technique             DVMRP, MOSPF, etc.                        Routing techniques compatible with         Routing technique compatible with
                                                                                                         handover based on Mobile IP, IPv6          roaming
                      Roaming technique (compatible with       Roaming is based on call re-origination   Session maintenance technique during       Seamless multicast receiving technique
                      multicast)                                                                         roaming                                    for roaming
                      QoS technique (compatible with           Diffserv, RSVP (landline systems)         QoS control technique for each             End-End QoS control, transmit rate
                      multicast)                                                                         application, session.                      variable content/application technique
26 Locationdetection/ Location detection/ distance             DGPS, RTK-GPS                             Pseudolite                                 Quasi-zenith satellite, Galileo
   navigation         measurement                              Combined use of GPS and triangulation     Utilization of Internet                    Use in various sensors
                                                               using base stations.                      Utlization of wireless LAN                 Use in UWB
                                                               Server-assisted type                                                                 Direction of arrival estimation using
                                                                                                                                                    AAA
                       Location-based information              Collection and management of location     Association of location information with   Ad hoc network routing
                       delivery/sharing                        information                               address                                    P2P service discovery
                                                                                                         Efficient broadcast
                       Personalize                             SIM/UIM card                              Capacity enhancement of cellular         Management/exchange of personal
                                                                                                         terminal/IC cards, Improvement of        information on network
                                                                                                         tampering resistance
27 Security,           Encryption                              DES, Triple DES, RSA                      AES, Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem         Quantum cryptography


                                                                                      128
No. Technology items   Keywords                       2002 - 2003(3G)              2005 - 2006(3G enhancement)                      2010 - (4G)
    encryption,        Authentication     IC card, SIM/UIM card, electronic   Biometric authentication using small    Highly accurate personal authentication
    authentication                        signature, PK I                     devices                                 using multi-modal biometric
    techniques                                                                                                        information/profiling
                       Network security   SSL/TLS, IEEE802.1x(EAP-TLS),       Network security infrastructure using   Compatibility with advanced distributed
                                          RADIUS                              IPsec, DIAMETER                         network
                                                                                                                      Dynamic response to user environment/
                                                                                                                      circumstances




                                                                129
8. Reference Model and Proposals for 4G Mobile Systems

8.1 Four Domains of Reference Model
   The reference model for 4G mobile systems described primarily based on the network
image is presented in Fig. 8-1.    The 4G mobile systems consist of the following four
domains (from the higher order): Service & Application, Service Platform, Packet-based Core
Network, and New Radio Access.     These 4G mobile systems have the three characteristics
below:
(1) Provide users with services and applications of high commonality independent from the
   access system.
(2) Realize interconnection and seamless services between systems through the packet
   network.
(3) Three radio capabilities of the New Radio Access are realized by the radio interface
   offering high degree of commonality.
   Descriptions on the four domains consisting the 4G mobile systems are provided in the
sections below.




                                           130
                                                                                              Agent for
                                                                                              Service Provider

                  Positional    Di saster    High Quality Mobile       Digital Right    Contents      Software      Remote
Service &         Information   Detection/   Multimedia   Commerce     Management       Delivery      Download      Control

Application       Services      Admin.       Services     Services     Services         Services      Support       Services           ・・・
                                Services                                                              Services


                                                                                                           Agent for
                                                                                                           Service Platform
                  Service
                                                      Security, AAA                           Database/Remote
                  Platform           Social Systems
                                                      and Settlement
                                                                          Application QoS
                                                                                              Server

                                             High Quality    High-speed &              Network QoS
                                             Multimedia      Large Capacity            I/F                  Other IP
                                                             Network                                        Network

                            Packet based                                                                                  DSRC
                            Core Network
                                                                                                                   2G Cellular

                                     Digital                                                                      WLAN
                                     Broadcast
                                                                                                   3G Cellular

                                TV                          New Radio Access
Terminal Appl.
                                             Moving Network                              New NWA                                     Adhoc
            ・・・                                Capability   New Mobile                   Capability                                  NW
                                                          Access Capability

Agent for
                                                                                                                         Air Interface with
Terminal                                                                                                                 High Commonality
   Terminal Personal IC Chip
   Data     Info.
                        ・・・
                                     Figure 8-1: Reference Model of 4G Mobile System (2003)


                                                                 131
8.1.1 Service & Application Domain
      Service & Application Domain accommodates the services and applications provided by
the    4G    mobile   systems.     Typical   services   include   location   information     services,
disaster-prevention/administrative     services,   high-quality    multimedia    services,    mobile
commerce services, digital rights management services, content delivery services, software
download assistance services, remote control services, among others.            These services and
applications do not only include those that become available for the first time with 4G mobile
systems, but also those that are already provided on existing 3G or W-LAN systems and their
evolved versions.      In addition, these services and applications should be made commonly
accessible to the extent possible both from the New Radio Access of 4G mobile systems and
existing access systems.      Furthermore, an agent feature is expected to reside in the Service
& Application Domain to support smooth provisioning of services and applications.


8.1.2 Service Platform Domain
            Service Platform Domain provides the service foundation to help realize the services
and applications offered by Service & Application Domain.             The basic structure of such
service foundation is supported by the following three sets of features: multimedia features,
high-speed/large-capacity network features, and network QoS features (See Section 8.2.3 for
more details).


8.1.3 Packet-based Core Network Domain
            Packet-based Core Network Domain plays a role to connect various accesses systems
with the Service Platform Domain, and is independent from the access systems.                     The
network enables interconnection between 4G mobile systems as well as other access systems
(e.g., 2G/3G cellular, wireless LAN, DSRC, digital broadcasting, and other IP networks, etc.),
to provide uses with seamless access.


8.1.4 New Radio Access Domain
      New Radio Access—a new radio access capability for 4G mobile systems—can be
roughly classified into the three capabilities of New Mobile Access Capability, New Nomadic
Wireless Access Capability, and Moving Network Capability.                   New Mobile Access
Capability enables wide bandwidth access even in fast moving environments, and offers
usage capability similar to today’s cellular services.            New Nomadic Wireless Access
Capability primarily realizes super-wide bandwidth access when traveling at low speeds, and
offers usage capability similar to today’s wireless LAN services.                Moving Network
Capability is a capability to offer wireless access in environments where a number of users
travel in the same pattern as a group, like in a bus or train.       It is required to realize radio
access capabilities taking into account efficient use of radio resources.
      In addition, the terminals used in 4G mobile systems are expected to support multiple
radio capabilities and the capability to form networks amongst terminals on an ad hoc basis.
Furthermore, the new radio capabilities of the New Radio Access are requested to be realized

                                                132
by radio interfaces that offer high commonality.


8.2 Reference Model from the Viewpoint of Service Platform
   The reference model assumed from the viewpoint of services consists of the three
elements of mobile terminals, 4G mobile infrastructure, and service platform, as described in
Fig. 8-2.
   Mobile terminals perform multi-link communications with the 4G mobile system
infrastructure and other system infrastructures.       When a system infrastructure is not
available within an accessible range, multi-hop communications will be carried out.        The
terminals support a wide variety of interfaces, including electronic paper viewing feature,
and assistance features, e.g., voice/image/character recognition, are built in.   They are also
equipped with reinforced security, authentication and accounting features, biometric sensors
and digital rights management features.     The terminals have reconfiguration features, which
enable users to download, execute or customize various types of programs.           One of the
distinctive characteristics of the model is that there are many functional requirements for the
mobile terminals as well as high-performance devices.
            The 4G mobile infrastructure realizes high-speed, large-capacity transmission and
high-definition multimedia transmission.     The infrastructure has a QoS notification feature
between layers, so that inter-layer QoS coordination can be performed.
   The service platform consists of numerous servers and agents, and provides navigation
features based on location information systems, user authority management using biometric
authentication as well as management and collation of personal information.         Distributed
database system and high-quality content servers are connected, so that the access rights can
be controlled by the authentication server, and video or music catered to user’s preference
and terminal capability can be delivered by the agent from the content server.     The service
platform is also connected with social systems.     In the event of a disaster, highly reliable
networks will be configured to carry out broadcast communications for disaster situations.
In addition, automatic transmission of emergency conditions linked with biometric sensors in
the terminals will also be realized.
   This model can be further divided into the three large categories of (1) user convenience,
(2) advanced services, and (3) system management, from the perspective of services.          In
these three categories, user convenience and advanced services are supported by system
management, and the cloud in the figure indicates that there is a platform where such
supporting mechanism (servers and databases, etc.) is located.     In addition, these are built
on top of the three infrastructures of “high-quality multimedia”, “high-speed, large-capacity
transmission” and “QoS I/F”.




                                              133
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              data back-up server

 service platform reference model Ver.0.2 2003/03/07                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            distributed database
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       system
                                                                          Social systems/Disaster                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         data access control
                                                                            prevention systems

                                                                                                                                                                    administrative                     m-commerce
                                                                            disaster detection                                          emergency information/                                                                                    translation server
                                                                                                                                                                   service system                        system
                                                                                 system                                                medical treatment system

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  high-quality                           data expression format conversion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 content serve


                                                                                                                                             server for emergent                                                                                                            content cache
        electronic paper
       browsing equipment                                                            multicast server                                         medical treatment                                                                                                                                                                           3D (3-dimensional) information processing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 advanced context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 recognition engine                                    agent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      copyright management system
user interface assistance equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            multimedia                                                    digest generation              copyright ID      content distribution   copyright ID addition
               +DB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          retrieval server                                                                                monitoring             system                  system


          high-performance
             microphone                                                                                                                                                                                                      Instant
                                                                                                                                                                    location information                                    Messaging
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             System
      high-quality speaker+                                                                                                                                                system                                                                                                                                                                          contents                     copyright ID
      high output amplifier                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          proxy server                                          agent
                                                                                           Application
                                                                                                                                                                      PDE (location    base station
                                                                                                               d
                                                                                virtual
                                                                                         横側のハンドルをドラ     downloa                                                         server)        location DB
       high-definition/large                                                   machine XML Interpret        er                                                                                                                                                                         agent
       display/ touch panel                                                             ッグしてテキスト ブロッ
                                                                                                  er
                                                                                         クの幅を変更します。
                                                                                              video streaming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   agent                                                                                            service provider
             capture tool                                                                                                                                                                                                                          database
                                                                                                                                                                                                             personal information                Portal Server                                                 QoS management                 content server
                                                                         distance                                                                                                                                management                                                        authentication                   DB
                                                                                                                                                                      location identification engine
                                                                       measurement                                                                                                                              ( User Profile/                                                        server
          high-definition                                                 sensor                                                                                                                                 Preference)
              camera
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 database system
                sensor
                                             biometrics authentication function                                                                     GPS
                                      encryption function/data authentication function                                                            receiver                                                                                collation of personal
    remote controller-                                                                                                                                                                  sensation reproduction
                                                                           IC chip for storing                                                                                            system (five-sense                            identification information                             biometrics authentication                 encryption function/data                  XML server
   compatible equipment
                                                                       settlement/charging data                                              advanced context recognitionengine(AI)        communications)                                                                                             function                           authentication function
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         data access control           encryption function/
                                                                                             56K
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ba y Ne tw ork s




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        data authentication    ・Management of user' authority
                                                                                                        PCMCIA




        audio/visual                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (user-oriented)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Z
                                                                content                                                                                                                                                                                                      function/
                                                                                   INSERT THIS END




       input/output
                                                                 cache                               UIM                                      radio card      agent                                                                                                      data compression
     auxiliary devices
                                                                                                                 56K
                                                                                                                                              (software
                                                                                                                                                defined                                                                                                                                                                                   Internet
                                                                                                                        PCMCIA




         keyboard                                                                                                                                                        QoS Manager
                                                                                                                                                 radio)
                                                                                                     INSERT T HIS END




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          agent

            pen input                                          copyright ID content
                                                                                                                    personal information:
                                                                                s
                                                                                                                    User Profile and User                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Home
                                       illegal copying/illegal reproduction prevention                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             QoS
                                                                                terminal data/                            Preference
          pointing device                                                                        cellular phone
                                                                             terminal ID, terminal
                                                                                                                                                                                      service platform
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              High-definition camera for
                                                                                  capability                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       PSTN
                                                                                                               collection/management of personal identification information                                                                                                                                                                                                             client
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ADSL
      attachment file                                                                                                                                       call origination/termination restriction          QoS Manager                                                                                                                          FTTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                high-speed / optimal network selection support server               recommended
    browsing equipment
                                                            neuro system                                                                                                                       large capacity                                                     contents/provider
                                                                                                                                                      multi-link                 high-quality transmission                                                                                                                                                                  TV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      information
                                           local interface                                                                                                                       multimedia                          QoS I/F
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          proxy server    QoS Manager
                                                                         voice recognition                 character recognition (pen input)
                                                                                          image recognition                                                                                                                                       remote control system

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        L3

                                                               high-performance low-
                                                       SOC
                                                             power consumption device
                                                                                                                                 CPU                                                                                                              4G system                             L2
         biometric sensor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              IPv6 Gateway
                                                           emulation         distributed                                                                                                                                                        infrastructure                          L1                                                              automobiles, motorbikes, bicycles
                                                                                                                        neuro chip
       Wearable
                                                           hardware          processing                                                                                                         Systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    remote
       computer                                         data compression        embedded with high-                                                                                            other than                                                                                                           server
     long-hour battery/                                  lilmited purpose
                                                                                processing power LSI                                                                                              4G
    self power generator                                      terminal            long-hour battery/
                                                                                 self power generator                                                   multi-hop
                                                        casing / external              waterproof
                                                            interface                 mechanism?                                                      communications                                                                                                                                    capture tool                     sensor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       info-appliances
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   medical/welfare equipment,
                                                                                                                                                                               Note: Scope of functions to be covered as service platform is TBD                                                                                                        e.g., wheelchairs



                                                                                                                    Figure 8-2: Service platform reference model




                                                                                                                                                                                                   134
8.2.1 User Convenience
   As presented in Fig. 8-3, user convenience is a category that is related to users’ ease of
use, and includes such features as user interface, agent, terminal processing capability/usable
hours/external interface, and terminal reconfigurability.   As for user interface, it is required
to realize higher quality/ high-presence voice and images, and achieve enhancements in the
user interface to simplify information input procedures.      The requirements for the agent
include the provision of services tailored to users’ taste and circumstances, the ability to
request and receive information on behalf of users, and the implementation of such agent
features in the terminals, service platform and service provider.      With regard to terminal
processing capability/ usable hours/ external interface, terminal processing capability capable
of processing high-quality multimedia information, longer usable hours freeing users from
concerns about battery capacity, and interface with a variety of external devices are requested.
Terminal reconfigurability includes the ability to upgrade versions by adding or changing
terminal features through software downloading, and to enable access via other radio
interfaces.




                                              135
                                           Service Platform Reference Model : User Convenience

         User interface
                                   4G Terminal
             High performance
                                                                                                                       Agent
             microphones
                                   ・User interface                            ・Software download
             High quality
             speaker and High                                                 server for terminal             ・Agent on terminal
             power amplifiers      ・Processing capability                     reconfigurabilty support
             High resolution/
                                                                                                              ・Agent on 4 G Service Platform
             Large screen          ・Battery saving
             displays
                                                                                                              ・Agent on Service Provider server
             Capture tools         ・External interface
             High resolution
             cameras               ・Reconfigurability
  The other                        ( Version up, various air-                       Agent (Service Platform)                         Agent
 air-interface                     interface)                                                                                        ( Service Provider)
infrastructure                                                                                                       Sevice Provider
    system                                                                                                                    Contents server
                                   Agent (4G terminal)
                                                                              Service Platform
      ・Reconfigurability
     ( Other air-interface)                                                                                                                       XML server
                                                                                    High speed and
                                                                       High quality Large capacity
                                          Mobile phones                                network
                                                                       multimedia                  QoS I/F
                                    ・Processing capability
                 Local              ・Battery saving
               interface                                                                                 L3
                                                                                                         L2
                                                                                                         L1

                                                                              4 G infrastructure                                   Internet
                       Camera
                                                                    Printer
                                                                                   system
                                Scanner            Card interface
                                    External interface
                                Figure 8-3: Service platform reference model : User Convenience


                                                                              136
8.2.2 Advanced Services
   Advanced services, as indicated in Fig. 8-4, is a category relating to the advancement of
services, and include, among others, the following features: high-quality multimedia,
information input, location/navigation, and remote sensing/control.     To enable users to
receive highly advanced services through the use of mobile terminals capable of accessing
the 4G mobile infrastructure, information pertaining to the environment surrounding the user
will be conveyed by the terminal, and based on this information, various systems which
enhance the services will operate on the service platform.




                                             137
                                          Service Platform Reference Model : Advanced Service

                               Position detection and                                              High quality multimedia service
                                                                                                                                                                     Remote control service
                               Navigation service


                                                                                                                                                                             Capture
                                                                                                                                                                              tools
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Cars and Bikes
                                                                                                                         High quality AV                              Intelligent
                                Object position
                                                         Indoor-outdoor                               Virtual reality    contents delivery                            appliances
                                 detection and
                                                           Navigation                                                      and display
                                  notification                                                                                                                                                     Medical and
                                                                                                                                                                           Sensors
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Welfare apparatus
                                                                                                       High quality multimedia system
User interface                                                                                                                             Remote control system
                                                  Position information system                           System for sound     High quality
                                                                                                         quality selection   AV contents
                                                        PDE                                                                delivery system
  High performance                                                                                                        Ba y Ne tw ork s




                                                                                                                                                IPv6 gateway
                                                  (Position server)         BS position                                                      Ba y Ne tw ork s




    microphones
                                                                               DB

High quality speaker                                                                                            3D-information processing                            Remote server
        and                                             Position detection engine
High power amplifiers
                                                          Senses re-creation system                                                                                                    Service Provider
  High resolution /                                       (5 senses communication)                                                                                                            Contents
   Large screen
                                                                                Ba y Net w ork s




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Concealment and
                                                                                                                                                                                               server      Authentication
      displays
                                                                                                                                                                                                             function
       Capture                                                                                          Service Platform
        tools
                                 Range sensor
    High resolution                                                                                  High        High speed and
       cameras                                                                                                                                                                                                  XML server
                                                                            GPS                     quality      Large capacity
                                                                          receiver                 multimedi        network QoS I/F
        Sensors                                                                                        a

                                                                                                                                                                L3
                                                                                                                                                                                       Internet
                                                  Mobile phones                                                4G infrastructure                                L2
                                                                                                                    system                                      L1
                        Local interface




                              Figure 8-4: Service platform reference model : Advanced Service


                                                                                                       138
8.2.3 System Management
   As presented in Fig. 8-5, system management is a category relating to the mechanism for
supporting    the   services.   The   features    included   in   this   category   are    QoS,
security/authentication/authorization/accounting,            database/remote              server,
society/environment adaptation feature, etc.     This system management model has advanced
security/authentication/accounting schemes—which forms a nucleus of services in the
platform realizing the 4G mobile society, and provides robust 4G mobile services highly
tolerant against various types of failure.   The concept of application QoS that coordinates
with network QoS to secure robust communications quality is employed, so that seamless
data transmission highly tolerant against congestion can be provided even under unfavorable
conditions.




                                               139
                                                                                            Service Platform Reference Model : System Management

                                                                                                                                                                           4G Services
                                                                                                                 Disaster Detection /                                                                                  DRM System
                                         Positional
                                                                                                                  Admin. Services                                          B2C B2B                                                                                       Service Provider
                                    information system
                                                                                            Disaster detection Urgent information and           Administration             M Commerce               Copyright ID Contents delivery Copyright ID                   Contents Server
                                     PDE                                                                      medical application system        service system               System                   monitor        system        addition system
                                                                                                 system
                              (Positional server)

                                                         Base station
                                                         Location DB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Functions of hiding    XML Server
                                                                                                                           Urgent medical
                                                                                       Disaster                                                                                                                                                                               secretly
                                                                                                                          application server                                                                      Contents                 Copyright ID
                                                                                     simultaneous                                                                                                                                                                      Data authentification
                                                                                     transmissive                                                                                                                                                                            functions
                                                                                    communication
                                                                                        server




                                                                                                                                 Security, Authentification, Accounting, and                                 Application QoS
                                                                   Social Systems                                                                                                                                                                                  Data base / Remote server
                                                                                                                                                 Settlement
                               User                                                           Health information         Accounting
                                           Remote medical                                                                                       ISP Settlement      Credit Settlement       Notification Module                           QDO
                          authentification                                                      transmission             management                                                                                            MSO                                                      XML
                                              treatment                                                                                        Prepaid settlement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              HTTP
                         Administration application (resident's card and certified                                          Cypher                                  WWW Security            Manage Module                                     SMO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MSOQMO            DCA                              SQL         FTP
                                                copy, etc.)                                                                                     Authentication
                  Disaster simultaneous transmissive           Position
                                                                                                                               Firewall                                  VPN                Control Module                       QCO                           HTTP                                TCP-IP
                            communication                    information                                                                                                                                                                                                         FTP

                                                                                                   Deep cover functions                                                                  Biometric authentification functions
                                                                                               Data authentification functions
                                                                                                                                                                             Data base                                                         Data base        Personal Infomation Management
                                                                                                     Data compression
                                                                                                                                                                              System             Authentification Server                      Portal Server (User Profile, Preference Information etc.)
                                           Sense reproduction system                                 Multimedia retrieval
                                           (5 senses communication)                                        server
                                                                           Ba y Netw orks                                                                  XML Server

                                                                                                                           Optimum NW selection
                                                                                                                               support server                                                                                               Data Access Control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              User Oriented
                                                                                                                                                                         Service Platform
                      Application
  Vertual
  Machine       XML                      Down Loader                                                           High Quality                                                                                                                          Network
                          Interpritor                                                                                                                                          High-speed and
                                                                                                               Multimedia                                                                                                                            QoS I/F
                            Video Streaming                                                                                                                                    Large Capacity
                                                                                                                                                                                  Network




                      Cellular Phone

   Terminal Data Personal Information
    Terminal ID        User Profile                                                                                                                              4 G system Infrastructure
Terminal Performance & User Preference IC chip for storing
                                         settlement and
                                        accounting data
                                                          56K
                                                                  PCMCIA




                                                INSERT THIS END




                                                                  Figure 8-5: Service platform reference model : System Management




                                                                                                                                                                        140
8.3 Reference Model from the Viewpoint of System Infrastructure
8.3.1 Typical examples of Introduction Scenarios and Interface for New Radio Access
   Five typical examples of introduction scenarios of New Radio Access, and examples of
interface for each scenario are presented in Fig. 8-6.                            In the figure, R1-R5 indicate the type
of radio interface, and N1-N3 the type of network interface.


                                                                                                   R2
                      R1     BS                                                                         BS
                                                                N1                      BS    MS

                                                                                                   BS
                      MS
                                                                                         BS
                                                                                                        BS
                                                                                                                         N2

                                               Packet
                                               data rate
                            Low         High

          Scenario 1:New Mobile Access (Outdoor)                                  Scenario 2:New Mobile Access (Indoor)/
                                                                                             New Nomadic Wireless Access

                                                                           R1      BS
                                                                                                        BS      R1,R2,R3, R4

                       BS
                                                           R4
                                                                     MNN                                            MS
                 R3
                                                                                                               R5
                                                           MS
                                                                                                                          MS
            MS                     N3
                                                                                                         MS
                                                                                                                    MS

 Scenario 3: New Nomadic Wireless Access               Scenario 4: Moving Network                       Scenario 5: Ad Hoc Network

          BS  : Base Station               R1:High-speed MS I/F                                N1:Outdoor BS I/F
          MS  : Mobile Station             R2:Large-Scale Indoor I/F                           N2:Large-Scale Indoor BS I/F
          MNN : Moving Net work Node       R3:Indoor I/F             High-Commonality          N3:Indoor BS I/F
                                           R4:Moving Network I/F
                                           R5:Ad Hoc I/F


Figure 8-6 : Typical examples of Introduction Scenarios and Interface for New Radio Access


   Scenario 1 is an example of introducing New Mobile Access Capability in outdoor
environments.         On average, it becomes possible to achieve faster radio packet speeds when
the terminal is located closer to the base station.                             Scenario 2 is an example of introducing
New Mobile Access Capability or New Nomadic Wireless Access Capability in large-scale
indoor environments such as large office buildings or shops.                                  Scenario 3 is an example of
introducing New Nomadic Wireless Access Capability in small-scale indoor environments
like individual homes.            Scenario 4 is an example of introducing Moving Network Capability.
In this example, Moving Network Nodes (MNN) will be installed in moving objects, e.g.,
trains or buses, to enable communication between base stations and mobile stations via MNN.
Scenario 5 is an example of forming an ad hoc network among mobile stations, in which
mobile stations are equipped with R5 radio interface that enables radio communications
between mobile stations.            Take note that these introduction cases are merely some examples
of 4G mobile systems, and thus forming a multi-hop network by connecting base stations

                                                                141
with radio connections is also conceivable.
   In addition, it is strongly requested to design and develop these five radio interfaces with
a high degree of commonality so that the terminals of 4G mobile systems can easily handle
multiple radio capabilities and be used for various purposes in different environments.


8.3.2 Functional Configuration of Nodes/Terminals Comprising 4G Mobile Systems
   Fig. 8-7 shows an example of the functional configuration of nodes/terminals comprising
the 4G mobile systems.    As functional layers, Service & Application (F5), Service Support
(F4), Transport & Network Control (F3), Link & Resource Management (F2) and Wireless
Access Functions (F1) are defined.     F5-F3 corresponds to Service & Application, Service
Platform, and Packet-based Core Network domains in Fig. 8-1, respectively, whereas F4 and
F5 correspond to New Radio Access Domain.



 F5        Service &                                  Service &
           Application               P5               Application
          I4

 F4            Service                                 Service




                                                                                                                                                  Type4:Terminar Type
               Support               P4                Support




                                                                                                                 (Type3:Management Server Type)
          I3

           Transport &                                Transport &
 F3                                                    Network
            Network                  P3
             Control                                    Control
                                                                                             Type2:Router Type
                                                                                             Type2:Router Type


          I2
                                                                         Type1:Bridge Type
                                                                         Type1:Bridge Type




 F2     Link & Resource                             Link & Resource
          Management                                  Management
                                     P2
          I1

 F1     Wireless Access                             Wireless Access
           Functions                 P1                Functions


                         F1 - F5      : Function
                         I1 - I4      :Interface
                         P1 - P5      :Protocol

Figure 8-7 : An example of the Functional Configuration of Nodes/Terminals comprising the
                                     4G Mobile Systems


   As for the node/terminal type, on the other hand, there are the Bridge type, which
includes the functional layers of F1-F2, the Router type, which include the functional layers

                                              142
of F1-F3, the Management Server type, which include the functional layers of F1-F4, and the
Terminal type, including all the functional layers of F1-F5.


8.4 Proposals for 4G Mobile Systems
   In view of the reference model for 4G mobile systems, this section contains proposals for
the 4G mobile systems, which are described from the viewpoint of the four domains in the
reference model, i.e., Service & Application Domain, Service Platform Domain, Packet-based
Core Network Domain, and New Radio Access Domain.


8.4.1 Service & Application Domain
            From the viewpoint of Service & Application Domain, it is required to achieve
enhancements in ease of use and evolution of services—two main issues from users’
perspective.      In terms of ease of use, it is requested to realize intelligent agents and an
interface less stressful to the users.   With regard to the evolution of services, new service
are expected to emerge in new fields, such as high-quality multimedia that can only be
realized by high-speed data transmission capabilities, and transmission of five-sense data.
    To achieve the enhancements in the ease of use and evolution of services described above,
it is not only necessary to further improve the capabilities of existing equipment, e.g.,
batteries, but also to develop new equipment such as five-sense sensors and new algorithms
including intelligent agents.


8.4.2 Service Platform Domain
   From the perspective of Service Platform Domain, for the 4G mobile systems to respond
to the requests for diversified applications, it is required to place adequate middleware that
can serve as a foundation in the radio interface and the core network, so that the requests
from higher applications can be broken down and features equipped in the network can be
fully utilized.     These include security, authentication, accounting, QoS control by the
middleware, database infrastructure that can freely utilize data, and agents that coordinate
services on a system-wide basis.         On top of these, it is desirable to place a set of
applications that function as a core for location information, copyright management and
multimedia services, so that they can be bundled and provided to the users as a user-centric
service through adequate functional placement/paging.
    On the other hand, it is also necessary to equip mobile stations with a storage of personal
information for the provision of service, a number of middleware, enablers, authentication
infrastructure, and a terminal agent, because the mobile stations directly receive the requests
of users.


8.4.3 Packet-based Core Network Domain
  From the viewpoint of Packet-based Core Network Domain, in response to the speed
enhancements and diversification of applications and services, a network that can transmit
packets at high speeds with a high level of efficiency is called for.     It is also required to

                                               143
provide features that can respond to various radio accesses and diversification of systems
(including broadcast systems, etc.), accommodate/connect them in the system, and connect or
interwork services in a seamless fashion even when users move among them.


8.4.4 New Radio Access Domain
   From the perspective of New Radio Access Domain, higher-speed and larger-capacity
packet transmission isrequired in view of the speed advancements and diversification of
services and applications.     Also, in order to improve the throughput and response
performance of the user interface, low delay must be achieved.       The radio environments
providing the above are requested to support various environments, including not only
outdoor areas but also indoor, closed areas and inside moving objects.           Furthermore,
realization of QoS transmission that can handle real-time interactive communications and
voice/image communications in addition to best-effort type services is required.     Because
user traffic is expected to increase due to the sophistication to services and application, it
will be necessary to create systems that can utilize radio spectrum more efficiently and
achieve further reduction in system costs.




                                             144
9. Toward the Future
   This document was compiled as the second version of “Flying Carpet”, published in May
2003, with an aim to enrich the contents of the first version.      In this version, which was
completed as a result of drafting activities over the last 12 months, we added new
descriptions pertaining to the application services that are expected to be required in view of
users’ needs, as well as the technical requirements that must be satisfied for the realization of
such application services.      These new descriptions can be found particularly in the
following chapters: Chapter 4 (proposals on issues required for the realization of 4G mobile
systems derived from five different viewpoints); Chapter5 (analyses on the requirements and
technical challenges for the realization of the service platform); Chapter 6 (analyses on the
requirements and technical challenges relating to the system infrastructure); Chapter 7 (a
19-item roadmap of functions required for realizing 4G mobile systems, and a 27-item
roadmap listing the element technologies of important research items were created); and
Chapter 8 (an integrated reference model, combining the reference models of service
platform and system infrastructure, is provided).
   We believe that the goals and targets of 4G mobile systems have become much clearer as
a result of the drafting activities, and that we now have a more concrete understanding on the
issues that must be tackled for its realization.
   To date, we have created the foundation to discuss, exchange of opinions and information,
and coordinate activities with other countries outside Japan that are also engaged in the
activities toward 4G to some extent.       Going forward, we are committed to continue our
studies on various fronts—e.g., promoting concrete actions on the technical issues presented
in the roadmaps, developing 4G further so as to fulfill its goals through international
collaboration, and making proposals on matters that cannot be resolved only by technology to
address the necessity of their resolution—and thereby contribute to the development of 4G
mobile systems that are truly useful for the society and people’s lives.




                                               145
References
 (1) “Report on Future Mobile Communications Systems”, Committee of Future Mobile
    Communications Systems, Telecommunications Council of Japan, June 25, 2001.
 (2) “FLYING CARPET Ver.1.00”, mobile IT Forum, May 23, 2003.




                                        146
Organizational Structure of Mobile IT Forum

                                                                                General Assembly


                                                                                Steering Committee

                                                                                                             Forum Coordination
                                                                                                                   Group



    Editors                        4th Generation Mobile                         Mobile Commerce
                                                                                                                          OMA Committee
    Group                        Communications Committee                          Committee

Collaboration
   Group                        System               Application         Technical              Business Promotion
                             Sub-Committee         Sub-Committee       Sub-Committee             Sub-Committee


   WP8F Working
      Group        System Infrastructure                  Outline
                     Working Group                     Working Group


                                                                            This report contains the results of activities undertaken
                     Service Platform                                       by the groups in the shadowed boxes
                     Working Group

Figure: Structure of mITF 4 th Generation Mobile Communications Committee (as of 31 March, 2004)


Chairman and Vice-Chairman
4 th Generation Mobile Communications Committee


Chairman          Takanori UTANO                Senior Vice President, Executive Manager, NTT DoCoMo, Inc.
Vice-Chairman     Fumio WATANABE                General Manager, KDDI CORPORATION
Vice-Chairman     Gota IWANAMI                  President, INFOCITY, Inc.


System Sub-Committee
Chairman          Fumio WATANABE                General Manager, KDDI CORPORATION
Vice-Chairman     Osamu KATO                    Director, Panasonic Mobile Communications Co., Ltd.
Vice-Chairman     Mitsuhiro AZUMA               Senior Researcher, FUJITSU LABORATORIES LTD.


Application Sub-Committee
Chairman          Gota IWANAMI                  President, INFOCITY, Inc.
Vice-Chairman     Toshiki HAYASHI               Media Consultant
Vice-Chairman     Yasuhiro NAKANISHI            Senior Staff Member/Digital Contents Producer, DENTSU INC.


  This Brochure was edited by Editors Group, 4 th Generation Mobile Communications
Committee, mobile IT Forum and approved by 4 th Generation Mobile Communications
Committee.


                                                            147
The members of the Editors Group are as follows:
      Leader       Osamu KATO             Director, Panasonic Mobile Communications Co., Ltd.
      Sub-leader   Toshiki HAYASHI        Media Consultant
                   Narumi UMEDA           Director, NTT DoCoMo, Inc.
                   Masayoshi OHASHI       Senior Manager, KDDI R&D Laboratories Inc.
                   Yasuhiro NAKANISHI     Senior Staff Member/Digital Contents Producer
                                          DENTSU INC.
                   Akihisa USHIROKAWA     Senior Manager, NEC Corporation
                   Mitsuru UESUGI         General Manager, Panasonic Mobile Communications Co., Ltd.
                   Satoru AIKAWA          Senior Research Engineer, Supervisor
                                          NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION
      Secretary    Fumihiko HADA          Senior Researcher
                                          Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB)
      Secretary    Nozomi MIURA           Senior Researcher
                                          Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB)


Web
                   http://www.mitf.org/




                                            148

								
To top