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Sf Combat Recon Manual


									PO1 7658, Patrolling FTX
           Special Forces

Republic of Vietnam
 -   -   Prepared by Project (8-52) Delta
                           HQ. NhaTmng
1 . Attached are "Reconnoisscince Tips of the Trade" prepared by Detachment 8-52, Commanders of 0 1 1
units o r e encourogsd to disseminate, w ~ d e l y , the informotion contained therein The lnformorion
presented in the attoched "ReconTips' 1 very oppropriate for use it7 unit and individual training of US and
indigenous ~ e r s o n n e l Such informotion can b e of s~gnificontvolue to units engaged ~ rconvent~onol
p a t r o l l ~ n g well 0 s specie1 recorlnoissonce units

2. Detachment 8.52.5th special Forces Group :Abn), 1st Spec101Forces assembled the original do cum en^.
Was assisted by personnel of 8-52, MACV Recondo School and 5th SFGA Combat Or~entotionCourse
School, vrho contr:buted from their knowledge end experience. 5pecial crcdit i s given ! MSG Norrnvq A.
Downcy, ISG, CCC Recon Company for his assistance.

3. This document hos been reviewed and annotated by Headquarters, 5th Speciai Forces Group :Abni, 1st
      Forces. For eosy use and reference the document has been organized into annexes.

ANNEXA [General Tips of the Trade) to Detochrnent 8-52 (Project Delta: Recon~aissonce ~ p s otfh e l r a d e

                                          GENERAL TIPS OF THE TRADE

1   Whiie on a mission, minimize fatigue becuuso tired become careless.

2 . If you showcont~dence,
                         your teom will have con!idence

3 If the team ieader lcses hisrernperrt wil! cf!ect h15judgment. Keep coo! o ~ think oheod, aiways keep-
ing an alternote p l o r ~nr,ind. Dor.'t be u f r e ~ d take odv~ce
                                                      to          from your team member.

d. Teem work. the key to success, only comes through constant proc:ice and training. Realism must Se in.
le~ted  Into all phoses of troining such os zeroing o l weopons at torgets In the jungle, use of live t r o i n ~ n g
o ~ d s PW snatch or ombush practice, etc.

5 . Teams thot have a good physical training progrern hove fewer health vroblems

6. Make sure thot personrel toke salt tublets as o preventative measure rather then vraiting u n t ~ col-
Iopse is immirent One ?ab:et in o conteer of woter IS a good vray to toke salt, cspec~al!yor: very hot and
humid dnys. Only when plenty of moter I S avoilcble! ! '

7 . If your missioi cal!s for emploc~ng mine in o road ensure that an extra fusc is toker a1or.g i r case
one 1 lost.

8 A l l personnel shou!d wear loose fl?t:ng and ur~*oilored                          operntions, Tight f i g h t ~ ~ g
                                                                 clothing on f ~ e l d
                                         eosy access to exposed parts of the body for rnorqul?oes o r d leeches.
clothingoften tearsor rlps a l ' o w ~ n g

9. Each reom leader shcu'd hove o prc-mis5ior. and post-mission checklist to ensure thgt nothing 1 left

10. Use t o c t when reprimonling your personrel, espec~ollyindigenous 'earn members. If poss!ble, toke
the men aside to c r ~ t i c ~ z e This enables him to reasor; positively to the criticism. 5.rcc hc ~ I Inot feel
                               him.                                                                        I
ridiculed and lose sel! confidence.

11. Do not hang clothing o r bopdonas on green bamboo if yov plan or, weuring i t aftervrards. The fuzz on
the barrboo is just l ~ k e
                          Itching powder

12. Conduct Engl~sh                                                         l~
                     classes for yout Indigenous personnel, e s p e c ~ a l ~nterpreters.Conduct c!asscs for
your U.S. Personnel on your ~ndigellous team members diolec*.

13 Pre-set frequenc~es the PBC-25 so thot a quick turn cf the dials will put you 00 the dcsired frequen-
cy. This I S especially helpful c t night when you w o r t to avoid a light.

                                  insect repelleni o r lube oil bottles. It 1 difficult :o put CS ~ o w d e ~ r them
I Corry CS powder i n p ~ a s t ~ c
 4                                                                           s                              r :
but it i s definitely worth the effort Sprinkle CS powder in and on empty "C" ration cans and food con-
tainers. This w ~ lprevent animals from digging them up once you hove buried them
    ANNEX B (M-I6!16CAR 15 tips) to Detochment 8-52 (Proiect Delta) Reconnai5sance tips of theTrods

    1 . Tape the ~ u z z l e    your weapon to keep ou: water and dirt.    Leave lower portion of slit5 open for ven-

    2 . Use one magazlne full of trocer during ~nfi!trotlon  and exfiltration. [f token under firs during infiltro-
    tion or exflltration the tracers can be used:o Identify enemy posltlons to friendly olr assets.

i   3. The 10s:three rounds In each magazine should be tracer. This reminds the firer thot he needs a loaded

I   4 . Reploce the cartridge in the chamber
    o malfunction.
                                                    of your weapon eoch morning 'quite!y". Condensotion may cause

    5 . 011 selec?or switch on your weapon daily and work the switch back ond forth,
           the                                                                                     especially during
    rainy season. This will prevent thecomn;on occurrenceof a stuck switch.

    6 . Alvroys carry o small viai tubeof lubricotingoil for your weopon

    7 Always carry yourweopon with the selector switch on ' s a f e '.

    8 . To Improve noise dlsclpline, tapeall sling swivels o remove them from weopons

    9 During extroction do not fire weapons from helicopters oker l e ~ v l n g LZ because a gunship may be
    posalng under you without your knowledge.                                             *
    10. Do nct re'rieve your     t S a 5 expended
                                         t          magazine during contcct becouse it will consumevoluable time

    11   Check all magazines betore g o l r ~ g o n operatior;, +c ensure they oreclean and properly lcadcd

    ?2. Neverassurne that ycur weopcn isciecn enoush on en operotron, CLEAN YOUR WEAPON DAILY.

    13. Place rrugoz~nes    upside down , x t h bullet^        cvray from your body i , ~
                                                                                        the ommo pouches. This
    will keep dirt c i d water our of therr ood :f rounds go of! due $0 enemy fire, you wcn t 5e injured by your
    o w n ommo.
ANNEX C (Load Beering Equ~pment                        8-52
                              Tips: +o D e t a c h ~ ~ n : iProiect Deltc: ~.ecornaissanc. Tips of the

                                          LOAD BEARING EQ:.ItPt.IENTTIPS

1   Be su:e that all snaps and buckles are taped. Do not        v5e   pace: tope.

2 Proce Trianguyor baldages ;;r; original containers: i r tt,e ammo pouches. This mckes it eosier to
r e m o w mogozlnes, and increases the first-aid copabilitv 3+ vour uni:.

3. Cut the front corners of ammo pouches 1,2"-3,4" to make it ecsler to remove mTgazlnes during the
rgi~y                                     pub: tubs in each pouch. If they ore cvailable, use canteen
      season. Also hove 2 magczines w ~ t h
covers t o carry magazines rother rhon ammo pouches, They hold more mngaziies, ore easier to open.
and you won't need so many pouches hanging from your web gear.

A . Tie o string cr !anyma between hr,-79a r c web t e [ t so you wos': loseit V I ~ I C ~frrivg      :+eM-it

5. Keep your UPC-IV secured to your horness during .Jse. If lor: with the beeper 031, it will negate oil oLher
signols on thoiLrequen<y until the battery ruts d o v ~ n .

6 . Alwoys carry some'ypeof knifs on

7. S l o p links s h o u ' d be secured a r c u l d the shoulder 4ar.iass. NOT GF   the cloth ioops

                               should ccrry. in a first old pouclr nn the n o r a e s s , one
6. For survidol, each ~ndividuoi                                                              woe oi bouillon
cubes, oqa tube of sol+ roblets ond one vcttle of purif~co:~or,                          n
                                                              :eSlels. One b 3 ~ 1 l l otube in one canteen of
woter, when disso:ved wlil give energy foconeor two days.

9 . All team members should corry a mixture of frogmentation, CS and WP gre:jades 011 h e ~ r
                                                                                     t      bel:~for the
Iollowing reosoos:

     o. Frogmentation grerrodesare         good for inflicting casualties.

     b.   CSgrenodes are ideot for stopping or slowing down enemy troops pursuing your team. In addrtion
t h e y will stop dogs from pursuing you in wst weother when CS powder will dissipate due to wefness.

     c . WP p n a d e s have a great psycohologicsl effect oguinst enemy troops and coo be used for the
same purpose as C5 Grenedes. The use of CS and WP at the some ttme will more t h o n double their effec-

10. Smoke grenodes should be carried in or on the pack ond not on the web gear or harness You don't
fight with smoke grenades and if you nsed one. 99 tirnesout of 100, you will hove time to gat it from your

T I . Fold paper tape thrcugh the rings of grenades and tape the ring to the body o :hegre~ade.The paper
tape will tear for fast use, where plasticorclorh tope w ~ lnot. Also it keeps !he ring open for your finger
stops noise and prevent snagging.
    ANNEX C (Load Bearing Equipment Tips) to Detachment 8-52 (Project Delta) Reconnoissonce Tips o f the
    Trede (cont'dj.

I   12, Camouflage              using blackor OD sproy paint.

I                    d
    13. Do not b o ~ the pinson thegrenodes flot. The rings are too hord to pull when oeaded.

I   14. Make continuous doily checks on 011
    ing unscrewed.
                                                         when on patrol, to ensure that the primer is not corn

I   15. Each team should carry one thermliegrenodefor destruction of equipment, eitherfrlendly o enemy

    16. Do not carry grenades on the upper portion of your harness because the enemy will shoot ot them
    trying to inflict several casualties with one shoot.

    17. Sew o long slim pocket on thesideof your rucksack to accommodote the long antenno

    10. Ensure thot the snap link on your rucksock is sneppsd through the loop in the upper portion of yol;r
    rucksacks carrying straps so that you won't lose it during extraction i f you have to snap it on o lodder or
    McGuire Rig.

    19, Insect repellent leaks and spills easily, therefore, isolate it from your other equipment i n the
    rucksack. Also squeeze oir from repellent container and screw on cop firmly.

    20. An indigenous poncho bndior o round sheet olong with o jungle sweoter and o rain locket ure suffi
    ciant for sleeping.

    21. A claymore bog, sewn onto the top flop o the rucksack is extremely useful t o carry binoculars, extra
    hand sets, cornera or VRC-10, prepared o any other speciol equipment. This gives easy access t o those
    ~temswhlte on patrol or when you have to ditch the rucksack.

    22. Ke smoke grenodes o n rucksack between pockets.

    23. Alwoys use the warer from conteens in or on your rucksack before uslng woter in the contesns on
    your belt. This willensure asupply of wotershould youloss your rucksack.

I   24. Test strops on the r u c k s a c k before packing for each patrol. Always corry some parachute cord
    repair s t r a p on patrol.
ANNEX D (Recon Potrol Tips) to Detachment 8-52 ;Prcject Delta) Reconnaissance Tips of the Trude

                                            RECON PATROL TIPS

1. \ hn making VRs always mork every LZ withrr. y c u r A 0 end neor it, on your map Plon the route of
march sotnat you will always know +ow far c ~ d o n
                                                  what azimuth the reorest LZ ir Io:oted.

2. Dor't rut off too much o f the m a p show~ngyou," recor. zone iRZ). Alwoys designate at ieast 5.1C
kilometers surround~ng your RZ as running room.

3. Bose the n u ~ n b e r canteens per mcp upon the weather end ovailabi:ity of watsi 'r! ihe A O . Select
wo'er points when p l o r r i n g your route of march.

4  Check a'l t c a ~  members pockets pr;or t o depdrting homeboss for passes ID cords lighters w ~ t hiri-
                 w,:h 1n5igr,ias, etc Oersonld sb.ould only corry dog tags while on pot701
sigqia5, r ~ n g s

5. If tke tewn uses o grenadier armed with rifle grenades, h a r e h;rr olace a crimped cartridge cs tbe first
lound in co:h magazine co-ried. After firing the grencde, he <on Lse -he r ~ f l e     norniolly. W e n the
magazine ;s eTpty end a r.ew one inserted :he grecadiercun then quickly fire another g;ensde.

6 . Alwoys corr,, rrops o r ? note books in ~vo!erprocf coltainers.

7 . Use o pencil to moks robes during or. operotion. Ink srnsors when ~tbecomes wet vrhereos lead does

6. Inspect eoch team metcber's uniform and equipment, sspeciclly rodios and sfrobe 'ights. prior ?o
departure on a mission

9 . If you use the Hanson Rig, adiusf your harness ond webbing before leaving on patrol

10 D u r ~ n the rainy season toke extra cough medicineand codeineon patrol.

               ond proper use of morphins should be known by
11. The tocot~on                                                      ali team members.

t 2 . All sun*ivol equipment should be tied or secured to the uniform or horriessJo prevent loss if pockets
b~corne    torn, etc.

13. Eoch US o r key teom member should ccrry maps, notebooks, end 501 In the scrne pocket of each
uniform, for hasty removal by other team members ~fone becomes a caaual:y.

14. Toke poper matches to the field in woterproof ccntainer     D3 no! take cigarette lighlers as they woke
t ~ much nolse when openingund clos~ng.

15. Tie panel and mirror to pocket flop to prevent losing

16. Always carry rifle cleaning equipment on operoriori, i.e, brush. 011ond wf leas'one clear.~r.grcd
    ANNEX O :Recon Petrol Tips) to Detachment B.52 (Project Delto! Reconna~ssonceTips of the Trade.

    17. Each team should have designated primary and olternote rolly polnts a t all times. The team leader is
    responsible for ensuring that eoch teom member knows the azimuth and approxlmote distance to each
    rolly pointlLZ.

    18. Never toke pictures of team members while on patrol. If the enemy captures the camera, they will
    have gained invofuable intelligence.

    19. At least t w o pen lightsshould be token by eoch teem.

    20. While on patrol, move 20 minutes and halt and listen for 10 minutes. Listen half the amount of tlme
    you move. Move ond halt ot irregular intewols.

    21. Stoy o l e n at 011 times. You ore never IN* safe until you are back home.

    22. Never break limbs or branches on trees, bushes, or palms, or you w i l l leave a very cleor trail for the
    enemy t o follow.

    23. Put insect 'leech repellent oround tops of boots, on ponts fly, belt, ond cuffs t o stop leeches ond in-

    24. Do most of your moving during the mornlng hours t o conserve woter, however never be afraid to
    move at night, espec~clly you think your RON hos been discovered.

    25. Confinuotly check your point man to ensure that he rs on fhe correct azimuth.        Do   not run o composs
    courseon patrol, changedirection regularly.
    2 4 If followed by trackers, change direction of movement often and atfempt to wode or ambush ycur
    trackers, they make good PWs.

    27. Do not ask for a "fix" from FAC unless absolutely necessary. This will oid in the prevention of ccm-

    28. Force yourself to cough whenever a high performonce oircrah posses over. I t will clear your :hroo?.
    eose tension and calnot be heard. If you m u s t cough, cough i n your hot or neckerchief to smother :ha

    29. Never take your web georoff, doy or night. In an a r e a where i t is necessav t o put the jungle sweater
    on ot mght, no w o r e !hen two patrol members at a time should do so. Take the sweaters off the next mor-
    ning to prevent cold and overheoting.

    30. If you chorgo socks, especially lo the r,ainy seoson, try to woit until RON ond have n o more than two
    patrol members change socksat o l e time Never take off both b o o t s ot the same time.

    3 1 . When o team member s!erts to come down with i m m e r s i o r . foo:, stop In o secure position, remove in-
    jured persons boot, dry off hisfeet, putfoot powder on his feet.
ANNEX D (Recon Petrol Tipsl to Detachment 8-52 [Project Delta: Reconnaissance Tips of the Trade.

and place a ground sheet or poncho over his feet so thot they con dry out, Continued walking will make
matters worse, ensuring that the man will become a casualty, thereby halting the further progress of the

32. Dessnex or vaseline tubbed on the feet during the rainy season or in wet weother will aid in the
prevention of immersion foot. It will also help avoid chapping if put on the hands.

33. Gloves will protect hands from thorns and aid in holding owsapon when it heats up from firing

34. Place a plastic cover on your PRC-25 to keep it dry in the rainy season

35. When using o wire tap device, never place ths boiterles in the set until needed. If the butteries ore
carried in thedevic* they will lose power even though the swltches are in the off position.

36. If botteries go deod or weak do not throw them away while on patrol. Smull batteriss can be recharg-
ed by placing them in arm pits or between the legs 01 the body. A larger battery can gain odded life by
sleeping with the battery next to the body. Additionel life can olso be galned by placing b ~ t t e r i e s the

37. If possible, carry an extra hand set for the PRC-25 and ensure that ~t IS wropped in a waterproof con-

38. Always carry a spare PRC-25 battery, but do not remove the spare from its plastic container prior to
use or it may lose power.

39. Do not send "same" or "no charge" when reporting team location. Always send your coordinates.
Keep radio traffic at o minimum.

40. Avoid over confidence, it leods t o cerelessness. Just because you have seen no sign of the enemy for
3 o r 4 days does not rneon thot he isn't there or hasn't seen you.

11. A large percentage of potrols have been compromised due to poor noise discipline.

42. Correct all learn ond:or individual errmsas they occur or hoppen.

43. All personnel should camouflage faces and bocks of hands in the morning. at noon and at RON or o m -
bush positiofis,

44. Never cook or build heating fires on patrol. No more than two persons should eat chow at any one
time. The rest of the teom should be on security.

45. When teom stops, always check out do-M) meters from ths perimeter

46. All team members should take notes while on an operotion and compare Ihem nightly. Each man
should keep a list of tips ond lessons leorned and odd to them after each operation.
    ANNEX D (Rscon Patrol Tips) to Detachment 8-52 (Project Delta) Reconnaissance T~psof the Trods

    47. Eoch man on o team must continually observe the man in front of him and the men behind him, in od
    dition to watching for other team rnernbers'arm and hand signals.

    18. A recon team should never place more than one mine. AP, or AT, in one small section of o road or
    trail at a time. If more than one is set out the teem is just resupplying the enemy, because when a mine
    goes off, a search wiff be modeof the immedioteareo for others end they will surely be found.

i   49. During the dry seoson, do not urinate on rocksor leaves but rather i n a hole or small crevice. The wet
    spot may be seei, and the odor will carry further.

    50. When corrying the M.79 on patrol, use o retainer band eround the stock to hold the safety on sofe
    while moving.

    51. When crossing streoms, observe first for activity, then send a point man across t o check the area.
    Then cross the rest of the patrol, with each taking water as he crosses. If in a danger oreo, hove ell per-
    sonnel cross prior t o getting weter. Treat all trails !old and new), streoms, ond open areas as danger

    52. Carry one extra pair of socks, plus foot powder, on patrol, especially during the rainy seoson. fn addi-
    tion, each team member should corry o Iorge sired pair of socks to place over his boots when walking o r
    crossing a trail or slream.

    53. During rest holfsdon'f take your pack off or leave your weopon alone. During long breaks, such os for
    noon chow, don't toke your pack off until your perimeter has been checked for ot leost d0 t o 60 meters out
    for 360 degrees. During breaks throw nothing on the ground. Either put trash in your pocket o r spray i t
    with CS powder and bury it.

    54. In most areas, the enemy will send potrols along roods ond major trails betweeq the hours of 0700-
    lOrXl and from 15M)-1900. Since most of the enemy's vehiculor movement is a t n ~ g h t o team that has o
    rood watch mission should stoy no less thon 200 meters from the rood during thedoy and move up t o the
    road just prior to last light. When the enemy rnokes a security sweep along a road, usuolly twice o week.
    he norrnolly does not check further than 200 meters to each flank.

    55. If you hear people speaking, move close enough t o heor whot they ate saying. The reason is obv~ous.
    The VN team leader should make notes.

    56. While on patrol, don't toke t h e obvious course of action and don't set o pattern in your activities, such
    as, always turning to the left when "button hooking toombush your own bock trail.

    57. A dead enemy's shirt and contents i n pockets, plus pock, if he hos one, are normally more volucble
    thon his weapon.
ANNEX 1 (Recon Patrol Tips) fo Detachment 8 - 5 2 (Project Delta; Recor.na1~5alce ~ p sof the Trade.
       3                                                                        T

58. If the enemy is pursuing you, you should deploy delay grenades andlor deioy claynicrea of 6G-I20
seconds. In addition, throw CS grenades to your reor and flonks. Give he enemy a reason a-ld or excuse
to quit.

59. Do not fire weapons or use claymores or grenades ~fthe enemy is searching for you at night. U5s CS
gronades instead. This will cause him to panic and ~ v i l not give your position away, vou ccn move o u t In
relatlve rofety while they may end up shooting each other If claymores become necessary, use rime-
deloyed or time delayed WP.

                         Gernodes l o t ready for corrbot !toped +o web gecr improperly!
                         rings not secvred for su!ety
ANNEX E (forward Air Controller (FAC! TIPS:to Detachment 8-52
                          (Project Delta: Reconnaissance Tips of the Trade

                                        FORWARD AIR CONTROLLER (FAC: TIPS

1. The F A C IS second in importonce to your weapon while on combet operotion. Learn ell you can obout
FAC procedures. Proper useof F A C support could mean the difference between whether or not you return
from a patrol.

2. &*,hen making a FAC VR take a map tho* covers the A 0 from the FOB t o your RZ.

3. Never f!y directly over your RZ (down the middle). Fly a:ong the side of your RZ so you c o n observe as
much as possible i n your R Z .

4. Whenever you hedr an oircraft, ensure that your radio is turnedon, they may be trying t o contoct you.

5 The FAC is severly limited in bad weother end the roirry season, plan for this

6. The averoqerlme for reoction to an immediate request is 15-45 minutes.

7. The tactic01 aircraft rnoy have mixsd ordinance o r , if it's a diverted aircraft, the ordinance someone
else has requested for a pre-planned torget.

8 . If a patrol, not in contact with the enemy, requests on air strike against a speclfic farget, request
oppropriute ordinance t o desfroy the torget.

9. Don't use the PRC-25 as a homing station for the FAC because VC hove h o m i l g equipment for FM
radios. Instead, use the radio to direct FAC t o your position.

10. The FAC mu$+                                                                            on
                know your position on theground before he will cleorany ~ t r l k e c r a f t your tcrget.

I I . The Mlrror 1 the way of best signaling the FAC to rnork your position. If the sun is mot out, use the
clock system with your potlels.

12. If the sun I S obsured by clouds you con still signal an aircroft by plocing your strobe light agoinst your
signa! mirror. The pilot can more readily see the flashes from :he strobe light as they ore reflected from
the mlrror.

19.   Do not cut your sign01 panel if   it will moke i t difficult to see from theoir.

14. When using the transponder or beacon never point theontenno at the aircraft. The ontonna should be
parallel to theaircroft.

15. Use s w o k e , flores, pen guns, ond trocers 0s a lost resort for marking your position

16. Pilots should identify the color of smoke used by teams on the ground after i t has been thrown. The
team does not identify the color to the pilots. Violet and red smoke ore the best colors t o use.
ANNEX E (Forward Air Con:rolter (FAC: Tips: to Detachment 5-52
                           Project Delto! Reconnaissance Tips of the Trade

red smoke ore the best colors to use

17. If contoct 1 made with enemy end you w e In a dense jungle, use WP grenades to mark your [ocatiofi
for the FAC. Normo!ly the regu!ar red and violet smokegrenades are not sufficient.

18. There ore severol methods of markiqg your location at night. You con use o flashlight. strobe light,
flares or WP grenades.

    a. The flashlight should be placed inside of a M.79 barrel       ond   oimed directly ot the aircroft. This
shields the light from observation b y the enemy.

    b. Tape or point the sides c f the strobe light to make i t more directional and to reduce illumination
from the sides.

     c. Notify the oircraft before firing a pen flare since o flare resemble a tracer. Never fire them directly
at the o i r ~ r a f t .

19. When dtrectiog o FAC to your positinn o r torget area use the clock system. NOTE: The nose of the
eircraft I S the twelve o clock position.

20. Don't use A2 readings to direct oircrgft until the FAC has your position focated. O n c e located use A2
reeding in degrees to your torget and dislonce in meters.

21. Alwoys give the FAC a complete description of your target and target are0

22 Makeadjustments for the FAC after each round and oker eoch aircraft makeso poss

23. Give the track that you request, always try to put strike ocross your front. Do not COII in with its
strike track coming d~rectlyocross your position, from the front or reor. NOTE A strike tho1 is a fraction
too soon or late could lond In your position. IT HAS HAPPENED BEFORE.

24. A combat sky-spot con be used as an immedia'e or pre-planned strike You must give him an eight
d ~ g coordinate and a track !or the o~rcret+.NOTE: If possible hove the FAC determine the patrols
location before the sky spot makes a strike.

2 5 . Whenever possible, try to gtve a BOA (bomb damage assessmenti to the FAC

24. A FAC con be used effec!iveiy 70 direct o team in contoct to LZ's. A FAC can also provide an airstrike
to prep on exfil LZ for a team beiore it reaches t h e LZ. This is a good technique to e ~ p l o y dangerous

                                                                                      craft. A low pass or a pass
27. A F A C can be used to break off contnct while a petrol i s waiting for a t r ~ k e
firing c marking round may make the enemy think they are being attacked thus couslng them to
      ANNEX E (Forword Air Controller (FAC) TIPS: to Detachment B-52
                                (Project Delta) Reconnaissence Tips of the Trode

i     2 8 . When drrecting Shadow over your target do not let him f l y directly over the targets.

      29. Ask Shodow to drop a flore and direct him tn the torget from thet flare. Make adjustments from his
      tracer impact area to insure that you get full torgei coverage.

    Poor Recon technique (stripes, no corno, and easily identified U.5

                                                 Where I S his weapon? Tent pegs ore aluminum and painted
                                                 orange moking them easy to see during deyligh: hours and
                                                 remove at night once you hove rnarkedrhere positions.
ANNEX F (Remoin Over Night (RON) Tips) to Detachment 6-52
                         (Project Delta) Reconnaissance Tips o the Trade

                                            REMAIN OVER NIGHT TIPS

1 . Pructice proper RON procsdures when your team is troining, even if you are on rifle ronge. Tuke
odvantoge of all training opportunities. Many trainlng oreas are not in what we would call "sofe zones".

                             site for RON, from your map, a t least two hours in advance
2 . Select a t e ~ t o t i v e

3. Deviofe from your route ofmarchofren. Never move In o straight line.

4 . After passing a suitable RON site "fish hook" and move into your selected position so that you can
observe your own trail.

5. When in posi!ion, personnel should keep their equipment on and remain alert until the perimeter has
been checked for 360 degrees at a distance of no less than 40 to b0 meters.

6. Pocks should r,ot be taken off until it is dork.

7. Before dark each team member should memorize the ozimufh and distonce to the frees ond bushes
around his RON.

8 . When deployingthe terrrn for RON. ploce4he point man in a p o s i t i o ~
                                                                            opposite the most likely ovenueof
opprooch to lead the team out In core of emergency.

9 If a team is within range of friendly artillery, ond has preplonned concentrotlens azimuths should be
token (OT line: to be cor;centro:ions, roting distarces, prior fo night foll. Nearby large trees o r
prepositioned stakes will ald as hasty reference p o ~ ~for colllng in ortillery ot nlght.

10. If it is necessary !o send in nightly "SITREP ' , do not send the message from your RON position. Send
your present locotion bur add that you will RON 1GOmeters east or 200 meters north etc. This w i l l confuse
he enemy as to yorjr exoct locatlon in the event he hos monitored your transmission with DFequipoment.
Use your SOI.

1 1 . Keep tracsmissions to a mlnimum. It Is better to ser,d the location of your RON position the next
morning. after you hovo rncved ou?. The enemy moy monitor y ~ u traffic but he wilt not know In whet
d~rection plon to move.

12. Do not send radio fronsrnissions from your        RON site unless they ore necessory. Be prepared to move
if you dosend redio transmissions.

13. Prior todurk the team leader should tell each man the primary and alternate rally points.
ANNEX F (Remain Over night (RON)Tips: to Detechmen? 8-52
                          (Project Delta) Reconnoissonce Tips of the Trade

Id. One half of the team should have their cornpusses set on the primary rally polnt ond the other half on
the alternate. If the enemy comes from the direction of the primary rolly point, the man with the azimuth
of the olterrlate rolly point set o n his cornpasscon leod the teom out.

15. A buddy system should be established in case cnsuaities ore token at night. Each man viili toke care
of another man and his equipment if one i s wounded, iniured, or killed.

16. The packor rucksack con be used as o pillow, however, ensure thot the currying straps are in the "up             '

position for easy insert~on theorms in caseof rapid withdrawal.

17. It i s permissible to unhook the web gear or harness but it should not betoken completely cff, at night
o r a t any time during theentire stay in the field.

18 If a person coughs or talks in his sleep make him sleep with o gag in hi5 mouth.

I ? US team members should not "bunch up" or sleep next to each other. One grenode or automatic burst
from a weapon could get them all. Each teom member should be able to touch eoch other without rnovlng
from position.

20. Check your RON position to form o peak in the canopy for using the stroble light tu J ~ r e c t S h o d o ~ v " o t

21. Know what your next days plons ore to be before set?.lilg
                                                            down for the night.

22. When pluc~ng  cloymores arourtd your RON they should be placed one at 0 time by two men one rnon
ernplacing tho mine while the other stands guord Never emplace cloymores in a position that prevents
you from                            i
         hovingvisual contact w ~ t ht .

23. Cloymores should be emplaced so thot the blast parallels the team, ensuring that the firing wire dces
not lead slroight b w k to the teorn position trom ?he mine. if the claymore ore turned o r0ur.d by the
enemy they will not point at the team.

24. Determine, in odvonce who will fire each c!oyrnoreond who will give tbe cornmondor signol.

25. In most ins:once5 it is better not to put out clavmeres eround RON positions but rather to rely on the
lrse o CS grenades for the fallowing reosons:

   0 . When cloymores have been pu! out, ond the enemy is discovered ro be moving tn on the team, the
team will hove a tendency to stay In place loo long, woiting for the ensmy to get within the k ~ l l ~ zone.
ANNEX F (Remain Over Night (RON) Tips) to Detachment 8-52
                         (Project Delto: Reconnoisrance Tips of the Trade

     b. I f the teom discovers :he enemy moving In oq them, the enemy will normally be ' o n I ~ n e " not
knowing the exoct position of the team. If no claymores ore out predesignated teem rrembers throw CS
grer.ades In the direction of the enemy force. After the gos begins tc disperse the teom can withdraw.
When the enemy I S hit with the CS he will normally panic. t! he has ges masks with him. and puts them 01,
he con no longer see clea:ly If he does not hove them h e will run owoy and rnoy even fire his weapon
indiscriminately causing overoll confusion and panic. In eithsr case, the team has a good chonce to
escape, unhormed end unseen.

    c . If o claymore is triggered, a grenade thrown, or a rifle fired, the enemy may flank the :cam and
box it in.

26. A!l team members should be awake, olert, ond ready to move, prior to the first light

27. Another check of the perimeter, for 360 degrees, ot a distance of ot leost 40 to 60 meters, should be
mode prior to moving out or prior 70 retrieving cloyrnores.

28. A thorough check should be made of the RON site * o ensure that no:hlng Is left behind ond thot the
entire site is sferile.

29 Theteam leader must makesure thotecch mon tokes nisdeily molario tablet.

30 Never eet chow ot smoke cigarettes i*your RON posltion The odor of the food or tokacco gives your
position owoy.

31. Be alert when leaving your RON. If you have been seen. you   will probably be attacked or ambushed
within 300 meters.

32. Team. leaders should check themselves ?o ensure they ore not forming the common habit of constantly
turning to the left, or right, when fish hooking.

33. Habits ore easily formed, us rnentloned previously around certain times of the doy. For example.
somealways move Into on RON site ot 1830 hours or into e noon breok position o: exact!y 103 hours each
day. If the enemy has been observing you, he will takenoteof this ond will plen on ambush for you.
ANNEX G (Breaking Out of Enc~rclement  Tips) to Detachment 8-52
                          (Project Oelto) Reconnaissance Tips of the Trode

                                    BREAKING OUT OF ENCIRCLEMENT TIPS

1. General: Too many times Recon Teams vrh~ch       have no' planned for or practiced methodsro "break out'
from the encirclemen: hove been enc~rcled the enemy. The f o l l o w ~ n g
                                                by                               methods and suggestions hove
worked for ~ t h e r s the past and it i s hoped that this w ~ l be of assistonce to you i n the future if you find
                     in                                          l
yourself and your teom In such Q situation.

    Q. Team enc~rcled,   the sooner you attwmpt to break out the better chance you w ~ l have t o do so
effectively and with the lsost amount of cosuolt~es.
                                                   The longer you wait thestronger theenemy becomes.

                                   out of encirclement: Plans must be made prior to the break out ottempt t o
2 . Preporations for b r e a k ~ n g
toke core of the following:

    0.   Rucksacks end equipment left behind must bedesfroyed by someone.

    b. Dead must be left behind. Someone must remove ony classified documents such 0s Sols,
notebooks. maps. etc.

    c. O n e o r t w o persons, depending upon the size of the team mus: have the mission, during the break
out assoult, of rear security. This will include ossistlng a n y personnel who rnoy be wounded before o r
during the attempt. Addit~onully    they should recover documents from personnel kllled during the breok
out movement. No attempt should be mode to try t o take KlAs w i t h theream.

    d Keep in mind that the successful completion of your mission depends on getting the information
bock to headquarters All personnel must be reminded of the important informot~onthe teom has

3. Formation t o use: The most effective method a $moll element con use (5 t o 12 man teams1 is t o form
into a pyromid configurotion, with the base cf the pyromid leading. T h e follovring actions should toke

    b. The teams forms into posit~on.

    b    CS rounds from M-79s ond 'or CS grenadesore f ~ r e d thrown to the flanks

    c. WPgrenades are thrown t o the reor.

    d. A claymore mine 07d/orgrenodes ore I i r e d o r thrown in thedirection the tecm will move

    e. lmmediately aher thectaymorecnd/or grenades go off to the front, the teom rnovesout.
ANNEXG (Breakingout of Encirclement Tips) to Detachment 0.52
                        lProject Delta: Reconnaissance Tips of the Trade

    f. Thef~rst                         on
              element o line will f ~ r e full automotlc. The others hold fire.

    g . When the first elements' rnogorines ace empty, the second element nyoves through ?ham and
continuesfhe fire.

     h. When +he second element has emptied their rnagozines the f ~ r s t  element will have reloaded and
witl pass through:hem, t a k ~ n g the assault but will only fireon semi.outometic.

     i. Once theteam starts to move it must move rapidly, but not run, ond never stop until completely nut
of the encirclement.

4 . Support~ng                          gunships aqd TAC Air, if available should be used to assist your
             fires: Artillery. hel~ccpter
breokout attempt. These are discussed b e l o w

     u. Supporting artillery frre, vrithin range. coo be effectively employed to peve your woy out of on
encirclement or r,ear encirclement. When foul or inclement weather prevents your use of helicopter or
TAC air for support you must use ortilleiy if evoilabte. Artillery support, w h e ~     available. should also be
requested ot the first signof trouble tor many times it con b e f i r ~ n g your direction before oir support con
arrive on station to ~ ~ ~ 1 sIt t a common practice, os you leorned in bosic training, that when you are
                           you. IS
sublected to incom~ngmortor or artillery fire, you move out of the area as quickly 0s possible. Enemy
forces follow thqs same doctrine. When you desire to breok out. with the oid of ertillery. first have t h e
fires plnced completely around your position, then huging selected your desired heeding, "walk" the
artillery in front of you This will effectively lead you out of the danger are0 and you Inoy even pick up a
shell shocked or wounded PW on your way out.

    b. Helicopter gunships con assist you with almost continuous close in fire support, firing directly i m
front and to the rear durlng your break out otternpt. Tho effect this fire will hove is dependent upon the
densify of the vegetation locat~on your teorn, and whether o not your supporting oircraft crews con
                                   of                            r
see you or your signals, You may have to direct their flre by adjusting from the strike of the rounds and

    c Tacticot oirstrikes con ossistyou in yourattempt to breokou7of an encirclement. To dothis, call for
bombs in the direction you desire to move. Slnce the enemy will get a5 close to the team as possible to
ovotd oirstrikes, it is preferred to call in the h m b s first and then hove the TAC Air fire his machine guns
and 20mm in front cf you as you move out They c o n ploce machine gun fire much closer to you then
ANNEX H (PW Snatch Tips: to Detachment 8.52 (Project Delta) Reconnaissance Tips 3f theTrode

                                              PW SNATCH TIPS

1 . General: Once your recon team hos been selected for a PW snatch missio? and given a recon zone the
following actions should be taken i n oddition to those normally token for a recon mission.

    a. Study the map t o find a possible location to conduct your PW snotch w i t h ~ n
                                                                                      your   RZ.
    b. Conduct a visuel rsconnoissance to fomiliar~ze   yourself with the terruin sstect !Z's. E&E routes,
reference points, record any new trails in RZand pick tentative PbV snatch positions.

     c. Finalize plans for primary and alternote LZ's and routes of march to and frcm PW snatch location
y o u selected while on VR. If you havs ony photos o r hove token some during your VR, study them

    d. Assign duties for eoch potrol member end drow equipment needed hoth for training and for nctuol

    e. AWPAT-r end AMPRR-9 or HT1 rodios should be t e k e n f o r "in-position" tronsmtssion and signaling.

     f. Flight time to and from the target urea considering the time recovery oircroft will hove "on target"
should be remembered by the teorn leader when he selects the number of personnel and beticopters it
will take for insertion ond extraction. Plan the altitude of :he insertion ond extroc?ion LZ's with the load
:arrylng capacity of ? h e a ~ r c r a f t mind.

1. Train~ng,  Practice reheorsolsand put as much rea!ism into your+roining os possible. If you ore g o ~ r ~ g
handcuff, gag ond5lindfold your prisorer then do ~tduring your tro~ning.If you plan to carry your prison.
dor.'t Larry him just 20or 30 metcrs as i s common!y done but as far as your uroposed extruction L t .

    o . Designate men !o accomplish the following missions:
       1 . Handcuff bl~ndfold.   seorch and gag prisoner
       2. Treat and bandage prisoner's wounds
       3, Carry orassist him.
       4 . Carry his equipment and weapon.
       5 . Cover the tell tale signs at the ambush site.
       6 . Takecoreof friendly WIA's or MIA's to Include their wsapon and equipment
       7. Take point, rear security ond who will bealternates In each closs.
       8 hjake securlty check of extraction 12.
       9. Stond guardover prisoner ot LZ.
ANNEX H (PWSnntch Tips: to Detechment 8.52 (Project Delto) ReconnaissonceTipsof the Trade

     I D . to get on boord exfil oircraft first.
     11. Lift prisoner Into aircraft.
     12. Secure prlsoner to floor of olrcraft.
     13. Ride out with prisonsr.
     14. Bring out prisoner's equipment.

                   that need t o teprocticed, explained ond rehearsed ore:
   b . Other oct~ons

     1. Action tcken by eoch teom member ~fdiscovered in snatch position.
     2 . Movement info position.
     3. Signals to be used
     A Concealment o f psrsonnel ond equipment.
     5, Employment of c l e y n o ~ e s .
     6 . Action t o be taken ~fths team's preporations are noLcomple:od in time.
     7. A c t i o l to be take,, if ~nc'ement                                                           ottermat
                                            weother moves ;rr prebentlng a i y possible e r t ~ a c t ~ c : l

5 . Considerot~or.~ selectigg the locotion of the P1V SNATCH SITE. Generally speoklng 'here are three
dlfFerent locoticos, o road, o trail cnd a villcge or !,v;ng complex. :e advoltages and disadvontuges are
(15 f0llorvs.

      1 . Advontoges:

                          and cr troops v;ill pcss by thus c n s ~ r i n g d ~ ~ ~ -al,geit
         a. V e h l c ' e ~                                                         i b l

         b . A lone messenger nn foot or r:d;r.g o bicyice 1 bery pcssob!e

         c. Personnel movlng on o road ore pot, normally, very familiur wlth the surrouidlng 'errcin 3:
area, hornperiqg tkeir pursurtof :he teom i n raseof compromise.

        6 . Sites con ~ o r ~ a lbe found which offer long s?retchesof clear ~ i i s i b ~ l h ~

        o. Large formctiors of troops use roods and r.orm3lly :weep possible ambus5 sites with security

         b. Aapld reillforcement 1 eosily effected.

         c . Security elements normclly check roods for mines and ambushes eoch morning and evening.
ANNEX H (PW Snatch Tips! to Detachment 8-52 lProject Delta: Reconnaissance Tipsof the Trode

         d. Stotionory sscurity elements are normally positioned every t w o to five kilometers along all

         e . Troops and convoys traveiing o q roods ore cor.stantly on the alert for possible ombushes o l d
corry heavy caliber weopons to breok them up i+they occur.

   b. Location OF o Trail,

       1 . Advantages:

         a. Not so apt to encoun:er large numbers of enemy troops

         b. Advontogeous snatch sites are more easily located which will permit good concealment, good
vision, homper the effectiveness of enemy1 counter fire ood still be close enough to the trail to perform
the mission in the leost time possible.

         c. Enemy personnel ore not normally as cautious o r alert to possible urnbushes when moving
down a trail.

         d. Theambushing element con more reodily end easily cover up sgns ttro:anything            happened.

         e. Ropid and effective enemy pursuit is not os likely os o n a   rood.

         a More likely to encounter personnel who arefomilior with the local urea

         b . Dogs, women and children ore more lhkely to b e encountered

         c. Pre-plonned sites 'loco:ionsfor   PW snatches ore moredifficult to locate

         d. The enemy con jump off a trail and disappeoreosily
         e. Normoily you are right on a troil before being oware of it's presence w h ~ c h
                                                                                          could allow for
discovery of the team by passing enemy personnel

   c. Never wttempt a PW svotch from a villoge o: complex unless you have sxtroctico aircraft avoileble
which guarantee imrnedicte oxtroctlon. The reasons for ?his are many, F ~ r s t the individual will soon be
m ~ s s e dse:ond, village dogs uri;! more likely give a w o y your preserce: third, if discovered pursuit will be
immediate and the locois know the surrouading terrain much better then you r include any nearby LZ's:
fourth, most villages of ony importonce will hove security e l e m e ~ t s surrounding them and they will nor.
rnolly hove estobiished praventotive rneesures:~ preclude such sna'ch.
ANNEX H {PWSnatch Tips) to Detachment 8-52 (Project Deltaj Recoonaiasonce Tipsef the Trade

      1. Hove at least !wo extraction LZ s and twa rally poln?s selected and ensure tho7 eoch man knows
the ox~muthand epproximots distonce to each before moving into positlnn.

       2. Select o good ombush site. Do not plece an ambush of the spot where you first come up t o o rood
or troll. Thiscar-only get you into?rouble.

      3. Always search o? leost 200 meters olong o rood s r troil and on each flonk of your ambush site.
Look for rraior road or trail crossrngs. bunkers, complexes outposts, and ony other slgns of the enemy
which might prevent the successful executlen o! your mission.

       4 Upon flncl selection of the octuol snatch site the team leeder, shculd trace a diagram, in the
dirt, of the site and polnt out eoch :eom member's position, pertinent terrain features, end ask for q u e s

       5. Prior :o w o v i i g ihto the 5notch position, be sure your RTO h a s n o t ~ f i e d
                                                                                              your base station of your

        6 . Cache your rucksocks prior to moving into the ombush pos~tions. sure that the carrying strops
are i n the "up" posit~ono r tas!or and easler recovery.

      7 Double check a!: weepons and essential equipment prior :o rnovlng into your finnl position

      a. Try to attempt your Pwcopturewithin the first three to fcur days. The team members will st111be
in good physical condition, their morale and spirits will be up. thus giving you o much better chance f o r

A . Types of PW ornbushes:   Normally, there are four planned ona t w o unplanned PW ombusher. Normally
on a PW snatch mission the team leader will select one of the planned types ofter considering t h e
voriobles of hlr own personnel otld squpment, knowledge of the enemy, weather and terraln. The team
w ~ lpractice this type of ambush prior to deporting on the mission. In addition they s h ~ u l d
      l                                                                                         rehearse their
octionsfor the two types of unplanned PW ambushes. The planned and unplanned types ore 0 s follows,

   a. Gas [Plarned:: The udvantoges end disadvantages of using C5 Powder o r gas are as follows:

          a . Quickly incapacrtates+he individual, p r e v e n t i ~ g ~ m
                                                                     h   from using his wegpon accurately.
ANNEX H (FW Snatch Tips; t o Detachment 8-57(Project Deltoi Aeconnoissonce Tips of theTrade.

            b . Will prevent the use o! dogs being used in the pursuit of ?hefriendly element

         c Enemy personnel WIII hove to pu? on masks to enter the ore0 whlch rvill hamper thelr vision
ond therefore t h e ~ effectiveness.

      2. Disadvontoges:

            0 . :he                     the
                      team cannot h ~ d e fact that they werefhere end thwt on Incident took place

            t . The CS powder will cling to the PbV's and Friendly clofh~ng h ~ c h
                                                                          w       may effect the efficiency of
the extraction helicopter's crew members if they do not hava masks

            c . Team members cannot see clearly becouseof ihenecessity to wear masks.

         d The prospective PW will probably panic when exposed to the gos causing hlm : run end hove
to be chased dov.7.

        e. CS powder I S normolly dispersed by uslng explosives which will alert any nearby snerny
elements of the teem's presence and locat~on.

       3. O t h e r Lh/henyour team is se: up for o gos ambush have all personnel ploce their gos mesks on
                heods. I'vrill only take o couple of seconds to pull the musks over their faces just prlor to in-
top o f t h e ~ r
itlutlng *he rrmkush.

    b. Claymore ond Explosives (Planned:: Thys is set up with C4 explosive placed between c!oymores.
Perscnnel in the zone of the C4 wtll be stunred endlor incopocitated while :he cloymores WIII kill and
wound the oersonrel ir. their zone.

      1 . Advantoges.

               o As nor,na!ly sea up, with CA spoced between the claymores, the corossion w ~ lincapacitate UP
                 l             l
i i d ~ v i d u abut not k ~ lhim.

            b T h e teom car, hi:a l a r ~ e

            c . W ~ lensure 'hot'he enemy   15   st~pped

                                                                                               them from reacting ef-
            d. Will thoroughly disorganize ond confuse the e ; c m ~ n thit, p r ~ d e n t i n g
ANNEX ti (PW Snatch Tips) to Detachment 8-52 (Pro[ect Delto) Reconnoissonce Tips of the Trade.

         o.    The noise of the explosive golng off wit1 oleri enemy forces of the teom's presence and

         b. Cd takes a long tlme to ernplace properly.

         c. The disturbed soil and vegetotion will murk the teom's !ocotion. This will aid the enemy in h ~ s
attempts to pick up the teom's deporture toil.

         d. The oddit~onal
                         weight of the demoli!ions may hornper swift movement.

                                            above the trees and vegetation, could result in enemy mortar fire
          e, The resulting smoke, r ~ s i n g
on the site, if any ore locoted in the general oreo.

    c . Silen: Weapon (Planned), Use of o silonced or muffled r i f l ~ o r p i s t o l

      1. Advontoges:

         0. The noise from ths weapon being discharged is minimol.

         b. A well executed ond ploced round will stop an enemy and prevent his returning fire or using
his weapon. Core should be token to hit the intended P W ' s right orm or shoulder. This should prevent him
from returning fire, but will enoble him to walk.

      2, Uisodvontogas.

         a . A wounded PW      may die of shuck or loss of blood before proper treatment coo begiven.

          b. A wounded PW will hove to be essisted and                       ccrried, thus slowing down the teem
during it's withdrowol trornthe sits.

         c. Core must be taken not to leave a blood troil

         d. A silenced weopon i s no9 normolly as relioble os on unsilenced one ond in the case of o
silenced pistol it would necessitote carrying another weapon, both of which must be ovoilable, within
easy reach when springing the ambush.

    d. FirejSilent Capture (Planned::

      1 . Advantogas:

          a . There is little noise t o give the team's presence or locnt~on

          b.        ond heolthy PW is the best k ~ n d .
               A l~ve
ANNEX H {PW Sflatch Tips) to Detachment 8.52 (Proiect Delta) Reconnaisronce Tipsof the Trade.

      2. Disadvantages: There ore no significant disadvantages to a no firefsilerlf capture

   e. Choncs Contacts (Unplonned): Both the friendly and enemy element. may see each other at the
same time.

    1. A team must alwoys be prepwed to take a PW during a chance contact, especially with a small
enemy element.

      2 . If contact is mode with o small locol or regional force element, they will normally break and run.
Th~sis because they seldome carry more than three magazines each for an AK-47. Those who corry the
SKS flfls 'carbine may have extra rounds in one pouch, rnokirtg it difficult to reload end o negligible
influence upon the outcome of a firefight.

     3. The teom. after firing the initial rounds, should deploy into a defensive posture ond look for
enemy wounded. If one i s located, don't move directly up to him. You may be fired upon or set a grenade
thrown ot you, forcing you to kill him in self defense. Insteud, throw o CS grenode at him. After a few
moments in the CS most of the will to resist should beout of his mind and you will havea PW.

     4 . If there ore between two t o five enemy, ottempt to deploy around them a s k ~ n gthem to
surrender. If, after a few minutes, you have not rece~ved
                                                        desired results. it IS better to break contact ond
move away before reinforcernentsorr\va, remembering that you ore in the enemy's territory.

   f. Hasty ambush ;Unplanned): Where the friendly elsrnents may observe the enemy hefore being
seen ond take up o hosty position ta copfure them

      1 . There con be no set or prescribed way to set up tor a hasty ambush. Eoch teom leader should
estubfish hi5 own SOP.

      2. A hasty ambush con result in o capture of o PWonfy it it is practiced and reheersed t o psrfection.

5. Ambush positions and Executing the Ambush:

     a . Position~ng Personnel: No attempt will be mode here to tell you exoctly how to emploce your
personnel Into ambush positions. Whether you hove five or twelve teom members it is possible to succeed
if you hove the desire and troining. By constant proctice and training, using live ammo and troining aids,
you will come up with the best disposition for your personnel to suit you, your plans, and your teom. Ona
of the beat references you will have is your own and the teams experiences. Ask other team teoders of
their uttsrnpts, both successful and unsuccessful, solicite their odvics. The final decision IS yours. A good
 polnt to remember, when selecting personnel f m key positions, is that an indigenous team member firing
his weapon normolly keeps his finger depressed on the trigger until all the rounds are expended.
ANNEX H (PW Sr~otch                                                     Tipsof the Trade.
                  Tips) to Detachment 8-52 (Proiect Delta) Reconnaiasa~ce

    b. If y3u hove an 8 to 12 man team give strong consideration to plocing three men on each flank for
security end early warning They w ~ l psychologically !eel more secure end will norrnoily n eta in their
position if one is wounded, thus better ensuring the s ~ c c e s ~ faccomplishmefit of the mission.

    c . During o PW snatch. place the M.79 on the flank of the ernbush.

    d. Claymore should beset on each flankdf a PW snotch if possible.

    e . Be patient and wait for the right moment and opportunity when one or two individuals come along
the roador trail. Without pohenceyour mission will most likely fail.

     f. Once you have committed yourself and sprung the ambush, you must beaggressive. By thot I mean
that you must immediately react. If you hove wounded or otherwise halted your prospective PW. you must
in~rnsdiately muve to physicafly secure him. Do not give him a chonce to :hink or react. if ycu do no+ do
this he will more than likely run or attempt to fire his:veepon, forcing you to kill him.

    g. If an attempted PWsnatch foils, in that the individual dies, his body should be completely stripped
ond his belongings taken bock to the 52. The body should then be taken e great distance away and
hidden, if ot aH possible. When the individual turns u p missing, the enemy rnoy assume thot he has been
captured and has talked. This will necessirote the enemy changing his ptdns and moving his
headquarters; when he could hove been doing something else.

                     Don't be conspicuously identified os Amaricon. It is better to be
                     mistakenly identified us another "fr~endlypetrol." Wotch your in-
    ANNEX I i?Ao%enentTechnique Tips: to Detachment 8.52 ;Prolect Delta: Recon~eiasanceT~pso f the

I                                            MOVEMENT TECHNIQUE TIPS

    7 . Movevcn' Techr~que:Therc are five bas~ctechr~isuesof rrovemeit thot can be emcloyed by small
    recon teams tc ovoid being detected or encircied by erernv fcrces Each of these a r e explained o r ?

         3 . F i e BOK Technique: This is o sirrple o ~ effective rrethod :o use ond takes very I ~ + + l e  proctlce to
    emp'oy. From o ,-lven paint the team moves out on o set az~muth                           set number of rreaers or
                                                                            Jsr ~ p c c i f i c
    paces, for exowple let's say 35 meters. The team then makes o 90       decree turq o r d . n o ~ e s 7 5
                                                                                                           meters, then
    or.o:hcr?Cdecree turns fcr 30 meters. ono!hel. 90 degrees turn i c r 30 meters another fcr 30 meters Y o u
    w ~ lh c v e forwed a "box
          l                    . A thIs 30!nf yoil can do any one of several things. You c a i vroit i r arnbueb 'or
    your truckers, or pursuers, wa!k beckwords across your old troil, if the vegetotlcn end so:! is such tha' i. is
    ~mpossiSle hide your tracks or continue on. When yoc move out after h a v ~ r g                                   .
                                                                                                focmed your f ~ r s "hox'
    move for another SO to 75 meters 2nd form cnother box. B formlag tl-ese bcxcs ~t wi!l e r c b l e ysu to
    ombush your p>;suers and wili defin.tely confuse any 'rackers os to ycu: d ~ r e c t ~ ocf mc*vcrneit. It WI:'
    olso dl~couracje'he enem.y if yo^ occosion?lly booby-trap your back trcil. You con rnln.olrj c gcrero!
    heading thsf you desire to go w ~ t h o u tthe enemy force Secom~ng                              l
                                                                            aware of ~t u n t ~ you ore out of the
    danger orec o r u:ltil he loses you completely. A word oi cat;tion lhoug6 and tho+ is rot t o cont~n.~allr:
    rnoke your boxes the s a m e size or io continuofly turn :o the righr or left. Never set a 6cfln:te Fot:crr cf
    rnovemert. Excrnples follow
    b The Figure E~ght  Technique: The figure e~ghtmethod is very sirnilur i o the box technique, In that
you are doing basically the same th~ng  except here you will be rnoklng circfes instead of squores. An
exornple is shown below.

    c . Angle Technique: Another effectwe method to use In evasion and takes very little practice to
employ. The patrol will change the direction of movement from the present polrol route of march in o
series ot angle movements. For example the teom will make oo angle move to chonge direction such as
30 degrees, d 5 degrees. 70 degrees for o hundred or 5 0 meters, then do it agoin to confuse the enemy. An
eromple is shown below,
ANNEX ! :Movement Techrique Tips) to Detachment 8-52 :Drojec! Delta, Reconneissonce Tips o i the

    d . Step Technique- The simpls method of changing the route of march In 90 degree turns for o
distanceof o I-undredor so meters. f i n exopnle i s shawl; below:

2. Skip Method: 4.n effective me:hcd mat ~ e q u l r e s
                                                       procrlce to employ -'ne potrol wiii stop In p l m e ano on
comrrona vrlII n o v e te'r or right of present route. Each merrber wi!l nove 2 s care+uIly s s p ~ ~ s s l bnot t o
make o trail o leove +elltale signs to the flunk for a d~sranceof
              r                                                      20-30 meters a-ld Ihen resume the po:ro!'s
former route of morch. The ream leader should send the p ~ i imnn h e a d to make o false 'rr, , for 30 ! 2 50
meters beiore vsiog the skip method Th!s me+hod taker prectlce ond teom r n e ~ b e r s c V e *c be LO-e+ul
not to leove signs 3 s they move. tee the sxernple:

3 . Addit~onol

     a . Never set o poltern it one technique does not work chonge to another

     b . In both the box and figure eight :echnlq>es the size of the squores o r circles will d e p e ~ d tho
terroin ond vegetatloi. The box technique IS extremely efiect:de o: rlgh:. Both methods can be used to
find o hold or ,weak point in !he enemies rnr:rclirrg perTmeter from w h ~ c h break out. Both techniques
have been used successfully in t+e past by recon ?earrs. One sd-vivor, of or. nrr.bushed recon team.
succeeded for three days, in ambushing and 4;Iling S I X enemy pursuers by e ~ p l o ~ l n g figure e:gb:
method before being spotted end recovered by scorching alrcroft
                                            .. ..

    ANNEX I {Movement Technique Tips) to Detachment 8-52 (Prolect Delta! Reco~neissonceTips of the

        c. During thedry season   CS powder spreadover your bock trail is extremely     helpful in stopping dogs.

        d. During the rainy season CS powder is airnost useless or  very ineffective ugainst dogs. It is much
    more effective to drop u CS grenode during wet weather sincs i t will hang low : the ground and remain
    effect~veagainst enemy personnel, especially those?hat do not have or carry protective masks.

                                          you that your tactics and techniques ore only 05 good or effectwve es you
         e . In closing I might r e m ~ n d
    m a k e h e m . This con only be done through constnni practice, t r a ~ n i n g o n d

                                         can be used for many field expediant uses.

ANNEX J (Infiltrat~on'Exfiltration TIPS:      t o Detachment   8-52 (Project Delta] Reconnoissonce Tips of the

                                         INFILTRATION.'EXFILTRATlON TIPS

1 . When loading the aircraft for     infiltration insure the teem is seated so that they can exit the proper

2 . Leod the team in reverse team order w ~ t h toil gunner b e ~ n g first one in the a~rcraft.
                                              the                   the

3 . The senlor odu~sor      inside the o~rcroft betweer; the pilot and to-pilot's seats. The remainder
                     pos~tion                 is
o f the teom si-s agoinst the fifewall of t h e A 'C.

d. Sudden sh~fts
               of     weight In f l ~ g h w ~ lmuse temporary loss of aircroft control.
                                          t    l

5. The teom leader and pilot will de:erminsdirectionof approach to the infil LZ for looding of team.

6. The team leader WIIIfollow the flight w ~ t h map from their FOB to his ~ n f i LZ.
                                               his                                 f

7. Team members will unload one at o t ~ m to enable the pilot to s t a b ~ l ~ z e A C.
                                           e                                    his

8. On a ladder LZ t h e team leader insurss t h e ladder is down. N o l e If A ' C is more than 6-8 foot off
ground use lodder to avoid injury to team members.

9 . If pointrnan exits theA,C under fire, the entire teom will e x i t theA,C.

10 If the A l C is shot down thereom leeder is ir. command on the ground, He will do thefollovr~ng.

    a. Account for his   team and AIC crew.

    b . Securean area 40-50 meters in front of theA!C

    c, Care for the wounded, deod

    d. With the pilot return to the A ' C to ensure the radios o r e zeroed of freq, gos i s off, destroyj the
botrery removemaps, 501, notebooksof the pilots end hr,bOs o r d ammo.

    t . Evoc A C crew and wounded deod on first recovery A ' C .

     g . Rest of h ~ 5
                     team on the lost recovery A;C

I T , Inform your personnel in what order :hey wrll be extracted prior f o the orrivol of t h e extract~on
The LZ should besecured prior to the errivol ot the A C.
'   i'.
          ANNEX J (Infiltretion~ExfiltrotionTips) to Detachment 0-52 (Project Delta) Reconnoissonce Tips o f the
!         Trade.

i         12. Team leader should give pilot o track i n fly, end describe his LZ.

          13. Team members should approach the exfil A / C from the front.             'I' . e ;   Doing this the door gunner can
          support the team eosier.
          l d . Team could use both doors if e x f ~LZ i s a sit-down but should notify pilot first.

          15. The team leader is the last to enter aircraft and will give the pilot an UP.

          16. In selection of LZs avoid likely 12s or large LZ.

                                  Sniper who is the officer!

           Ymrnbra of Sp.~141 Forerr aMaehmsnt A.14 supnlse construction oi deknser a l Iha
           harnlrl 01 Chmv-Langduring acernbr ol 1 . A m y )
                                                   W (US

                                                                Booby traps indicate the presence of the enemy or ~orrlethingto
                                                                hide ie cochesorenemy fortifications,-

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