DATE: March 7, 2010 TOPIC: Russia – The Stalin Years WHERE WE’RE HEADED: • Evaluate Lenin. • Power struggle after Lenin - emergence of Stalin. • Stalin and the Five Year Plans. • Stalin and Collectivisation. • The Purges of the 1930s. • The Cult of Stalin. HW: Read Walsh, pages 126 - 127 and White, pages 80 - 83. DATE: March 10 - 11, 2010 TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin REVIEW: Evaluation of Lenin - p. 77 supports or criticises Lenin. QTS. • Source 2: Source 3: Source 4: Source 5: Both-ish Both Supports Both KEY QUESTIONS: 1. Who were the main contenders to replace Lenin when he died in January 1924 ? p. 81 - 82 and Handout 2. List up to three strengths and three weaknesses of each contender. p. 81 - 82 and Handout 3. Identify: ‘Permanent Revolution’, ‘Socialism in One Country’, Left Wing and Right Wing. p. 81, 82 and Handout 4. Describe Lenin’s Testament. Why was it NOT made public at the Party Congress in 1924? Who was helped? 100.Describe how Stalin became the leader of the Soviet Union. (5) May 2000. 105.What part did Leon Trotsky play in the Bolshevik Revolution to 1925? (5) Oct 2002. 106.Why was Stalin able to become dictator of Russia by 1929? (7) Oct 2002. DATE: March 10, 2010 TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin KEY QUESTIONS: 1. Main contenders to replace Lenin: • Leon Trotsky Nikolai Bukharin • Grigori Zinoviev Andrei Rykov • Leon Kamenev Mikhail Tomsky • Josef Stalin DATE: March 10, 2010 TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin KEY QUESTIONS: Contender Strengths Weaknesses Trotsky Zinoviev Kamenev Bukharin Rykov Tomsky Stalin DATE: March 10, 2010 TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin KEY QUESTIONS: 3. Identify: ‘Permanent Revolution’ - Policy by Trotsky to help spread communism by revolution in other countries by providing money and agents. He wanted to end the NEP and bring more socialist ways to the Soviet economy. ‘Socialism in One Country’ - Policy by Stalin that Russia should focus on building a Communist state in the USSR and not outside. ‘Left Wing’ - Group within the Communist Party that wanted to end the NEP, quicken industrialisation using ‘shock brigades’ of workers and put pressure on peasants to produce more food. Included Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev. ‘Right Wing’ - Group within the Communist Party that wanted to continue the NEP, move slowly toward Socialism. Also wanted to support peasants so they could get rich enough to buy goods, thus helping industrial production. DATE: March 10, 2010 TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin KEY QUESTIONS: 4. Lenin’s Testament - was written in 1922. It was Lenin’s evaluation of many Bolsheviks, including strengths and critical remarks. In a postscript later added, Lenin was especially critical of Stalin and recommended his dismissal. It was never made public. NOT make public at the Party Congress in 1924 - Helped - Stalin most. Why did Trotsky lose the leadership contest? •Trotsky was a brilliant speaker and writer, as well as the party’s best political thinker, after Lenin. He was also the man who had organised the Bolshevik Revolution and was the hero of the Civil War as leader of the Red Army. Finally, he was the man who negotiated peace for Russia with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Trotsky lost for many reasons: •He was arrogant and often offended other senior party members. •He failed to take the opposition seriously - he made little effort to build up any support in the ranks of the party. •He seriously underestimated Stalin. •Trotsky also frightened many people in the USSR with his calls for permanent revolution. •Trotsky fell ill late in 1923 with a malaria-like infection – just when Lenin was dying, and Trotsky needed to be at his most active. •He was also the victim of a trick by Stalin - Stalin cabled Trotsky to tell him that Lenin’s funeral was to be on 26 January, when it was in fact going to be on the 27th. Trotsky was away in the south of Russia and would not have had time to get back for the 26th, although he could have got back for the 27th. As a result, Trotsky did not appear at the funeral whereas Stalin appeared as chief mourner and Lenin’s closest friend. How did Stalin win? •Stalin was a clever politician and he planned his bid for power carefully. He made great efforts to associate himself with Lenin wherever possible - Lenin’s funeral. •He was also extremely clever in using his power within the Communist Party. He took on many boring but important jobs such as Commissar for Nationalities and, of course, General Secretary. He used these positions to put his own supporters into important posts and even to transfer supporters of his opponents to remote postings. •He was also absolutely ruthless in picking off his rivals one by one. For example he took Bukharin’s side to get rid of Trotsky, and then opposed Bukharin using exactly the same arguments as Trotsky had used before. •Stalin’s policies also met with greater favour than Trotsky’s - ‘Socialism in One Country’. •Finally, Stalin appeared to be a straightforward Georgian peasant – much more a man of the people than his intellectual rivals. To a Soviet people weary of years of war and revolution, Stalin seemed to be the man who understood their feelings. FACTFILE: Stalin’s steps to power 1923 Stalin the outsider – Lenin calls for him to be replaced. Trotsky calls him ‘the party’s most eminent mediocrity’. 1924 Lenin’s death. Stalin attends funeral as chief mourner. Trotsky does not turn up (tricked by Stalin). 1924 Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev join together to dominate the Politburo, the policy-making committee of the Communist Party. Working together, these three cut off their opponents (Trotsky and Bukharin) because between them they control the important posts in the party. 1925 Trotsky sacked as War Commissar. Stalin introduces his idea of Socialism in One Country. 1926 Stalin turns against Kamenev and Zinoviev and allies himself with Bukharin. 1927 Kamenev, Zinoviev and Trotsky all expelled from the Communist Party. 1928 Trotsky exiled to Siberia. Stalin begins attacking Bukharin. 1929 Trotsky expelled from USSR and Bukharin expelled from the Communist Party. SOURCE 1 - p. 126, Walsh Comrade Stalin, having become Secretary General, has unlimited authority in his hands and I am not sure whether he will always be capable of using that authority with sufficient caution. Comrade Trotsky, on the other hand, is distinguished not only by his outstanding ability. He is personally probably the most capable man in the present Central Committee, but he has displayed excessive self-assurance and preoccupation with the purely administrative side of the work. Lenin’s Testament. This is often used as evidence that Stalin was an outsider. However, the document contained many remarks critical of other leading Communists as well. It was never published in Russia, although, if it had been, it would certainly have damaged Stalin. SOURCE 1 - p. 82, White Comrade Stalin, having become Secretary General, has unlimited authority in his hands and I am not sure whether he will always be capable of using that authority with sufficient caution. Later he added: Stalin is too rude, and this fault … becomes unacceptable in the office of General Secretary. Therefore, I propose to the comrades that a way be found to remove Stalin from that post and replace him with someone else who differs from Stalin in all respects, someone more patient, more loyal, more polite, more considerate.” Lenin’s Testament. He warned against Stalin. SOURCE 2 - p. 126, Walsh Trotsky refrained from attacking Stalin because he felt secure. No contemporary, and he least of all, saw in the Stalin of 1923 the menacing and towering figure he was to become. It seemed to Trotsky almost a joke that Stalin, the wilful and sly but shabby and inarticulate man in the background, should be his rival. Historian I Deutscher in The Prophet Unarmed, Trotsky 1921– 1929, published in 1959.