AP Biology Final Review Sheet # 2 Name 1 by RickiePBibey

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									AP Biology Final Review Sheet # 2

Name _________________________

Choose the response which best completes each of the following statements or answers each of the following questions. 1. The bond between two amino acids in a protein is called (1.) a glycosidic bond (2.) an ester bond (3.) an ionic bond (4.) a peptide bond 2. A protein may be denatured by (1.) hydrolysis (2.) heat or heavy metals (3.) action of enzymes (4.) assimilation (5.) dehydration synthesis 3. An enzyme that has two binding sites and exists in two or more conformations is known as (1.) a hydrolytic enzyme (2.) an allosteric enzyme (3.) a catalytic enzyme (4.) a catabolic enzyme (5.) an anabolic enzyme 4. A major reason pH can affect enzyme activity because (1.) most substrates don't function well at high or low pH (2.) high or low pH may disrupt hydrogen bonding and change the shape of the active site (3.) high or low pH may cause the active site to lose its energy (4.) excess hydrogen ions can combine with the substrate and cause the reaction to go more slowly (5.) hydrogen ions absorb energy and thus there may not be enough energy to get the reaction started. 5. Which chemical components make up a nucleotide? (1.) a nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a pentose sugar (2.) a nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a phosphate group (3.) a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar (4.) a nitrogenous base, a fatty acid, and an amino acid (5.) a series of nitrogenous bases and a sugar-phosphate backbone 6. Which level of protein structure are best represented by the alpha helix and pleated beta sheet? (1.) primary structure (2.) secondary structure (3.) tertiary structure (4.) quaternary structure (5.) pentiary structure 7. Estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone belong to which class of molecules? (1.) proteins (2.) amino acids (3.) lipids (4.) carbohydrates (5.) nucleic acids 8. What is meant by the induced fit of an enzyme? (1.) The substrate can be altered so it is induced to fit into the enzyme's active site. (2.) The enzyme is altered so it is induced to fit many different types of substrate. (3.) Several sites on an enzyme can be induced to act on a substrate. (4.) The enzyme changes its shape slightly as it binds to the substrate. (5.) All of the above are correct statements about the induced fit. 9. A competitive inhibitor competes with the __________ at the __________ of an enzyme. (1.) product ... active site (2.) product ... allosteric site (3.) substrate ... active site (4.) substrate ... allosteric site (5.) substrate ... active site and allosteric site

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AP Biology Final Review Sheet # 2

Name _________________________

10. Water is a polar molecule. This means that (1.) the opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges (2.) water molecules are linear, like a pole (3.) water is one of the many hydrophobic molecules (4.) the atoms in water have equal electronegativities (5.) all of the prior statements are true 11. Water resists temperature change because (1.) large bodies of water cannot store heat (2.) heating water absorbs energy by disrupting the hydrogen bonds before evaporation can occur (3.) evaporation of water heats the surface it leaves (4.) hydrogen bonding increases water's ability to vaporize (5.) none of the above 12. That coastal climates are more moderate than inland climates is due primarily to water's high (1.) heat of fusion (2.) surface tension (3.) density (4.) heat of vaporization (5.) specific heat 13. The fatty acid tail of a phospholipid is ___________ because it ___________. (1.) hydrophobic ... dissolves easily in water (2.) hydrophobic ... has no charges to which water molecules can adhere (3.) hydrophilic ... consists of units assembled by dehydration synthesis (4.) hydrophilic ... is easily hydrolyzed into its monomers (5.) hydrophobic ... consists of units assembled by dehydration synthesis 14. The overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide is called the (1.) double helix (2.) primary structure (3.) secondary structure (4.) tertiary structure (5.) quaternary structure 15. Which is NOT a property of water? (1.) Water is an excellent solvent. (2.) Water has a high heat capacity. (3.) Water has a low surface tension. (4.) Water has cohesive properties. (5.) As water freezes it becomes less dense than when in its liquid form. 16. An amino acid is characterized by which of the following functional groups? (1.) amino and hydroxyl (2.) amino and amino (3.) amino and aldehyde (4.) amino and carboxyl (5.) carboxyl and keto 17. In decreasing the activation energy for a given reaction, enzymes (1.) increase the likelihood that molecules involved will collide and form products (2.) decrease the likelihood that molecules involved will collide and form products (3.) have no effect on the rate of product formation in a given reaction (4.) increase the concentration of the substrate (5.) increase the activation energy for a given reaction 18. Which is NOT a property of water? (1.) It has a low heat of vaporization. (2.) It expands when it freezes. (3.) It is a useful solvent. (4.) It has cohesive properties. (5.) It resists changes in temperature better than most other substances. 19. The complete hydrolysis of carbohydrates usually results in the production of (1.) carbon dioxide (2.) simple sugars (3.) glycogen (4.) urea

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AP Biology Final Review Sheet # 2

Name _________________________

20. Which substances are commonly used as the building blocks in the synthesis of some proteins? (1.) sugars (2.) amino acids (3.) fatty acids and glycerol (4.) amino acids and glycerols 21. Which group of organic compounds includes the enzymes? (1.) proteins (2.) starches (3.) carbohydrates (4.) lipids 22. A hydrolysis reaction occurs when (1.) two simpler molecules are combined and water is split out in the reaction (2.) a complex molecule is split into simpler molecules by the addition of water (3.) one element is exchanged for another in a compound (4.) fats are formed from smaller organic molecules 23. Which phrase best matches the definition of the term hydrophobic? (1.) "water-hating" (2.) "water-loving" (3.) "water-impartial" (4.) "water-storing" 24. Which statement describes the currently accepted theory of how an enzyme and its substrate fit together? (1.) As the product is released, the enzyme breaks down. (2.) The enzyme is like a key that fits into the substrate, which is like a lock. (3.) The active site is permanently changed by its interaction with the substrate. (4.) As the substrate binds to the enzyme, the shape of the enzyme site changes to accommodate the reaction. 25. In noncompetitive inhibition, the allosteric inhibitor (1.) attaches to the active site, preventing the substrate from attaching there. (2.) attaches to the substrate, preventing it from attaching to the active site. (3.) changes the pH of the environment, thus preventing enzyme-substrate complex formation. (4.) causes the substrates to polymerize, preventing individual enzyme-substrate attachment. (5.) attaches to the enzyme at a site away from the active site, altering the shape of the enzyme. 26. In competitive inhibition, the inhibitor (1.) attaches to the active site, preventing the substrate from attaching there. (2.) attaches to the substrate, preventing it from attaching to the active site. (3.) changes the pH of the environment, thus preventing enzyme-substrate complex formation. (4.) causes the substrates to polymerize, preventing individual enzyme-substrate attachment. (5.) attaches to the enzyme at a site away from the active site, altering the shape of the enzyme. 27. Which is most similar to the process of competitive inhibition? (1.) When you are about to park your car in your spot, a bulldozer comes along and smashes your car away from the spot. (2.) When you arrive at work in the morning, you are unable to park your car in your assigned parking spot because someone has placed a giant cement block in front of your spot. (3.) When you arrive at work in the morning, you are unable to park your car in your assigned parking spot because the car of the person next to you has taken up just enough space that you can not fit your own car in. (4) When you arrive at work in the morning, you are unable to park your car in your parking spot, because someone with a car exactly like yours has already taken your spot, leaving you nowhere to park your car.

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AP Biology Final Review Sheet # 2

Name _________________________

28. Which has a carboxyl group? (1.) R–NH2 (2.) R–SH (3.) R–OH (4.) R-COOH 29. Which is a weak acid? (1.) R–PO4 (2.) R–SH (3.) R–OH (4.) R-COOH 30. Which has an amine group? (1.) R–NH2 (2.) R–SH (3.) R-COOH (4.) R–OH 31. Which has a sulfhydryl group? (1.) R–NH2 (2.) R–SH (3.) R-COOH (4.) R–OH 32. Some substances, such as oil and gasoline, will not dissolve in water because (1.) their molecules are so large (2.) their molecules have no charges or partial charges to which water molecules can adhere (3.) they do not ionize (4.) their electrons are so stable that they do not exchange with water molecules (5.) oil and gasoline are inorganic compounds

33. What is the molecule illustrated above? (1.) a polyunsaturated triglyceride (2.) an unsaturated fatty acid (3.) likely to be a common component of plant proteins (4.) saturated fatty acid (5.) similar in structure to a steroid 34. Which statement would be true for a chromatogram of spinach? (1.) The Rf for carotene can be determined by dividing the distance the yellow-orange pigment (carotene) migrated by the distance the solvent front migrated. (2.) The Rf value of chlorophyll b will be higher than the Rf value for chlorophyll a. (3.) The molecules of xanthophyll are not easily dissolved in this solvent, and thus are probably larger in mass than the chlorophyll b molecules. (4.) If this same chromatogram were set up and run for twice as long, the Rf values would be twice as great for each pigment. 35. Water is a polar molecule. This means that _____. (1.) the opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges (2.) water molecules are linear, like a pole (3.) water is one of the many hydrophobic molecules (4.) the atoms in water have equal electronegativities (5.) all of the above

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