Panorama 2008 by fdh56iuoui


									Grand Duchy of
L uxembourg


    ■   History of Luxembourg
        and of its economic development      3

    ■   Unexpected diversity and heritage   13

    ■   Political life in Luxembourg        19

    ■   An open, successful and dynamic
        economy                             25

    ■   Luxembourg, financial centre        31

    ■   Mediaport Luxembourg, audiovisual
        and communication centre            35

    ■   The population’s contribution
        to the Luxembourg economy           39

    ■   Luxembourg,
        international crossroads            43

    ■   Development cooperation             47

    ■   Culture, a source of identity       49

    ■   Useful addresses                    53
 History of Luxembourg
 and of its economic

               T e r r i To r i a l o r i g i n s

The history of Luxembourg can be traced back
to 963, when Siegfried, count of the Ardennes
and founder of the house of Luxembourg,
acquired the rocky outcrop of the Bock,
a t e r r i t o r y l o c a t e d i n t h e h e a r t o f t o d a y ’s
capital. It was here that he erected a castle
upon the remains of a small Roman fort called
Lucilinburhuc, around which a fortress city
was gradually to develop.

                    DynasTies anD
                  c ove To u s D e s i r e s

The land was coveted for its strategic position
and the house of Luxembourg was destined
for great things. It provided four emperors
to the Holy Roman Empire, four kings to
Bohemia, one king to Hungary and several
prince-electors. In 1437, the absence of an
heir ushered in a long period of foreign rule,
m a i n l y b y t h e H a b s b u r g d y n a s t y, w h i c h l a s t e d
u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y. D u b b e d
“Gibraltar of the North”, the fortress of
Luxembourg became the bone of contention
in the bloody and unremitting battles between
the Burgundians, the Spanish, the Austrians,
the Prussians and the French. From being a
province of the Spanish Netherlands to being
conquered by Louis XIV and made into the
French “Département des Fôrets” (Forests Depart-
ment) in 1795, the territor y was besieged,
pillaged, dismembered and restructured about
twenty times over the course of four centuries.

              c r e aT i o n o f a s T aT e

Elevated to the rank of Grand Duchy in 1815
at the Congress of Vienna, Luxembourg
a t t a i n e d i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e i n 1 8 3 9 ( Tr e a t y o f
London), when it took on its current territorial
shape following the loss of its Belgian “portion”.
The reign of William I of Orange-Nassau
(1815-1840) marked the beginning of a new
era: the growing awareness of the national
identity and the development of democratic
structures gradually led to a more pronounced

                                                                             History of Luxembourg and of its economic development-
i n d e p e n d e n c e i n t e r m s o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y. I n
1867, under the collective guarantee of the
great European powers gathered in London,
the Grand Duchy was granted the status of a
perpetually neutral and disarmed state.

                     e co n o m i c u n i o n

Endowed with definitive borders and con-
vinced of the need for economic integration
with bigger markets, the country joined the
economic confederation of the Zollverein
in 1842. This commercial relationship proved
to be very beneficial for the Grand Duchy
of William II, who hastened to renew the
customs union treaty in 1846.

                emergence of
             an inDusTrial power

During the 1840s, the discovery was made
of vast iron ore deposits extending from the
north of Lorraine to the south of Luxembourg.
T h e c i t y o f E s c h - s u r- A l z e t t e b e c a m e t h e
cradle of the Grand Duchy’s industrial basin.
From the 1870s onwards, Luxembourg
became part of a powerful steel complex
f o r m e d b y t h e S a a r- L o r r a i n e - L u x e m b o u r g
border triangle. In Luxembourg, the rise
of the steel industry was such that on the eve
o f t h e F i r s t Wo r l d Wa r, t h e r e g i o n k n o w n a s
the “minette” was – in proportion to its size –
t h e w o r l d ’s l a r g e s t s t e e l p r o d u c e r. F o u n d e d
in 1911, ARBED (Aciéries réunies de Burbach,
Eich et Dudelange – Integrated steelworks
of Burbach, Eich and Dudelange) already
controlled 31 % of production in 1913.

   T u r n i n g p o i n T a f T e r T h e wa r

In 1918, the Luxembourg government with-
drew from the Zollverein. During the ensuing
difficult years, it initially turned in vain to
France, then to Belgium, with which it entered
into the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union
(BLEU) in 1921. The economic depression of
the immediate post-war period was succeeded
b y a p e r i o d o f p r o s p e r i t y.

            History of Luxembourg and of its economic development-
    m i g r aT o r y p o p u l aT i o n f l o w s

P r i o r t o t h e r i s e o f t h e s t e e l i n d u s t r y,
L u x e m b o u r g h a d b e e n a p o o r a n d r u r a l c o u n t r y,
marked by a mass wave of emigration that
saw many Luxembourgers head for France and
the United States.

T h e a d v e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n , h o w e v e r,
c h a n g e d t h e c o u n t r y ’s d e m o g r a p h i c a n d
social structures. The farmers of the north of
the country left their land and came to work
i n t h e m i n e s a n d f a c t o r i e s o f t h e s o u t h . Ye t
still more labour was required. This heralded
an era of large-scale immigration, initially
from Germany (1868-1939) and later from
Italy (1892-1970). Between 1908 and 1913,
Italians and Germans accounted for almost
60 % of the workforce of the steel and mining

               T h e i n T e r wa r p e r i o D

From 1930 onwards, the world economic
crisis hit the working world head-on, with two
thirds of foreign workers losing their jobs.
I n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d h a p h a z a r d l y,
despite its distribution having been defined
by the International Steel Cartel in 1926.

                 D e ve lo p m e n T o n
           a n i n T e r n aT i o n a l s c a l e
T h e v i o l a t i o n o f t h e G r a n d D u c h y ’s n e u t r a l i t y
r i g h t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e S e c o n d Wo r l d
Wa r l e f t a d e e p w o u n d , o n c e a g a i n h i g h -
lighting the ineffectiveness of a status that
had already been scorned in 1914. After
t h e w a r, u n d e r G r a n d D u c h e s s C h a r l o t t e ,
Luxembourg felt a call for moral, economic
and political renewal. At the forefront of the
c o u n t r y ’s f o r e i g n p o l i c y, t r a d i t i o n a l l y c e n t r e d
o n n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y, w a s t h e g r o w i n g n e e d
to foster closer international cooperation and
integration into major markets. On 26 June
1945, Luxembourg signed the Charter of
San Francisco and became a founding member
of the United Nations Organisation.

                                                                                      History of Luxembourg and of its economic development-
The Constitution was revised in 1948 and
r e v o k e d t h e n a t i o n ’s n e u t r a l i t y o f t h e f i r s t
a r t i c l e . O n e y e a r l a t e r, L u x e m b o u r g j o i n e d t h e
N o r t h A t l a n t i c Tr e a t y O r g a n i s a t i o n ( N AT O ) .

           e u r o p e a n co n s T r u c T i o n

Luxembourg became a founding member
of the European Coal and Steel Community
( E C S C , 1 9 5 1 , Tr e a t y o f P a r i s ) , t h e E u r o p e a n
E c o n o m i c C o m m u n i t y ( E E C , 1 9 5 7 , Tr e a t i e s
of Rome) and the European Atomic Energy
Community (Euratom, 1957). In 1952,
Luxembourg City was appointed the provisional
headquarters of the ECSC. Upon the execu-
tives of these institutions merging in 1965,
the city of Luxembourg became the third
centre of the European Community alongside
Brussels and Strasbourg.

The ECSC marked a new growth stage of
t h e L u x e m b o u r g s t e e l i n d u s t r y. T h e c o m m o n
market provided new outlets for all the
economic sectors and once again encouraged
immigration to meet the demands of economic

                  s e co n D h a l f
              of The 20Th cenTury

In 1964, Grand Duke Jean succeeded his
mother Grand Duchess Charlotte. The 1950s
and 1960s witnessed a significant growth
in steel production, which reached 6 million
tonnes at the beginning of the 1970s. From
t h e 1 9 7 0 s o n w a r d s , h o w e v e r, f o l l o w i n g t h e
European and global steel crisis, the industry
underwent significant restructuring. Thanks
t o a n e x e m p l a r y n a t i o n a l s o l i d a r i t y, t h i s e f f o r t
g r a d u a l l y s a w t h e i n d u s t r y ’s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o
the gross domestic product (GDP) drop to less
t h a n 5 % ( 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Tr i p a r t i t e
Conference in 1977 facilitated negotiations
between the government, trade unions and
employers in a bid to overcome the impact
of the crisis. It was the upsurge of the finan-
cial centre, supported by a favourable legal
framework, and the emergence of new service
activities that were to profoundly transform
the structure of the Luxembourg economy at
t h e e n d o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y.
                                                                                     History of Luxembourg and of its economic development-11
titre chapitre
 Unexpected diversity
 and heritage

Despite its small size, the Grand Duchy is
home to a remarkably diverse landscape and
e c o l o g y, d u e i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e c h a r a c t e r-
istics of its geological subsoil. Four regions
are distinguishable from a geological point
of view: the Oesling, the Guttland, the mineral
basin and the valley of the Moselle. Each of
these regions bears the undeniable traces of
age-old interactions between man and nature,
which have resulted in a landscape mosaic
made up of forests, pastures, arable land,
orchards and more or less developed areas.

While the Oesling is characterised primarily
by its numerous forests and sunken valleys,
the Moselle is clearly marked by a long-
standing history of wine production. The
mineral basin – for a long time the main
a r c h i t e c t o f t h e c o u n t r y ’s i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h –
is today largely dominated by urban and
industrial conglomerations, while nature is
once again reclaiming the abandoned open-
cast mines.

The Guttland is characterised mainly by
spectacular rock formations of Luxembourg
sandstone, of which the most beautiful exam-
ples can be found in the heart of Luxembourg
City itself and the Müllerthal, also known as
L u x e m b o u r g ’s L i t t l e S w i t z e r l a n d .

L u x e m b o u r g ’s b i o l o g i c a l d i v e r s i t y i s j u s t a s
astonishing. Approximately 1,300 vascular
plant species have been recorded on national
territory – a number comparable to that found
in countries as sizeable as the Netherlands
and Great Britain. Certain species and species
g r o u p s e n c o u n t e r e d o n n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y, s u c h
as the grey shrike, the black stork or the
greater horseshoe bat, are furthermore pres-
ent in significant numbers in the Greater Region.

                                                                                   Unexpected diversity and heritage
The protection of this diversity is ensured
in part by a national network of protected
zones as well as by the Natura 2000 network,
encompassing protection zones designated
in the context of the implementation of
European directives on nature protection.
All in all, these protected zones account for
a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 % o f t h e n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y.

One of the great challenges facing
Luxembourg will consist in preserving this
rich natural heritage, under threat from the
economic and demographic development of
the years to come. Luxembourg’s commitment
to the Countdown 2010 initiative, which
aims to curb the loss of biological diversity
by 2010, bears witness to the pledge made
b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o r e c o n c i l e t h e c o u n t r y ’s
economic aspirations with the preservation
of its exceptional natural heritage.

                                        Unexpected diversity and heritage
 Political life
 in Luxembourg

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a
representative democracy in the form of
a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l m o n a r c h y, w i t h h e r e d i t a r y
s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e N a s s a u f a m i l y.

A s i n a n y p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y, t h e s e p a -
ration of powers is flexible in Luxembourg,
with the legislative and executive powers
interacting on several levels. Only the judicial
power remains completely independent.

The Grand Duke forms together with the
government and its responsible members the
d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y o f t h e e x e c u t i v e p o w e r.
A third organ, the 21-member Council of State,
acts as an advisory body in the legislative

The Constitution grants the Grand Duke the
right to choose his ministers. In practice,
he appoints the Prime Minister in accordance
with legislative election results. The Prime
Minister then submits a list of ministers, who
are subsequently appointed by the Grand Duke.

In addition to jointly exercising the executive
power with the government, the Grand Duke
has the constitutional right to sanction and
promulgate the laws voted by Parliament.

The legislative power rests on the joint
action of Parliament, the government and
t h e C o u n c i l o f S t a t e . I n L u x e m b o u r g ’s s i n g l e -
chamber system, the Council of State acts
as the moderating influence of a second
l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l y. I n f a c t , a l l b i l l s s u b m i t t e d
either by the government or Parliament
require the opinion of the Council of State.

                                                                                         Political life in Luxembourg
The professional chambers and the Conseil
économique et social (Economic and Social
Council) also act as consultative bodies.
The key mission of the professional chambers
is to safeguard and defend the interests of
the professional groups they represent. Their
opinion is required for all bills submitted by
the government and grand-ducal regulation

The Economic and Social Council is respon-
sible for assessing economic, financial
and social problems affecting either several
economic sectors or the national economy
as a whole. It may be called upon by
the government or act on its own initiative.

A constitutional monarchy regime is the
perfect framework for a country in which
social consensus and dialogue are catch-
w o r d s . T h e c o u n t r y ’s s t a b i l i t y i s i n c i d e n t a l l y
reflected in the fact that changes in
governments occur smoothly: in the past,
two of the three main political parties
( t h e C h r i s t i a n - S o c i a l P a r t y, t h e L u x e m b o u r g
S o c i a l i s t Wo r k e r s ’ P a r t y a n d t h e D e m o c r a t i c
Party) have generally formed governmental
coalitions following legislative elections
that take place every five years.

                                                    Political life in Luxembourg-23
 An open, successful
 and dynamic economy

D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y,
the Grand Duchy experienced one of the
strongest economic performances in Europe:
sustained growth, stable prices, low unem-
ployment rates and steady job growth as well
a s a s u b s t a n t i a l f o r e i g n t r a d e s u r p l u s . To d a y,
public finances are in good health and the
overall balance of payments is positive.

Luxembourg owes its wealth to the discovery
o f i r o n o r e i n t h e s o u t h o f t h e c o u n t r y, a r o u n d
which a powerful steel industry gradually
developed. The steel company ARBED enjoyed
global renown for its high-quality products.
In 2001, ARBED merged with two other steel
g r o u p s , A c e r a l i a a n d U s i n o r, t o b e c o m e
A r c e l o r, t h e w o r l d ’s l e a d i n g s t e e l p r o d u c e r.
This position was reinforced with the creation
of the Arcelor Mittal group in 2006.

During the 1960s, anxious to diversify
t h e e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y, t h e
government implemented an active economic
d e v e l o p m e n t a n d d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n p o l i c y. T h e
r e s u l t s o f t h i s p o l i c y a r e v e r y v i s i b l e t o d a y.
The traditional heavy industry was joined
by modern businesses hailing from the most
diverse activity sectors and operating with
advanced techniques.

The initiatives aimed at overcoming the
m o n o l i t h i c s t r u c t u r e o f L u x e m b o u r g ’s i n d u s t r y
revolved around five main concepts:
• European economic cooperation,
• a voluntar y policy of economic diversification
   implementing measures to encourage
• the development of an international
   financial centre,
• the implementation of high-potential service
   activities, in particular in the field of tele-
   communications as well as new information
   and communication technologies,
• research and development.

                                                                                   An open, successful and dynamic economy-27
The small dimensions of the Luxembourg
market explain why foreign trade constitutes
a n e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y ’s
economic life. Industry exports more than
80 % of what it produces, with approximately
85 % of these exports being distributed
to countries within the European Union.

As a result of its central geographical
position in the heart of the European Union,
its skilled and conscientious workforce
as well as its openness to foreign investment
and capital, Luxembourg has always been
an interesting place for numerous foreign
businesses to establish themselves and

Luxembourg is also characterised by
a stable and serene political and social
climate, favourable to economic development.
The “Luxembourg model”, as it is commonly
known, is based on an institutionalised and
continuous dialogue between the three key
social players: the government, the employers
and the trade unions. Luxembourg prides
itself on a high level of social peace, made
possible thanks to this permanent dialogue,
the moderation and commitment shown by all
those involved as well as its advanced social
legislation, which is based on the principles
o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d s o l i d a r i t y.

                               An open, successful and dynamic economy-29
 financial centre

First European centre for investment funds,
first European centre for reinsurance, first
private banking centre within the European
Union, eighth largest financial hub in the
world: today the financial centre constitutes
t h e m a i n p i l l a r o f t h e L u x e m b o u r g e c o n o m y.

Initially specialising in eurocredits, the
financial centre subsequently turned to
private banking and, from the 1980s onwards,
to investment funds. It is supported by a high
degree of political and social stability as
well as a state-of-the-art legal and regulatory
framework, which is constantly being fine-
tuned and stimulated by regular dialogue
between the government, the legislator and
t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r. T h i s i s h o w, i n r e c e n t
years, specific regulatory frameworks have
been established for alternative funds,
venture capital investment vehicles, covered
bonds and banks specialising in the issue
t h e r e o f , s p e c i a l i s e d i n v e s t m e n t f u n d s , i n t e r-
national pension funds, securitisation vehicles
and family assets management companies,
i.e. specific vehicles for managing the private
assets of natural persons.

L u x e m b o u r g ’s m o d e r n l e g i s l a t i v e a n d
regulatory framework as well as its openness
towards the world have attracted banks,
insurance companies, investment fund
promoters and specialist service providers
from all around the globe.

Closely regulated by a competent and
p r o a c t i v e s u r v e i l l a n c e a u t h o r i t y, t h e f i n a n c i a l
centre fosters a strong culture of protecting
t h e i n v e s t o r. I t s t e a m s o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l
and multilingual professionals enjoy a long
tradition of financial expertise and possess
in-depth knowledge of the needs of an
international clientele.

                                                                                       Luxembourg, financial centre-33
 Mediaport Luxembourg,
 audiovisual and
 communication centre

Luxembourg also plays a distinctive role on
the media scene in Europe: as a multilingual
place at the crossroads of French and
German-speaking cultures, the Grand Duchy
is home to two giants of audiovisual commu-
n i c a t i o n : RT L G r o u p , a E u r o p e a n t e l e v i s i o n
a n d r a d i o b r o a d c a s t e r, a n d S E S ( S o c i é t é e u r o -
péenne des satellites), operator of Astra

Numerous small and medium-sized businesses
(SMBs), operating in related multimedia
and telecommunications fields, have set
themselves up in Luxembourg around these
two great pillars of audiovisual communication.
In addition to the SMBs, multinational
companies such as Amazon have in recent
years also established their headquarters in
t h e G r a n d D u c h y. To g e t h e r t h e s e c o m p a n i e s
form a web of competences that bodes well
f o r t h e c o u n t r y ’s f u t u r e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t .

The Luxembourg government actively
encourages the development of audiovisual
and communication services, supported by
t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e l i b e r-
a l i s a t i o n t r e n d i n E u r o p e ’s t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
market and technological progress.

A s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s p r o a c t i v e p o l i c y,
during the early 1990s Luxembourg adopted
several public support schemes aimed at
promoting the development of audiovisual

                                                                                     Mediaport Luxembourg, audiovisual and communication centre-37
 The population’s
 contribution to the
 Luxembourg economy

To d a y, t h e G r a n d D u c h y i s h o m e t o m o r e
than 476,000 inhabitants, a number which
has rapidly increased over the years following
a strong economic growth, a positive and
growing natural balance and large-scale

The Luxembourg employment market is
characterised by a high rate of employment,
a strong presence of foreign workers and
a relatively low unemployment rate.

The proportion of non-Luxembourg residents
among the population exceeds 41%. The
foreign workforce consists of residents, who
are mainly European Union nationals, and
cross-border commuters, who represent an
e v e r- i n c r e a s i n g p a r t o f t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n .

Foreign residents and cross-border
commuters today account for approximately
69 % of those working on Luxembourg soil.
Their distribution across the various sectors
of economic activity is not always uniform.
The main foreign communities, which have
been present for several generations,
are made up of Portuguese, French, Italians,
Belgians and Germans.

         The population’s contribution to the Luxembourg economy-41
 international crossroads

Luxembourg is the chosen workplace of
several European Union institutions. In 1952,
the capital of the Grand Duchy became the
seat of the first European institution, the High
Authority of the ECSC (European Coal and
Steel Community).

To d a y, L u x e m b o u r g C i t y r e m a i n s o n e o f t h e
capitals of Europe, thanks to the continuing
presence and establishment of Community
institutions in particular on the Kirchberg
plateau, such as the Court of Justice, the
European Investment Bank, the Secretariat of
the European Parliament, the European
Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office, the
Office for Official Publications and numerous
European Commission services.

Kirchberg also houses the European
Conference Centre, a vast complex equipped
with a comprehensive technical infrastructure,
enabling the Council of European Ministers,
conferences, seminars or international
meetings to take place in the best possible

Given its geographical situation, the small-
ness of its territory and the ensuing economic
and political constraints, Luxembourg is a
country where all influences cross paths.

The role of a country such as Luxembourg
in a community of European nations consists
foremost in bestowing a particular dimension,
perspective and sense of proportion upon
the wide range of viewpoints that must be
consolidated in such a community of nations.
L u x e m b o u r g ’s v o i c e i s t h e v o i c e o f u n d e r-
s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w, t h e v o i c e   F r o m a n e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f v i e w, t h e s t r u c t u r e
of conciliation, the voice of defending the                                  and the situation of the Grand Duchy logically
word of law and treaties. On a European plan,                                lead to collaboration with other states. In this
it is the voice of solidarity and cooperation                                respect, ever since gaining its independence
in a Community spirit.                                                       a n d a l l t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y, L u x e m b o u r g ’s
                                                                             foreign policy has always been shaped by the
                                                                             double concern of protecting national security
                                                                             w h i l e e n s u r i n g t h e c o u n t r y ’s i n t e g r a t i o n i n
                                                                             a larger economic ensemble.

                                                                                                                 Luxembourg, international crossroads-4
    Development cooperation
I n v i e w o f t h e w o r l d ’s m a t e r i a l d i s p a r i t i e s ,
the Luxembourg government deems it
essential to fortify its development coop-
e r a t i o n p o l i c y. I t t h u s e n c o u r a g e s d e v e l o p i n g
countries to strengthen democracy and to
ensure the respect of human rights and the
r u l e o f l a w, t o p r o m o t e g o o d g o v e r n a n c e
and social justice.

On an international level, it advocates
a greater awareness of the interests of
developing countries in the setting-up of
economic, financial, commercial and
agricultural strategies, at the level of both
international and regional organisations,
be it the European Union, the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development
( O E C D ) , t h e Wo r l d Tr a d e O r g a n i s a t i o n ( W T O ) ,
the International Monetary Fund (IMF),
t h e Wo r l d B a n k o r t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s
Organisation (UNO).

The activities undertaken by the Fonds de
coopération au développement (Development
Cooperation Fund) form the backbone of
Luxembourg development cooperation. These
activities are characterised by a long-term
commitment to multiannual projects and
programmes, which achieve a greater impact
in terms of sustainable development for
t h o s e c o u n t r i e s t a r g e t e d b y L u x e m b o u r g ’s
development cooperation.

                                                         Development cooperation-47
 Culture, a source
 of identity

A population which consists of more than a
third of non-nationals, a figure exceeding 50 %
in the capital; a linguistic system which is
based on the simultaneous use of three
languages, Lëtzebuergesch (the national
language), French and German; a geographical
situation which places Luxembourg at less
t h a n h a l f a n h o u r ’s d r i v e f r o m F r a n c e , B e l g i u m
a n d G e r m a n y : t h e s e a r e t h e k e y c h a r a c t e r-
istics that have enabled the Grand Duchy of
Luxembourg to become a focal point of contact,
exchange and dialogue.

In 1995, Luxembourg became European City
of Culture, succeeding Lisbon. Since then,
significant efforts have been devoted to three
main areas, namely the support of artistic
c r e a t i v i t y, t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d p r o m o t i o n
of national heritage and the development of
significant cultural infrastructure projects
designed to become the tools for resourceful
and integrated initiatives.

In 2007, Luxembourg was once again, along
with the Greater Region, one of the European
capitals of culture. Its mission was to promote
mobility and exchange on all levels by cross-
ing physical, psychological, artistic and
emotional borders.

Luxembourg also endorses a wide range of
regular cultural events. In addition to the
F e s t i v a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l E c h t e r n a c h , a n i n t e r-
nationally renowned festival of classical
music, the Grand Duchy also plays host to
other great annual cultural events, such as
the Bourglinster castle concert series or
the Festival européen de théâtre en plein air
et de musique (European open-air theatre
and music festival) of Wiltz. Classical music
ensembles, such as the Orchestre philharmo-
nique du Luxembourg or else the Solistes                                         L u x e m b o u r g ’s t h e a t r e s s t a g e p r o d u c t i o n s i n
européens de Luxembourg, are cultural ambas-                                     three languages and regularly see Luxembourg
sadors who have gained an international                                          artists working together with foreign guest
reputation.                                                                      professionals.

                                                                                                                                 Culture, a source of identity-1
 Useful addresses

Service information et presse                                          Chambre des métiers (Chamber
du gouvernement (Information and Press                                 of Handicrafts)
Service of the Government)                                             2, Circuit de la Foire internationale
33, boulevard Roosevelt                                                L-1347 Luxembourg
L-2450 Luxembourg                                                      Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 4 2 6 7 6 7 - 1
Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 2 4 7 - 8 2 1 8 1                                 Fax: (+352) 42 67 87
Fax: (+352) 47 02 85                                                   E-mail:
E-mail:                                               w w w. c d m . l u
w w w. g o u v e r n e m e n t . l u
                                                                       FEDIL (Fédération des industriels
Ministère de l’Économie et du Commerce                                 l u x e m b o u r g e o i s – Fe d e r a t i o n
ex t é r i e u r ( M i n i s t r y o f t h e E c o n o m y             of Luxembourg Industrialists)
a n d F o r e i g n Tr a d e )                                         7, rue Alcide de Gasperi
19-21, boulevard Royal                                                 L-1615 Luxembourg
L-2449 Luxembourg                                                      Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 4 3 5 3 6 6 - 1
Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 2 4 7 - 8 4 1 4 5                                 Fax: (+352) 43 23 28
Fax: (+352) 46 04 48                                                   E-mail:
E-mail:                                             w w w. f e d i l . l u
w w w. e c o . p u b l i c . l u
                                                                       ABBL (Association des banques
Statec (Service central de la statistique                              et banquiers, Luxembourg –
et des études économiques – Central Ser vice                           Luxembourg Bankers’ Association)
for Statistics and Economic Research)                                  59, boulevard Royal
13, rue Érasme                                                         L-2449 Luxembourg
C e n t r e a d m i n i s t r a t i f P i e r r e We r n e r           Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 4 6 3 6 6 0 - 1
L-1468 Luxembourg                                                      Fax: (+352) 46 09 21
Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 2 4 7 - 8 4 3 3 3                                 E-mail:
Fax: (+352) 46 42 89                                                   w w w. a b b l . l u
w w w. s t a t e c . p u b l i c . l u                                 Office national du tourisme
                                                                       ( N a t i o n a l To u r i s t O f f i c e ) ( R e c e p t i o n )
Ministère des Classes moyennes,                                        Gare centrale (Central station)
d u To u r i s m e e t d u L o g e m e n t ( M i n i s t r y o f       Place de la Gare
t h e M i d d l e C l a s s e s , To u r i s m a n d H o u s i n g )   L-1616 Luxembourg
6, boulevard Royal                                                     Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 4 8 1 1 9 9
L-2449 Luxembourg                                                      E-mail:
Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 2 4 7 - 8 4 7 1 5                                 w w w. o n t . l u
Fax: (+352) 247-84740
E-mail:                                             SNCI (Société nationale de crédit

w w w. m c m . p u b l i c . l u                                       et d’investissement – National Credit
                                                                       and Investment Company)
Chambre de commerce (Chamber                                           7, rue du Saint-Esprit
of Commerce)                                                           L-1475 Luxembourg
7, rue Alcide de Gasperi                                               Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 4 6 1 9 7 1 - 1
L-1615 Luxembourg                                                      Fax: (+352) 46 19 79
Te l . : ( + 3 5 2 ) 4 2 3 9 3 9 - 1                                   E-mail:
Fax: (+352) 43 83 26                                                   w w w. s n c i . l u
w w w. c c . l u

                                                                                                                                     Useful addresses-

Publisher:           Information and Press Ser vice of the Luxembourg
                     Government, Publishing Department

Layout:              M&V CONCEPT

Print:               ???

Photo credits

Photo librar y SIP

Photo archives Arbed

Banque centrale du Luxembourg

Banque de Luxembourg

Banque et caisse d’épargne de l’État


Casino Luxembourg – Forum d’art contemporain

Centre culturel de rencontre Abbaye de Neumünster

Delphi Automotive Systems Luxembourg S.A.

Digital Vision Photographic Arts

Goodyear S.A.


Yves Kortum


Luxembourg City Tourist Office

Christian Mosar: Balls, from the exhibition
“Sous les ponts, le long de la rivière” by Ilona Németh

Musée d’histoire de la Ville de Luxembourg

Musée national d’histoire et d’art

Musée national d’histoire naturelle

Office national du tourisme

Christophe Olinger

Jérôme Peiffer/SIP

Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

RTL Group


Marcel Schmitz

SES (Société européenne des satellites)

Christof Weber

Frank Weber

Tom Weisgerber

With the kind permission of the Associazione Italiana Amici di
Raoul Follereau and the Fondation luxembourgeoise Raoul Follereau

April 2008

ISBN: 978-2-87999-059-0

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