Physical and Cognitive Development in adolescence

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					Physical and Cognitive
    Development

      Adolescence
                Adolescence
• Rousseau and Hall viewed adolescence as a time
  of great upheaval and turbulence
• Freud- the genital stage- period in which
  instinctive drives reawaken and shift to the
  genital region. Psychological conflict and
  volatile, unpredictable behavior
• Beginning adolescence is marked by puberty-
  biological changes that lead to an adult size body
  and sexual maturity
      Balanced point of view
• Adolescence is both biologically and
  socially determined
• The length of adolescence varies among
  cultures-simpler societies may have shorter
  adolescence
• Societies that require many years of
  education for successful economic life
  have greater extended adolescence period.
                  Puberty
• Puberty growth is regulated genetically
  influenced hormonal processes.
• Girls on average reach puberty 2 years
  earlier than boys – girls 10, boys 12
• Current research is indicating that girls
  may be reaching puberty at earlier rates
          Hormonal Changes
• Growth hormone (GH) and thyroxine contribute
  to the gains in body size and completion of
  skeletal maturation
• Estrogens are typically thought of as female
  hormones and androgens as male hormones-both
  types of hormones are present in each sex
• Testosterone- the androgen released in large
  quantities by a boy‟s testes- leads to muscle
  growth, body and facial hair, etc.
• Estrogens-development of girl‟s breasts, uterus,
  and vagina; female proportions, accumulation of
  fat, and beginning of menstrual cycle
        Puberty Changes-Boys
• Body size generally complete by 17 ½ yrs
• Broadening of shoulders
• Less fat in arms and legs
• Larger skeletal muscles, heart and lung capacity
• Spurt in strength, speed and endurance
• Enlargement of testes and penis- one of 1st signs
  of puberty; development of pubic and underarm
  hair
• Voice deepens
• Spermarche-first ejaculation of seminal fluid-
  about 13 yrs of age
       Puberty Changes -Girls
• Growth spurt usually complete by 16
• Broadening of hips
• Around age 8- start to add more fat in arms legs
  and trunk
• Gross motor development gains are slow and
  gradual, leveling off at about 14 yrs
• Development of breast-one of 1st signs of puberty
• Pubic and underarm hair appears
• Menarche- first menstruation-about 12 yrs in
  North American girls
             Puberty Timing
• Heredity is partly responsible for puberty timing
• Nutrition and exercise also contribute
• Physical health plays a role especially in other
  poverty-stricken countries
• Secular trend-generational change in puberty
  timing (improvement of health care, diet and
  sanitation) decrease in menarche age
        Reactions to Puberty
• Past generations-traumatic and disturbing
• Girls today –mixture of positive and negative
  emotions-depends on prior knowledge and family
  members support
• Boys know about ejaculation but few get
  information from parents- most get info from
  reading material
• Boys get less social support
    Parent-Child Relationships
• Bickering and standoffs increase
• Physical departure from family and
  psychological distancing from parents
• Adolescence demonstrate new powers of
  reasoning possible reason for bickering
      Early vs Late Maturation
• Early Maturing boys- relaxed, independent, self-
  confident and physically attractive
• Early Maturing girls- emotional and social
  difficulties, withdrawn, lacking self-confidence
  and psychologically stressed
• Late maturing boys- anxious, overly talkative,
  attention-seeking behavior
• Late maturing girls- physically attractive, lively,
  sociable and leaders in school.
• Society favors- girlish shape for girls (late
  developer) and tall, broad-shouldered and
  muscular-early developed boys
     Long Term Consequences
      Varies among cultures
• Early maturing girls and late maturing boys have
  a difficulty “fitting in” because they are at the
  extremes of physical development
• Teens feel most comfortable with peers that
  match their own biological maturity
• Early maturing teens of both sexes seek out older
  companions-may have unfavorable consequences
• Early maturing boys and late maturing girls
  admired in teen years may become rigid,
  conforming and discontented adults
• Late maturing boys and early maturing girls less
  stressed in teen years became independent,
  flexible and cognitively competent
             Brain development
• Frontal lobe development lags
  behind emotional limbic
  system= impulsiveness,
  emotional storms, risky
  behaviors
• When frontal lobe matures so
  do emotions and judgment.
• Before prefrontal cortex fully
  develops, amygdala has major
  control
    Nutritional Needs of Teens
• During growth spurt, boys require about 2,700
  calories a day and much more protein
• Girls require about 2200 calories and somewhat
  less protein
• Iron deficiency- most common problem in
  adolescence
• Calcium, riboflavin (Vitamin B2) and
  magnesium may be limited in diet as well
• Fad diets are too limited in nutrients and calories
  to be healthy for teens
           Eating Disorders
• At risk-girls with dissatisfied body images,
  growing up in economically advantaged
  homes where cultural concerns are weight
  and thinness
            Anorexia nervosa
• Parents have high expectations for achievement
  and social acceptance, overprotective and
  controlling
  Anorexia nervosa- individuals starve themselves
  because of compulsive fear of getting fat; 1 in 50
  girls; peak age 14 and 18
  Lose between 25% to 50% of body weight and
  look painfully thin
  Symptoms- cessation of menstruation, or
  nonoccurrence of menarche, pale skin, brittle
  discolored nails, fine dark hair all over body and
  sensitivity to cold
                   Bulimia
• Individuals go on eating binges following by
  deliberate vomiting, other purging techniques
  such as heavy doses laxatives and strict dieting
• Repeated vomiting causes erosion of tooth
  enamel, and can cause life threatening damage to
  the throat and stomach
• More common than anorexia, 5% bulimic girls
  have previously been anorexic
• Bulimic are not just impulsive eaters; they lack
  self-control in other areas of their lives
• Abnormal eating habits, feeling depressed, and
  guilty about eating-usually easier to treat than
  anorexia
             Sexual Activity
• American parents typically give children little
  information about sex, discourage them from
  engaging in sex play and rarely talk about sex in
  their presence.
• Teens may receive contradictory and confusing
  messages about sex.
• Adults emphasize that sex at a young age and
  outside if marriage is wrong; Broader social
  environments emphasizes the excitement and
  romanticism of sex
• Over past 30 years sexual attitudes are more
  liberal
       Sexually Active Teens
• Linked to –early physical maturation,
  parental separation and divorce, large
  family size, sexually activity of friends,
  and older siblings, poor school
  performance, lower educational
  aspirations, and tendency to engage in
  norm-violating acts
         Sexual Orientation
• 3 to6 % of young people discover they are
  lesbian or gay
• Heredity may contribute to homosexuality
• Stereotypes and misconceptions continue
  to be widespread
                  STDs
• Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS) are
  highest among teens 1 out 6 each year
• Teens at greatest danger- poverty stricken
  teens with sense of hopelessness
Most serious STD- Acquired
  Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
              Teen Moms
• Less likely to finish high school
• Less likely to get married
• More likely to be on welfare
• Babies are more likely to have prenatal
  problems, complications and low birth
  weight
• Know less about Child Development,
  positive parenting, and proper interaction
  with babies
 Community Prevention of Teen
        Pregnancy
• Inform teens about facts of anatomy, sex
  and reproduction
• Promote abstinence and provide
  information about birth control
• Encourage teens to look forward to
  promising future
          Substance Abuse
• By 14 yrs of age, 56% teens have already
  tried smoking
• 81% drinking, 39% at least one illegal drug
• Majority are substance experimenters are
  psychologically healthy, sociable and
  inquisitive
           Substance Abusers
•   Troubled teens
•   Peer encouragement
•   Mental health problems
•   Family drug use
•   Lack of parental involvement
•   Poor school performance
               Prevention
• School-based programs promoting
  effective parenting, educating students
  about drugs and dangers.
• Teaching teens to resist peer pressure
• There is a relapse rate
      Cognitive Development
• Piaget‟s –formal operational stage-abstract
  scientific thinking
• Hypothetico-deductive reasoning- problem
  solving strategy- begins with general
  theory and deduce specific hypotheses
  which is tested
• Concrete operational children experiment
  unsystematically.
      Formal Operation Stage
• Propositional thought-formal operational
  reasoning in which teens assess logic of
  verbal statements without referring to real-
  world circumstances
• Piaget agreed that language plays a
  significant part of adolescent development
  due to reasoning about abstract concepts
         Formal Operations
• About 40% to 60% of college students fail
  Piaget‟s formal operational problems
• Abstract thinking comes from extensive
  experience in that area
• Some villages and tribal societies do not
  include formal operations
Cognitive Development of Teens
• Can argue more effectively
• Become more self-conscious and self-
  focused
• Become more idealistic and critical
• Become better at everyday planning and
  decision making
          Adolescent Cognition
• Piaget’s Theory: Adolescent was in formal
  operational stage of cognition where thought is
  more abstract & adolescents are no longer limited
  to actual, concrete experiences as anchors for
  thought
• They can now conjure up make-believe situations
  & events that are hypothetical possibilities & then
  try to reason logically about them
• In this stage: adolescent has ability to develop
  hypotheses, or best guesses to solve problems as
  in algebraic equation
• They systematically deduce, or conclude best path
  to follow in solving equation
       Adolescent Egocentrism
• Heightened self-consciousness of adolescents which
  is reflected in their belief that others are as interested
  in them as they are & in their sense of personal
  uniqueness
David Elkind proposes two types of social thinking:
• imaginary audience: a belief that they are „on
  stage‟ and that their every act is being viewed by an
  imaginary audience
• personal fable: sense of uniqueness making them
  feel that no one can understand them
    Information Processing in
          Adolescents
• Ability to process information improves in areas
  of memory, decision making critical thinking &
  self-regulatory learning
• Robert Sternberg found that solving problems,
  such as analogies, requires individuals to make
  continued comparisons between newly encoded
  information & previously encoded information
• Adolescents probably have more storage space in
  short-term memory
 Adolescent Cognitive Capacities
Adolescents have:
• Increased speed, automaticity & capacity of
  information processing
• More breadth of content knowledge,
• Increased ability to construct new combinations of
  knowledge
• Greater range for applying or obtaining knowledge
• Capacity to set goals for extending knowledge
• Awareness of their emotional makeup to: periodically
  monitor their progress, fine-tune their strategies,
  evaluate obstacles & make adaptations
                      Values
• Adolescents carry with them a set of values that
  influences their thoughts, feelings& actions
• Over past two decades, they have shown an
  increased concern for personal well-being &
  decreased concern for well-being of others &
  demonstrate an increasing need for self-fulfillment
  & self-expression
• Some signs indicate that today‟s students are
  shifting toward stronger interest in welfare of
  society as there has been increase in percentage of
  freshmen who said that they were strongly
  interested in participating in community action
  programs
          Schools for Adolescents
Controversy Surrounding Secondary Schools
• This century has seen schools playing prominent role
  in lives of adolescents
• Laws excluding teens from work & mandating
  attendance at school were passed by virtually every
  state
• Some experts believe that junior & senior high
  schools actually contribute to alienation &
  delinquency & interfere with transition to adulthood
• A push for back-to-basics where students are being
  taught fundamental skills & knowledge needed for
  workplace
  Transition to Middle & Junior
           High School
• When students make transition from elementary
  to middle or junior high school - they experience
  top-dog phenomenon:
• Circumstance of moving from top position in
  elementary school to lowest position in
  middle/junior high school
• These positions are characterized by being oldest,
  biggest & most powerful versus youngest,
  smallest & least powerful
Theories of Career Development
• Three main theories describe manner in which
  adolescents make choices about career development:
Ginzberg’s Developmental Theory
• Children and adolescents go through three career-
  choice stages: fantasy, tentative, and realistic
• Until about age 11, children are in fantasy stage
  with unrealistic visions of their career
• Tentative stage is a transitional and occurs in the
  early to mid-adolescent years
• Realistic stage explores, focuses & then selects a
  career
 Theories of Career Development
Super’s Self-Concept Theory
• Individuals‟ self-concepts play central roles in
  their career choices
• During adolescence individuals first construct a
  career self-concept
• Develop ideas about work
• Crystallize or narrow their choices
• Begin to initiate behavior for some type of career
• Begin specific training for a career
• In later life - after 35 years of age - begin to
  consolidate & engage in career enhancement