URBAN GEOGRAPHY TERMS Action space—The geographical area that contains the space an indivdual interacts with on a daily basis. Annexation—the process of legally adding land area to a city. Beaux arts—This movement within city planning and urban design that stressed the marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones. Common characteristics of this period include wide thoroughfares, spacious parks, and civic monuments that stressed progress, freedom, and national unity. City Beautiful movement—Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world. Busing—busing is used in many U.S. cities to promote the racial integration of schools Blockbusting-- process by which real estate agents convince white owners living near a black area to sell their houses at low prices, preying on their fears that black families would soon move into their neighborhood and cause property values to decline. Central business district—The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail 1 stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge. Central City—the core city where the urban area originally began more than 100 years ago. Example: The city of Miami without suburbs like Pinecrest, Hialeah and Coral Gables. Central place theory—A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations. City-state—a state or country that is comprised of a city and its surrounding countryside. It was a common early form of urban settlement. Clustered rural settlement—the most common form of rural settlement. In this settlement a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings. This settlement is very common in India and China. Nucleated settlement this is by far the most common rural residential settlement in agricultural areas. Houses are grouped together in tiny clusters or hamlets, or slightly largers clusters called villages. Dispersed rural settlement—found in developed countries like the U.S. and Canada. It is characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors. Colonial city Cities established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures. Commuting—a journey to a destination that is taken various times in a week. For example the average worker commutes to work five times a week. Concentric zone model Model that describes urban environments as a series of rings of distinct land uses radiating out from a central core, or central business district. Density gradient—as the distance from the center of the city increases, the density of residents and houses decreases. Disamenity sector—sector found in Latin American cities. It is a relatively stable slum area tha radiates ffom the central market to the outermost zone of peripheral squatter settlements that consist of high-density shantytowns. Edge city—cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment. European cities Cities in Europe that were mostly developed during the Medieval Period and that retain many of the same characteristics such as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack. Unlike American cities, the center of tows are inhabited by wealthy people. Exurbanite Person who has left the inner city and moved to outlying suburbs or rural areas. Feudal city Cities that arose during the Middle Ages and that actually represent a time of relative stagnation in urban growth. This system fostered a dependent relationship between wealthy landowners and peasants who worked their land, providing very little alternative economic opportunities. Filtering—the process of changing hands of a property from higher income families to lower income families and eventually abandonment. Gateway city Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas. Gentrification The trend of middle- and upper-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods. Ghetto—economically depressed inner-city neighborhoods ususally populated by an ethnic minority. Ghettoization A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources. Gravity Model—a model of urban geography that considers two things: range and threshold. It states that the potential use of a service at a location is related directly to population and inversely to distance. Gravity model A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other. Breaking point The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply. City of 1,000,000 People Town of 20,000 people 100 miles The breaking point is always situated closer to the smaller urban area, around 15 miles. This means that people that live as much as 80 miles from the larger urban area, still prefer to go to it. Greenbelts—British and European cities are surrounded by open space that are code enforced. Hinterland—the market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves. Industrial Revolution Period characterized by the rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture that occurred in England during the late 18th century and rapidly diffused to other parts of the developed world. Infrastructure—refers to all the facilties that support basic economic activities, like banks, post offices, hotels, roads, airports, cable networks, urban transport Inner city decay Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their populations as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs. Because of these changes, the inner city loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty. Islamic cities Cities in Muslim countries that owe their structure to their religious beliefs. Islamic cities contain mosques at their center and walls guarding their perimeter. Open-air markets, courtyards surrounded by high walls, and dead-end streets, which limit foot traffic in residential neighborhoods, also characterize Islamic cities. Latin American cities Cities in Latin America that owe much of their structure to colonialism, the rapid rise of industrialization, and continual rapid increases in population. Similar to other colonial cities, they also demonstrate distinctive sectors of industrial or residential development radiating out from the central business district, where most industrial and financial activity occurs. Medieval cities Cities that developed in Europe during the Medieval Period and that contain such unique features as extreme density of development wit narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack. Megacities Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since World War II. All megacities are plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty. Megalopolis Several, metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex. Metropolitan area Within the United States, an urban area consisting of one or more whole county units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as a coherent economic whole. Modern architecture Point of view, wherein cities and buildings are thought to act like well- oiled machines, with little energy spent on frivolous details or ornate designs. Efficient, geometrical structures made of concrete and glass dominated urban forms for half a century while this view prevailed. Multiple nuclei model Type of urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of one central place. Node Geographical centers of activity. A large city, such as Los Angeles, has numerous nodes. Postmodern architecture A reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture. Postmodernism uses older, historical styles and a sense of lightheartedness and eclecticism. Buildings combine pleasant-looking forms and playful colors to convey new ideas and to create spaces that are more people-friendly than their modernist predecessors. Rank-size rule—rule that states that the population of any given town should be inversely proportional to its rank in the country's hierarchy when the distribution of cities according to their sizes follows a certain pattern. Primate city A country's leading city, with a population that is disproportionately greater than other urban areas within the same country. Usually for a city to by prime it needs to have more than twice the population of the next largest city. Ex: Buenos Aires has 13,000,000, it is 10 times larger than Cordoba, Argentina’s second largest city. Public Housing—low-income government-owned housing Public Transportation—transportation that is provided by a government entity like: a city or metro area. This transportation ususally is in the form of a bus, subways or elevated Metro-rails or people movers like in Miami. Range—the maximum distance people are willing to travel for a service Rapid transit—is a rail-based transportation system used within urban areas to transport people. To be considered a rapid transit system. Example: subways, metros, elevated trains. Redlining-- process by which banks designate an area within which they refuse to lend money for improvements Sector model A model or urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge-shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors. Segregation The process that results from suburbanization when affluent individuals leave the city center for homogenous suburban neighborhoods. This process isolates those individuals who cannot afford to consider relocating to suburban neighborhoods and must remain in certain pockets of the central city Shantytown—name given to developing world slums found on the periphery of the cities. Squatter settlements Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants. Social area analysis—attempts to explain the distribution of different types of people in an urban area Social Class—The classifcation of society by education and income. Ex.: high class, middle class, lower class. Sprawl—same as urban sprawl. Suburb Residential communities, located outside of city centers, that are usually relatively homogenous in terms of population. Threshold—the minimum number of people needed to support a service Urban Area—the entire continious build-up area around a city core. You start at the city center and it is still the urban area until you start to see large areas of non-city land. In South Florida it is the area when you finally clear the last suburbs North of West Palm Beach and you finally begin to see open spaces. Urban Geography—area of study that focuses on how cities function. Their internal systems and structures, and the external influences on them. Urban growth boundary Geographical boundaries placed around a city to limit suburban growth within that city. Urban revitalization The process occurring in some urban areas experiencing inner city decay that usually involves the construction of new shopping districts, entertainment venues, and cultural attractions to entice young urban professionals back into the cities where nightlife and culture are more accessible. Also called urban renewal. Urban sprawl The process of expansive suburban development over large areas spreading out from a city, in which the automobile provides the primary source of transportation. Urbanization—the process whereby an increasing percentage of people live in urban areas World City Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce. Zoning—developed in the early 20th century, it prevents the mixing of different land uses. Single-family homes, industry and commerce, for example, are kept in different areas of the city.