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America Breaks and Grows 1865-1929

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									 America Breaks and Grows
 1865-1939
Reconstruction: 1865-1877
Gilded Age: 1877-1890
Progressive Era: 1890-1914
WWI: 1914-1919
Roaring 20’s: 1920-1929
Great Depression: 1929-1939
      How Did We Get Here?
   1863 – Emancipation
    Proclamation
   1864 – Nathaniel
    Hawthorne died. Opened
    the doors, so to speak.
   1865 – Twain hits his
    stride. “The Celebrated
    Jumping Frog of
    Calaveras County"
                              1835-1910
           End of Civil War
     April 12, 1861 to April 9, 1865
   Walt Whitman (1819-
    1892) saw Lincoln
    often, but the two
    never met face to face.
    Wrote much about
    Lincoln.
   “When Lilacs Last in
    the Dooryard Bloom’d”
   “O Captain, My
    Captain”
                          Lincoln Assassinated on April 14
            Whitman’s Themes
   Transcendent power of love,
    brotherhood, and comradeship
   Imaginative projection into
    others’ lives
   Optimistic faith in democracy and
    equality
   Belief in regenerative and
    illustrative powers of nature and
    its value as a teacher
   Equivalence of body and soul
    and the unabashed exaltation of
    the body and sexuality
Reconstruction: 1865-1877
   Carpetbaggers
   Copperheads
   14th amendment – Minorities born in USA get
    citizenship (not Native Americans)
   15th Amendment – Black men get right to vote
   Military rule over South
   1866 – Freedmen’s Bureau
   1870- Grant’s Ku Klux Klan Act designed to
    curtail the KKK using federal troops
    1876: 100 Year Anniversary
   Grown from 2.5 M to 46 M people
   Exports exceeded imports for first time
   Rights of Women movement starts
   NYC: Children’s Aid Society contains
    11,000 homeless boys; 3000 more
    abandoned babies on its doorstep
   Vanderbilt Family spends $200,000 on a
    party. Wealth gap increases.
Gilded Age: 1877-1893

   Twain, William Dean Howells, Louisa
    May Alcott, Bret Harte, Henry James
   Blue collar worker expansion
   Rural to urban migration
   1870-1900: 12 million immigrants
   70% through New York
   Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
   German, English, Irish, Chinese
William Dean Howells: 1837-1920
             • Campaign Manager for Lincoln
             • U.S. Consul to Italy (1861-1865)
             • Editor of Atlantic Monthly (1871-
               1881)
             • Realism author. Rise of Silas
               Lapham (1885)
             • Dean of American Letters
             • Wrote a hundred books in
               various genres, including
               novels, poems, literary
               criticism, plays, memoirs, and
               travel narratives
             • Social Issues subject of his
               books: women’s rights, workers
               rights, and rights for minorities.
             • 1887 – execution of Haymarket
               radicals
                                       Louisa May Alcott
                                          (1832-1888)
                                 1868 – Little Women
                                 1871 – Little Men
                                 1873 – Work
                                 Promoted
                                  interracial
                                  marriage and
                                  racial blurring.
Alcott’s novels emphasize the growth their heroines must
undergo to become intellectually and emotionally
independent. In Alcott's vision of womanhood, only when
a woman can stand alone and is not dependent on a man
for fulfillment is she capable of finding happiness, whether
married or not. By 1882, she was famous and wealthy.
Emily Dickinson: 1830-1886
   Throughout her life, she
    seldom left her house and
    visitors were scarce.
   Her poems are typically
    marked by the intimate
    recollection of inspirational
    moments, which are
    decidedly life-giving and       Wrote about 800 good
    suggest the possibility of             poems
    happiness.
Bret Harte: 1836-1902
         Short stories of the West
         1867 – The Lost Galleon
         1869 – Outcasts of Poker Flat
         1876 – Gabriel Conroy
         Romanticist thwarted by
          Realism. Stock characters.

       Twain and Harte broke off friendship in
        1877, after the flop of a co-written
        play.
      Twain said, “"Well, Bret came down to
        Hartford and we talked it over, and
        then Bret wrote it while I played
        billiards, but of course I had to go over
        it to get the dialect right. Bret never did
        know anything about dialect."
        Henry James: 1843-1916
   1877 – The American
   1878 – Daisy Miller
   1881 – Portrait of a Lady
   1886 – Bostonians
   1897 – What Maisie Knew
   1898 – Turn of the Screw
   W.D.H. on James: “[It is his] realism of
    Daudet rather than the realism of Zola
    that prevails [in his work], and it has a
    soul of its own…” (A compliment)
        Westward Ho!
   1849 Gold Rush
   1876 Dakota Gold Rush
   1896 Klondike Gold Rush
   Manifest Destiny
   Explorers, Outlaws, Lawmen
   Land Grant states
   Indian Wars
    American Gold Rushes
   1848 – California: Before the discovery of gold,
    California contained 12,000 Mexicans, 20,000 Native
    Americans and 2,000 Yankees. By 1850, there were
    more than 100,000 immigrants.
   1874 – South Dakota: 1,000 men, led by General
    Custer patrolled the Black Hills area, a large region
    held sacred by the Sioux. A couple miners attached to
    his party discovered gold. The mines produced 10
    percent of the world’s gold supply over the next 125
    years.
   1896 – Klondike, Alaska: Gold discovered in the White
    and Chilkoot passes, each inhumanly forbidding high-
    altitude areas. Of the 100,000 people who set out for
    the Klondike, 30-40 thousand got there, and only 15-
    20 thousand prospected. Possibly 4,000 found some
    gold.
   Explorers, Outlaws, and Lawmen

▪ Cochise, Sitting Bull, Geronimo, and Custer
▪ "Buffalo Bill" Cody
▪ Theodore Roosevelt
▪ Butch Cassidy and "The
   Sundance Kid"
▪ John Fremont
▪ Billy the Kid
▪ Earp Brothers and Doc
   Holliday
▪ Jesse James Gang
▪ Calamity Jane               The dead men after the OK
                              Corral Shootout
       Manifest Destiny
    From 1845-1890, this meant Westward
    expansion. From 1890-1929, it meant
    expansion outside of North America.
Lady Columbia, a
personification of
America, leads
settlers westward,
stringing telegraph
wire as she travels,
while holding a
schoolbook. The
Indians and wild
animals flee. Notice
the different socio-
economic
backgrounds
represented.
    “Indian” Wars: 1872-1890
   Battle of the Little Big Horn (1876): General
    Custer’s force of just over 200 engaged the
    Lakota and Cheyenne Indian force of about 750.
    Custer and his entire force were killed in about 3
    hours.
    Massacre   at
    Wounded Knee
    (1890): fighting
    lasted less than an
    hour; over 150
    Lakota were killed
    and 50 wounded.
    The U.S. Army
    casualties numbered
    25 dead and 39
    wounded.
             Oklahoma Land Rush
   1889-1895: In 1893 alone, more than 100,000 white
    settlers rush into Oklahoma's Cherokee Outlet to
    claim seven million acres of former Cherokee land.
1892 World’s Fair,
Edison’s Telephone,
   Chicago Riot
       Depression (Panic) of 1893
   Why? Gold standard changed
   New building construction
   Agrarian factors – limited economic influence
    and increased competition
   High debt (especially to England)
   1870-1890 number of farms rose 80%, to 4.5
    Million
   1870-1890 price of farmed goods dropped 60%
             Unemployment Rates
                 1890-1900

16
14
12
10
 8
 6
 4
 2
 0
     1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900
Rise of Business, Unions, and
Socialism: 1890-1910
   1890 – Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1 901, 1911)
   1890 – Jane Addams’ Hull House founded
   1891 – Populist Party formed
   1891 – Edison’s Kinetoscope is invented
   Hamlin Garland, Sara Orne Jewitt, Stephen
    Crane, Kate Chopin, Emily Dickinson, Frank
    Norris, Theodore Dreiser

Naturalism relies on these conditions
    Hamlin Garland: 1860-1940
   A novelist, short-story writer,
    poet, essayist, and memoirist,
    Garland lectured widely on
    American literature and writers
    for over 40 years.
   1891 – Main-Traveled Roads
   “Under the Lion’s Paw” is most
    famous short story.
Sara Orne Jewitt: 1849-1909
   1890 – Tales of New
    England
   Her fiction is
    characterized by intimate
    views of characters' lives,
    the growth and trials of
    friendship, and a good
    deal of humor, both broad
    and subtle.
Stephen Crane: 1871-1900
          Realist
          1893 – Maggie, Girl
           of the Streets
          1895 – Red Badge
           of Courage
          1897 – “The Open
           Boat”
   1900 Census
      76.2 Million
       People
      45 states
      1800 Census:
       5.3 Million
       People

New York’s Metropolitan Museum excluded the working class, as it was
closed on Sunday, the only day workers were free. That changed in
1891 as an early “Progressive” move.
    Kate Chopin: 1851-1904
   1894 – Bayou Folk
   “A Pair of Silk Stockings”
   “Desiree’s Baby”
   “The Story of an Hour”
   1899 – The Awakening
   Realist. Distinctly unsentimental
    in her approach, she often relied
    on popular period motifs, such as
    the conflict of the Yankee
    businessman and the Creole.
Progressive Era: 1893-1914




Congress chartered the National Child Labor Committee in
1907. However, it took until 1938 before Congress
disallowed kids under 16 to work in dangerous jobs.
Congress also enacted the 40 hour work week in 1938.
Frank Norris: 1870-1902
           Naturalist who takes on
            Big Business
           1899 – McTeague
           1900 – A Man’s Woman
           1900 – Blix
           1902 – The Pit
             Most of his works include
              realistic descriptions of
              violence, squalor, and
              determinism.
Theodore Dreiser: 1871-1945
   1900 – Sister Carrie
   1912 – The Financier
   Naturalist – Social inequality
   1925 – An American Tragedy
   From An American Tragedy:
    "Well, here is one who,
    whatever her defects, probably
    does what she believes as
    nearly as possible."
Early American Imperialism
   Panama Canal (1904-1914)
   Spanish American War
    (1898)
      Puerto Rico, Philippines,
       Cuba, Guam
   Lending issues with Europe
   Chinese ports for trade
   Oil contracts
   Edith Wharton, Jack
    London, Robert Frost,
    Gertrude Stein, Sinclair
    Lewis, Hamlin Garland, T.S.
    Eliot, Sherwood Anderson
Edith Wharton: 1862-1937
    1905 – House of Mirth
    1911 – Ethan Frome
    1920 – The Age of Innocence
    Wharton made fun of the
     narrow-minded and ignorant
     upper class through irony
    Crossed the Atlantic 66 times
    Won France’s highest civilian
     award
Jack London (1876-1916)
   Highest paid, most popular writer in America in
    early 20th Century.
   Man vs. Nature
   An illegitimate child from California
   At 15 became an oyster pirate
   At 17 joined a sealing ship for 3 months
   30 day imprisonment; after, went to Cal Berkeley
   Gained information for stories from his time in the
    Klondike searching for gold
   Call of the Wild (1903), Sea-Wolf (1904), White
    Fang (1906)
   Died a millionaire at 40 of various diseases and
    treatments
   First real “scientific farmer” – Darwinist
    stockbreeder
   Built his own ship, The Snark, and cruised the
    South Pacific for 27 months.
Robert Frost (1874-1963)
    4 Pulitzer Prizes
    Called the “American Bard”
    “Road Not Taken,” “Mending
     Wall,” “Stopping By Woods on a
     Snowy Evening”
    Born in California; named for
     Robert E. Lee
    New England settings; moved
     there at 11
    Study of contrasts – dark and
     depressed/beauty of nature
    Traditional form and meter
Gertrude Stein (1874-1946)
  Coined the term “Lost
   Generation”
  Openly lesbian and feminist
   (Alice B. Toklas)
  Volunteered to drive supply
   vehicles in WWI in France
  Spent most of her life abroad,
   especially in France
  Anti-FDR; opposed New Deal
  Elitist poet and author
  Three Lives (1909); Tender
   Buttons (1914)
  Picasso (1938); Patriarchal
   Poetry (1953)
Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951)
    Nobel Prize in 1930 (first
     American winner)
    22 novels and 3 plays
    Main Street (1920); Babbitt
     (1922)
    Socialist (typical of many
     authors of his time)
    Awarded Pulitzer Prize in 1926,
     but rejected it, saying prizes
     were silly. He had lost the
     Pulitzer twice as a runner-up.
     He accepted the Nobel in 1930.
Hamlin Garland (1860-1940)
    Midwestern guy (Wisconsin)
    Main-Traveled Roads (1891):
     “Under the Lion’s Paw”
    Realist – can we argue Naturalist,
     too?
    1922 Pulitzer Prize
    Wrote biographies and much about
     the Wild West and issues
     concerning the Midwest
    The Book of the American Indian
     (1923)
    Forty Years of Psychic Research
     (1936)
    The Mystery of the Buried Crosses
     (1939)
T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)
    1948 Nobel Prize
    Literary Critic, poet, essayist,
     dramatist
    “Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”
     (1917)
    Wasteland (1922)
    Born in USA; became British citizen in
     1927
    Modernist – Ezra Pound’s “Make it
     New!”
    Ash Wednesday (1930) – Conversion
     Poem
    Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats
     (1939) – became the basis for
     Andrew Lloyd Weber’s musical Cats.
     A book for children.
Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941)

  Winesburg, Ohio – short story
   collection (1919)
  Fought in Spanish American War
   (1899)
  American Grotesque
  Epitaph: “Life, Not Death, is the
   Great Adventure”
  "Everyone in the world is Christ and
   they are all crucified."
  Friends with famous authors of his
   time: William Faulkner, F. Scott
   Fitzgerald, Carl Sandburg, and
   scrapped with Hemingway.
Black America
   Jim Crow Laws
    (1876-1968)
   1896 – Plessy vs
    Ferguson
   Harlem
    Renaissance (1919-
    1934)
   KKK (1866-1873;
    1925-present)
Jim Crow Laws (1876-
1954, 1964, 1968)
   Enacted in Southern States as
    Reconstruction ended (1876).
   Basically overruled 14th and 15th
    Amendments (1870)
   Horrific laws imposed on Blacks
   Examples: voting disfranchisement, public
    accommodations, living quarters, athletics,
    separate libraries, advertisements marked
    “colored” or “white,” etc.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
(1896)
   Upheld the Constitutionality of Racial Segregation
    (Separate IS Equal)
   June 7, 1892, in a planned act, Homer Plessy
    boarded a whites-only train car. He was an
    octoroon, and could often “pass.” He did not this
    time. He refused to leave and was arrested. Lost
    his case in local, district, and federal courts.
   Destroyed most of 1875 Civil Rights Laws
   Upheld most of 1890 Louisiana State mandatory
    separation laws.
   Overturned in 1954 Brown vs. Topeka Board of Ed.
 Harlem Renaissance
 (1919-1934)
The Harlem Renaissance was more than just
a literary movement: it included racial
consciousness, "the Back to Africa"
movement led by Marcus Garvey, racial
integration, the explosion of music
particularly jazz, spirituals and blues,
painting, dramatic revues, and others.

Langston Hughes, WEB DuBois (The Talented
Tenth), Booker T. Washington (D. 1915, but
impact greatly felt), Jean Toomer, Zora Neale
Hurston, Claude McKay, Arna Bontemps,
Nella Larsen.



                                                William H. Johnson - artist
KKK (1866-1873; 1915-present)
   Birth of a Nation (1915)
   Founded by Confederate
    Soldiers after Civil War
   Destroyed by Pres. Grant
    with 1870-1871 Civil Rights
    Acts (Federal Troops)
   In 1925, 15% of all white
    men (4.7 million) were in
    KKK
   Anti: Catholic, Black, Jew,
    Communist
   Today: 70,000 members
    nationwide, in numerous
    small “cells” or “chapters”
WWI (1914-1919)
   The Great War
   Trench Warfare
   Almost 10 million killed
   Germany lost, and several European nations earned
    independence.
   Britain lost imperialistic ground
   Unresolved issues led to European theatre in WWII
   America emerged from limited involvement as world
    power
   Battle of the Somme – 450,000 British Dead
   U-Boats and the Lusitania
   Zimmerman Telegram (from British Room 40)
Trenches, Machine Guns,
and Poison Gas
Jingoism/Nationalism
        “Extreme chauvinism” and Nativism
        Imperialism and heavy military influence
        Teddy Roosevelt – 1893
        Suppression of rights for immigrants
    Modernism: 1917-1939
   Ezra Pound, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Wallace
    Stevens, Ernest Hemingway, William
    Carlos Williams, Edna St. Vincent Millay,
    John Steinbeck, William Faulkner
   Political, artistic and cultural movement
    that is positive and powerful, advocating
    the use of all scientific and human means
    of determining a better environment and
    living it. “Make it new!”
   Roughly encompasses 1890-1940
Roaring 20’s (1919-1929)

   Intolerance, isolation, cynicism
   $5 workday, incredible economic
    power, first Transatlantic flight, Jazz
    Age
   Gangsters, KKK, harsh immigration
    laws, Volstead Act (Prohibition)
   Flappers, parties, wealth acquisition,
    automobile, aircraft, radio, telephone
Stock Market Crash (1929)
   Buying stock on margin – for each dollar of
    stock, purchased $9 of stock
   DOW increased from 60 to 400 from 1921 to
    1929. Did not reach 400 again until 1955.
   Economics - banks had invested customer
    money in stock (on margin). 10,000 banks
    failed, and $140 Billion in customer money
    disappeared. Also the Fed had raised interest
    rates too high to stifle inflation.
   Did not learn lessons from the first depression
    in 1893
   Market lost $16 Billion in capitalization
Great Depression
1929-1939
   Migration
   War machine
   CCC
   New Deal
   Patriotism (against communism)
   Stats: 32% of Americans were below
    poverty line.
      Ezra Pound (1885-1972)
   Most important player in Modernist movements in
    literature and the arts
   Left U.S. for China and Europe in 1908
   “invented” imagism in art, sculpture, and poetry
   Detested WWI – felt betrayed by Europe and U.S.
   Cathay (1915)
   The Cantos (1915-1972) – an epic spanning
    his entire life. Portions of it won major awards
   In 1924, Pound moved to Italy. Not a wise choice
    overall. Worked for Axis powers during WWII as
    propagandist. Nervous breakdown in 1945 in prison.
   Arrested and tried for treason by U.S. Government.
    Found unfit for trial because of insanity.
    Institutionalized from 1946-1958. Released in 1958,
    moved to Italy, and stayed until death.
   Vicious opponent of federal banking systems.
    F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940)

   “Inventor” of “Lost Generation” novel
   Named after his relative, Francis Scott
    Key. Married Zelda Sayre in 1920.
   The Romantic Egotist (1920)
   The Great Gatsby (1923)
   Tender is the Night (1934)
   Friends with Hemingway, until a fight
    split them forever. (Zelda hated
    Hemingway anyway).
   Zelda was inspiration for much of his
    partying, “lost” characters. He quoted
    her directly in some characters. She had
    a more powerful personality than
    Fitzgerald.
    Wallace Stevens
    (1879-1955)
   Major Modernist poet
   Fun fact: His wife Elsie’s face was used
    on the Mercury Dime (1916-1945)
   Lawyer and eventual V.P. of insurance
    company (The Hartford)
   Pulitzer Prize in 1955
   His best work was written after he turned
    50, an amazing accomplishment.
   Harmonium (1923)
   National Book Awards (1951, 1955)
   Believed old religion was dead, and life
    must be lived differently now.
Ernest Hemingway
(1899-1961)
   A part of ex-pat community in Paris.
   Many canonical works:
   In Our Time (1925)
   Sun Also Rises (1926)
   A Farewell to Arms (1929)
   For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940)
   The Old Man and the Sea (1952) –
    won Pulitzer for this in 1953. Won
    Nobel in 1954.
   Notorious exaggerator; great athlete.
   Drove ambulance in WWI.
William Carlos Williams
(1883-1963)
   Imagist poetry
   “The Red Wheelbarrow”
Edna St. Vincent Millay
(1892-1950)
   Sonnets (see course pack)
   Bohemian
John Steinbeck
(1902-1968)
   Modernist. Accent novellas first
William Faulkner
(1897-1962)
   Time, identity, Southern Gothic
   Absalom! Absalom!
   Sound and the Fury
   Snopes Trilogy
   Yoknapatapha Xounty
Then What Happens?

   German invasion of Poland, in 1939
   End of Colonialism (1946-1950)
   Atomic Bomb (1945)
   WW II (1939-1945)
   Korean War (1950-1953)
   Cold War (1945-1989)
   Vietnam (1964-1975)

								
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