Lecture on Vocabulary and Language Development Ref: Pinner, pp 359 - 400 Useful because: Gives meaning, spelling, root, different uses, parts of speech. Headwords in alphabetical order. Guide words at the top of the page. Words used in context – try to guess the meanings of difficult words from the context. Some words have more than one meaning. If you have to explain the meaning of a word, check that you give the meaning which fits the situation. When you have to explain a word in a passage, always consider the exact meaning it has in the sentence. Antonyms – words with opposite meanings eg. legal, illegal Synonyms – words which are similar or the same in meaning eg. Illegal, unlawful Homonyms – which have the same spelling but different meanings eg. 1. Where are the rest of the students? 2. You should have a rest. You look tired. Homophones – words which have the same sound, but different spelling and meaning Eg. 1. Please wait for me. 2. What‟s your weight now? Some pairs of words pose difficulties in understanding and usage, eg. Affect/effect Stationary/stationery Compliment/complement Lay/lie Eligible/illegible House/flat These are common verbs followed by a preposition eg. Make up Pull down Pull out Pullthrough Put out Put off Put down Some prefixes have a negative meaning. They can be used to form the opposite of a word. Knowing prefixes and their meanings can help you to work out the meanings of words . Some important prefixes are: binoculars, semicircle, triangular, vice- chairman, television, automatic, pan-Pacific, submarine, benefactor, extraordinary, quadrangle, postpone An idiom is a group of words whose meaning is different from the literal meaning of its individual words. For eg. “Let the cat out of the bag” is an idiom which means to tell a secret by mistake. Cliché – a phrase which has become overused and is no longer interesting eg. “Customer – focused.” Acronym – eg. TILE: Tune In Listen Enquire; UNICEF, UNESCO, UNIFEM, ECREA Language Development: 1. Sentence Structure 2. The Phrase 3. Clauses 4. Types of Sentences Readings. Pinner, D, 1998, Communication Skills, Addison Wesley Longman New Zealand Limited, pp. 373-380. A sentence is a conceptual unit which usually contains one main idea. This idea is placed in the main clause of the sentence. Subject Verb Mere is eating He will pass. The boat capsized. It rained. Joni, Miri and Salote have retired. Group of words which does the work of a single word. Does not make sense on its own. It may contain a verb but not a finite verb. Does not constitute a sentence. Group of words that contain a finite verb. Two types: 1. Dependent – aka the subordinate clause; - Cannot exist on its own. - Must be attached to the main/independent clause to make sense. 2. Independent – the main clause. Can exist on its own. Contain a finite verb. Contains the main idea. Simple sentence – expresses a single main idea ◦ Has one independent clause. Compound sentence – contains two main clauses. Complex sentence – contains a dependent and independent clause. In some languages, linking words are used in pairs. In English (except for either…or and neither…nor), we normally sue one conjunction to join two statements. Correct usage includes the following: After – After I had finished my work, I wrote to my friend. Although – Although it was raining, the meeting was not cancelled. Thus Therefore Because Since When On the other hand In spite of, despite However Moreover For example Placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase which indicates the relationship between nouns and nouns or nouns and pronouns. For eg: The book is on the table. It is on the table. Some common prepositions: About, above across, after against, along, amid, among, around, behind, below, beneath, beside, down, during, from, in, of, off, on, over, thought, till, with up, upon. Means making sure that verbs in sentences are in the same person and number as their subjects. Also, use the correct tense. Pronouns which replace nouns agree in person and number with the nouns. Number means whether the subject is singular or plural. Person is the category into which we put the person who is speaking or being spoken to or about. The first person is the one speaking, eg. I The second person is the being spoken to, eg. You The third person is the one who is being spoken about, eg. He, She, It, They Examples 1. I am going to the meeting.(first person singular) 2. You are all going to the training course.(second person plural) 3. She has never been a very good referee. (third person singular) The following sentence is in agreement: The manager/ is walking/ into the office. subject verb The subject is in the third person and singular. Therefore the verb must take a form which agrees with it. All verbs can indicate the past, present and future. Eg. The secretary was late. (past) The secretary is late.(present) The secretary will be late.(future) Auxiliary verbs: helping verbs Eg is, was, has, have , had Punctuation is used to make writing easier to understand. Some common ones are: Full stop (.)– used to end a sentence. Question mark (?) – used at the end of a question. Capital letters – used for the first word of a sentence, proper nouns, names of organizations, months, days, titles in people‟s names, titles of books, salutation of a letter. Commas (,) – used to separate items in a list, dependent clause from the independent, around words that qualify or add emphasis, after an introductory phrase. Apostrophes („) – indicate abbreviations eg isn‟t , to show possession, eg, Mary‟s book. Semicolon (;) – used instead of a conjunction to separate main clauses that have different subjects, eg, The book is out of print; it may be a while before we get it.