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					DATE: March 7, 2010
TOPIC: Russia – The Stalin Years
•    Evaluate Lenin.

•    Power struggle after Lenin - emergence of Stalin.

•    Stalin and the Five Year Plans.

•    Stalin and Collectivisation.

•    The Purges of the 1930s.

•    The Cult of Stalin.

HW: Read Walsh, pages 126 - 127 and White, pages 80 - 83.
DATE: March 10 - 11, 2010
TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin
Evaluation of Lenin - p. 77 supports or criticises Lenin. QTS.
•     Source 2:             Source 3:           Source 4:        Source 5:
      Both-ish                Both              Supports           Both

1. Who were the main contenders to replace Lenin when he died in
   January 1924 ? p. 81 - 82 and Handout

2. List up to three strengths and three weaknesses of each contender. p.
   81 - 82 and Handout

3. Identify: ‘Permanent Revolution’, ‘Socialism in One Country’, Left Wing
   and Right Wing. p. 81, 82 and Handout

4. Describe Lenin’s Testament. Why was it NOT made public at the Party
   Congress in 1924? Who was helped?
100.Describe how Stalin became the leader of the Soviet
  Union. (5) May 2000.

105.What part did Leon Trotsky play in the Bolshevik
  Revolution to 1925? (5) Oct 2002.

106.Why was Stalin able to become dictator of Russia by
  1929? (7) Oct 2002.
DATE: March 10, 2010
TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin
1. Main contenders to replace Lenin:
•    Leon Trotsky                               Nikolai Bukharin
•    Grigori Zinoviev                           Andrei Rykov
•    Leon Kamenev                               Mikhail Tomsky

                     •       Josef Stalin
DATE: March 10, 2010
TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin

  Contender                     Strengths       Weaknesses






DATE: March 10, 2010
TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin
3. Identify:
‘Permanent Revolution’ - Policy by Trotsky to help spread communism by
revolution in other countries by providing money and agents. He wanted
to end the NEP and bring more socialist ways to the Soviet economy.

‘Socialism in One Country’ - Policy by Stalin that Russia should focus on
building a Communist state in the USSR and not outside.

‘Left Wing’ - Group within the Communist Party that wanted to end the
NEP, quicken industrialisation using ‘shock brigades’ of workers and put
pressure on peasants to produce more food. Included Trotsky, Zinoviev
and Kamenev.

‘Right Wing’ - Group within the Communist Party that wanted to continue
the NEP, move slowly toward Socialism. Also wanted to support peasants
so they could get rich enough to buy goods, thus helping industrial
DATE: March 10, 2010
TOPIC: Russia – The Emergence of Josef Stalin
4. Lenin’s Testament - was written in 1922. It was Lenin’s evaluation of
many Bolsheviks, including strengths and critical remarks. In a postscript
later added, Lenin was especially critical of Stalin and recommended his
dismissal. It was never made public.

NOT make public at the Party Congress in 1924 -

Helped - Stalin most.
Why did Trotsky lose the leadership contest?
•Trotsky was a brilliant speaker and writer, as well as the party’s best
political thinker, after Lenin. He was also the man who had organised the
Bolshevik Revolution and was the hero of the Civil War as leader of the
Red Army. Finally, he was the man who negotiated peace for Russia with
the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Trotsky lost for many reasons:
•He was arrogant and often offended other senior party members.
•He failed to take the opposition seriously - he made little effort to build up
any support in the ranks of the party.
•He seriously underestimated Stalin.
•Trotsky also frightened many people in the USSR with his calls for
permanent revolution.
•Trotsky fell ill late in 1923 with a malaria-like infection – just when Lenin
was dying, and Trotsky needed to be at his most active.
•He was also the victim of a trick by Stalin - Stalin cabled Trotsky to tell
him that Lenin’s funeral was to be on 26 January, when it was in fact going
to be on the 27th. Trotsky was away in the south of Russia and would not
have had time to get back for the 26th, although he could have got back
for the 27th. As a result, Trotsky did not appear at the funeral whereas
Stalin appeared as chief mourner and Lenin’s closest friend.
How did Stalin win?
•Stalin was a clever politician and he planned his bid for power carefully.
He made great efforts to associate himself with Lenin wherever possible
- Lenin’s funeral.
•He was also extremely clever in using his power within the Communist
Party. He took on many boring but important jobs such as Commissar for
Nationalities and, of course, General Secretary. He used these positions
to put his own supporters into important posts and even to transfer
supporters of his opponents to remote postings.
•He was also absolutely ruthless in picking off his rivals one by one. For
example he took Bukharin’s side to get rid of Trotsky, and then opposed
Bukharin using exactly the same arguments as Trotsky had used before.
•Stalin’s policies also met with greater favour than Trotsky’s - ‘Socialism
in One Country’.
•Finally, Stalin appeared to be a straightforward Georgian peasant –
much more a man of the people than his intellectual rivals. To a Soviet
people weary of years of war and revolution, Stalin seemed to be the
man who understood their feelings.
FACTFILE: Stalin’s steps to power
1923 Stalin the outsider – Lenin calls for him to be replaced. Trotsky calls
   him ‘the party’s most eminent mediocrity’.
1924 Lenin’s death. Stalin attends funeral as chief mourner. Trotsky does
   not turn up (tricked by Stalin).
1924 Stalin, Kamenev and Zinoviev join together to dominate the
   Politburo, the policy-making committee of the Communist Party.
   Working together, these three cut off their opponents (Trotsky and
   Bukharin) because between them they control the important posts in
   the party.
1925 Trotsky sacked as War Commissar. Stalin introduces his idea of
   Socialism in One Country.
1926 Stalin turns against Kamenev and Zinoviev and allies himself with
1927 Kamenev, Zinoviev and Trotsky all expelled from the Communist Party.
1928 Trotsky exiled to Siberia. Stalin begins attacking Bukharin.
1929 Trotsky expelled from USSR and Bukharin expelled from the
   Communist Party.
SOURCE 1 - p. 126, Walsh

Comrade Stalin, having become Secretary General, has unlimited
authority in his hands and I am not sure whether he will always be
capable of using that authority with sufficient caution.
Comrade Trotsky, on the other hand, is distinguished not only by
his outstanding ability. He is personally probably the most capable
man in the present Central Committee, but he has displayed
excessive self-assurance and preoccupation with the purely
administrative side of the work.

Lenin’s Testament. This is often used as evidence that Stalin was an
outsider. However, the document contained many remarks critical of
other leading Communists as well. It was never published in Russia,
although, if it had been, it would certainly have damaged Stalin.
SOURCE 1 - p. 82, White

Comrade Stalin, having become Secretary General, has unlimited
authority in his hands and I am not sure whether he will always be
capable of using that authority with sufficient caution.

Later he added:

Stalin is too rude, and this fault … becomes unacceptable in the
office of General Secretary. Therefore, I propose to the comrades
that a way be found to remove Stalin from that post and replace
him with someone else who differs from Stalin in all respects,
someone more patient, more loyal, more polite, more

Lenin’s Testament. He warned against Stalin.
SOURCE 2 - p. 126, Walsh

Trotsky refrained from attacking Stalin because he felt secure. No
contemporary, and he least of all, saw in the Stalin of 1923 the
menacing and towering figure he was to become. It seemed to
Trotsky almost a joke that Stalin, the wilful and sly but shabby and
inarticulate man in the background, should be his rival.

Historian I Deutscher in The Prophet Unarmed, Trotsky 1921–
1929, published in 1959.

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