The 1000 contemporary scientists most-cited 1965-1978. Part 1. The by gyvwpsjkko

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									Essays of an Information Scientist, Vol:5, p.269-278, 1981-82       Current Contents, #41, p.5-14, October 12, 1981




                                                  The   1,000 Contemporary    Scientists
                                                      Most-Cited  1965-1978. Part I.
                                                    The Basic List and Introduction

           .,,          ..                                                            —,           ------
           Number      41                                                            October       12, 1951

                At ISP we’ve conducted hundreds of                  In 1978 we used all-author data to
             citation studies over the yearn. But none          publish a list of the 300 most-cited
             of them involved as massive an under-              authors,    1961 -1976.2 The list which
             taking as that which preceded the com-             follows provides a new chronological
            pilation of the following list, (See Table          perspective, although it is limited to the
             1.) As the title indicates, the list consists      14-year period, 1%5-1978. This is an im-
            of the names of the 1,000 scientist-au-             portant four-year shift to even more
            thors most-cited       for work published          contemporary       science.
            from 1965-1978. This study took over                   The fist has afso been expanded to
            two years to prepare, required approx-              consist of 1,000 scientists. Contrary to
            imately a month of large-scale computer             what I had expected, this step does not
            time (over 750 hours), and drew upon               overcome a serious bias in this study
            the resources of many 1S1 staff mem-                and earlier ones. For a variety of
            bers, especially Linda Cooper, manager             reasons, the life sciences continue to be
            of bibliographic        research,    editorial     “overrepresented.”        Since citation prac-
            features.     Others    are acknowledged           tices vary so drastically among fields,
            below.                                             caution must be used in the comparison
                We used “alf-author”        data derived       of raw citation counts. q We have made
            from      the Science      Citation   Index@       no effort in this study to solve this prob-
            (SC~ ) data base, 1965-1978. Therefore,            lem by segmenting our files. This in fact
            the list excludes social scientists. When          will be done in follow-up studies to
            we first began publishing lists of rnost-          cover     mathematics,        earth    sciences,
            cited authors, we used first-author data           physics, chemistry, and other fields out-
            only. 1 This was due to a continuing con-          side the fife sciences. It will become
            vention in the Citation Index section of           practical to do so as we implement new
           SC1, in which cited and citing articles             discipline-oriented      data bases.
           are listed under the name of only the                   Developing     all-author     lists is con-
           first author listed on the paper. In the            siderably more complex than conduct-
           early days, these Fist-author lists were            ing first-author     studies. To create this
           adequate for many purposes. But in-                 list, more than 67 million references in
           creasingly we felt the need to treat all            the Citation Index were compared with
           authors in every article as though they             the entries in the Source Index of SCI
           were listed first. It is not just that              for the period 1965-197fi-more              than
           science has become increasingly collab-             five million published papers. It is not
           orative. Experienced scientists, already            fully realized by most readers that the
           well known to their peers, were often               Source Index does in fact include every
           and increasingly fisted as secondary or             author of every article indexed-so            we
           coauthors. So we developed a system to              can treat each author as though he or
           let us do so.                                       she were the frst author.

                                                         269
TcMa 1: The 1,000 most-cited authom for work pubfished from 1%5-1978, pre~nted with their first and last
   names; field or dwipline;  birth snd (where applicable) death date% and number of citations received.
   Ao asterisk next to a name indicates possible incomplete information. A check mark indicates authors
   new 10 the top XX). Since citation practices vary smong fields, caution should be used in comparing rsw
   data.

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F,5HMAN WILLIAM HAROLD                                       ONCOLOGY                  ,9,4     2+20                        HELFANT RICHARD H
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GALL ,OSEPH GRAFTON                                                                   ) 92s     2465                        HCFFMAN             13R,AM F                                                         kc
G*LLO ROBERT C                                                                        )937      4),0                        HOFFM*NN              BOAL!J                      INOW,AMC       ct+EM    ?937       ,240
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                                                 MOLEC 8,0,                   ,927    2$32           SHERLCCK,        SHEU                                                           %70
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                                                                                           273
                  S.JOVAU 2A.                                       B,OCI+EM!STRY          !S28    2834                   “WW      . . .    WESLEY                              BIOPHYSICS                 !935
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                                                                                                                          VALLFF. &EST L
    H             SM(TH      THOMAS          WOODWARO               C &ROlOLOGY            1936     .03,                  “AN CEZ.:CW LALRH;3                          LM       B,oc+!:i,).,fi,            ,928      8267
                  SNYDER,      .:7.:2                               B,ocHEM!STRY           $937      3772                 VAN ROOD          JO”AV?CS               ,0SS.?       ,,,,,< ,NoL~~,             ,9,.
                  SNYDER, SOLOMON                FIALBEP7           PHARMACOLOGY           1S38    .,!4,
                                                                                                    ,5?4
                                                                                                                     .    VA. “,TE$7Y L G                                       PHYSCS                     ,922
        ,0        SOSE(  BURTON E                                   CARDIOLOGY             1937                           VANE JOHN ROBZ?,7                                     P+l&RWAZOLOGY              ,927
                  SOELD.4EFi JOHN STUART                            ENDOCRINOLOGY          1S32     2750                  VANN”CCI          FRANCO(S             M              PW. s!c$
                  SCtflKW3_lCK  EDMUND H                            CARDIOLW>Y             !932     830,                  VAUGHAN MARTHA                                        BlOCtiZWSTRf
             . SORM FRANT13EK                                       ORGANIC C“EL4          !913     489.2                 VEN&&L6 ,0.. HOWARC’                                  CELL 0,01                            324 t
                                                                    PHAIVJACClOGY          1923     37!s2                                                                                                            ~32,
               S?ECTOn  S’fC+4EY                                                                                          $ ENEZIANO         G                                  PH”SICS
               SFELLACY  W ILL(AM NELSON                            ENDOCR!NOLOOY          !934     2879                  VESfL ,     ELLIOT S                                  PHARMACOLOGY                         ,5.4
                  SP(CZR      5bMUEL          S.EFMAN               PA T”OLOGV             1914     ,?3!                  VINOGRAD          JEROME                              MOLEC 610L                           ,,85
                  3RcER.      WILLIAM EDWARD                        PH”slcs                , S*9    2.33                                                                        v, Ro. OG”                           347,
                                                                                                                           VINIJELA ELADIO
                  SW? C*LMAN.            SOLOMON                    MOLEC BlOL             1914     84,5                 . vOGT PETER KLAuS                                     VIROLOGY                   ,,32      3728
                  SfW70      RG&SIT          G“NTER                 B,OCHEM(STRY           1929     3258                  WABER      J$.YES        T                            PHYSIC?                    ,,20      3sw
                  SFWE:4T JONATHAN                                  ,“,,,”NoLOG,           ,9,,     3M5                   WA G,,:R #ENRY NICHOLAS                               FWCLEAR MEO                ,927      4454
                  SPURR       kRTtILIR        RICH*RO               PLANT SC!ENCt     S    19}5     275%                  WAK5MAN   BR).. . . . STEAD                           !.uJIJNo,fxY               ,,,9      34CS
                  STADTMAN EARL REECE                               WX!+EM,ST!?Y           !9)0     2636                  h!ALD)AANN THOMAS A                                    ,,,.4<J.OLOGV             ,,30      40,4
                  5TANIER ROGER YkTE                                M,cR0810L              !9!6     ,506                                                                        ONCO, OG”                  ,,,6      5,23
                  STAR,,  THOMAS E                                  ,“,,,,, NO LOG,        ,,2,     5,19                                                                        BIOCtIEMtS-R”              , 93s     2460
        .-        STECK THEOOORE LYLE                               BIOCHEMISTRY           1939     ,457
                                                                                                    2638
                                                                                                                                                                                GAS TROENTEROL                       m,
                  STEIN YECHEZK!EL                                  P.EU BIOL              5926                                                                                 P., s !OLOG,                         2857
                  !nE?asns   ALFRED DAVID                           ,,,,,,,JNO,OG,         ,$4,3    2573                                                                        PATHOLOGY                            40,4
                  STENE.3?G   D*.,$,                                BIOCHEM!ST!?Y          1922     3025                  ,4Amm    NOEL L                                       ,.UA”NOLOG,                           3436
                  STEI!.F.? ALTON L                                 CF, , BIOL             !936     ,!.2-                 W.RRE\   KEN. ET”                 s                   ,,, M” NO LCJGY                       2447
                  s, E!NLa COF4ALD r.3EclzRlc               K       ENDOCRINOLOGY     ,930          342,                  WEAT”ERALL   ..”,O                    ,0..            HEMATOLOGY                            ?>V
                  S TEPHE,SS         FRANK SAW,C L                  THEORETICAL  CHEM !03!          2;6$
                                                                                                    2592
                                                                                                                           wE8ER      KLAUS                                     B(OC.EM(STR”                         1,,27
                   $1S?1 tEt+ZON J R                                VIROLOGY               1942                            ‘,,w6 F,., EWALD RUDOLF                              ,.”s     0, OGY                       ?35:
                 . STEWART ROBERT                F                  PHYS,CS                         5611                 . wE,GLE WILL, AM 0                                     ,,!4.,NO,OG,                         2723
                  SOECKE.,US    wALmm                               B,OFWYSICS             :;:      2671                   *El,: =:.:, a ~TE “EN                                PHYSICS                     , %?3     768,
/                 STONE, FRANCIS GORDON                   ALBERT    ORGANOMET       CHEM   !925     4013                   ,,,E,,4STE)N      ,0”,5                              M,CROBI04.                 ~60S       303,
                  3TOR8, RAINER F                                   ,MM”W3LOGY                      .,*?                                                                        -IAFIMACOLOGY               >92!      2457
                                                                                                                           WE,S.SLIZGER          JOHN           HANS
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                 . STROM4KIER            ,ACK    L                  VIROLOGY                         6312                  WEISS     HARVEY          JEROME                     HEMATOLOGY                  .924      W6C
        /         STUDIE17         FREEER%K          WILLIAM        MOLFC BlOL                       4203                  WE IS SBACH        HE%X9T                            MOLEC     810L              ,932      3395
                   SUGIMURA          TAKAS”I                        ONCOLOGY                         283 ?                 ,4E,sS.AANN        GERA.O                            CELL BIOL                  1930       5372
                  SUW4EFWQLL                 WILLIAM “E&EY          GAS.ROENTEROL                    263 +                 W’ENKERT ERF4EST                                     ORGAMIC CHEM               ,925       2637
         ~         SUND.RALINGAM               wn.IvA               BIOPHYSICS                       4022                . WE S?F,, s NORMAN                    KE,T-           ?ELL B,OL                  >932       279<
                   SUTHERLAND  EARL WILBUR                           PHARMACOLOGY                   ,02,,                  wEST THOMAS SU..44ERS                                Y, EORCT, CA       C.E!J   ,,2,       32>4
                   S“TN<C% ALTO.   ,“..                              ONCOLOGY                        2798                  WESTPHAL OTO  HE RMAP+. E                            Bloc.,,>,.,.”              >9,3
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                                                                                                     284,
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                   SVEJGMRD    AR.:                                                                          4           . W.(TE ,AUES G                                        ,. THOLCJ3Y                 )Ozs
    v . SWAN              HAROLD JAMES                               PH”$IOLOGV                      4<96                                                                       ORGANIC      CtlEM          ,939
                   3W:EL u          CHAFLEs          WI.4 wFORO      ORGAN(C     CHE$4               2851                                                                        ORGANIC     CHEM           S27
         /         S“MON$          MART”.       C“R(STIAN       R    lM3RGAMC      C.EM              ’599
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                                                                                                                                                                                EN DOCW>:O, OGY             !934
                   szw.c    MbCHAEL                                  PHYSICAL CMEU                                                                                              PH” SIO<OGY                 1924
                   SZYBALSKI WACLAW                                  MOLEC 8!0,             1927     2s94                                                                             UN
                                                                                                                                                                                ,,, L4, OLOGY               !,38      7243
    /            . ,. KE”CH  .0!40                                   M,CROB(O,              1923     ,,80                                                                       0R(3AW3MET         CHEM     1921      54,*
                   TALN   NORMAN                                     !!,,, 9NOLOGY          1934     3551?                                                                       ORGANIC     c.iEM          1937      559<
                   T.li    ENG M                                     1,,. J,NCJLC,GY        ,926     2783                  WILL,AMS         . TECWVN                             PHARMACOLOGY               1=.79     2%3
                   TANFOFW CHARLES                                   BIOCHEMISTRY           1921     5,24            V     WILL,AMS         RALPH C                              ‘..4!.,!) NOLOGY           !928      ,,37
                   TAPPEL ALOVS              LOUIS                   BIOCHEMISTRY           1926     425,                  W,LL,AMS, ROBERT                 HARDIN               ENCOC?!>:9LOGV             IQW-79
         -         ,.s”4..  W.MEN “*,G                               ENOOCRINOLOGY          1932     39<1                  VJLL,AMS         ROKRT           JOSE?+          P    ,wOP,GAN,C C+KM            ! 926
                   1.1..     ,AMS.EO          R“51OM                 BIOCHEMISTRY           1S30     ,837            ~     WILL,AMS         ROGE$I                               GASTROENTEROL              !933      5234
                   TA”BE      } ENRY                                 ,NOFIGAMIC CHEM        1915     Zaw                   W, LL,AMS9N           JOHN RICHARD                    BIOCti FM!STRY             1933      2958
                   TAYLOR          ED:,,?,    w, LL,AM               BIOPHYSICS             1929     !43,                  WILSON          DAvlO F                               SIOCXEM!STRY               ! 93S     2753
                   TEM(N      HOWARD          MARTIN                 ONCOLOGY               1934     1570                  WILSON JEAN OONALD                                    ENDOCRINOLOGY              !932
                   TH7ASAK,          PAuL ,CWFV3                     J,,./, NoLOG”          1,29     7379                  WILSON KENNETK GF”UES                                 PHYSICS                    ,936
                   TERRY      WILLIAM DAVID                          w,.4LINOLOG”           1933     28>:                  ,A,},,~,~~~.~R J,~~s D                                Fn,scs                     )93,
            ti     THOENEN           HANS rR:f DPICH        E        NEuROLOGY              >928     ,5C6                                                                        PHYSCALC HEM               9~2-69    3>46
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                   ,.0+4.S         CHARLES       ALLEN               GENE7CS                1927     2707                  ?4,,0,   ,ERMHARD                                     ORGANIC CHEM               !9!7      3,,7
             v     THOMAS EDWARD WNNALL                              ONCOLOGY               1020     ,702                  W!TTMANN HF!NZ GUFN7ER
                   ,,,, ,M!ES ELX3AR                                 BIOPHYSICS             to3t     2<,.                  WOLFF JAN
                                                                     ONCOLOGY                        ,,55                  V/o.,, S. ELDo. M                                                                          29a ,
                   TODARO C.FO-GZ                ,CCEOl.
                   TOLBEPT. NATHAN               EDWAR2              PLANT SC!E,*ES                  2731                  Wooowkwl         Rcz,:?,. WRNS                                                             ?544
                   10+.!.S4 THOMAS n                                 .W!y+clcx”                      33)5                  WURTMAN      RICHARD JA”                                                                   U730
                                                                                                                           ~yMAN    ,E.,7,,.:~                                                                        4,33
                   TOMKINs GORDONM                                   810CHEMlSTflY                   7252
                   TR,u,NG, GEORGE F’ENRY                            PHYSICS                         3773                  YAc3 HA17”I+K0                                                                             28. <
                   ,ROST    EwRR” M                                  O.?GAMIC C“EM                   ,Ca 7                 “WOW    .0S.,”.    S“SSMAI.                                                                45ca
                   TRUMP 8EN,AM$N FRAMKL(N                           P.THOLCJ3”                                            ,ANOFSKY     CHARLES                                                                       4w,
                   ,s0    PAUL ON POW                                8,0 PHYStCS                                 /          “EN S&M”ELsHowc”,t+                                                                       ,,ce

                   TURK      JWNL EWE                                PATHOLOGY                        ?2.!                  YOUNG RCBSRT C                                                                            2502

                   TURK! NGTON ROGER W                               END0C81V0L0GY                    27>6                  Y“Ms, EDMOND J                                       ‘MWJNOLOGV                           3511
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             r     UNGERL7TECIT uRBAN                                PHARMACOLOGY           $942      4692




                Keep in mind, however, that we have                                                                      journals of science it is not a great
             eliminated from this study not only aU                                                                      limitation. But there is always a chance
             citations to work published before 1965,                                                                    that some highly cited individual may be
             but also citations to any articles not in-                                                                  adversely affected by these selection
             cluded in our source fdes. Books and                                                                        criteria.
             book chapters were not added to the                                                                            Of course, many scientists who pub
             source file until 1977 and they have                                                                        lished their most-cited papers before the
             been excluded from the study. Citations                                                                     starting date of this study, 1965, do not
             to books are therefore afso excluded.                                                                       appear on this list. So there is a chron~
             Since we cover all of the most important                                                                    logical bias in this study favoring those


                                                                                                            274
who have pubfished mainly during thii               1S1s Current Hib[iogmphic LWectory o]
period. As we change the chronological              the Arts & Sciencesm for the authors in-
scope of our studies the list will change.          volved. Although we could confidently
In fact, if you compare the 300 most-               eliiinate   some of the addresses by com-
cited authors on this list to those in the          paring j oumal titles with department
earlier study,z you would find that only            names, we sent letters to the authors at
one third of them are new names which               the remaining      addresses.    The letter
did not appear on the 1961-1976 list.               asked them to fill out a questionnaire
The new names are indicated by a check              and provide a complete list of their
mark in Table 1. As a rough estimate,               publications.    A large percentage        of
about 7.5 percent of the names will                 authors responded       to this initial con-
change as the base year is shifted an-              tact. For those who did not, or for those
nually.                                             for whom we had obsolete addresses,
    1 would like to mention a few of the            we sent out second letters or attempted
mechanics involved in preparing these               to contact them by telephone. In this
lists to show what care is taken to avoid           way we were able to establish complete
errors of one kiid or another. Once we              fnt and middle name information and
had matched        the citations with the           discover    which articles belonged        to
source entries, the computer was pro                which authors,
grammed to generate a ranked list of                   As a result of these efforts, we elimi-
authors’ “names” (surname and up to                 nated many names and resolved the he
three initials), a bibliography of papers           mograph problem. Thus, we counted
associated with those names, and the                only the number of citations and papers
number of citations each of those ar-               properly attributable     to most authors.
ticles received. Actuafly, about 85 per-            However, some authors may find that
cent of the names could be used imme-               they are credited       with a few extra
diately but, unfortunately, about 15 per-           papers or citations. In these cases, the
cent represented       homographs.    Many          few papers and citations provided in-
journals do not provide the authors’ first          significant “noise.”
names in by-lines. And practically all                 The average number of citations for
journals only include initials for first            all authors listed here was 3,81 l—over
names in reference       citations. So we           272 citations per year. As it turns out,
could not easily include fwt names in               the minimum threshold for inclusion in
the Citation Index even if we wished to             this study was 2,436 citation=an        aver-
use the extra space.                                age of about 174 citations per year. The
    When you look up a name like R.A.               average cited author is cited less than
Fisher in SCZ, the boldface entry is real-          one tenth as often.
ly a heading for the homograph which                   The average author in this study
includes several people with the same               published 121 papers; on 32 of these his
last name and initials. It is never a prob-         or her name appeared as frost author
lem to locate a particular paper, and or-           and on 89 as one of the subsequent
dinarily it is not a problem to differen-           authors. The average author received
tiate the papers of the geneticist from             1,178 citations to papers on which he or
the physicist.      But in this study we            she appeared as first author and 2,633 as
religiously    checked   out each home              coauthor. This clearly demonstrates the
graph to determine which papers be                  importance     of afl-author data for the
longed to each of the two or more per-              most-cited scientists.
sons involved.                                         The list is provided in alphabetical,
    We went about making this deter-                rather than ranked, order. For each
mination in a number of ways. One of                author we have identified the field. To
the methods we used involved checking               avoid further delay in publishing the list


                                              275
we decided to provide this initiaf look                  represented on the list. Table 3 lists the
now. In future parts of this study we WN                 number of authors in each field. Immu-
discuss groups of authors by disciplines.                nology is the largest group.
Acautionary     note is needed here, Cita-                  An asterisk next to an author’s name
tion practices vary among disciplines so                 indicates that some of our information
the reader should be careful in compar-                  about that author may be incomplete.
ing raw citation counts for authors in                   Such authors may never have sent us a
one field with counts for authors in                     bibliography or didn’t fifl out the ques-
another,     More detailed     information               tionnaire completely so we were unable
about each author will be given in the                   to verify a piece of information. The in-
latter parts of this study.                              formation presented is accurate to the
    You wilf notice that for the first time              best of our knowledge. But errors may
in one of these studies we are giving the                occur in such large studies.
complete first and middle names of au-                       With little effort, readers can scan the
thors to better identify them. Based on                  list to learn who is the most-cited au-
purely feminine given names, it seems                    thor. In the vast majority of cases ap
that at least 24 women appear on thk                     pearance on thk list is an indicator that
list, We are not sure of the exact                       the person involved is of Nobel c[ass.d
number because we did not ask the                        Harriet Zuckerman, in her book Scien-
authors to state their gender on the
questionnaire.    In the future I plan an                Table 3: Number of authors   per field.

essay about women in science. The                        F!ekf                           Nwmber of        SUtbOIS


                                                         Aeronomy                                    2
women identified in this study wifl be a
                                                         Astronomy                                   5
good starting point.                                     Astrophysics                                .
    We have also listed the date of birth                Biocbemish-y                               S4
for each author and, where applicable,                   Bioph yslcs                                26
                                                         Cardiology                                 33
date of death. The oldest author on this                 Cell Biology                               57
list is F.A. Lipmann, born in 1899, and                  Chemical Physics                             2
the youngest is J.S. Whitaker, born in                   Endocrinology                              74
                                                         Enzymology                                   b
 1948. The average age of the authors on                 Gastroenterology                           10
the list is 53. Table 2 shows the number                 Genetics                                   21
of authors by decade of birth. Now it is                 Geophysics                                   2
                                                         Hematology                                 21
clear that it would have been of interest
                                                         Histology                                    8
                                                         [mmunology                                I28
Tsble 2: Number of authors    by decade of birth,        [norganic Chemis(ry                        27
                                                         Microblologv                               Iti
Dec~de                             Number 01 authors
                                                         Molecular Biology                          b“
                                                         Nephrology                                   1
      18%                                    1                                                        2
                                                         Neurobiology
1900-IW9                                   25
                                                         Neuroendocrimkgy                             1
I91O-19I9                                 122
                                                         Neurology                                  13
1920-1929                                 393                                                         9
                                                         Neuropharmacology
193@ 1939                                 381
                                                         Nuclear Medkine                              I
194*1 948                                  so
                                                         Oncology                                   48
                                                         Organic Chemistry                          51
(One birth date was unavailable.   1
                                                         Organometa]lic Chemistry                    10
                                                         Pathology                                  2.3
to use the age at which their first paper                Pharmacology                               59
                                                         Physical Chemistry                         24
was published, but we did not ask for                                                               7-
                                                         Physics
this information.                                        Physiology                                 36
   The questionnaires      sent to the au-               Plant Sciences                              6
                                                         Psychlat ry                                 4
thors asked them to name their own                                                                   1
                                                         Surgery
field or discipline. The authors are thus                Thtx>rerlcal Chemmry
self-categorized.   Thirty-eight fields are              Vmology                                    ‘w



                                                       276
 tific Elite, likens thisroup to the “im-
                             g                          this     particular      problem       will      be
 mortals,” who, though equaf in stature,                eliminated since citations to each paper
are not included in the French Acad-                    can be credited to the department               in-
 emy’s limited mernbersldp           of 40. She         volved,
refers to these individuals “.. who are                    We realized long ago that a few peo-
peers of prizewinners in every sense ex-                ple may appear on such lists because
cept that of having the award as oc-                    they had written one super-cited paper.
cupants      of the “forty-first         chair.”s       When I discussed this with John deCani,
(p. 42) Such people can be identified as                department       of statistics, University of
of Nobel ckms. In fact, 41 Nobefists do                 Pennsylvania,        he suggested      that we
appear on the list. However, one would                  might “censor” the data by excluding
have to examine the data for each in-                   citations to the most-cited          paper for
dividual on the list, in combination with              each of the 1,000 authors.7
other factors, to determine whether ap                     We did so and found that 90 percent
pearance on this list is primarily due to              of the time the most-cited paper ac-
productivity,     citation impact, or both.            counted for fewer than 22 percent of the
One cannot conclude that the most-                     citations. In other words, the vast ma-
cited or the most published author is                  jority of the authors on this list would
necessarily the most important or the                  still remain among the most-cited                  if
one who has made the greatest contri-                  their most-cited paper were removed.
bution to science,                                     The average number of citations to each
    Any list is, of course, only as good as            author’s most-cited          item was 453. A
the system that helps create it. Many of               study now under way will teff us how
you are welf aware of quirks in author-                many papers in this time period have
ship attribution that permit some scien-               been cited this many times. Neverthe-
tist-administrators      to put their names on         less, there are some instances where one
hundreds of papers as coauthors. Some                  or two papers account for most cita-
of these scientist-administrators             will     tions. The fact is that scientists of Nobel
show up on the accompanying list. This                 class not only publish one or more
follows the old European tradition and                 superstar papers, they also publish more
quite often it has been followed at cer-               often and their papers achieve higher
tain American institutions. The list may               impact. We observed this phenomenon
also include certain academicians            who       over 15 years ago in a study of Nobel
have not otherwise             achieved     great      prizewinners.s       (p. 63-4)
distinction but have coauthored dozens                     The world of science is very large.
of papers with graduate students. We                   Over one million scientists publish from
should not be quick to criticize such                  time to time. Of these, however, a small
authors since there is no agreed-upon,                 percentage       publish a large percentage
published set of rules for establishing                of all papers. That is one kind of pro-
authorship. In some instances the other                ductivity measure. Of those, however,
authors may have been only too happy                   there is an even smaller number who
to have the prestigious name included.                 have a significant           impact,   which is
It often helps the young research                      largely reflected in citations. Since it is
worker to be joined by a famous scien-                 generally       agreed     that there       is no
tist as coauthor.        There is as yet no            significance       to a particular        citation
agreed-upon         method       for   assigning       count, one may usefully think in terms
credit     to each coauthor,           although        of percentiles—much           as we do with IQs
Derek Price has recently suggested a                   or aptitude tests. It would be absurd to
method to fairly attribute citations on                choose one doctoral             candidate     over
multi-authored       papers. fJ When we do             another because an individual had one
the institutional study of these authors,              point higher on an aptitude               test. It


                                                 277
would be equally absurd to judge any-                       far more efficient and systematic man-
one on the difference of a few papers or                    ner, 1S1 is developing a statistical data
citations.   Indeed, it is absurd to use                    base derived       from SCI and Social
citations,    publications,      or any other               Sciences Citation Index” (SSCP ) that
single factor alone in evaluations. How-                    will facilitate large-scale studies for a
ever, tonarrow domonemillion             naxnes             variety of scientometric       purposes. As
to 10,000 orlessand         then to categorize              we make progress with this system, I’ll
these names by specialties does provide                     be reporting the outcome here and in
a useful beginning in identifying, in an                    the professional      journals. And as the
objective, non-obtrusive         manner, those              size of the study population increases,
who are making the greatest impact.                         we shall identify more people in the
    Future parts of this series of essays                   smaller or less published fields.
will present a discussion of the 1,000                          We’d like to thank all those who
authors by discipline, provide detailed                     cooperated with us during this study. In
citation data and publication counts for                    spite of their own publishing deadlines,
each author, identify academy member-                       grant application       complications,   and
ships and other forms of recognition,                       other research demands, hundreds of
and examine         the institutions     where              scientists took the time to provide us
highly cited research           is being con-                with information,     even though some of
ducted.                                                      these scientists were not included in the
    It is obvious to me that we must ex-                     study.
 tend these initial studies in the future to
                                                                                 **,**
include at least another 1,000 or 2,000
scientists. I say thk if only because the                      My thanks to R, Van Cooper, Patricia
memberships       of the world’s academies                  He{[er, Sh wu-Hwa Hsu, Daniel Spaeth,
 of science exceed this number, and the                     Edward M, Sweeney, and Be[la Teperov
 number of important scientists exceeds                     for their help in the preparation of this
 that number. But in order to do this in a                  essay.                             0!’301
                                                                                                    ,S,




                                                  REFERENCES

 1. Garfk&t E. The 250 most-cited primary authors, [%1- 1975, Part 1. How the names were
           selected. Current Conlents (49):5- [5, 5 December 1977. ”
 2. -------------- The 300 most-cited authors, 1%1-1976, includlng co-authors at last. 1. How the names
           were selected, Currenf Contents (28):5-17, 10 July 1978, ”
 3. Koshy G P. The life expectancy of a scientific paper. (Naumes W, cd.) Proceedings of th e ?’fortheasf
           Regional Conference of the Amen”can Insluute for Decision Sciences. fiffh annual meeting.
           April/May 1976. Philadelphia: AIDS, 1976. p. 224-7.
 4. Garfiald E. Are the 1979 prizewinners of Nobel class?
           Current Conrerm (38):5-13, 22 September 1980,
 5, Zuckernmn if. Scientific eli[e, New York: Free Press, 1977, 335 p.
 6. Price D J D. Multiple authorship, Science 212(4498):986, 29 May 1981,
 7. deCmii J. Personal communication.       24 ApriJ 1981,
 8. GarUeld E. Cimoon indexing—its theory and application in science, technology, and humanities.
           New York: Wiley, 1979.274 p.



q   Reprinted   h: Garfketd E. Esfay$ of an information   $cientist.   Phifadelpfda:   1S1 Press, 1980.3   VOIS

								
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