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Research-Based Best Practices for Promoting 21st Century Literacy

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					    Research-Based Best Practices
for Promoting 21st Century Literacy
  Statement of Purpose
   Literacy is a primary goal of any effective school division and school site. Perhaps most importantly,
   students must develop a complex range of literacy competencies and skills to ensure their success in
   the world of the 21st Century. To support the achievement of this goal, Alexandria City Public Schools
   has developed the following literacy framework. It provides a synthesis of research-based principles
   and strategies proven effective in promoting all students’ literacy development—including the critical,
   creative, and self-regulated thinking processes that underlie true 21st Century literacy.

   Communication is at the heart of powerful literacy development—a process in which the sender and
   receiver are aligned in understanding one another. Such understanding requires analysis of both the
   overt and the implied ideas and meanings of a text. Therefore, this framework suggests that the term
   “text” be interpreted in as expansive a way as possible—including text presented via print and
   electronic media as well as the visual and performing arts.

   Literacy-based communication also requires that learners engage in ongoing meta-cognitive/self-
   reflection and self-analysis, i.e., using literacy strategies and processes to self-reflect and revisit and
   revise their own thinking processes and conclusions. Literacy reinforces the enduring understanding
   that we think and communicate for a variety of purposes.

     Long-Range Goals of This Framework:
         This Alexandria City Public Schools literacy framework is designed to:
             1. Articulate an operational definition for “literacy” for use by all ACPS educators,
                parents, and community stakeholders.
             2. Delineate a set of controlling principles related to the key elements of literacy in all
                content areas (i.e., “trans-disciplinary” literacy principles and strategies).
             3. Summarize key research conclusions and evidence-based best practices related to
                literacy within the content areas.
             4. Provide an overview of observable subject-specific strategies for use in different
                content areas.
             5. Delineate strategies designed for use with students as they move along a learning
                continuum (from emergent literacy through advanced, independent applications,
                and transfer of literacy principles and techniques).
             6. Provide a rich variety of electronic/downloadable resources for use with literacy
                professional development sessions and workshops (e.g., websites, electronic links,
                templates, assessment inventories and other tools).


Literacy Framework                                                                                           Page 1
  Table of Contents
  Literacy in the 21st Century School and Workplace .................................................................... Page 4
  An Operational Definition of “Literacy” for Use by
  ACPS Educators and Community Stakeholders ........................................................................... Page 6
  Why This Literacy Framework? What Is It Designed to Help Teachers Do? .......................... Page 9
  Addressing Instructional Practices That Work Against Literacy Development ...................... Page 11
  Observing Literacy at Work in ACPS Classrooms
  A Comprehensive Observation Protocol ........................................................................................ Page 15
  Observing Literacy in the Content Areas ....................................................................................... Page 23
        -- Career and Technical Education                      -- Physical Education                  -- Visual Arts
        -- Mathematics                                         -- Science                             -- World Languages
        -- Performing Arts                                     -- Social Studies                      -- English Language Arts

  Comprehensive Balanced Literacy for Grades K-2 .......................................................................Page 29
  Elements of Balanced Literacy Program: A Framework for the Primary Grades ...................Page 30

  Comprehensive Balanced Literacy for Grades 3-5........................................................................Page 31
  Elements of Balanced Literacy Program:
  A Framework for the Intermediate & Middle Schools .................................................................Page 32
  Key Learning Principles:
  What Does Research Tell Us About Promoting Student Literacy?...........................................Page 33
  Decoding and Comprehending Text:
  Key Research-Based Strategies and Best Practices ........................................................................Page 38
  Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies ...................................................................Page 46
  Observing Student Decoding and Comprehension Behaviors
  in a Literacy-Rich Learning Environment ......................................................................................Page 62
  Vocabulary Acquisition Strategies and Best Practices ..................................................................Page 63
  Note-Taking Strategies ........................................................................................................................Page 67
  A Self-Reflection Questionnaire .......................................................................................................Page 69


Literacy Framework                                                                                                                                         Page 2
  Table of Contents (continued)
  Writing-to-Learn Strategies................................................................................................................ Page 71
  Types of Writing-to-Learn Activities ............................................................................................... Page 72
  Examples of Writing-to-Learn Strategies ........................................................................................ Page 73
  Questioning Strategies
  (Promoting Higher-Order Thinking and Reasoning) .................................................................. Page 74
  A Checklist for Effective Questioning ............................................................................................. Page 81
  Questioning for Quality Thinking .................................................................................................... Page 82
  Oral Language (Speaking/Listening) Strategies ........................................................................... Page 84
  Twelve Components of Effective Classroom Assessment:
  The Skillful Teacher (pp. 433-435) ..................................................................................................Page 87
  Differentiated Assessment to Promote Literacy ............................................................................Page 101
  Literacy Strategies for English Language Learners (ELL) ..........................................................Page 107
  Literacy Strategies for Special Education Learners .......................................................................Page 112
  Literacy Strategies for Talented and Gifted Learners ...................................................................Page 114
  The Role of Technology in Promoting Student Literacy .............................................................Page 117




Literacy Framework                                                                                                                                      Page 3
  Literacy in the 21st Century School and Workplace
  In the face of breathtaking technological innovation, information explosion, and global
  interconnectedness, the 21st Century school and workplace demand knowledge workers equipped to
  deal with change, personal and group dynamics, and self-management. These “meta-competencies”
  require individuals to have well-developed literacy competencies associated with information
  gathering and analysis, written expression, oral communication, data collection and evaluation, and
  empirical observation. Consider that Time Magazine in its May 25, 2009, article “High Tech, High
  Touch, High Growth” (P. 40) described the 10 career fields predicted to grow the most by 2016 as
  work arenas requiring workers to be effective organizers, planners, and time managers—competencies
  that presuppose workers who are literate and capable of critical, creative, and self-regulated learning.

       According to “Beyond the Three Rs” (2009), a report by the Partnership for 21st Century
       Skills: “Voters are clear: We are living in a different era that requires new thinking in our
       approach to educating our youth. 80 percent of voters say the things students need to learn
       today are different than 20 years ago. (P. 1).” This partnership—an internationally recognized
       organization whose aim is “to help students master the multi-dimensional abilities required of
       them in the 21st Century” (P. 1)—stresses the need for every student to acquire the ability to:

              •	 Think	and	work	creatively	with	others		
              •	 Reason	effectively		
              •	 Make	judgments	and	decisions		
              •	 Solve	problems
              •	 Access,	evaluate,	use,	and	manage	information
              •	 Adapt	to	change	and	be	flexible		
              •	 Manage	goals	and	time,	work	independently,	and
                 be self-directed learners
              •	 Manage	projects	and	produce	results
                 (21st Century Skills Framework, pp. 3-7)


  Although longitudinal gains are evident in American students’ basic reasoning and computation skills
  (NAEP, 2008, 2009), American students still lag behind many nations in such areas as practical
  reasoning, analytical and evaluative judgment, and authentic applications of knowledge and skills
  (TIMSS, 2007, 2008; NAEP, 2009; and PISA, 2007). Critics contend that there is a clear and growing
  need to emphasize students’ independent use of complex reasoning skills and related competencies
  such as metacognition, self-assessment, and self-regulation—key components associated with literacy
  and the capacity of individuals to communicate with self, others, and groups.
Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 4
   Robert J. Marzano and many other prominent researchers (e.g., Piaget, 1928; Vygotsky, 1978; Bloom,
   1956; Gardner, 1983) advocate engaging every learner in a gradual release of responsibility, with
   students taught to assume growing levels of self-management and self-regulation. According to
   Marzano (2003): “The research on the impact of teaching students strategies geared toward personal
   responsibility is strong. Positive results using self-regulatory techniques range from increasing
   competence in specific academic areas to increasing classroom participation (P. 77).” In effect, every
   student must learn to: (1) plan for success, (2) organize ideas and materials to achieve personal and
   academic goals, and (3) manage time and related resources in pursuit of both individual and shared
   aims and priorities.

        Educators’ need to address the startling changes we are all experiencing in the world of the
        21st Century is powerfully summarized by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills Framework
        (Education and Global Convergence: What Learning Is Needed for the 21st Century):

               While today’s schools show the influence of industrial and information age models,
               the 21st Century modern school must appropriately employ both individualized
               and large scale approaches to assessment. It must bring together rigorous content
               and real world relevance. It must focus on cognitive skills as well as those in affective
               and aesthetic domains. It must be attentive to the needs of the individual child and to
               society as a whole…At the same time, we can reinvigorate our schools in light of new
               opportunities in our world, and new understandings of how people learn. (P. 7)

        How, then, can we work collaboratively to promote students’ ability to develop and master
        key literacy competencies and habits of mind? This framework is designed to answer that
        important essential question.




Literacy Framework                                                                                         Page 5
  Operational Definition of “Literacy”
  The term “literacy” represents a complex set of interactive mental processes associated with
  responding to, decoding, analyzing, and comprehending text. The term “text” refers to any medium of
  communication in which a “sender” expresses information, ideas, emotions, and life experiences to a
  “receiver” (i.e., a reader or audience). Text includes print and electronic media as well as the visual and
  performing arts. Responding to, analyzing, and comprehending “text” can also include individuals’
  interpretation of life experiences. Additionally, literacy involves our ability to communicate with
  others, including our capacity for written expression, spoken expression, observation, and active
  listening. Ultimately, a truly literate person demonstrates a sustained capacity for communication in a
  variety of media, settings, and situations.

   Universal Principles for use by ACPS Educators and Community Stakeholders

           Comprehend Text          We demonstrate comprehension when we confirm that we
                                    understand print, visual, digital, and performance-based text
                                    (e.g., a painting, a dance, a musical performance) using a
                                    range of decoding and “meaning construction” strategies
                                    and processes.

           Read Text                We construct meaning by activating background knowledge
           Critically and           and drawing inferences in order to analyze and critique the
           Analytically             ideas, structure, and organization of text(s).

           Interpret a Variety      We engage in interpretation to make sense (i.e., “construct
           of Text                  meaning”) of what we experience and read, gathering
                                    information and drawing inferences about what the text is
                                    stating and implying. Texts may include the digital, visual, and
                                    performing arts and the ways in which different media
                                    nterrelate and overlap.

           Write for a Variety      We can express insights, inferences, judgments, and
           of Purposes and          interpretations via written and digital text in order to fulfill a
           Audiences                range of purposes for a variety of audiences.


Literacy Framework                                                                                         Page 6
        Speak Effectively    Oral communication involves our ability to use verbal and
        and Powerfully in    non-verbal cues, signals, techniques, and processes to convey
        Both Formal and      ideas, perspectives, and reactions to a variety of audiences in
        Informal Settings    one-on-one, small group, large group settings and situations—
                             whether face-to-face or digitally.

        Listen Actively      Literacy includes our ability to track another person or group’s
                             communication, including summarizing and paraphrasing what
                             they state directly and imply in accurate and complete ways.

        Observe Accurately   We use our senses to observe situations and real-world
        and Thoroughly to    phenomena, determining patterns and interconnections as well as
        Identify and         constructing meaning about the significance of those phenomena.
        Analyze Patterns

        Think About the      Literate individuals use meta-cognitive reflection to self-
        Meaning of Text      monitor and self-regulate, including determining purpose(s) for
        and Life             communication and interaction with one or more forms of text.
        Experiences

        Develop a Sense of   We can use literacy competencies to make ourselves stronger
        Self-Efficacy        and more self-directed learners. This process requires us to use
                             our ability to respond to a variety of text(s) to become more
                             efficacious in our approach to handling ourselves and our lives.

        Express Ourselves    Literacy also involves our ability to demonstrate creative
        Creatively           thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative
                             products and processes.

        Investigate and      21st Century literacy emphasizes our use of technology as a
        Analyze              vehicle for achieving all literacy-based goals, including
        Technology           translating information, problem solving, decision making,
                             and strategic planning.



Literacy Framework                                                                              Page7
        Use Effective        True literacy is proactive and goal oriented, requiring that we
        Action Planning      clarify our purpose for communication with clarity and
                             precision. Literacy-driven action planning involves
                             pre-determining how we will respond to one or more forms of
                             text and how we will develop and implement an action plan to
                             achieve the range of purpose(s) identified for the process of
                             communication required to complete a particular task.

        Gather and Ana-      A literate 21st Century individual uses a range of sources and
        lyze Information     resources to collect and analyze available data and related
        Ethically and        information in order to achieve our expressed goal(s) for a
        Responsibly          particular task or situation.

        Make Decisions       We must determine the scope of a decision to be made—and
        Using a Coherent     then gather complete and valid evidence to help us determine
        and Sustained        the most viable and productive course of action.
        Strategic Process

        Solve Problems       Literacy is problem-based, requiring us to use a coherent and
        Using a Coherent     sustained approach to identifying and solving authentic
        and Sustained        problems
        Strategic Process

        Understand and       21st Century literacy is culturally sensitive, including our
        Empathize with       capacity to study, analyze, and evaluate the impact of culture
        Universal Cultural   upon individual and group life decisions and perspectives.
        Patterns and
        Distinctions




Literacy Framework                                                                             Page 8
  Why This Literacy Framework - What Is It Designed to Help Teachers Do?
       1. This literacy framework should be used in the context of an ongoing professional learning
          community (PLC) discussion of how to improve students’ literacy performance within and
          across the content areas.
       2. A professional learning community should consist of small groups of individuals
          committed to working on a variation of study group and action research processes. Key
          guiding questions for literacy PLCs should include:
             •	 What	is	the	status	of	our	current	students’	literacy	performance?
   	   	 	 •	 To	what	extent	are	there	gaps	or	areas	of	underachievement	related	to	literacy?
   	   	 	 •	 When	we	disaggregate	student	performance	data,	do	we	discover	specific	cohorts			
                 of students who need extra support or intervention in the areas of literacy within our
                 specific content areas?
   	   	 	 •	 What	research-based	strategies	for	promoting	literacy	are	we	willing	to	try	out	to	ad	
                 dress our identified problems and areas of achievement gap?
   	   	 	 •	 How	can	we	study,	collect	data,	and	determine	the	“value	added”	of	the	strategies			
                 and interventions we use?
   	   	 	 •	 How	can	we	share	our	conclusions	and	insights	with	others	in	the	school?

       3. When PLC groups identify emerging issues and problems shared with other educators in the
          school, the literacy framework can be used as a rich resource for coaching and instructional
          rounds. Here are some suggestions for both:
             •		 Instructional	Coaching:	Instructional	coaches	are	currently	available	to	support		 	
                 teachers in implementing the practices presented in this Literacy Framework. They
                 can do informal classroom observations, data analysis, and provide demonstration
                 lessons modeling key literacy strategies. Peers can also become fellow coaches,
                 observing one another’s classrooms and then exploring ways in which strategies
                 from the Literacy Framework might enhance student performance in the observed
                 classrooms.
   	   	 	 •	 Instructional	Rounds:	Small	groups	make	visitations	to	classrooms,	with	agreed-up	
                 on “look-fors” (both in terms of what the teacher is doing and the students are
                 doing…) derived from the Literacy Framework. They are responsible for collecting
                 and analyzing data patterns relative to the criteria observed. Instructional rounds
                 are designed for data analysis and drawing of inferences about ways to improve
                 student achievement, rather than for purposes of evaluation.



Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 9
       4. Additionally, this Literacy Framework can be used for a variety of formal and informal
          professional development purposes, including:
   	   	 	 •	 Study	group	discussions
   	   	 	 •	 Strategic	planning	activities	(including	coaching	sessions	focusing	on	literacy)
   	   	 	 •	 Departmental	or	grade	level	professional	development
   	   	 	 •	 Formal	professional	development	(on	the	entire	literacy	framework	or	key	aspects	of		
                it such as “writing to learn” strategies)
   	   	 	 •	 Administrative	observation	trainings
   	   	 	 •	 Professional	development	activities	related	to	Response	to	Intervention	(RtI)
   	   	 	 •	 Alignment	with	school	improvement	planning	initiatives
   	   	 	 •	 Outreach	initiatives	to	parents	and	community	members




Literacy Framework                                                                              Page 10
  Addressing Instructional Practices That Work Against Literacy Development:
  This Alexandria City Public Schools’ Literacy Framework is designed to help all educators integrate
  research-based best practices designed to promote maximum achievement among all learners.
  Specifically, it is designed to provide a counterpoint to instructional practices proven by research to
  work against students’ maximum literacy development. Such practices include:
       1. Emphasizing excessive didactic presentation of material (i.e., the “Sage on the Stage” model
          of pedagogy): e.g., lecturing consistently during an entire class period. The research confirms
          that for every ten minutes of formal didactic presentation, students need to engage in some
          alternative form of small group or independent application and transfer work.
       2. Using texts and related print and non-print materials that are not relevant or accessible to
          students. Research tells us that a variety of materials are necessary—with student choice
          playing a highly significant role in promoting motivation, engagement, and high levels of
          student interest.
       3. Using “busy work” to keep students quiet or passively occupied as a part of classroom
          management: e.g., Word Searches, mechanical filling in of worksheets, crossword puzzles,
          mindless drill-and-kill computer games. The research tells us that the learner must be
          encouraged to be actively engaged in the learning process, including playing a central role
          in self-regulation and self-assessment. Students must see the relevance of what they are doing
          and why they are doing it. All learning activities and assignments should be clearly
          criterion-related, i.e., students are very clear about the connection between lesson and unit
          outcomes and the activities students are responsible for completing.
       4. Displaying variations of low expectations: e.g., “I don’t ask my students to read because either
          they won’t or they can’t…”: Students will not improve in their reading comprehension
          performance unless they are engaged in active and guided reading processes. The strategies
          identified in this framework can be used to promote active student comprehension—
          especially when “tiered” readings are provided, i.e., readings assigned to students based upon
          the same content focus but with varying degrees of reading difficulty or challenge. If the
          students cannot read the identified text, teachers should provide alternatives. If students
          won’t read, we need to examine ways to motivate them and engage their interest and sense of
          relevance and authenticity.




Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 11
       5. Overemphasizing fiction—as opposed to non-fiction—as a text selection choice
          (a variation of assigning reading but not teaching students how to read it, e.g., a textbook
          selection): Students need direct and ongoing instruction in how to approach and “unlock”
          non-fiction text. Interestingly, research confirms that reluctant readers actually prefer
          working with non-fiction—with that format appearing to them as more accessible and
          manageable. Emphasizing non-fiction-related reading, writing, speaking, and listening
          activities can greatly enhance student comprehension and ability to communicate insights
          and conclusions. Ideally, students should periodically have choice as to text selection,
          reinforcing the power of differentiating based upon students’ interests and learning profiles.
       6. Merely assigning reading—as opposed to helping students scaffold and analyze assigned
          reading selections (including excessive use of Round Robin Reading): Reading should never be
          just “assigned” without guiding questions and processes to help students decode and analyze the
          meaning of the text. For example, every reading selection should have suggested guide questions
          presented in the context of a meaningful reading protocol such as Before-During-After or SQ3R.
          Similarly, merely having students engage in Round Robin reading (i.e., having students take turns
          orally reading a paragraph) is proven by research to impede—rather than enhance—students’
          reading comprehension since it often becomes a mechanical exercise in filling time.
       7. Putting students in small groups and assuming that this constitutes cooperative learning:
          A powerful 21st Century skill all students must develop is the capacity for collaboration and
          operating effectively as a group member. Effective cooperative learning ensures that students
          have a clear sense of purpose for their small group cohort and have clearly articulated norms for
          group interaction. Roles (e.g., facilitator, time keeper, sergeant-at-arms, reporter/recorder, etc.)
          should be clear, aligned with task purpose, and rotated during different sessions so that no one
          remains in a single role consistently. Additionally, cooperative learning should be evaluated using
          both group and individual grades, ensuring that no one individual takes on primary
          responsibilities for task completion. Cooperative learning structures can greatly reinforce
          students’ reading comprehension (e.g., Reciprocal Teaching, Tournaments and Games, etc.).




Literacy Framework                                                                                        Page 12
       8. Suggesting that writing (or other literacy competencies) is only the responsibility of the
           English teacher: Writing can be a powerful learning tool—not just the basis for an
           assignment. This literacy framework confirms that writing improves reading, and reading
           processes can enhance students’ writing performance. When assigning a writing activity,
           students need to understand its purpose and its relationship to overall unit or lesson goals.
           Informal writing assignments can be powerful writing-to-learn activities (e.g., Exit Slips,
           Postcards Home, etc.). Additionally, all content areas should adopt some variation of the
           writing process when formal compositions or essays are assigned, with students moving
           through identifiable stages in writing: pre-writing, drafting, peer review, revision, editing,
           publishing).
       9. Failing to integrate formal and informal speaking/listening activities and assignments into all
           content areas: Research is absolute in confirming that students will not learn to speak and
           actively listen unless they are formally—and ongoingly—taught to do so. Students need
           models, opportunities shape their ability to present in formal and informal situations, and
           culminating performance assessment tasks requiring some form of formal or informal
           presentation. Active listening (including students’ ability to summarize and paraphrase
           accurately the ideas of others to whom they are listening) should be a regular and consistent
           part of classroom community rules and culture. Giving students opportunities to engage in
           small group and whole group presentations greatly reinforces their understanding of
           text- based information and ideas.
       10. Using technology as a cut-and-paste tool—rather than a true means for accessing, analyzing,
           and presenting information: Research confirms that technology should be used as a tool for
           answering student-generated questions and problems. Its use should be creative and inquiry-
           based—rather than a mechanical tool for students to replicate existing information by
           cutting and pasting from a website. The use of technology should be modeled by the teacher,
           with students taught to move toward constructed meaning and transfer-based independent
           application. Technology is not an end-in-itself—but a vehicle for opening up to students the
           rich possibilities of information accessing, analysis, and synthesis.




Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 13
       11. Assigning “word lists” and requiring students to “look up” and write dictionary
            definitions—and then use the word in a sentence: Research is absolute that this approach is
            both the most used—and ironically the least effective method for teaching students
            academic vocabulary. Instead, students need to have models of descriptions, examples, and
            explanations for key academic terms. They need to create original versions of these ideas—
            and actively use key academic vocabulary as part of daily discourse in class. Eventually,
            students need to confirm their automatic use and internalization of key terms. Additionally,
            a limited (rather than excessive) number of academic words and phrases should be taught as
            part of formal vocabulary instruction. Excessively long (and sometimes trivial) word lists
            can overload the learning process—and produce less—rather than more—student
            comprehension and application.


      So, this literacy framework will encourage educators in Alexandria City Public Schools to em-
      phasize the following literacy processes in each of their classrooms:

             •	 Read	more,	talk	more,	write	more,	think	more!
             •	 Allow	for	lots	of	choice	in	readings,	including
                differentiated texts—
             •	 Ensure	that	students	read	for	a	range	of
                purposes —from personal interest to gathering
                information to becoming informed about their
                world—
             •	 Model	literacy	strategies,	including	using
                think-aloud activities to reinforce for students
                how you are using a particular strategy or process—
             •	 Integrate	technology	into	the	enhancement	of	students’	understanding	of		
                text and discourse— rather than as an end in itself—
             •	 Help	all	learners	to	understand	the	value	of	literacy	and	its	subcomponents		
                as essential life-long skills that will help to determine their success and
                happiness—




Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 14
  Observing Literacy at Work in ACPS Classrooms:
   A Comprehensive Observation Protocol
   Suggestions for Use:
   The following observation protocol contains a detailed description of what an observer should see in
   any ACPS classroom in which literacy-based principles and best practices are operational.
   This protocol can be used for a variety of purposes, including:
        1. Informal observations by administrators
        2. Peer observations and coaching
        3. Instructional rounds
        4. Walk-through observations involving external and/or internal teams
   The observation categories and related performance indicators can be addressed in their totality—or
   observers may elect to concentrate upon one category at a time, looking for patterns and trends related
   to a single area of literacy instruction and related student performance.
   Observers may wish to use the following rating scale to assess the level of use of a particular strategy
   or category:
                          4 = Highly evident throughout the lesson
                          3 = Evident during key aspects of lesson delivery
                          2 = Occasionally evident
                          1 = Little if any evidence

  Part I: Decoding Text:
      To what extent do emergent readers:
        1. Display alphabet knowledge, correctly pronouncing the names and sounds associated with
           printed letters?
        2. Demonstrate phonological awareness, detecting, manipulating, or analyzing the auditory
           aspects of spoken language (including the ability to distinguish or segment words, syllables,
           or phonemes), independent of meaning?
        3. Rapidly and automatically name letters or digits, including rapidly naming a sequence of
           random letters or digits?
        4. Rapidly and automatically name objects or colors, including accurately responding to a
           sequence of repeating random sets of pictures of objects (e.g., car, tree, house, man) or
           colors?
        5. Write letters in isolation on request or write their own name?

Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 15
   Part I: Decoding Text:
       To what extent do emergent readers (continued):
       7. Apply concepts about print, including knowledge of print conventions (e.g., left-right, front-
          back) and concepts (book cover, author, text)?
       8. Demonstrate print knowledge, i.e., a combination of alphabet knowledge, concepts about
          print, and early decoding?
       9. Show reading readiness, a combination of alphabet knowledge, concepts of print, vocabulary,
          memory, and phonological awareness?
       10. Produce or comprehend spoken language, including vocabulary and grammar?
       11. Engage in visual processing, matching or discriminating visually presented symbols?

   Part II: Comprehending Text:
       To what extent do students:
       1.   Demonstrate comprehension of print, visual, digital, and performance-based text
            (e.g., a painting, a dance, a musical performance, a scientific experiment)?
       2.   Strategically apply before-, during-, and after-reading strategies to construct meaning in
            response to text?
       3.   Use a range of decoding strategies and processes?
       4.   Use a range of “meaning construction” strategies and processes?
       5.   Transfer what they have read or learned, including explaining, interpreting, and applying it
            to new or unanticipated situations and tasks?
       6.   Analyze perspectives and express empathy in response to text?
       7.   Use a variety of metacognitive processes requiring them to self-regulate, self-assess,
            self-express, and self-adjust?

   Part III: Reading Text Critically and Analytically:
       To what extent do students:
       1. Construct meaning by activating background knowledge and experience aligned with content?
       2. Draw inferences in order to analyze and critique the ideas, structure, and organization of
          text(s)?
       3. Pose and answer a range of inferential, critical, and synthesis questions while reading?
       4. Develop critical inferences and conclusions?

Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 16
  Part III: Reading Text Critically and Analytically:
      To what extent do students (continued):
       5.   Support conclusions with text-based evidence?
       6.   Make judgments about the quality of ideas and presentation in a text(s)?
       7.   Discern how parts of a text align with the whole?
       8.   Make connections within and across texts, including tracing the development of key motifs
            and themes?

  Part IV: Interpreting a Variety of Text (Digital, Visual, and Performing Arts)—
           Including Exploring Ways in Which Different Media Interrelate and Overlap:
      To what extent do students:
       1. Engage in interpretation to make sense of what they experience and read?
       2. Use their understanding of the grammar and structures of specific media (e.g., electronic,
          visual, performing) to interpret and evaluate non-print text?
       3. Gather information and draw inferences about what the text is stating and implying?
       4. Collect and present evidence from the text to defend conclusions and assertions?
       5. Compare alternative or conflicting perspectives presented in opposing texts?
       6. Determine which perspective(s) may have the greatest validity—and why?

  Part V: Writing for a Variety of Purposes and Audiences:
      To what extent do students:
       1.   Express insights, inferences, judgments, and interpretations via written and digital text?
       2.   Use written expression to achieve a range of purposes (i.e., to describe, narrative, inform,
            explain and support ideas, convey information, analyze and critique, persuade and defend
            an argument or perspective, and help oneself to clarify and understand information and
            real-world experiences)?
       3.   Write for a variety of audiences?
       4.   Convey a personal tone and voice in their written expression?
       5.   Use the stages of the writing process to enhance written communication (i.e., pre-writing,
            drafting, revision and peer critique, final drafting, publishing)?
       6.   Use writing as a vehicle for self-expression?
       7.   Use writing as a tool for self-inquiry and self-discovery?
Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 17
   Part VI: Speaking Effectively and Powerfully in Both Formal and
            Informal Settings:
       To what extent do students:
       1.   Use verbal and non-verbal cues, signals, techniques, and processes to convey ideas?
       2.   Engage actively in a variety of formal and informal speech activities (e.g., formal and
            informal debates, presentations, panel discussions, think-pair-share activities)?
       3.   Use oral communication strategies to communicate and express personal perspectives and
            reactions?
       4.   Modify oral communication to accommodate the needs, goals, and backgrounds of a variety
            of audiences?
       5.   Communicate effectively in one-on-one, small group, large group settings and situations—
            whether face-to-face or digitally?
       6.   Use feedback (verbal and non-verbal) from the audience to adjust and vary oral
            communication and self-expression?
       7.   Integrate, where appropriate, visual aids and electronic tools to reinforce and enhance oral
            communication and presentations?

   Part VII: Listening Actively So That We Understand What Someone Is Saying
             and How He or She Is Saying It:
       To what extent do students:
       1.   Track another person or group’s communication accurately and appropriately?
       2.   Summarize and restate accurately what others communicate in a dialogue or conversation?
       3.   Use information they receive aurally in order to draw inferences,
       4.   Apply information they receive aurally to make decisions and solve problems?
       5.   Display empathy and understanding when listening to others?
       6.   Function as a responsible and responsive audience member?




Literacy Framework                                                                                  Page 18
  Part VIII: Observing Accurately and Thoroughly to Identify and
             Analyze Patterns:
      To what extent do students:
       1.    Use their senses to observe accurately situations and real-world phenomena?
       2.    Determine patterns and interconnections as well as constructing meaning about the
             significance of those phenomena?
       3.    Take in and make sense of print and non-print communication media?

  Part IX: Thinking About the Meaning of Text and Life Experiences:
      To what extent do students:
       1. Use metacognitive reflection to self-monitor and self-regulate as they respond to text and life
          experiences?
       2. Determine purpose(s) for communication and interaction with one or more forms of text?
       3. Adjust behavior as they receive feedback and input from themselves and others?
       4. Modify their behavior to help them get closer to becoming proficient in applying a
           procedure or process?
       5. Adjust behavior to achieve identified short- and long-range goals?

  Part X: Developing a Sense of Self-Efficacy:
    To what extent do students:
     1.     Use literacy skills and competencies to make themselves stronger and more self-directed
            learners?
     2.     Use their ability to respond to a variety of text(s) to acquire information that will help them
            to make decisions, solve problems, and become efficacious in their approach to handling
            themselves and their lives?
     3.     Demonstrate progress toward becoming responsible individuals and citizens capable of
            responding to and evaluating critically a variety of text-based messages?
     4.     Assume responsibility for their actions as life-long learners?
     5.     Use their information-acquisition skills and processes to enrich their lives as human beings?




Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 19
   Part XI: Expressing Ourselves Creatively:
       To what extent do students:
       1.   Demonstrate creative thinking?
       2.   Construct knowledge and develop innovative products and processes to confirm their a
            chievement of designated goals and standards?
       3.   Articulate and communicate a personal voice and vision, drawing upon their life experiences
            and understandings to generate new and novel ideas?
       4.   Display fluency of self-expression and originality of thought?
       5.   Use creative thinking strategies (e.g., pre-writing, brainstorming, collaborative idea
            generation) as part communicating with others?
       6.   Express their understanding of themselves and others through various forms of creative
            expression?

  Part XII: Investigating and Analyzing Technology and Using It as a Vehicle
            for Understanding, Communication, and Self-Expression:
      To what extent do students:
       1.   Use technology as a vehicle for achieving literacy-based goals?
       2.   Translate information across media?
       3.   Apply technology to tasks involving problem solving, decision making, and strategic
            planning?
       4.   Access and disseminate digital information ethically and responsibly?
       5.   Use technology as a tool and focal point for study, analysis, and critique in itself?
       6.   Determine the most viable technologies to use to achieve a goal or purpose?
       7.   Judge the validity and value of electronic tools and sources?
       8.   Discern creative ways they can integrate technology into their own communication
            process—with both self and others?
       9.   Use technology as an essential literacy vehicle for self-analysis and self-actualization?




Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 20
  Part XIII: Using Effective Action Planning:
      To what extent do students:
       1.   Demonstrate the ability to be proactive and goal oriented?
       2.   Clarify their purpose for communication with clarity and precision?
       3.   Pre-determine how they will respond to one or more forms of text?
       4.   Develop and implement an action plan to achieve the range of identified purpose(s) and
            goals for communication?
       5.   Revisit and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their action as they implement and
            complete it?

  Part XIV: Gathering and Analyzing Information Ethically and Responsibly
            in Order to Achieve Self-Generated or Collaboratively-Identified
            Goals
      To what extent do students:
       1. Use a range of sources and resources to collect and analyze available data and related
          information in order to achieve expressed goal(s) for a particular task or situation?
       2. Continually evaluate and make judgments about the validity of the sources they use—and
          strive for objective and unbiased resources to the extent that they are available?
       3. Ensure that information is as complete, unbiased, and accurate as possible?
       4. Engage in responsible collection and analysis of information?
       5. Observe copyright and intellectual property laws and policies?
       6. Ensure that they do not suggest that another’s ideas, words, images, or related artistic
          products are their own?

  Part XV: Making Decisions Using a Coherent and Sustained Strategic
           Process: To what extent do student:
      To what extent do students:
       1. Determine the scope of a decision to be made—and then gather complete and valid evidence
          to help us determine the most viable and productive course of action?
       2. Identify the key elements of the decision to be made (to fulfill one or more stated goals)?
       3. Brainstorm possible alternative solutions to achieve their goal(s)?

Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 21
   Part XV: Making Decisions Using a Coherent and Sustained Strategic Process:
       To what extent do students (continued):
       4.   Gather and analyze information to evaluate each decision?
       5.   Use clear evaluation criteria to judge alternative options?
       6.   Make the most efficacious choice concerning the alternative options available to us?
       7.   Develop and implement an action plan to achieve or realize the final decision(s) they make?
       8.   Evaluate the results of their action planning process, including adjusting and modifying as needed?


   Part XVI: Solving Problems Using a Coherent and Sustained Strategic Process:
       To what extent do students:
       1. Use a coherent and sustained approach to identifying and solving authentic problems?
       2. Clearly define and articulate the problem (i.e., a barrier or issue that is impeding our
          achievement of one or more goals)?
       3. Analyze possible causes for the problem?
       4. Brainstorm and analyze alternative approaches to solving the problem?
       5. Select the most viable approach to solving the problem, based upon coherent and well
          articulated evaluation criteria?
       6. Plan the implementation of the best alternative, based upon those criteria (i.e., action
          planning)?
       7. Monitor implementation of the plan, making adjustments as needed?
       8. Verify if the problem has been resolved, making appropriate adjustments?

   Part XVII: Understanding and Empathizing with Universal Cultural Patterns
              and Distinctions Unique to a Specific Cultural Context:
       To what extent do students:
       1. Display cultural awareness, including a capacity to study, analyze, and evaluate the impact of
          culture upon individual and group life decisions and perspectives?
       2. Express an understanding of the importance of cultural context and how it influences our
          interpretations about the meaning of real -world experiences and phenomena?
       3. Demonstrate an ability to “read” a cultural context, including empathizing with others who
          come from different backgrounds and cultural settings?
       4. Recognize, explain, and apply universal themes and patterns that unify and connect different
          eras and cultural milieus?
Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 22
  Observing Literacy in the Content Areas
   Suggestions for Use:
   In addition to the research-based principles identified previously, every content area presents unique
   challenges and opportunities for promoting student literacy. Consider the literacy strategies
   recommended for each of the following content areas. To what extent are they evident in your own
   classroom—or in the classrooms of teachers you observe?

  Career and Technical Education
        1. Encourage students to use SQ3R (survey, question,
           read, recite, review) as they read and analyze technical text.
        2. Anticipate areas of required text that may present challenges and
           difficulties for some students.
        3. Encourage students to identify and apply key academic
           vocabulary required for students to understand key unit
           concepts, skills, and processes.
        4. Periodically engage students in writing assignments that will extend and refine their
           understanding of key content using digital and print tools.
        5. When students work in one-on-one and small group settings, model and reinforce students’
           active listening skills.
        6. Support students’ use of technology to design and complete required and independent tasks.
        7. Offer opportunities for students to present findings and achievements in formal and informal
           discussion and presentation formats.

  Mathematics
        1. Emphasize the importance of reading comprehension strategies
           as part of students’ work with mathematical word problems
           (i.e., the need to “unpack” the meaning of text presented within
           the problem).
        2. Encourage students to share insights and approaches to
           problem solving in one-on-one and small group debriefing
           sessions.



Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 23
   Mathematics (continued)
       3. Ask students to summarize and synthesize what they have learned in a particular lesson (or
          lesson segment) using exit slips, reflective journal entries, and other forms of brief, informal
          writing activities in digital or print formats.
       4. Have students present oral summaries and presentations of their approaches to mathematical
          problem solving (e.g., creating a power point or video, demonstration, recap).
       5. Approach academic vocabulary in mathematics strategically, ensuring that students have a
          conceptual understanding of key terms and phrases.
       6. Integrate technology into students’ exploration of key mathematical concepts and problem-
          solving processes, including electronic opportunities to debrief, reflect, and revise thinking.

   Performing Arts
       1. Explore with students the concept of “performance
          as text”: What will we experience? How is the
          performance organized? What are the “grammars”
          of the art form we are investigating (i.e., rules,
          procedures, protocols)?
       2. Debrief with students at the conclusion of a performance (or a preparation for one): What
          have we learned? How might we have improved the performance? What do we need to work
          on next?
       3. Ensure that core academic vocabulary is taught directly, with students encouraged to use key
          academic terms as part of everyday discourse.
       4. Ask students to write and publish reviews and critiques of performances they observe and
          experience as audience members.
       5. Allow time for students to debrief and synthesize their reactions to their own
          performances—and those of peers and professionals—via oral presentations and informal
          small group analysis.




Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 24
  Physical Education
       1. At key juncture points during the academic year, encourage
          students to investigate and analyze articles and related readings
          focused upon a key theme, issue, or topic explored in class.
       2. Ask students to summarize and analyze these readings—and
          present their conclusions and insights to peers in virtual and
          face-to-face settings.
       3. Integrate writing opportunities for students, e.g., summaries,
          reflections, opportunities to analyze a particular issue or process.
          Use both digital and print formats for writing assignments.
       4. Periodically, provide opportunities for students to discuss their
          progress with peers: What have I learned? What am I doing well? What do I need help with?
       5. Revisit key academic vocabulary using research-based techniques and strategies.

  Science
       1. Approach science labs as a form of text: What can we
          predict we will observe? What will we need to complete
          the lab? What is the purpose(s) of doing this lab? How
          will we collect and analyze data during the lab? How will
          we debrief at the conclusion of the lab? How will we work
          together during the lab?
       2. Introduce and revisit key academic vocabulary,
          encouraging students to internalize and use it as a part of their own daily discourse.
       3. Integrate formal and informal writing assignments into weekly debriefings and synthesis
          essions using both digital and print writing formats.
       4. Encourage students to present their insights and observations in formal and informal oral
          presentation sessions using both virtual and face-to-face settings.
       5. Integrate technology into students’ work with science content and processes, including
          opportunities for on-line investigations and research.




Literacy Framework                                                                                Page 25
   Social Studies
       1. Reinforce students’ understanding of the range of
          text associated with social studies (i.e., expository,
          argumentation/persuasive, editorials, political
          cartoons, etc.)—revisiting key text-based features
          and challenges in both digital and print formats.
       2. Emphasize comparison and contrast of perspectives
          and points of view as a key focal point for reading
          and discussion.
       3. Include opportunities for formal and informal
          debate as a powerful tool for building students’ oral
          communication skills and competencies.
       4. Use technology as a powerful tool for research and information accessing and analysis.
       5. Make certain that key academic vocabulary is taught within the context of lessons,
          emphasizing students’ acquisition and internalizing of key terms and concepts.
       6. Ensure that written expression, both digital and print, is a fundamental and ongoing part of
          students’ learning experience in social studies.
       7. Reinforce principles and strategies for active listening as students discuss and debate ideas
          and perspectives.

   Visual Arts
       1. Explore with students the concept of “visual art as text”:
          What are our expectations about this medium? How is the
          art form organized? What are the “grammars” of the art form
          we are investigating (i.e., rules, procedures, protocols)?
       2. Debrief with students at the conclusion of a class discussion
          of a particular artist or genre: What have we learned?
          How has this viewing experience expanded our
          understanding and insight? What misunderstandings or
          misconceptions have we addressed?
       3. Prepare students to understand the sequence required to complete an assigned task
          including using SQ3R or other reading strategies as they prepare to interact with a written
          text (e.g., sets of directions).

Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 26
  Visual Arts (continued)
       4. Ensure that core academic vocabulary is taught directly, with students encouraged to use key
          academic terms as part of everyday discourse in approaching the visual arts.
       5. Ask students to write and publish reviews and critiques of art works and media they observe
          and experience.
       6. Allow time for students to debrief and synthesize their reactions to their own work—and
          those of peers and professionals—via oral presentations and informal small group analysis
          (i.e., peer critiques and peer review sessions) using both virtual and face-to-face environments.

  World Languages
       1. Integrate research-based decoding skills and strategies into
          students’ initial work with language acquisition within the
          world language they are studying.
       2. Use appropriate previewing and related before-during-after
          reading strategies as students read and discuss text presented
          in the world language being studied.
       3. Offer extensive opportunities for students to understand and
          apply key concepts, words, idioms, and phrases—using key vocabulary instruction
          techniques and strategies to reinforce vocabulary acquisition.
       4. Emphasize oral communication activities and tasks using digital and face-to-face tools to rein
          force and extend students’ growing fluency and language command.
       5. Periodically, offer students opportunities to engage in and record dialogues, monologues, and
          spontaneous conversations using key expressions and vocabulary.
       6. Integrate technology into students’ exploration of the history and culture of world regions
          and locales associated with the world language being studied engaging in digital
          communication and collaboration tools.




Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 27
   English Language Arts
       1. Use a range of “before/pre-reading” strategies to engage
          student interest and understanding of the goals and purposes
          of assigned reading assignments and related text(s).
       2. Encourage students during reading of fiction and non-fiction,
          digital and print text to reflect on their comprehension and
          monitor their level of understanding.
       3. Ask students to share insights and observations about the meaning of text selections.
       4. At the conclusion of reading assignments, encourage students to synthesize ideas, patterns,
          and themes.
       5. Integrate reading and writing assignments, encouraging students to share insights about text
          via formal and informal compositions in digital and print formats.
       6. Use a range of formal and informal oral presentation and communication strategies and
          processes in virtual as well as face-to-face settings.
       7. Identify key academic vocabulary necessary for student understanding of text, including
          examples, illustrations, and explanations presented by instructor and then refined through
          student application.
       8. Integrate technology into tasks that allow students to express insights and observations,
          including technology-based information investigation and analysis.




Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 28
     Comprehensive Balanced Literacy for Grades K-2
                    Read Aloud and Interactive Read Aloud:
                    The teacher reads aloud to the whole class or small groups of learners, modeling fluent reading of
                    narrative and expository text structures. In the Interactive Read Aloud, the teacher models his/her
  Teacher Support




                    thinking process to demonstrate how good readers engage in metacognition during reading.
                    Students practice targeted objectives in peer to peer conversations about meaningful text.
                    Selected reading materials represent a variety of genres and reflect our diverse society. There is an
                    emphasis on oral language, vocabulary and comprehension.

                    Shared Reading:
                    Using enlarged text that all children can see or multiple copies of the text, the teacher reads to the
                    children. Eventually, learners join in, reading repeated phrases, refrains, etc. with the teacher.
                    Favorite texts may be re-read many times, drawing attention to the special features. Re-reading
                    familiar text with children also models and develops fluency and expressive reading. Appropriate
                    Shared Reading texts are those that the reader can successfully access with support. Suggested
                    texts include big books, content materials, retellings, summaries, interactive and shared writing
                    products, poems, songs and student-made books. There is an emphasis on fluency, vocabulary
                    and comprehension.

                    Small Group Differentiated Instruction:
                    The teacher uses data to cluster small groups of students at similar developmental spelling stages
                    and reading levels. The teacher supports students through systematic word study/phonics



                                                                                                                             Learner Independence
                    instruction and purposeful introduction and guidance through new text. Through a consistent
                    word study routine that uses a compare and contrast strategy rather than worksheets, children
                    learn to recognize sounds and patterns within and across words, working toward effortless word
                    recognition in multiple contexts. The teacher then uses minilessons before, during and after the
                    reading to support students in reading the entire text to themselves. There is an emphasis on
                    phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension.

                    Accountable Independent Reading:
                    Students read a large quantity and variety of texts. The texts are carefully selected, by the student
                    and/or teacher, to be at the student’s independent reading level and to be of high-interest to the
                    student. As appropriate, the teacher implements accountable reading structures that support
                    developing each and every student’s stamina, independence and engagement with reading. There
                    is an emphasis on fluency and comprehension.

                                                          Key:
                                                                  High        Low

Literacy Framework                                                                                                             Page 29
      Elements of Balanced Literacy Program: A Framework for the Primary Grades

                    Writing
  Teacher Support




                    Writing Aloud:
                    The teacher models writing by prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing in front of the learners.
                    The teacher verbalizes his/her thinking (“thinks aloud”), demonstrating to students how a writer
                    thinks when engaged in writing.

                    Shared Writing:
                    The teacher and children work together to compose messages and stories. The teacher supports
                    the process as scribe.


                    Interactive Writing:




                                                                                                                            Learner Independence
                    As in shared writing, the teacher and learners compose messages and stories that are written using
                    a “shared pen” technique. The process directly and physically involves the children in writing.

                    Guided Writing or Writing Workshop:
                    The children engage in writing a variety of texts. They listen to and share constructive comments
                    about one another’s writing and participate together in the editing process. The teacher guides the
                    process and provides instruction through mini-lessons and conferences.

                    Independent Writing:
                    The children write their own pieces, retellings, labels, speech balloons, lists, correspondents, etc.
                    This is in addition to writing stories and informational pieces. As often as possible, the writing is
                    for real purposes and real audiences; i.e., it is authentic.




                    Special attention to letters, letter sounds, words, and how words work:
                    This attention is woven throughout the balanced literacy’s framework’s teaching and learning
                    activities. Teachers seize opportunities to teach phonics as well as - in the primary grades - phone-
                    mic awareness. Children learn how to use letters and words in their reading and writing, including
                    and understanding of the use of temporary spellings as well as correct application of spelling
                    principals. Learners’ skill in using letters and words is supported through the use of alphabet
                    centers, word banks, word walls, word sorts, etc.




Literacy Framework                                                                                                           Page 30
     Comprehensive Balanced Literacy for Grades 3-5
                    Read Aloud and Interactive Read Aloud:
  Teacher Support




                    The teacher reads aloud to learners, modeling fluent reading of narrative and expository text structures. In
                    the Interactive Read Aloud, the teacher models his/her thinking process to demonstrate how good readers
                    engage in metacognition during reading. Students practice targeted objectives in peer-to-peer conversations
                    about the meaningful text. Selected reading materials represent a variety of genres and reflect our diverse
                    society. There is an emphasis on oral language, vocabulary and comprehension.

                    Shared Reading:
                    Using enlarged text that all children can see or multiple copies of the text, the teacher reads to the children.
                    Eventually, learners join in as they develop fluency and expression, with the teacher’s guidance. Appro-
                    priate shared reading texts are those that the reader can successfully access with support. Suggested texts
                    include big books, poems, songs, readers’ theatre scripts and content area books. There is an emphasis on
                    fluency, vocabulary and comprehension.

                    Small Group Differentiated Instruction:
                    Guided Reading: The teacher works with groups of learners having similar reading processes, supporting
                    the readers in the strategic reading of text, often nonfiction. The teacher selects teaching points and pro-
                    vides mini-lessons before, during and after the reading. With the teacher’s support, all students individually
                    read the entire text to themselves. At-promise readers receive explicit phonics instruction during part of
                    these lessons. There is an emphasis on systematic comprehension instruction, as well as vocabulary
                    instruction, for all students.

                    Literature Circles:
                    Students meet in small, temporary groups to discuss selected texts, often novels. Students read the text on their
                    own and then convene for discussion according to a regular, predictable schedule. Teachers serve as facilitators,
                    not instructors, during the book discussions, which are open-ended and conversational in nature. There is an
                    emphasis on vocabulary and comprehension.
                                                                                                                                            Learner Independence
                    Word Study:
                    The teacher uses data to cluster small groups of students at similar developmental spelling stages. Through a
                    consistent word study routine that uses a compare and contrast strategy rather than worksheets, children learn
                    to recognize sounds and patterns within and across words, working toward effortless word recognition in
                    multiple contexts. Word Study is a bridge between reading and writing. As features are taught, students are held
                    accountable for applying them in daily reading and writing. There is an emphasis on phonics and vocabulary.

                    Accountable Independent Reading:
                    Students read a large quantity and variety of texts. The texts are carefully selected, by the student and/or teacher,
                    to be at the student’s independent reading level and to be of high-interest to the student. As appropriate, the
                    teacher implements accountable reading structures that support developing each and every student’s stamina,
                    independence and engagement with sustained reading. There is an emphasis on fluency & comprehension.

Literacy Framework                                                                                                                            Page 31
   Elements of Balanced Literacy Program: A Framework for the Intermediate & Middle Schools

                    Writing
  Teacher Support




                    Writing Aloud:
                    Thje teacher models writing by prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing in front of the learners.
                    The teacher verbalizes his/her thinking (“thinks aloud”), demonstrating to students how a writier
                    thinks when engaged in writing.

                    Shared Writing:
                    The teacher and learners work together to compose narrative and exploratory text. The teacher
                    supports the process as scribe. Shared writing is most appropriate with emerging writiers and with
                    the most struggling writier.

                    Interactive Writing:
                    Similar to shared writing. the teacher amd learners compose text using a “shared pen” technique -




                                                                                                                             Learner Independence
                    directly and physically involving the students in writing. Again, like shared writing, this process is
                    most appropriate for emerging writiers and seriously struggling writiers.

                    Guided Writing or Writing Workshop:
                    The students compose a variety of narrative and expository texts. They listen to and share
                    constructive comments about one another’s writing and perhaps participate together in the edit-
                    ing process. The teacher guides the process, providing instruction through responsive
                    mini-lessons and teacher-writer conferences.

                    Independent Writing:
                    The students write their own pieces, including narrative and exploratory text, story and
                    infomational text summaries, creative writing, correspondence, etc. As often as possible, the
                    writing is for real purposes and real audiences; i.e., it is authentic.



                    Special attention to letters, letter sounds, words, and how words work:
                    This attention is woven throughout the balanced literacy framework’s teaching and learning
                    activities. Students learn how to use word analysis skills in their reading and writing. Learners’
                    word/vocabulary is fostered through the use of word walls, word sorts, sematic mapping, word
                    banks, the study of word roots, skill affixes, and word origins, etc. In some limited cases,
                    assessment may indicate an intermediate/middle school student’s need for instruction in phonics
                    as a decoding strategy.


Literacy Framework                                                                                                            Page 32
  Key Learning Principles:
   What Does Research Tell Us About Promoting Student Literacy?

   Cognitive Learning Theory:
      1. There are no blank slates. We construct meaning by attaching new knowledge to existing schema.
      2. Students should be continually engaged in asking such questions as “Why are we learning
         this? How does this connect to me and my previous experiences? To what extent can I make
         connections with prior learning and the world beyond the classroom?”
      3. Learning is highly situated. Transfer does not necessarily occur naturally. It requires that
         students be coached to move from initial acquisition of new knowledge and skills toward
         growing levels of constructed meaning and independent transfer. (Scaffolding is key.)
      4. Learning often occurs in associational and recursive ways, not in neat, linear fashion.
         Students need time to reflect and express their understandings—as well as
         misunderstandings and areas in which they need help.
      5. Effective learning is strategic: Students need to learn when to use knowledge, how to adapt it,
         and how to self-assess and self-monitor.

         Implications for Enhancing Students’ Literacy Development:
         Promoting students’ literacy development requires constant on-the-spot coaching and
         criterion-based feedback to learners so that they can revisit, revise, rethink, and refine their
         understanding of text, including life experiences. Such standards-based coaching helps them
         to play an active role in progressing from basic knowledge acquisition toward proficient and
         advanced levels of learning goal mastery.




Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 33
  Constructivist Teaching and Learning:
      1. Students (and their varying readiness levels, interests, and learning profiles) should be at the
         heart of the teaching-learning process.
      2. The teacher should be a facilitator and coach, not just a dispenser of information.
      3. Content should be presented whole to part, with emphasis upon big ideas and essential
      questions so that every learner can understand the “big picture.”
      4. Assessment and instruction should be seamless, with continuing feedback to learners about
         how they are doing and how they can improve their learning process.
      5. Experiential learning, inquiry, and exploration supersede lecture and “transmission” of
         information.

         Implications for Enhancing Students’ Literacy Development:
         Effective literacy instruction places the learner at the center of his or her own assessment
         and learning process. It actively engages students in the processes of self-monitoring,
         self-regulation, self-adjustment, and metacognition. Through it, students see the “big pic-
         ture”: i.e., Why are we learning this? How can I help myself to improve? How can I enhance
         my understanding of text—and my ability to communicate how I am experiencing things—
         and constructing meaning?


  Brain-Compatible Teaching and Learning:
      1. The brain asks “Why?” Therefore, the “compelling why” should be addressed at the beginning of
         every lesson or lesson segment.
      2. The brain searches for connections, associations, and patterns: Students need help to see pat
         terns, connections, and relationships within what they are learning.
      3. The memory system to which we most often teach (the declarative/semantic/linguistic) is
         inferior to the episodic (i.e., the memory of emotion, relationships, and narrative) and
         procedural memory (i.e., the physical/muscular/tactual-kinesthetic) systems in storing and
         retaining knowledge.
      4. The brain “downshifts” when it perceives threat in the environment. Classrooms must be safe
         and inviting learning communities.


Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 34
         Implications for Enhancing Students’ Literacy Development:
         Brain-compatible teaching and learning reinforces the sense that “we are all in this together,”
         including emphasis upon peer coaching, peer response groups, and peer celebration of learn-
         ing progress. By engaging all memory systems, students retain more information, skills, and
         procedures—and deepen their understanding of the “compelling why…” The more engaging
         and physically active the learning experience, the more students will retain and understand.


   Learning Style Preferences, Learning Modalities, and Multiple Intelligences:
      1. We take in impressions and construct meaning about our world through multiple sensory
         channels and modalities.
      2. There is no single way to learn: We construct meaning, perceive our world, and make judgments
         based upon a variety of learning styles.
      3. According to Howard Gardner, intelligence is a potential, not an innate gift, and manifests
         through multiple forms such as the linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical,
         bodily/ kinesthetic, interpersonal, intra-personal, and naturalist/ecological.


         Implications for Enhancing Students’ Literacy Development:
         Using a range of feedback tasks and strategies ensures that students’ learning style preferences
         are accommodated. When students are periodically allowed options for demonstrating their
         achievement of learning goals (e.g., via performance tasks involving multiple modalities and
         formats, self-reflections, cooperative learning, and scaffolded prompts and projects), they
         activate a range of intelligences and skills. Additionally, great literacy instruction takes into
         account students’ unique needs and strengths, including their varying readiness levels,
         interests, and learning profiles. The more students can “see themselves” in what they are
         doing, the greater their level of engagement and retention.




Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 35
  Emotional Intelligence:
      1. Dan Goleman and the Stanford “marshmallow experiments”: Emotional intelligence is a more
         powerful determinant of life success (e.g., relationships, career, schooling) than the cognitive/
         intellectual.
      2. Students need coaching and support to develop a sense of efficacy and social consciousness.
      3. Classrooms should be safe and inviting communities of learning.

         Implications for Enhancing Students’ Literacy Development:
         Interacting with powerful text (print, electronic, visual and performing arts, life
         experiences) can provide students with powerful opportunities to develop emotional
         intelligence. The more students are empowered to be responsible for their own learning
         process, the greater their sense of efficacy and self-regulation. During effective literacy
         instruction, students learn to monitor and adjust their own behavior in relationship to
         learning goals. Classroom climate is enhanced by expanding emphasis upon student
         interaction and direct engagement in the learning process.




Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 36
   Creativity and Flow:
      1. Mihalyi Csikzentmihalyi: “Flow is a condition in which we experience a sense of
         timelessness, engagement, and stress-free challenge.”
      2. Creativity requires the ability to free associate and brainstorm.
      3. We must help students to push the limits of their knowledge and ability.
      4. Students must be taught to tolerate and explore situations and ideas that are ambiguous and
         open-ended.


         Implications for Enhancing Students’ Literacy Development:
         An expanded emphasis upon active engagement in metacognitive and self-regulating
         processes encourages students to overcome the perception that: “My teacher tells me how I am
         doing so I don’t have to be responsible for doing it.” It reinforces the “locus of control” as being
         centered within the learner. By engaging students in active self-assessment and self-monitoring,
         formative assessment expands the likelihood that students can gain acceptance of challenging
         and open-ended tasks and situations. Effective literacy instruction encourages students to
         demonstrate creative self-expression and experience flow states (i.e., the universal sense of
         timeless engagement where tasks are sufficiently engaging and challenging to take students
         “outside” themselves).




Literacy Framework                                                                                          Page 37
  Decoding and Comprehending Text:
  Key Research-Based Strategies and Best Practices

  Research-Based Decoding Variables
    According to the National Institute for Literacy report Developing Early Literacy: Report of the
    National Early Literacy Panel (2008, pp. vii-viii), research confirms the importance and impact of
    the following eleven (11) variables in promoting emergent literacy and building a solid foundation
    for students’ later literacy development:
      1. Alphabet knowledge:
           knowledge of the names and sounds associated with printed letters.
      2. Phonological awareness:
           the ability to detect, manipulate, or analyze the auditory aspects of spoken language (including
           the ability to distinguish or segment words, syllables, or phonemes), independent of meaning.
      3. Rapid automatic naming of letters or digits:
           the ability to rapidly name a sequence of random letters or digits.
      4. Rapid automatic naming of objects or colors:
           the ability to rapidly name a sequence of repeating random sets of pictures of objects
           (e.g., car, tree, house, man) or colors.
      5. Writing or writing name:
           the ability to write letters in isolation on request or to write one’s own name.
      6. Phonological memory:
           the ability to remember spoken information for a short period of time.
      7. Concepts about print:
           knowledge of print conventions (e.g., left-right, front-back) and concepts
           (book cover, author, text).
      8. Print knowledge:
           a combination of alphabet knowledge, concepts about print, and early decoding.
      9. Reading readiness:
           usually a combination of alphabet knowledge, concepts of print, vocabulary, memory, and
           phonological awareness.
      10. Oral language:
            the ability to produce or comprehend spoken language, including vocabulary and grammar.
      11. Visual processing:
            the ability to match or discriminate visually presented symbols.

Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 38
     ACPS students are taught spelling through a systematic, differentiated approach called Word Study.
     The ACPS word study continuum below is a guide for teachers to use as they implement
     systematic, differentiated word study instruction into their guided reading instruction. Ongoing
     assessment data should be used to identify the appropriate weekly sorts for students. Teachers
     should contact a literacy coach or reading specialist if assistance is needed in analyzing student data
     for determining next steps in instruction.

        I. Routines and Procedures for Word Study
             __ Sort Intro
             __ Sort and record in Categories
             __ Speed Sort
             __ Word Hunt
             __ Spell Check and Games (Assessment)

        II. Strategies for the Developmental Stage
              __ Syllable-Counting
              __ Rhyming
              __ Letter recognition (different fonts)
                    uppercase consonants
                     lowercase consonants
                         uppercase vowels
                         lowercase vowels
        III. Sequence for Letter-Name Stage
              Initial Sounds: s, m, b,
                 continue sorting 3-4 initial sounds
                     t, a, l, c, f, d, r, o, p, n, g, I, v, k, u, z, y, e, j, w, h
                    Same-Vowel Word Families:
                           at         an        ad        ap       ag
                           it         in        ip        ig       ill
                           ot         og        op
                           ut         ug        un
                           et         eg        ed        ell




Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 39
       Review week at the end of same-vowel word families.
       Initial Blends and Digraphs (pictures and words in sorts)
             t/h/th
             s/h/sh
             c/h/ch
             th, sh, ch, wh
             st, sm, sp, sn, sk, sw
             bl, sl, fl, pl
             br, cr, fr, gr, pr
             qu
             Review
       Mixed-Vowel Word Families:
           at/ot/it
           ag/og/ap/op
           an/en/in/un
           ock/ick/ack/uck
           ish/ash/ush
           all/ell/ill
           ing/ang/ung/ong
           ink/ank/unk
           ump/amp/imp
       Short Vowels (not in word families):
            a/i
            o/u/e
            All five short vowels
       Affricates:
       d/j/dr
       t/tr/ch




Literacy Framework                                                 Page 40
       IV. Sequence for Within Word, Syllable Juncture and Derivational Constancy
               CVC (short)/ CVCe (long):
                 a/a_e
                 i/i_e
                 o/o_e
                 u/u_e
             Common Long Vowel Patterns:
               CVC (short a)/CVCe (long a)/CVVC (ai)
               CVC (short o)/CVCe (long o) CVVC (oa)
               CVC (short u)/CVCe (long u)/CVVC (ui)/CVVC (oo)
               CVC (short e)/CVCe (long e)/CVVC (ee)/CVVC (long ea)
               CVC (short e)/CVVC (ee)/CVVC (long ea)/CVVC (short ea)
               CVC/CVCe/CVVC/CVV with each vowel (a, o, e): 3weeks total
               CVC (short u)/CVV (ue)/CVV (ew)
               CVC (short i)/CVCe/CVCC (igh)/CV (y = long i)
               CVCC (short i)/CVCC (long i)/CVCC (short o)/CVCC (long o)
       Review common long vowel patterns across vowels after this.
       R-controlled Vowels:
                 ar/are/air
                 er/ear/eer
                 ir/ire/ier
                 or/ore/oar/w+or
                 ur/ure/ur_e
                 ar/shwa r/or
       Teachers should do a review week at the end of r-controlled vowels.
       Dipthongs, Ambiguous/Abstract Vowels:
                oi/oy
                ow/ou
                oo (as in “cool”)/oo (as in “book”)
                aw/au
                wa/al/ou




Literacy Framework                                                                  Page 41
       Review week
       Complex Consonant Clusters:
             shr/thr/spr/str
             scr/spl/squ
             kn/wr/gn
             hard c/soft c
             hard g/soft g
       The above are all in the initial position. Below are complex consonant clusters in
       the final position.
               g/ge/dge
               ce/ve
               ch/tch/k/ck
       Review at the end of complex consonant clusters.
       Syllable Juncture/Syllables and Affixes
       Compound words
       Inflectional Endings- Plurals:
                -s/-es
                Unusual Plurals: -fe→ -ves/ vowel change (ex: goose → geese)/ no change (ex: sheep →
                sheep)
                ey→eys/y →i + es
       Inflectional Endings- ed: e-drop/double/nothing
       Inflectional Endings- ing: e-drop/double/nothing
       Final –y with inflectional endings
       Review at the end of inflectional endings. (Three general categories: -s, -ed, -ing)
       Syllable junctures:
            VCV (long/open 1st syllable)/VCCV (short/closed 1st syllable) doublet (Ex: supper)
            VCV/VCCV doublet/VCCV different (Ex: basket)
            V-CV (open/long 1st syllable, as in “human”)/VC-V (closed/short 1st syllable, as in
            “wagon”)
            V-CV/VC-V/VVCV
            VCC-CV (as in “athlete”)/CV-CCV (as in “kitchen”)/V-V (as in “poet”)
       Review at the end of syllable junctures.



Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 42
        Vowel Patterns in Stressed Syllables:
        Begin with a week of teaching children to listen for the syllable stress and sorting familiar
        two- syllable words according to whether the accent is in the first or second syllable.
               short a/aCe/ai/ay (in 2nd syllable)
               short a/aCe/ai/ay/open syllable a, as in bacon (1st syllable)
               short e/ee/long ea/ei (1st syllable)
               short e/short ea/ee/long ea (2nd syllable)
               short e/long ea/ei/open syllable e, as in fever (1st syllable)
               short i/iCe/igh/iCC
               short i/short y/iCe/long y/open syllable i, as in spider
               short o/oCe/oa/oCC
               short o/oCe/ow/open syllable o, as in open
               short u/uCe/open u, as in super
   The first five sorts are controlled for syllable accent so students can focus on the vowel pattern
   while they are getting used to the idea of syllable accent. The last five sorts are not controlled
   and can have the stress in the first or second syllable, as students should be more familiar with
   the concept by then. Review between common long vowel patterns and other vowel patterns
   (to follow).
                  oy/oi/ou/ow
                  au/aw/al
                  short ar, as in “harvest”/air/are/long ar, as in “parent”
                  er/short ear/long ear/er making the long a sound, as in “heron”
                  ir/ire
                  or/ore
                  ur/ure
                  scha + r: er/ir/ur/ear
                  war/wor/wa/qua




Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 43
       Review at the end of vowel patterns in accented syllables.
       Unaccented Syllables:
             Schwa + l: CVle/VCCle doublet, as in “puddle”/VCCle different, as in “wrinkle”
             Schwa + l: -le/-el/-il/-al
             Schwa + r: er/or/ar
             Schwa + r: agents (er, or, ar)/comparatives (er)
             -cher/-ture/-sure/-ure
             Schwa + n: en/on/ain/in
             Unaccented first syllable: a, as in “again”/de, as in “debate”/be, as in “before”
       Review at the end of unaccented syllables.
       Consonants:
             hard c/soft c/hard g/soft g (in the initial position)
             -ce/ -ss/-dge/-age
             -gu/-gue
             -ck/-c/-que
             -ph/-gh = /f/
       Review at the end of consonants.
              Two-syllable homographs (as in record/record)
       Simple Prefixes:
              un/re
              dis/mis/pre
              non/in/fore
              uni/bi/tri
       Simple Suffixes:
              -y/-ly/-ily
              -er/-est
              -ful/-less/-ness




Literacy Framework                                                                               Page 44
       Review at the end of prefixes and suffixes.
       Derivational Relations/Derivational Constancy
       Consonant Alternations:
            silent, as in “sign”/sounded, as in “signal”
            base ending in –ct, as in “connect”/-ct + ion, as in “connection”/base ending in –ss, as in “express”/
            -ss + ion, as in “expression”
            base ending in –t/-t + ion/base ending in –ic, as in “magic”/-c + ian, as in “magician”
            base with hard c, as in “critic”/change to soft c, as in “criticize”/base with soft c, as in “office”/change to /
            sh/, as in “official”
            base ending in –te, as in “educate”/e-drop + ion, as in “education”/base ending in –se, as in “supervise”/
            e-drop + ion, as in “supervision”
            base ending in –de, as in “divide”/change to –sion, as in “division”/base ending in –it, as in “permit”/
            change to –ission, as in “permission”
            base ending in –t, as in “silent”/change to –ce, as in “silence”
       Vowel Alternations:
           long to short (“humane” to “humanity”)
           long to schwa (“compete” to “competition”)
           short to schwa (“adapt” to “adaptation”)
           long to short (“vain” to “vanity”, “consume” to “consumption”, “detain” to “detention”, etc.)
           long to schwa (“explain” to “explanation”)
       Advanced Suffix Study:
           -able/-ible
           -ant/-ance
           -ent/-ence
           consonant doubling related to syllable accent (permitted versus benefited)
       Greek and Latin Word Parts:
           mono, bi, tri, tele, therm, photo, astro, tract, spect, port, dict, rupt, scrib, aud, bene, cred,
           duct, fac, flex, form, fract, ject, jud, junct, port, sect, spir, struct, tang, tact, vert, vid, voc,
           inter, intra, super, counter, ex, fore, post, co, com, con, sub, pre, anti, demi, semi, quad,
           pent, crat, emia, ician, ine, ism, log, path, phobia, aer, aog, angel, bio, chron, derm, gram,
           graph, hydr, logo, metr, micro, od, phem, phil, phon, pol, scope, techn, zoo
       Absorbed/Assimilated Prefixes:
           prefix + base word (in + mobile = immobile)
           prefix + word root (in + mune = immune)
Literacy Framework                                                                                                      Page 45
               Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy         What’s that?        How do I find out more about it?            Where does it fit in the
                                                  Show	me	an	example!                    instructional sequence?
                                                                                          Pre     During    Post

            Engaging Students by Activating Prior Learning and Cognitive Schema
     Activating Prior   Providing            http://rusd.marin.k12.ca.us/belaire/          X
     Knowledge          experiences that     BALearningCenter/carewwebpage/
                        require students     reading_handbook/prior_knowl.htm
                        to make connec-      Suggested Resources:
                        tions to prior and   multimedia software, word processing,
                        present learning     concept mapping software, web-based
                                             video streaming, student response systems
                                             (“clickers”)



     Activating         Providing a visual   http://manila.esu6.org/instructional-         X
     Organizers         overview of key      strategies/stories/storyReader$8
                        concepts and se-     Suggested Resources: concept mapping
                        quence elements      software, word processing, presentation
                        for a specific       software
                        lesson—or set of
                        lessons

     Anticipation       A series of          Anticipation Guides at Adlit.org              X
     Guide              thought- provok-     Template at ReadWriteThink.org (PDF)
                        ing statements
                        used before read-    Suggested Resources: student response
                        ing to activate      systems (“clickers”), word processing,
                        students’ prior      online surveys
                        knowledge and
                        build curiosity




Literacy Framework                                                                                           Page 46
              Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy        What’s that?       How do I find out more about it?             Where does it fit in the
                                                Show	me	an	example!                     instructional sequence?
                                                                                         Pre     During    Post

                      Previewing and Promoting Student Interest in Text
     Anticipatory      A writing-to-       http://www.manhattan.edu/services/             X
     Writing/Admit     learn strategy in   wac/pages/designing_assignments/
     Pass              which students      informal_writing_assignments.html
                       formulate initial   Suggested Resources:
                       written thoughts    discussion boards, blogs, wikis, word
                       and ideas in        processing, presentation software
                       anticipation of
                       a lesson or unit
                       topic/issue

     Strategy K-W-L    A pre-reading/      http://www.readingquest.org/strat/kwl.html     X        X       X
                       discussion pro-     http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/
                       cess in which       issues/students/learning/lr1kwlh.htm
                       students identify
                       what they think     Suggested Resources:
                                           concept mapping software,
                       they know about     word processing, presentation
                       a topic, what       software
                       they want to
                       learn, and what
                       they have learned
                       at the end of
                       lesson or unit
     Reading Guides    Teacher-con-       http://www.indiana.edu/~l517/QAR.htm            X       X        X
                       structed ques-     Suggested Resources:
                       tions and related word processing
                       activities to help
                       students navigate
                       a text



Literacy Framework                                                                                          Page 47
                 Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy         What’s that?          How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                    Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                        Pre   During   Post

                       Previewing and Promoting Student Interest in Text
     Seed Discussion   Preliminary or initial   http://www.adlit.org/strategies/22737   X
                       discussions that         Suggested Resources:
                       form the basis for       discussion boards, wikis,
                       students’ analysis an-   collaborative tools
                       devaluation of text;
                       such discussions can
                       involve students’
                       response to
                       open-ended,
                       interpretive
                       questions
                       (i.e., essential
                       questions)


     SQ3R               A text survey and       http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19803   X      X       X
                        analysis process:       Suggested Resources:
                        survey-question-        document camera, concept mapping
                                                software, presentation software
                        read-recite-review


     Textbook           Reinforcing             http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/        X
     Inventory          students’ under-        textbook_inventory.pdf
                        standing of how         http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/
                        print is organized,     strattext_features.html
                        emphasizing the or-
                        ganization and struc-   Suggested Resources:
                        tural components of     word processing
                        a text or textbook



Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 48
              Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy       What’s that?          How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                  Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                    Pre   During   Post

                              Reading Comprehension Strategies
     Demonstrations   Presenting key          http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/    X
                      themes, motifs,         demonstrations/
                      and patterns via        Suggested Resources:
                                              web-based video streaming, multi-
                      multi-media             media software,
                      presentations           presentation software


     DRTA             A teacher-guided        http://www.kimskorner4teacher-        X      X       X
                      investigation of        talk.com/readingliterature/reading-
                      text, with overt        strategies/DRTA.htm
                      attention to pre-/      Suggested Resources:
                      during/after strate-    interactive whiteboard,
                      gies to guide and       word processing
                      inform the reading
                      process

     Exit Response    Closure strategies      http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/          X
     Cloze and Maze   for determining         Instr/strats/cloze/index.html
     Response         students’               Suggested Resources:
                      comprehension of        interactive whiteboard, word
                      a text excerpt (e.g.,   processing, presentation
                      completing sen-         software
                      tences with words
                      omitted)




Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 49
               Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy      What’s that?          How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                 Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                          Pre   During   Post

                             Reading Comprehension Strategies
     Higher-Order    Using a range           http://www.med.wright.edu/aa/                X      X        X
     Questioning     of questioning          facdev/_Files/PDFfiles/Question-
                                             Templates.pdf
                     strategies to pro-
                     mote student
                     engagement and
                     discussion (e.g.,
                     follow-up probes,
                     application, analy-
                     sis, synthesis,
                     evaluation)
     Inferential     Drawing                 http://www.adlit.org/strategies/             X      X       X
     Reading         inferences and          /23355
                     conclusions about       http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/
                     what a text implies     instruction/ela/6-12/Reading/
                     (rather than just       Reading%20Strategies/
                                             inferentialreading.htm
                     states directly)

     Literature      A cooperative           http://www.litcircles.org/                   X      X       X
     Circles         learning process        http://www.readwritethink.org/class-
                     in which students       room-resources/lesson-plans/
                     gather in small         literature-circles-getting-started-19.html
                     seminar groups and      Suggested Resources:
                     take turns facilitat-   wikis, online discussion board, pod-
                     ing discussions of      casts, Storyline Online
                     fiction and non-
                     fiction text




Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 50
              Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy        What’s that?          How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                   Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                        Pre   During   Post

                               Reading Comprehension Strategies
     Monitoring/       A tool used to elicit   http://www.readingquest.org/strat/       X      X        X
     Clarifying and    input and feedback      ichart.html
     Inquiry Chart     from students           http://forpd.ucf.edu/
                       before, during, and     strategies/stratIChart.html
                       after reading—e.g.,     Suggested Resources:
                       What are the main       spreadsheet software, word
                       ideas? What needs       processing, interactive whiteboard
                       to be clarified? What
                       have we concluded?
     Paired Reading    Paired students read    http://www.readingrockets.org/           X      X       X
                       and discuss part of a   strategies/paired_reading
                       text together, using    Suggested Resources:
                       teacher or              digital voice recorders, digital video
                       class-generated         recorders, podcasts,
                       anticipatory            digital storytelling
                       questions to guide
                       discussion
     Partner Reading   A variation of          http://www.liketoread.com/struct_        X      X
                       paired reading,         talk_partner_reading.php
                       with partners           Suggested Resources:
                       meeting periodi-        digital voice recorders, digital video
                       cally (rather than      recorders, podcasts,
                       consistently, as in     digital storytelling
                       paired reading)




Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 51
                Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy       What’s that?          How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                  Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                          Pre   During   Post

                              Reading Comprehension Strategies
     Question the     Students imagine        http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19796              X        X
     Author           that they can ask       Suggested Resources:
                      the author ques-        word processing, online discussion
                      tions about his or      boards, meet the author websites,
                      her purpose, inten-     online book forums
                      tions, and writing
                      choices.
     Read Aloud       Teacher (or stu-        http://lesson-plans-materials.              X      X
                      dent) oral readings,    suite101.com/article.cfm/read_
                                              aloud_strategies_for_k6_
                      with attention to
                                              classrooms
                      appropriate intona-
                      tion, emphasis, etc.    Suggested Resources:
                                              digital voice recorders, digital video
                                              recorders, podcasts,
                                              digital storytelling

     Reader           Discussions involv-     http://sedl.org/cgi-bin/mysql/build-               X       X
     Response         ing students’ articu-   ingreading.cgi?showrecord=27
                      lation of their reac-   Suggested Resources:
                      tions (intellectual,    blogs, wikis, discussion boards, interac-
                      emotional) to a text    tive surveys and tools, word processing,
                                              digital storytelling


     Semantic         Examining and           http://www.readingrockets.org/                     X
     Feature          analyzing structural    strategies/semantic_feature_analysis
     Analysis         aspects of text,        Suggested Resources: concept
                      including syntax,       mapping software, interactive white-
                      diction, vocabulary,    boards, document cameras
                      and dialect


Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 52
              Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy       What’s that?          How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                  Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                        Pre   During   Post

                              Reading Comprehension Strategies
     Summarizing      Articulating the        http://www.readingquest.org/strat/               X        X
                      main or most sig-       summarize.html
                      nificant ideas in a     http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
                      text or presentation    resource/563/1/
                                              Suggested Resources:
                                              wordle.net, presentationsoftware, video
                                              creation software


     Text Structure   Exploring and ana-      http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/          X      X
                      lyzing the strate-      strattextstructure.html
                      gies and processes
                                              http://www.thinkport.org/career/
                      used by authors
                                              strategies/reading/preview.tp
                      within a particular
                      genre or category       Suggested Resources:
                      of writing (e.g.,       interactive whiteboards,
                      online v. tradi-        document cameras, drawing and
                      tional print, narra-    painting software
                      tive v. expository v.
                      argumentative text
                      structure)




Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 53
              Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy      What’s that?           How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                  Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                         Pre   During   Post

       Cooperative Learning and Interactive Strategies to Promote Comprehension
     Collaborative   Reinforcing the          http://wac.colostate.edu/intro/pop2l.cfm   X      X        X
     Writing         concept of writing       http://www.kolabora.com/
                     for an audience by       news/2007/03/01/collaborative_writ-
                     engaging students in     ing_tools_and_technology.htm
                     ongoing discourse
                                              Suggested Resources:
                     with peers (usually
                                              wikis, interactive whiteboards, learning
                     in short, informal
                                              management software
                     formats)

     JIGSAW          A cooperative            http://www.jigsaw.org/                            X
                     learning process         http://www.litandlearn.lpb.org/
                     in which students        strategies/strat_jigsaw.pdf
                     form a base group,
                                              Suggested Resources:
                     then move to an
                                              online discussion boards, blogs,
                     expert group, and
                                              wikis
                     then return to their
                     base to teach base
                     group members
                     about what they
                     learned as part of
                     their expert group
                     experience
     List/Group/     A collaborative strat-   List-Group-Label at Reading Rockets        X      X        X
     Label           egy in which teacher     List-Group-Label at AdLit.org
                     and students dis-        List-Group-Label at Just Read Now!
                     cover classification
                     categories and           Suggested Resources:
                     patterns (e.g.,          Interactive whiteboards, concept mapping
                     conflicts, themes,       software, document camera, spreadsheet
                     character types).        software



Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 54
              Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy       What’s that?         How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                 Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                     Pre   During   Post

      Cooperative Learning and Interactive Strategies to Promote Comprehension
     Numbered         After counting         http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/      X      X
     Heads Together   off, students with     cooperativelearning.htm
                      the same number
                      pair up and share
                      insights about a
                      text or discussion
                      topic.


     Prediction       A cooperative          Prediction Relay at AdLit.org                  X
     Relay            learning game
                      strategy, with
                      students sharing,
                      extending, and
                      revising one an-
                      other’s predictions
                      about what will
                      occur within a text

     Reciprocal       A cooperative learn-   Reciprocal Teaching at AdLit.org               X
     Teaching         ing process in which   Reciprocal Teaching at Reading
                      small groups of stu-   Rockets
                      dents work through     Reciprocal Teaching at Just Read Now!
                      a text excerpt
                      together, taking
                      turns as the
                      facilitator/
                      discussion leader




Literacy Framework                                                                                  Page 55
               Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
        Strategy       What’s that?          How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                 Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                   Pre   During   Post

      Cooperative Learning and Interactive Strategies to Promote Comprehension
    Socratic         A variation of the      Socratic Seminar from Greece School          X
    Seminar          Mortimer Adler          District
                     “Paideia”/ Great        Socratic Seminar from NBABR
                     Books seminar           (PDF)
                     process: Students
                     debate and discuss
                     a key text selection,
                     responding to one or
                     more open-ended,
                     interpretive
                     questions designed
                     to reveal areas of
                     agreement and
                     disagreement




Literacy Framework                                                                                Page 56
               Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy          What’s that?           How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                      Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                             Pre   During   Post

                    Visual/Non-Linguistic Representations of Information
     Graphic             A visual                 http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19769      X      X       X
     Organizers,         representation used      http://www.readwritethink.org/class-
     Concept Maps,       to organize and          room-resources/student-interactives/
     and Story Maps      show relationships       compare-contrast-30066.html
                         between content          http://www.readwritethink.org/class-
                                                  room-resources/student-interactives/
                                                  persuasion-30034.html
                                                  Suggested Resources:
                                                  concept mapping software, spreadsheet
                                                  software, interactive whiteboard
     Guiding             Engaging students in Guided Imagery from Learning Point             X      X
     Imagery             the use of their sen-  Visual Imagery at Just Read Now!
                         sory imagination, with
                         imagesgenerated to     Guided Imagery by Buehl (PDF)
                         reinforce associations
                         and memory patterns
     Picture Books       Large-size books         http://www.storylineonline.net/            X      X       X
                         with engaging            http://en.childrenslibrary.org/
                         illustrations, useful
                         in helping beginning     http://www.readingrockets.org/
                         readers understand       books/booksbytheme
                         text structure and       Suggested Resources:
                         story sequence           Interactive whiteboard, document
                                                  camera, digital storytelling
     Word Splash         A variation of word      http://www.education.vic.gov.au/stu-       X      X
                         walls, key vocabu-       dentlearning/teachingresources/english/
                         lary is identified and   literacy/strategies/4codebreaktsl4.htm#3
                         organized informally,    Suggested Resources:
                         with additions made      Concept mapping software, interactive
                         as students progress     whiteboard, document camera, word
                         through a text.          processing, spreadsheet software



Literacy Framework                                                                                          Page 57
             Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
        Strategy       What’s that?           How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                  Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                    Pre   During   Post

     Metacognitive Strategies: Promoting Student Self-Regulation and Self-Assessment
    Concept Sort     As students and          Concept Sorts at AdLit.org            X      X       X
                     teacher identify         Suggested Resources:
                     important and            Concept mapping software,
                     recurrent concepts,      spreadsheet software, interactive
                     they begin to sort       whiteboard, document camera
                     them into
                     classification
                     categories.
    Think Alouds     Teachers (and            Think Alouds at AdLit.org             X      X
                     students) verbalize      (also has links to more resources)
                     how they are engaged     Suggested Resources:
                     in a thinking process,   Document camera, interactive
                     including articulated    whiteboard, digital video recorder,
                                              Storyline Online
                     steps in problem solv-
                     ing or decision
                     making or skills
                     applications




Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 58
                Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
          Strategy           What’s that?            How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                         Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                           Pre   During   Post

                     Note-Taking, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing Strategies
     Double-Entry          Note-taking strategies    Double Entry Notes Lesson plan with   X      X       X
     Journals              involving students’       templates from Oregon Department
     (to include Cornell   use of running notes      of Education
     Notes and             complemented by           Cornell Notes from JMU
     Two-Column            identification of big
     Notetaking)           ideas and important       Suggested Resources:
                                                     Word processing, concept mapping
                           concepts—with             software, interactive whiteboard,
                           parallel non-linguistic   document camera
                           representations in
                           a second or third
                           column
     Gist Summary          A summarizing task in     Gist Summary at Read-Write-Think             X       X
                           which students deter-
                           mine the “gist” or es-
                           sence of a text: What’s
                           its theme? Main idea?
                           Importance?
     Power Notes           A note-taking strategy Power Notes at AdLit.org                        X       X
                           in which students
                           review and synthesize
                           previous notes, high-
                           lighting and accenting
                           major ideas, concepts,
                           and information
                           worth retaining
     Selective             Encouraging stu-       Selective Highlighting at AdLit.org             X
     Highlighting          dents to highlight or
                           underline important
                           concepts and main
                           ideas within a text



Literacy Framework                                                                                        Page 59
             Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
        Strategy          What’s that?          How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                    Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                      Pre   During   Post

                   Note-Taking, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing Strategies
    Structured          Purposeful and          Structured Note-taking at AdLit.org          X
    Note-taking         deliberate note
                        taking in which
                        the teacher mod-
                        els note-taking
                        protocol and
                        students use paral-
                        lel structures (e.g.,
                        running notes,
                        summaries, visual
                        representations)
    Sum-It-up           Engaging students Sum-It-Up at AdLit.org                      X     X
                        in paraphrasing
                        and summarizing
                        tasks at the conclu-
                        sion of key junc-
                        ture points within a
                        lesson or unit
    Word Hunts          Asking students to      Word Hunts at AdLit.org               X      X
                        read and find key
                        vocabulary and
                        concepts within a
                        text being studied




Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 60
                Research-Based Reading Comprehension Strategies
         Strategy        What’s that?            How do I find out more about it? Where does it fit in the
                                                     Show	me	an	example!          instructional sequence?
                                                                                       Pre   During   Post

                 Writing-to-Learn Strategies That Promote Comprehension
     Paragraph         An editing strategy,      Paragraph Shrinking at AdLit.org             X       X
     Shrinking         students “down-size”      Suggested Resources:
                       their own para-           Word processing, wikis, interactive
                       graph (or another         whiteboard
                       author’s), reducing
                       the number of words
                       and sentence com-
                       plexity, srressing a
                       main idea.
     RAFT              A writing assign-         RAFT at AdLit.org                     X     X        X
                       ment that articulates     Suggested Resources:
                       a clear role, audience,   Word processing, publishing
                       format, and topic         software, presentation software,
                                                 digital storytelling tools

     Response          Ongoing journal           Response Journals at Florida Online          X
     Journals          entries completed         Suggested Resources:
                       by students as they       Blogs, social networking sites
                       progress through a
                       text or unit—often
                       using technology-
                       based media
     Story Chain       A writing technique       Strategy Description                  X     X
                       in which students         Story Chain Interactive
                       generate a narrative
                       sequence, taking
                       turns and adding
                       to previous story
                       sequence elements



Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 61
  Observing Student Decoding and Comprehension Behaviors in a Literacy-Rich
  Learning Environment
  Suggestions for Use:
  After considering the principles and strategies for decoding and comprehension articulated in the previous sec-
  tion of this framework, consider what we should be able to observe students doing when displaying
  competency in key aspects of literacy. As you observe students engaged in reading in classrooms in your school,
  to what extent do you observe them doing the following?

     1.  Adjusting reading rates to ensure comprehension of text.
     2.  Asking questions before, during and after reading.
     3.  Classifying and organizing information acquired during reading.
     4.  Comparing and contrasting ideas, determining the comparative value and truth of each.
     5.  Distinguishing facts from opinions and giving text-based evidence to support their conclusions.
     6.  Identifying and analyzing text structure, including assessing the clarity and effectiveness of the writer’s
         organization and presentation of ideas.
     7. Identifying and evaluating author’s purpose. (Why did the author write this selection? To what extent
         does the author achieve his or her expressed or implied goals?)
     8. Identifying author’s viewpoint/perspective. (What are the key characteristics of the author’s
         perspective? How does he or she convey this perspective?)
     9. Identifying and summarizing main ideas and important supporting details.
     10. Making inferences and drawing conclusions. (What does the author state directly? What doe he or she
         imply? What can we conclude about these ideas?)
     11. Making generalizations (e.g., comparisons, analysis of themes, description and analysis of
         recurrent patterns of language, ideas, motifs, etc.).
     12. Making and refining predictions (including providing text-based evidence to articulate
         predictions and modify them as new evidence is discovered in the text).
     13. Summarizing and paraphrasing/retelling accurately in one’s own words.
     14. Recognizing cause and effect relationships.
     15. Sequencing events (including ensuring accurate identification of main v. secondary events).
     16. Synthesizing new information (using it to generate original ideas, hypotheses, predictions, and work
         products).
     17. Using context clues and word analysis skills (e.g., roots, affixes) to decipher the meaning of
         unfamiliar words.
     18. Visualizing images from text (using the sensory imagination to make text “come alive”).
Literacy Framework
Literacy Framework                                                                                             Page 62
                                                                                                               Page 48
  Vocabulary Acquisition Strategies and Best Practices
   Robert J. Marzano, an internationally-recognized researcher and educational theorist, emphasizes the
   following key principles for effective vocabulary instruction in his best-selling book, Building Academic
   Background Knowledge:

    1. Teaching vocabulary through formal dictionary definitions does not promote students’ true under
       standing of key academic vocabulary.
    2. Learners must engage in informal and natural tasks and processes to acquire and internalize new
       vocabulary.
    3. A limited number of academic terms should guide and inform vocabulary instruction within a particular
       content area and grade level. Teachers responsible for the same course or grade-level subject matter
       should build consensus about the words and phrases students at that grade level should master and be
       able to use spontaneously and automatically.
    4. Effective vocabulary acquisition occurs when students are engaged in a six-step process. Steps 1-3
       represent more formalized direct instruction, facilitated primarily by the teacher. Steps 4-6 provide
       learners with ongoing opportunities to practice and reinforce their use of key academic vocabulary.

Step 1: The teacher gives a description, explanation, or example of the new term:
    1. Present essential information about the term and its significance.
    2. Pre-assess/diagnose: What do students already know about the term? How do they already use
       it? What misconceptions or misunderstandings do they express?
    3. Present explanations, examples, and descriptions—not definitions. Students need to work with
       vocabulary acquisition as a natural process of language acquisition—not an abstracted or
       formalized process of memorization.
    4. If a proper noun is included as a vocabulary term, identify its key characteristics and significance.




Literacy Framework                                                                                             Page 63
Step 2: The teacher asks the learner to give a description, explanation, or example
        of the new term in his or her own words:
    1. Encourage students to use their own words to describe, explain, and give examples of new
       vocabulary (again, avoiding the “dictionary definition” approach).
    2. Monitor students’ use of new terms to ensure their understanding and to help them overcome
       misunderstandings.
    3. As necessary, provide clarifying information (e.g., additional explanations, examples, and
       descriptions).
    4. Ask students to record their work with vocabulary (including their changing knowledge and
       understandings) in the vocabulary section of their academic notebook.

Step 3: The teacher asks the learner to draw a picture, symbol, or located a
        graphic to represent the new term:
    1. Emphasize students’ use of right-hemisphere brain functions by encouraging them to create
       non-linguistic representations of key academic vocabulary terms.
    2. Encourage students to share with peers examples of their drawings and illustrations, including
       opportunities to work in teams to help those who have difficulty drawing.
    3. Reinforce the concept of “speed drawing” to avoid excessive amounts of time devoted to a single
       drawing or illustration.
    4. Provide opportunities for students to download visual representations of key terms as part of
       on-line search activities.
    5. Internet “clip resources” meta-tag terms include: “Madrid Teacher” and “Vocabulary Quiz Using
       Images.”




Literacy Framework
Literacy Framework                                                                                Page 64
                                                                                                  Page 48
Step 4: The learner participates in activities that provide more knowledge of the
        terms, with students recording their responses in a section of their
        academic notebooks devoted to vocabulary:
    1. Extend and refine students’ understanding of key terms and interconnecting patterns by
       assigning tasks requiring the following cognitive skills: comparison, classification, generation of
       metaphors, analogies, and pattern descriptions.
    2. Use word walls as a visual representation of key academic vocabulary, encouraging students to
       find and describe patterns and connections between and among key terms.
    3. Ask students to reformat word walls as they discover categories and classification patterns to
       unify and connect separate terms.
    4. Encourage students to use their knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, antonyms, synonyms, and
       related words to extend their understanding of academic vocabulary.
    5. If English is a second language to the learner, provide opportunities for students to translate
       terms into their native language (e.g., “BabelFish” website).

Step 5: The learner discusses the term with other learners in a variety of formal
        and informal discussion activities:
    1. Use the listen-think-pair-share strategy to help students discuss and compare understandings of
       key terms.
    2. THINK: Allow time for students to review their own explanations, descriptions, examples, and
       illustrations of key terms.
    3. PAIR: Pair up students and encourage them to share their descriptions, illustrations, and new
       information they discover related to key terms.
    4. SHARE: Provides opportunities for groups to share aloud and discussion emerging concepts
       and misconceptions.




Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 65
Step 6: The learner participates in games and friendly competitions that reinforce
        their use of key vocabulary terms:
    1. A variety of electronic vocabulary games are available on the Internet, including: PowerPoint
       Games, Word Game Boards, Excel Games, WORDO, Twister, and FlySwat.
    2. Additionally, teachers can construct (or have student teams construct) competitions based upon
       such popular television game shows as Jeopardy, The $25,000 Pyramid, and Family Feud.
    3. The teacher should monitor and evaluate carefully students’ demonstration of understanding—
       or misunderstandings—about key terms used in a particular game or competition.
    4. As a culminating performance task (e.g., in preparation for a unit test), encourage individual
       students or small teams to create games and related forms of friendly competition using key unit
       vocabulary.




Literacy Framework
Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 66
                                                                                                   Page 48
  Note-Taking Strategies
    What Does the Research Tell Us About Note Taking and
    Its Impact upon Student Achievement?
       1. Teaching students a variety of strategies and goals for note taking is critical to helping them
          learn to summarize key information and synthesize the relationships and patterns found in
          the content they are studying.
       2. Effective note taking is a critical thinking process requiring students to evaluate information
          for its importance and levels of significance (e.g., essential or primary, secondary, or trivial).
       3. Note taking activities and follow-up processing of those notes can enhance students’ ability
          to identify and explain main ideas and supporting evidence.
       4. The more students are given sustained coaching in summarizing and note taking, the more
          they learn to use these processes as a part of their learning process, including their ability
          to: (a) revisit and revise how they are overcoming misconceptions, (b) enhance
          understanding, and (c) find interrelationships, themes, and patterns in information.
       5. Students become more adept at note taking if they receive ongoing instruction in how to
          do it and ways to use it, including: (a) sustained modeling of various models and
          approaches, (b) shaping opportunities in which students rehearse and enhance their use
          of key note taking strategies, and (c) confirmation of their ability to internalize their use of
          note taking with growing levels of automaticity (i.e., spontaneous and independent use).
       6. By engaging students in a variety of note taking activities as part of sustained formative
          assessment, learners become increasingly metacognitive, i.e., self-reflective and
          self-evaluative and regulating their own progress by engaging in the processes of revising,
          rethinking, revisiting, and refining their understanding and work products.
       7. According to Robert Marzano et al. (2001, P. 82), “Although note taking is one of the most
          useful study skills a student can cultivate, often teachers do not explicitly teach note-taking
          strategies in their classroom.”
       8. As students become adept in using a variety of note-taking processes, they begin to formulate
          a personal system for note taking that greatly enhances their ability to analyze key
          information and self-monitor in relationship to their comprehension and use of that
          information.



Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 67
       9. Notes should be viewed by students as an active and ongoing process, not a static one.
          Marzano (2001) and others emphasize the need to have students review their notes, identify
          and modify errors and misconceptions, and share their notes-based insights with other
          students.
      10. Students need to understand that there is no single right way to take notes. Instead, they
          should adopt the approach most appropriate for their goals, purposes, and the nature of the
          information source they are summarizing (e.g., to determine key ideas, find main ideas, track
          an argument or debate, analyze a conversation or dialogue).
      11. Marzano (2001) recommends that students learn and apply a combination approach to
          notetaking, similar to that referred to as the Cornell Notes model: (a) running notes, (b)
          side-bar analyses and summaries of key ideas and questions raised, and (c) visual
          representation of key information and concepts (e.g., pictographs, graphic organizers,
          flow charts).




Literacy Framework
Literacy Framework                                                                                Page 68
                                                                                                  Page 48
  A Self-Reflection Questionnaire
    How Do You Currently Use Note Taking in Your Classroom?
         Directions
           Use the following rating scale to assess your current level of use for each of the
           following strategies related to note taking. When you have finished, compare
           your results with other educators in your school. What conclusions can you
           draw? What patterns of use are evident?
              3=Extensively:
              This is a consistent practice in my classroom.
              2=Periodically:
              I sometimes use this strategy, but there are occasions when
              I could use it with my students but do not.
              1=Rarely:
              I only use this strategy once in a while, but it is not a consistent
              part of my teaching practice.
              0=Never:
              I never use this strategy



 ____   1. I help my students to understand the purpose of note taking as an essential part of their
           study of key information encountered in lectures, texts, and related information media.
 ____   2. I coach my students to understand and apply the relationship between summarizing and note
           taking, including using notes and summaries that I prepare as models.
 ____   3. I consistently help my students to determine what is important about the knowledge they are
           learning and evaluate what is essential, secondary, and trivial within that body of information.
 ____   4. I explicitly and consistently teach students how to take notes and how to use those notes to
           reinforce their learning process.
 ____   5. Throughout units of study, my students are engaged in a variety of summarizing and note
           taking activities that reinforce their understanding of the big ideas and essential information
           of what we are studying in each unit.


Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 69
  ____    6. I encourage my students to use their notes to monitor and track the essential ideas and
             understandings that are at the heart of specific unit content.
  ____    7. I help my students to identify connections and patterns that unify curriculum content across
             units through the process of note taking and analysis and evaluation of the information in
             their notes.
  ____    8. We use a variety of note taking strategies and processes in my classroom, including running
             notes, summarizes and syntheses of note information, and visual representations of core
             information derived from running notes and summaries.
  ____    9. I help my students to determine the purposes and goals for note taking in a particular
             situation, based upon such issues as: (a) how the information is organized, (b) what the
             essential purpose and goals of the information source are, and (c) related implications for
             tracking and monitoring how the information is presented and developed by the author or
             speaker.
  ____   10. I teach my students to use a variety of informal and formal note taking processes, including:
             (a) formal outlining, (b) informal outlines, (c) clustering and webbing, and (d) related
             combination approaches.
  ____   11. I encourage students to use digital tools for taking and revising notes by modeling a
             wide-range of programs and templates.




Literacy Framework
Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 70
                                                                                                   Page 48
  Writing-to-Learn Strategies
  Writing-to-learn strategies can be used before-, during, and after reading and learning tasks. These
  informal writing assignments should be integrated into students’ overall learning process—
  reinforcing the value of writing as a tool for engaging student interest and deepening understanding
  of a topic, concept, or thinking skill/process. The majority of these strategies can be conducted in a
  digital or print format.

  Such writing-to-learn strategies encourage discourse (with both self and others). Students can use
  them to experiment with and try out ideas. Generally, students should receive credit for completing
  such strategies and related tasks—but they should be used as formative assessment only. In other
  words, no formal grade should be assigned. Ideally, writing-to-learn strategies help students to freely
  generate ideas and make personal connections to the content they are studying.

  Teachers can respond to students’ writing-to-learn activities in a variety of ways:
      1. Providing on-the-spot feedback
      2. Responding personally and positively to selected papers (including those selected by the
         student for submission to the instructor)
      3. Raising questions (verbally or on the paper itself)
      4. Confirming and supporting students’ ideas and overall thinking processes
      5. Periodically awarding points for completion of writing-to-learn tasks (or extra points for
         exceptional responses)
      6. Ensuring systematic review and feedback (without collecting and reacting to every assignment)




Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 71
  Types of Writing-to-Learn Activities
  The University of Kansas Writing Center emphasizes the value of writing-to-learn strategies as
  tools for promoting students’ idea-generation potential. The center also stresses that using such
  strategies will provide students with practice in the type of single-draft writing expected of them in
  examination situations (i.e., constructed-response test items such as brief and extended-response
  timed essays). The center identifies four categories for writing-to-learn tasks:

      1. Focused Timed Writings: Students are given five to ten minutes in class to write about
         a topic that will help them focus on the subject to be discussed in class that day. Such
         focused timed writings can also emphasize a question from an assigned reading, an issue
         or topic from yesterday’s class, a key term from an assigned reading selection, an issue or
         topic representing a recurrent theme, or a concept to be explained.

      2. Out-of-Class Writings: Students are asked to write summaries of lecture or textbook
         material. Focus areas for out-of-class writing tasks can focus on the areas identified in the
         “Focused Timed Writings” section above.

      3. Journal Entries: At key juncture points (e.g., as a closure activity), students are asked to:
         (a) summarize major ideas; (b) identify questions for which they need answers;
         (c) delineate areas of confusion or misconception; (d) synthesize key conclusions and
         ideas generated from assigned readings; (e) create non-linguistic representations (e.g.,
         webs, graphic organizers) to highlight connections and patterns from readings or lectures,
         with short written descriptions of identified patterns and connections discovered by the
         student in print or digital format. Blogs and discussion boards can be excellent vehicles for
         this strategy.

      4. Preparatory Writings: As part of initial (and ongoing) student work with culminating
         performance tasks and projects (e.g., research papers, simulations, case studies), students
         can provide written updates to the instructor about his or her progress: e.g., (a) initial
         proposals and theses; (b) status updates; (c) emerging questions and requests for coaching
         and support; and (d) periodic status reports (aligned with student-generated goals and
         timeline).




Literacy Framework
Literacy Framework                                                                                         Page 72
                                                                                                           Page 48
  Examples of Writing-to-Learn Strategies
      1. Opposing Perspectives: Students briefly write in support of an idea or issue—and then
         briefly write in opposition to it.

      2. Absentee Postcards: As a warm-up activity, students write to a real or imaginary peer who
         “missed” yesterday’s lesson, summarizing and highlighting its big ideas, major processes,
         and sequence of skills/processes.

      3. Analogical Reasoning: Students deepen their understanding of significant concepts and
         ideas by creating metaphors, similes, and analogies to explain and illustrate them and their
         key features.

      4. Predicting the Future: The instructor stops at key points during a discussion or text
         analysis—asking students to predict in writing what they think will happen next. Then,
         students can pair up and share their conclusions about significant cause-effect relationships
         they have discovered.

      5. Round Robin Writing: Part I: Students explain a particular concept, process, or
         vocabulary term. They then pose a question they still have about the topic(s). Part II:
         Students exchange papers and answer the other author’s question—or suggest resources to
         help him or her answer the question.

      6. Getting the Last Word: A closure activity in which students write during the last ten
         minutes of a class, expressing to the instructor a key question they need answered, some
         thing about which they require help or clarification, or areas in which they need more in
         formation.

      7. Admit and Exit Slips: At the beginning of class, students give the instructor a brief
         summary of their experiences with last night’s homework assignment or yesterday’s class
         content and discussions (the Admit Slip). At the conclusion of class, students briefly state
         two or three things they learned during the class session, or one or two questions they need
         answered (the Exit Slip). Both forms of writing can provide valuable information to the
         instructor concerning how to structure—or reorganize—students’ learning experiences.


Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 73
  Questioning Strategies
  (Promoting Higher-Order Thinking and Reasoning)

  What Does Research Tell Us About Questioning?
     According to the Maryland State of Department of Education publication Better Thinking and
     Learning (1991), teachers who ask “higher-order” questions promote learning because these
     types of questions require students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information
     instead of simply recalling facts.

     A meta-analysis of 18 experiments by Redfield and Rousseau (1981) concluded that the
     predominant use of higher-level questions during instruction yielded positive gains on tests
     of both factual recall and application of thinking skills. Similarly, Andre (1979) reviewed
     re search investigating the effects of having students respond to “higher-level” questions
     inserted every few paragraphs in a text. He concluded that such a procedure facilitates better
     textbook learning than do fact question inserts.

     In spite of the obvious educational advantages of emphasizing higher-order questions, research
     studies of classrooms conducted by Gall (1970) and Hare Pulliam (1980) confirm that only
     20 percent of classroom questions posed by teachers require more than simple factual recall.
     John Goodlad (1983) reports that only about one percent of classroom discussion invited
     students to give their own opinions and reasoning. timed essays). The center identifies four
     categories for writing-to-learn tasks:




Literacy Framework
Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 74
                                                                                                      Page 48
  What Are the Types of Questions Teachers Can Use?
     In order to elicit specific responses, a teacher may consider whether he/she is asking closed or
     open questions. A closed question is one in which there are limited number of acceptable
     answers, most of which will usually be anticipated by the instructor. An open question is one
     which there are many acceptable answers, most of which will not be anticipated by the teacher
     Higher-order questions encourage divergent thinking:

  Application Questions:
     These questions ask students to apply essential knowledge to new settings and contexts. For
     example: How could you apply these grammar and usage principles to your essay? How could
     you demonstrate the use of this concept? How would you illustrate this process in action?
     What can we generalize from these facts?

  Analytical Questions:
     These questions ask students to dissect key information and analyze essential concepts themes,
     and processes. For example: How are these characters alike and different? What is an analogy
     that might represent this situation? How would you classify these literary works? What are the
     major elements that comprise this sequence of events? What are the major causes of this situation?

  Synthesis Questions:
     These questions require student to formulate a holistic summary of key ideas, make references, or
     create new scenarios. For example: What would you hypothesize about these unusual events? What
     do you infer from her statements? Based upon these facts, what predictions would you make? How
     do you imagine the space ship would look? What do you estimate will be the costs for the project?
     How might you invent a solution to this ecological problem?

  Interpretive Questions:
      These are open-ended questions that require students to formulate opinions in response to ideas
      presented in a print or non-print (e.g., art work, audio-visual) medium. Students must support their
      opinions with direct textual evidence. For example: What does Frost mean when he says: “I have
      miles to go before I sleep?” Why does the photographer emphasize only his subject’s eyes?


Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 75
   Evaluative Questions:
      These questions require students to formulate and justify judgments and criticisms based upon
      clearly-articulated evaluative criteria. For example: Why did you decide to choose that course of
      action? How would you rank these choices? How might you defend that character’s actions?
      How would you verify that conclusion? What is your critique of that work of art?

   What Is the Value of Wait Time?
      “Wait Time” refers to that period of teacher silence that follows the posing of a question
      (Wait Time I) as well as that following initial student response (Wait Time II). Extensive research
      has consistently demonstrated that the quality of student verbal responses improves when teachers
      regularly employ the “Wait Time” technique.

      Rowe (1974) analyzed over 300 classroom tape recordings of classroom teachers and discovered
      a mean Wait Time I of one second and a mean Wait Time II of .9 seconds. However, when the
      average wait for both types was extended beyond three seconds, a variety of significant
      improvements were observed. A synthesis of studies of Wait Time by Tobin and Capie (1980)
      confirms the following benefits of Wait Time use by teachers:
            1.   The length of student responses increased.
            2.   More frequent, unsolicited contributions (relevant to the discussion) were made.
            3.   An increase in the logical consistency of students’ explanations occurred.
            4.   Students voluntarily increased the use of evidence to support inferences.
            5.   The incidence of speculative response increased.
            6.   The number of questions asked by students increased.
            7.   Greater participation by all learners occurred.




Literacy Framework
Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 76
                                                                                                     Page 48
  Advantages of Wait Time
       I.   Wait Time - Before Calling on Student:
                A. Gives the teacher time to count those students who have been answering questions
                   and those who have not.
                B. Give the teacher time to assess which students might answer the question correctly.

       II. Wait Time I – After Calling on Student:
                A. Gives student time to frame an answer.
                B. Gives teacher time to think of what a comprehensive answer could be.

       III. Wait Time II – After Student Answer:
                A. Gives the student time to elaborate on or complete an answer.
                B. Gives the teacher time to think about whether the answer was correct, incorrect,
                   partially correct to evasive.
                C. Provides time for the teacher to frame a response.

  Questioning and Brain Research
     One of the major focus areas in educational reform today is research related to the brain and brain-
     compatible learning. Teachers’ effective use of a variety of higher-order questions can overcome the
     brain’s natural tendency to limit information. In turn, students’ minds can become more open to
     new ideas and creative mental habits.

     Cadellichio and Field (Educational Leadership, March 1997) attach the label “neural pruning” to
     our brain’s natural inclination to develop mental routines and patterns in response to critical
     stimuli. These researchers suggest that teachers can extend students’ ability to attend to many
     stimuli through the process of “neural branching.”

     Current research indicates that the use of a variety of higher-order questions in an open-ended and
     nurturing educational environment strengthens the brain—creating more synapses between nerve
     cells—just as exercise builds muscle tissue.


Literacy Framework                                                                                  Page 77
  Teaching in the Interrogative
      There are numerous strategies that teachers can use to make their classrooms less “imperative” and
      more “interrogative, “ including:
           1.   The length of student responses increased.
           2.   More frequent, unsolicited contributions (relevant to the discussion) were made.
           3.   An increase in the logical consistency of students’ explanations occurred.
           4.   Students voluntarily increased the use of evidence to support inferences.
           5.   The incidence of speculative response increased.
           6.   The number of questions asked by students increased.
           7.   Greater participation by all learners occurred.

  Using the Questioning Process to Promote Higher-Order Reasoning
      The use of higher-order questions with appropriate follow-up probe questions (e.g., Why do you
      think so? What evidence can you give us to support your claim?) and wait-time powerfully rein
      force students’ deep understanding of essential declarative (facts, concepts, generalizations,
      principles) and procedural (skills, processes, procedures) knowledge:
           1.   Comparison
  	        	    	 •	 How	are	these	things	alike?
  	        	    	 •	 How	are	they	different?
           2.   Classification
  	        	    	 •	 Into	what	groups	could	you	organize	these	things?
  	        	    	 •	 What	are	the	rules	for	membership	in	each	group?
  	        	    	 •	 What	are	the	defining	characteristics	of	each	group?
           3.   Induction
  	        	    	 •	 Based	on	the	following	facts	(or	observations),	what	can	you	conclude?
  	        	    	 •	 Based	on	this	information,	what	is	a	likely	conclusion?
           4.   Deduction
  	        	    	 •	 Based	on	the	following	generalizations	(or	rules	or	principles),	what	predictions	can		
                       you make or what conclusions can you draw that must be true?
  	        	    	 •	 If	you	know	that	____________	has	happened,	then	what	do	you	know	will	have		
                       to occur?
  	        	    	 •	 What	are	the	conditions	that	make	this	conclusion	inevitable?

Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 78
          5.   Error Analysis
  	       	    	 •	 What	are	the	errors	in	reasoning	in	the	following	information?	
  	       	    	 •	 How	is	this	information	misleading?
          6.   Constructing Support
  	       	    	 •	 What	is	an	argument	that	would	support	this	claim?	
  	       	    	 •	 What	are	the	limitations	of	or	assumptions	underlying	this	argument?
  	       	    	 •	 How	is	this	information	trying	to	persuade	you?
          7.   Abstraction
  	       	    	 •	 What	is	the	general	pattern	underlying	this	information?
  	       	    	 •	 To	what	other	situations	can	this	general	pattern	be	applied?
          8.   Analyzing Perspectives
  	       	    	 •	 Why	would	someone	consider	this	to	be	good	(or	bad	or	neutral)?
  	       	    	 •	 What	is	the	reasoning	behind	the	perspective?
  	       	    	 •	 What	is	an	alternative	perspective	and	what	is	the	reasoning	behind	it?

  Decision Making:
     What are your choices? How well will each of your choices help you get what you want?
     Which choice will do the best job?

  Investigation:
      What do you want to find out? What disagreements or confusions do peoples have about it? How
      can you support conclusions?

  Experimental Inquiry:
     What do you see or notice? How can you explain it? What if…? How can you test your
     hypothesis? What happened?

  Problem Solving:
     What are some ways you can overcome what you can’t do? How do you make sure you do what
     you have to do? What solutions will you try?




Literacy Framework                                                                             Page 79
  Invention:
      What do you want to make or make better? What is a model, sketch, or outline of your invention?
      How can you make it or improve on it?

  Systems Analysis:
      What constitutes a system? How do the structures and processes comprising a particular system
      interact and support the operation of the system? What are the implications if key elements of a
      system change, diminish, or disappear?

  Metacognition asks students to become self-reflective about their use of life-long thinking “habits,”
  including the ability to be self-regulated, critical, and creative:
           1.    Are you aware of your own thinking about what you are trying to accomplish?
           2.    Have you made a plan for what you want to accomplish?
           3.    Have you collected all the resources for what you want to accomplish?
           4.    Are you aware of how well you are doing and if you need to change any of your actions or
                 attitudes?
           5.    Are you evaluating how well this is going and what you would do differently next time?
           6.    Are you actively seeking accuracy in the information you are receiving?
           7.    Are you actively seeking clarity in the information you are receiving?
           8.    Are you being open-minded about the information you are receiving?
           9.    Are you stopping to think before you speak or act? Are you resisting impulsivity?
           10.   Are you actively taking or defending position when such action is warranted?
           11.   Are you being sensitive to the feelings and level of knowledge of others?
           12.   Are you still engaging intensely when it becomes difficult, or are you withdrawing when
                 the task is hard?
           13.   Are you pushing yourself to your limits, or are you coasting?
           14.   Are you continually identifying standards you want to meet?
           15.   Are you continually trying to see the situation in new and unique ways?




Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 80
  A Checklist for Effective Questioning

 _____ 1. Do I make certain that all students develop a deep understanding of key declarative (i.e.,
           facts, concepts, generalizations, and principles) and procedural (i.e., skills, processes, and
           procedures) knowledge by emphasizing higher-order questioning?
 _____ 2. Do I encourage discussion in my classroom by using open-ended questions?
 _____ 3. Do I decide on the goals or purposes of my questions?
 _____ 4. Do I choose important—rather than trivial—material to emphasize students’
          in- depth exploration of essential/key questions?
 _____ 5. Do I avoid “yes” and “no” questions?
 _____ 6. Do I use “probe” questions to encourage students to elaborate and support assertions and
           claims?
 _____ 7. Do I ensure that students clearly understand my questions—and avoid a “guessing game”?
 _____ 8. Do I avoid questions that “contain the answer”?
 _____ 9. Do I anticipate students’ responses to my questions, yet allow for divergent thinking and
          original responses?
 _____ 10. Do I use purposeful strategies for helping students deal with incorrect responses?
 _____ 11. Do I make effective use of Wait Time I and II?
 _____ 12. Do I vary my question structure to include, where appropriate, the following:




Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 81
  Questioning for Quality Thinking
     Recalling
         Who, what, when, where, how ____________________?

     Comparing
         How is _______ similar to/different from ___________?

     Identifying Attributes and Components
         What are the characteristics/parts of _____________?

     Classifying
         How might we organize into categories___________?

     Ordering
         How would you arrange ______ into a sequence according to___________?

     Identifying Relationships and Patterns
         How would you develop an outline/diagram/web of ________?

     Representing
         In what other ways might we show/illustrate _______?

     Identifying Main Ideas
         What is wrong with ____________________?
         What conclusion might be drawn from ________?

     Identifying Errors
         What is wrong with ______________________?

     Inferring
         What might we infer from _________________?
         What conclusions might be drawn from ___________?



Literacy Framework                                                               Page 82
     Predicting
         What might happen if ________________________________?

     Elaborating
         What ideas/details can you add to ________________________?
         What is an example of ________________________________?

     Summarizing
         Can you summarize _________________________________ ?

     Establishing Criteria
         What criteria would you use to judge/evaluate _______________ ?

     Verifying
         What evidence supports ______________________________?
         How might we prove/confirm __________________________ ?




Literacy Framework                                                         Page 83
  Oral Language (Speaking/Listening) Strategies
  Direct and ongoing coaching and instruction in processes of speaking and active listening can
  greatly enhance students’ capacity for meaningful and sustained discourse. These processes can
  also encourage students to express and support their own ideas, claims, and assertions.
  A literacy-rich classroom emphasizes ongoing teaching-learning-assessment experiences related to
  the following

      1. Clear articulation of criteria for students to assess and evaluate their own speaking and
         listening skills—as well as those of others.
      2. Use of formal opportunities for speaking and listening, carefully woven into students’
         exploration of key curriculum content.
      3. Inclusion of informal opportunities for speaking and listening to reinforce students’
         acquisition, integration, and application of key curriculum content.
      4. Emphasis upon active and responsible listening processes as an essential part of building a
         positive and inviting classroom community.
      5. Use of technology to record formal and informal speaking opportunities to capture and
         reflect on the growth of student skills in this arena.




Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 84
  Articulating Criteria for Effective Speaking and Listening
     1.   Verbal Presentation Skills:
     	    	   •	 Appropriateness	of	content
     	    	   •	 Clarity	of	purpose	and	presentation	goals
     	    	   •	 Elaboration	and	support	of	major	ideas
     	    	   •	 Use	of	relevant	and	reliable	evidence
     	    	   •	 Sensitivity	to	the	background	and	needs	of	the	audience
     	    	   •	 Adjustment	of	presentation	to	meet	on-the-spot	reactions	of	audience	members
     	    	   •	 Use	of	humor,	when	appropriate
     	    	   •	 Use	of	visual	aids,	including	technology-based	resources
     2. Non-Verbal Presentation Skills:
     	 	   •	 Effectiveness	of	vocal	modulation,	avoiding	monotone	and	using	emphasis	at	ap	
              propriate points in the presentation
     	 	   •	 Appropriate	projection	to	ensure	audience	attention	and	hearing
     	 	   •	 Use	of	gestures	for	effective	emphasis	and	reinforcement	of	key	ideas
     	 	   •	 Sensitivity	to	non-verbal	cues	and	physical	stance	appropriate	for	the	presentation
     3. Active Listening Skills:
     	 	     •	 Ongoing	evidence	of	looking	at	the	person	and	eliminating	distractions
     	 	     •	 Listening	to	both	the	overt	and	implied	ideas	(including	“feeling	content”)	being		
                communicated
     	 	     •	 Demonstrating	sincere	interest	in	what	the	other	person	is	saying	and
                communicating
     	 	     •	 Periodically	restating	(summarizing	and	paraphrasing)	key	ideas,	reinforcing	clear		
                tracking of what they are saying and how they are saying it
     	 	     •	 Asking	clarifying	questions,	when	appropriate
     	 	     •	 Monitoring	your	own	feelings,	reactions,	and	emerging	opinions
     	 	     •	 Stating	your	own	views	and	perspectives	only	after	listening	to	what	the	other
                person is saying
     	 	     •	 Using	verbal	signals	to	confirm	active	listening:	“I’m	listening”	cues;	disclosures;		
                validating statements; statements of support; reflections and mirroring statements
     	 	     •	 Using	non-verbal	signals	to	confirm	active	listening:	effective	eye	contact;
                appropriate facial expressions; appropriat appropriate body language; silence
                during the other person’s communication; other confirmatory evidence

Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 85
  Formal Opportunities for Speaking and Listening
     Formal Debates                                 Technology-Assisted Presentations
     Paideia Seminars                               Synthesis Presentations
     Descriptive Speeches                               (e.g., at the conclusion of an extended project or
     Explanatory Speeches                               research process—highlighting key
     Demonstration (How-To) Speeches                    accomplishments and learnings)
     Persuasive Speeches                            Reflection on results of recordings
     Oral Presentations                                 and tapings of the above activities

  Informal Opportunities for Speaking and Listening
     1.   Listen-Think-Pair-Share                   7. Peer Response Group Activities
     2.   Turn-to-a-Neighbor Debriefings            8. Peer Coaching and Feedback Opportunities
     3.   Pairs Summarize Activities                9. Informal Status Report Debriefings
     4.   Small Group Discussions                       (e.g., Where are we with our research projects?)
     5.   Reciprocal Teaching                       10. Paired On-Line or Media Center Investigations
     6.   Numbered Heads Together

 Reinforcing Rules and Policies for Active Listening in a Positive
 Learning Community
     1. Do we demonstrate respect for one another’s ideas and perspectives?
     2. Are we attentive when others are speaking?
     3. Do we make eye contact and avoid distractions and off-task behavior when others are speaking or
         presenting?
     4. Are we sensitive to both what people around us are saying—and the feeling content expressed in it?
     5. Do we show sincere interest in what others are talking about—making our classroom a supportive,
         inviting community of learning?
     6. Can we accurately restate (paraphrase/summarize) what others are saying?
     7. Do we ask appropriate clarifying questions to ensure that we understand what others are saying and
         trying to communicate to us?
     8. Do we use appropriate verbal and non-verbal signals to show others that we are actively listening to
         them?
     9. Are we aware of our own feelings and strong opinions—taking care to express them appropriately?
     10. When we are engaged in presenting opposing opinions or points of view, do we do so after we have
         truly listened and tried to understand others?

Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 86
  Twelve Components of Effective Classroom Assessment:
  The Skillful Teacher (pp. 433-435)
    A Self-Reflection Questionnaire
         Directions
            Use the following rating scale to assess your perceived level of use of each of the
            twelve components for effective classroom assessment identified in The Skillful
            Teacher. Consider how each of these processes can reinforce students’ literacy
            development.
               4= This component is a consistent and effective part of daily
                  instruction in my classroom.
               3= This component is sometimes a part of my daily instruction, but I
                  need to expand my use of it to make it a more consistent part of my
                  classroom.
               2= This component occasionally occurs in my classroom, but I need to
                  make a concerted effort to use it much more frequently.
               1= I rarely if ever implement this strategy

    1. Determining the Assessment Task: Identifying the type of product or performance students
       will be expected to produce and describing the standards of performance that should be
       embedded in that product or performance.
    2. Communicating Standards of Performance: Sharing with students the criteria for effective
       completion of the product or performance—and ensuring that they understand them. This
       process is reinforced by discussing with students model products/performances (exemplars)
       exemplifying the standards. Ideally, students work with a clearly-articulated rubric or other
       form of scoring guide.
    3. Assessing Prior Knowledge: Pre-assessing/diagnosing where students are in relation to the
       target objectives prior to beginning instruction. This process should include: (a) determining
       students’ readiness to begin the lesson or unit; (b) discerning what needs to be addressed to
       clarify student misconceptions; (c) scaffolding instruction for students who may lack requisite
       knowledge and skills; and (d) differentiating learning experiences where necessary.

Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 87
    4. Frequently Collecting Data and Keeping Records of Student Progress: Ensuring that
       assessment is an ongoing process used to inform the teaching-learning process. Regular informal
       assessments (e.g., observations of performance, short written or oral tasks) can yield on-the-spot
       data about how students are doing in relation to the target performance.

    5. Providing Frequent High-Quality Feedback to Students: Providing daily feedback to students
       in relation to standards of performance and their progress toward achieving them. Feedback should
       be descriptive, nonjudgmental, and helpful for improving student performance. Ensuring
       immediacy and frequency of such feedback allows students to refocus and redirect their efforts
       efficiently.

    6. Encouraging Student Self-Assessment: Teaching students to regularly use criteria for
       self-assessment and peer feedback. Applying these criteria to their own work encourages the
       student to understand the criteria and to assume ownership for their own progress in learning.

    7. Having Students Keep Records of Their Own Progress: Coaching students to record scores
       they receive based upon identified evaluation criteria. This record keeping should be kept in their
       academic notebook, with students conferencing with the instructor to discern patterns and
       generate ideas for adjusting the learning process. The process makes students accountable,
       allows them to see progress visually, and becomes motivational in a class culture where everyone
       is accountable for monitoring their own learning process.

    8. Frequent Error Analysis by the Teacher: The instructor should continually monitor student
       performance data to discern areas in which individuals, small groups, or whole groups of students
       display confusion, misconceptions, or gaps in learning. Error analysis is a key element of both
       individual instruction and collaborative work review, lesson study, and scoring committee initiatives.

    9. Error Analysis by Students: This post-summative assessment process involves students in using
       the results of returned assignments, tests, and quizzes to discern gaps in their own learning relative
       to evaluation criteria. Students are encouraged to reflect on what they understand, know, and are
       able to do—as well as identify areas in which their understanding and knowledge may need
       improvement. The resulting goal-setting process promotes student ownership, engagement, and
       motivation.


Literacy Framework                                                                                        Page 88
    10. Planning and Implementing Reteaching: Using student performance data to plan re-teaching
        loops for students who may not have gotten it the first time. Re-teaching must be done with verbal
        messages and with positive affect to make this process a sign of good scholarship (i.e., when
        students nominate themselves for re-teaching rather than a confirmation that they are “remedial”).

    11. Goal Setting and Action Planning by Students: Having students use feedback and error
        analysis to set SMART goals for learning and specify an action plan. According to Saphier
        (et al., P. 435): “SMART goals are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-based.” These
        characteristics increase the chances that students will meet the goals they have identified.

    12. Reporting Systems on Student Progress Including Three-Way Conferences: This approach
        involves having students report on their goals—and their progress toward achieving them—during
        three-way conferences with teachers and parents. When parents are included in the goal-setting and
        report-out process, the stakes and rewards get even higher, according to Saphier (et al., P. 435).




Literacy Framework                                                                                        Page 89
  Using a Balanced Approach to Assessing Students’
  Literacy Development
     1. Strive to capture a photo album—not just a “snapshot”—of what students accomplish and
        achieve relative to a standards-based curriculum. Use a comprehensive approach to
        assessment, ensuring that you capture the full range of what students have learned and
        achieved, combining an appropriate “balance” of:

             •	 Diagnostic/ Pre-Assessment: formal and informal assessments to determine
                and address students’ varying readiness levels (i.e., their command of requisite
                knowledge and skills); interests (i.e., their personal experiences, background
                knowledge, and interests aligned with content to be studied); and learning profiles
                (i.e., their cognitive styles, impact of personality and temperament, learning
                modality preferences, etc.).
     	   	   •	 Formative Assessment: ongoing and on-the-spot feedback given to students
                to help them understand how they are progressing relative to identified desired
                results (i.e., standards- based criteria). Effective formative assessment is immediate
                and criterion-referenced—and ensures that students can revisit, revise, rethink,
                and refine their own learning. Ultimately, students should be empowered to self-
                monitor and self-regulate as a result of this formative assessment feedback.
     	   	   •	 Summative Assessment: cumulative assessment tasks that are evaluated to
                determine students’ “exit-point” levels of competency/proficiency relative to
                articulated evaluation criteria. Ideally, every instructional unit should culminate in
                some form of transfer task designed to evaluate the extent to which students have
                genuinely understood key unit goals and objectives. Although tests can be used as a
                form of summative assessment, they should not be the exclusive means of
                determine student competency. Additionally, effective tests should include brief
                and extended constructed-response performance tasks as part of test design.




Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 90
     2. Include constructed-response items on your tests and quizzes:
             •	 “Examine	the	solution	presented	below	for	this	word	problem.	Identify	the	errors	
                in the student’s reasoning and suggest a way to correct each error.”
             •	 “Observe	this	10-minute	video	clip	of	an	eco-system	in	Alaska.	Based	upon	your	
                observations, write a paragraph description of the food chain in that system.”
     3. Incorporate a range of reflective assessment tasks into your daily lessons:
             •	 Reflective Journal/Blog Entries: “What questions do you have about today’s
                lesson? Which aspects of the content we studied today do you really understand?
                Which aspects would you like us to revisit and clarify?”
             •	 Think Log/Blog Entries: “In this unit, we have been emphasizing the thinking
                skills of drawing inferences and prediction. How would you define each? How
                would you help another student understand these skills better?”
             •	 Peer Coaching and Peer Response Groups: “Using our narrative writing rubric,
                form groups of three. Listen as each student reads his or her narrative essay.
                Provide praise for effective elements, ask questions for clarification, and then give
                suggestions for polishing the writing.”
             •	 Interviews (Formal and Informal): “As you are completing this experiment, I
                will be walking around and asking informal questions to see how each of you is
                doing, including how well you understand the key concepts involved here.” “During
                this period, we will have five-minute meetings so that I can see how you are doing
                and how I can help you with this project.”
             •	 Informal Formative Assessment Activities and Tasks: e.g., Exit Slips, thumbs-
                up and thumbs-down signals, class voting, student response systems etc.




Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 91
     4. Reinforce students’ learning continuum by “scaffolding” assessments, using a range of
        academic prompts that contain a suggested format, audience, topic, and purpose:
             •	 Mathematics—Grade 5: “When contractors give us an estimate on home repairs,
                how can we know if the cost is reasonable? A homeowner has asked you to review
                a dry walling contractor’s proposal to determine whether the homeowner is
                being overcharged. (Students are given room dimensions and cost figures for
                materials, labor, and a 20% profit.) Examine the proposal and write a letter to the
                homeowner providing your evaluation of the proposal. Be sure to show your
                calculations so that the homeowner will understand how you arrived at your
                conclusions.”
             •	 Health—Grade 9: “Imagine that you are a fitness consultant for a local health club.
                Your task is to design a fitness program for a client. (Students are given specifications
                for the client—age, height, weight, fitness goals.) Use our fitness-planning format to
                design a 16-week fitness program for strength, endurance, and flexibility. Explain how
                your selection of aerobic, anaerobic, and stretching exercises will help your client
                meet the identified goals. Be prepared to demonstrate the proper technique for all
                exercises and stretches that you recommend.”




Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 92
     5. Anchor key units around cornerstone “transfer tasks” modeled on the G.R.A.S.P.S. elements:
             a. G.R.A.S.P.S. performance tasks and projects are authentic, “real-world” activities
                that require true student understanding and independent transfer. They always
                include:
                        (1) standards-driven goals;
                        (2) real-world role(s);
                        (3) an authentic audience;
                        (4) scenarios or situations that are authentic and realistic;
                        (5) products, performances, and presentations students are expected to
                             complete as part of the task or project; and
                        (6) standards for evaluating the products, performances, and presentations.
             b. Eighth-Grade Geography: “You are an intern at our Regional Office of Tourism.
                Your responsibility is to help a group of nine foreign visitors understand key historic,
                geographic, and economic features of our region. The visitors speak English and come
                from Shanghai, China. You are responsible for developing a written plan, including
                a budget, for a four-day tour of the region. Plan your tour so that the visitors are
                shown sites that best illustrate the key features of our region. You will need to prepare
                a written tour itinerary and a budget for the trip. You should include an explanation of
                why each site was selected and how it will help the visitors understand the features of
                our region. Include a map tracing the route for your proposed tour. Your tour plan will
                be evaluated for its completeness, accuracy, rationale, and appropriateness for your
                specific visitors. You will present your plan to a panel of office supervisors for their
                approval and feedback.”




Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 93
         c.   Ninth-Grade English Language Arts: “Your task is to select a mythic hero from the
                literature we have read in this unit. Write a letter to that hero in which you apply for a job
                as a crew member on his expeditions. In the letter, you must be specific about the
                position for which you are applying, your qualifications for the job, and why you feel
                you would be an asset to the crew. Be sure to make your letter persuasive by making it
                clear that you understand the particular struggles and adventures the hero and crew
                have already undertaken, and how you might be of value to them in handling such
                situations and difficulties. Write in business-letter form, and include a resume. You will
                then be required to complete a ten-minute interview with the hero and his crew. You
                will be evaluated on the basis of the persuasiveness of your application materials, your
                demonstration of an understanding of the hero and his exploits, and the quality of your
                oral communication during the interview.”
     6. Make certain that students understand from the beginning of your unit the evaluation
        criteria for which they are responsible, using rubrics, checklists, and other tools. Ideally, use
        an analytic rubric that weights your criteria.

     7. Use assessment as a vehicle for promoting high levels of student understanding (i.e., their
        ability to explain, apply, interpret, analyze perspectives, express empathy, and/or self-regulate).




Literacy Framework                                                                                            Page 94
  Assessment Strategies to Monitor Student Understanding
  (from ASCD’s The Power of Formative Assessment to Advance Learning, pp. 78-79)
     Using Oral Language:
         •	 Accountable	talk: Teach students to enrich their academic discourse.
     	   •	 Notice non-verbal cues: Use student non-verbal gestures and expressions as clues to
            understanding.
         •	 Value Lineups: Have students line up according to their agreement with a statement;
            then fold the line in half and have students discuss their position/point of view with
            partners.
         •	 Retellings: Ask students to summarize a text in their own words.
         •	 Listen-Think-Pair-Share: Have students think about a question, discuss it with a partner,
            and then share with the whole class.
         •	 Misconception Analysis: Discuss and evaluate students’ preconceived notions about a
            concept.
         •	 Whip Around: Have students list three items in response to a question and stand up.
            Call for one item at a time. Students must sit when all their ideas have been shared.

     Implications for Your Classroom, Grade Level, Department, or School:




Literacy Framework                                                                                  Page 95
  Asking Questions:
     	   •	 Construct effective questions: Prepare questions carefully. Choose who will respond
            and how. Wait for answers and prompt if necessary. Give appropriate feedback and
            evaluate student response patterns.
         •	 Give non-verbal support: Pay attention as they answer. Maintain eye contact.
            Don’t interrupt.
         •	 Develop authentic questions: Use a taxonomy or framework to ensure that questions
            require deep thinking, not just recall (e.g., analytical questions, evaluative questions,
            prediction questions, interpretive/open-ended).
     	   •	 Response cards: Use index cards, signs, and/or day-erase boards.
     	   •	 Hand signals: Let students do thumbs-up/down, use fingers as rating scales (1-5), or
            put hands up or down.
     	   •	 Audience response systems: Use electronic response systems, especially with carefully
            constructed multiple-choice questions.
         •	 ReQuest: Set up reciprocal questioning about portions of a text. Teacher and students
            take turns being the questioners.
         •	 Socratic Seminar: Lead discussion based on open-ended questions about text or
            audio- visual/multi-media presentation.

     Implications for Your Classroom, Grade Level, Department, or School:




Literacy Framework                                                                                  Page 96
     Using Writing:
         •	 Interactive writing: Have students take turns constructing a text.
     	   •	 Read-Write-Pair-Share: Have students read a text, write a response, discuss with a
            partner, and then share with the whole class.
     	   •	 Summary writing: Ask students to summarize text in their own words
            (similar to retelling but in writing).
         •	 RAFT: Provide prompts for performance assessments requiring students to respond to
            an identified role, audience, format, and topic.

     Implications for Your Classroom, Grade Level, Department, or School:




Literacy Framework                                                                               Page 97
     Developing Metacognition and Self-Reflection:
         •	 Think Logs: Teach students how to use habits of mind such as self-regulation to foster
            their self-awareness/comprehension monitoring: How am I doing? What do I need to
            improve on? How well do I understand what I am being asked to do and why I am being
            asked to do it?
         •	 Peer response groups: Encourage students to discuss their work and thought
            processes with one another in a constructive way.
     	   •	 Teacher interviews: Probe students’ understanding by asking pertinent questions and
            encouraging students to talk about what and how they have learned.
     	   •	 Rubrics: Help students develop and apply appropriate rubrics for evaluating their own
            and others’ work.
     	   •	 Exit slips: Ask students to write a few brief comments reacting to how a particular
            lesson or assignment has affected their progress toward the learning goal(s).

     Implications for Your Classroom, Grade Level, Department, or School:




Literacy Framework                                                                               Page 98
     Using Projects and Performances:
         •	 Readers’ Theatre: Have students turn text into a script. Then, perform it as a reading
            (with follow-up analysis and debriefing).
         •	 Multimedia presentations: Let students summarize their own learning using text,
            graphics, video, sound, individual and small group performance, etc.
         •	 Electronic and paper portfolios: Ask students to choose evidence that demonstrates
            their understanding of selected learning goals.
         •	 Visual displays of information: Have students use graphic organizers, inspiration
            software, foldables, and dioramas.
     	   •	 Public performances: Allow students to have exhibitions, celebrations, and
            demonstrations of their work.

     Implications for Your Classroom, Grade Level, Department, or School:




Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 99
     Using Tests as Formative Assessment:
     	   •	 Multiple choice, short answer, dichotomous-choice (e.g., true/false) tests: Match
            test item format with the instructional targets in both content and thought processes
            required for students to master.
     	   •	 Essays: Design prompts that match instructional targets in both content and
            thought processes required.
     	   •	 When test results have been handed back, ask students to reflect on statistical
            patterns and attitudes:
                 (1) What do the aggregate results reveal about aspects of the content we all
                      understood—and other aspects with which we had trouble?
                 (2) What level of certainty did you have about each answer:
                        (a) High level of confidence;
                        (b) Some level of confidence;
                        (c) Not really certain about the answer;
                        (d) Didn’t really care.

     Implications for Your Classroom, Grade Level, Department, or School:




Literacy Framework                                                                                  Page100
    Differentiated Assessment to Promote Literacy
    Tiered Lessons                             Interest Centers                            Complex Instruction
    After diagnosing students’ readiness       Center activities based upon student        A classroom is organized to
    levels, instructor emphasizes the          interests (but aligned with unit and        differentiate (whenever possible)
    same standards for all students, but       grade-level/course standards) allow         content, process, and product to
    differentiates the content (e.g., levels   for independent inquiry and                 address readiness, interests, and
    of reading and writing required),          investigation.                              learning profiles. Tasks range from
    process, or product.                                                                   whole group to small group and
                                                                                           independent work.
    Tiered Centers                             Interest Groups                             Aligning Products with
    Tiered centers are aligned with your       Students are grouped in                     Multiple Intelligences and
    current unit standards and focus           cooperative learning cohorts to             Learning Styles
    areas. They allow students to explore      investigate a topic, issue, or process      Performance tasks are designed to
    parallel content via different read-       aligned with unit standards—but             accommodate a range of intelligences
    ing selections, tasks, processes, and      also focused upon shared group              (e.g., visual, spatial, linguistic,
    learning profiles.                         interests.                                  mathematical) and styles.

    Learning Contracts                         Varied Homework                             Cooperative Learning
    Independent study options are              Based upon diagnostic and
                                                                                           JIGSAWS
    designed as a partnership between          formative assessment within a lesson        Students form base groups and
    the learner and teacher, with goals,       (or set of lessons), homework is            expert groups. Expert groups
    dead-lines, deliverables, and              designed to maximize student                become highly familiar with key unit
    perform-ances clearly articulated.         progress, including tutorials,              content and then teach it to peers
                                               remediation, and acceleration.              within their base groups.

    Orbital Studies                            Curriculum Compacting                       Anchored Activities
    The core curriculum (and related           Instructor diagnoses students at the        Varied texts and materials (based on
    standards) form the “sun” and              beginning of a unit (or unit/lesson         such issues as reading levels, interests,
    independent investigations, projects,      segments). Based upon their readiness       and learning profiles) are available to
    and performance form “planets.”            levels (i.e., tiering), some students       individual and groups of students,
    Ideally, planet-based studies are shared   receive more direct and intensive           “anchored” to key curriculum
    by students with other class members,      tutoring while others accelerate toward     standards for a unit, grade level, or
    expanding curriculum focus.                advanced or more independent study.         course.

    Independent Study                          Varied Journal Prompts                      R.A.F.T.S.
    Students propose issues, topics, and       Students are given a choice (or             A variation of the academic prompt, a
    processes that interest them (and are      assigned—based upon readiness, inter-       R.A.F.T. articulates a range of options
    aligned with current unit standards).      ests, and/or learning profiles) different   for culminating performance assess-
    They engage in independent study as        journal entry prompts. These prompts        ment tasks, including student choice
    part of curriculum tiering, compacting,    give the teacher ongoing feedback about     (or teacher-assigned) roles, audiences,
    and/or orbital studies. This process       student progress and self-monitoring.       formats, topics, and standards for
    complements, but does not substitute       They can be assigned at the end of a        evaluation. The varying choices should
    for, key unit content.                     lesson or key lesson segment.               concentrate upon parallel standards.


Literacy Framework                                                                                                         Page 101
  Creating Scoring Scales/Rubrics to Monitor Student Progress
  (Based on Robert Marzano’s The Art and Science of Teaching, pp. 21-22)

         A Sample Scoring Scale (Generic)
           Score 4.0:
           In addition to score 3.0, student work demonstrates in-depth inferences and
           applications that go beyond what was directly taught.
           Score 3.0:
           Student’s work contains no major errors or omissions related to any of the
           information and/or processes (simple or complex) that were explicitly taught.
           Score 2.0:
           Student’s work contains no major errors or omissions related to any of the simpler
           details and processes that were explicitly taught, but major errors or omissions are
           present involving more complex ideas and processes.
           Score 1.0:
           With help, student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler de-
           tails and processes and some of the more complex ideas and processes directly taught.
           Score 0.0:
           Even with help, student demonstrates no understanding or skill related to what was
           directly taught.




Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 102
         A Sample Scoring Scale (Aligned with a Specific Learning Goal):
           Learning Goal:
           Demonstrate number sense when using arithmetic operations to order and compare
           whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
           Score 4.0:
           In addition to 3.0 performance indicators, student work demonstrates in-depth
           inferences and applications going beyond what was directly taught about making
           predictions and estimations involving ordering and comparing quantities expressed in
           different numerical formats.
           Score 3.0:
           Student exhibits no major errors in what was explicitly taught and demonstrates
           number sense by:
           	   •	 Ordering	and	comparing	whole	numbers	(millions),	decimals
                  (thousandths), and fractions with like denominators.
           	   •	 Converting	between	equivalent	forms	of	fractions,	decimals,	and		 	            	
                  whole numbers.
           	   •	 Finding	and	representing	factors	and	multiples	of	whole	numbers		 	            	
                  through 100.
           Score 2.0:
           Student exhibits major errors or omissions related to the more complex ideas
           identified in Score 3.0, but no major errors or omissions regarding simpler details
           related to number sense, including:
           	    •	 Use	of	basic	terminology	(e.g.,	millions,	thousandths,	like	denominator,		 	 	
                   factor, multiple)
           	    •	 Demonstration	of	basic	solutions	(e.g.,	5.5	is	greater	than	5.005;	¾	is			   	
                   the same as 0.75; 4 is a factor of 12.
           Score 1.0:
           With help, the student displays a partial understanding of some simpler details and
           processes associated with Score 2.0 and some complex ideas and processes in Score
           3.0, but does not demonstrate number sense independently.
           Score 0.0:
           Even with help, the student displays no understanding of number sense.


Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 103
         A Sample Scoring Scale Aligned with the 21st Century Skill of
         Creativity and Innovation:
           Learning Goal:
           Demonstrate creativity and innovation by thinking creatively, working creatively with
           others, and implementing innovations.
           Score 4.0:
           In addition to 3.0 performance indicators, student demonstrates creativity and
           innovation by going beyond what was directly taught, including:
           	    •	 Using	a	wide	range	of	idea	creation	techniques	(e.g.,	brainstorming).
           	    •	 Creating	new	and	worthwhile	ideas.
           	    •	 Elaborating,	refining,	analyzing,	and	evaluating	his	or	her	own	ideas	in	order	to		
                   improve and maximize creative efforts.
           	    •	 Developing	and	communicating	ideas	to	others	effectively	and	productively,		
                   including openness to new or alternative perspectives.
           Score 3.0:
           Student exhibits no major errors in what was explicitly taught and demonstrates the
           ability to use some aspects of creativity and innovation by:
           	     •	 Generating	original	ideas	within	the	context	of	what	was	taught	and	how	it	was		
                    taught.
           	     •	 Elaborating,	refining,	analyzing,	and	evaluating	his	or	her	own	work	using		 	
                    teacher-presented criteria (e.g., rubrics, checklists, analytical scoring guides).
           	     •	 Working	productively	as	part	of	a	team	or	cooperative	learning	group	to	complete		
                    teacher-assigned tasks requiring application, interpretation, and explanation.
           	     •	 Describing	and	analyzing	authentic	or	real-world	applications	and	connections		
                    of teacher-assigned tasks and content.




Literacy Framework                                                                                   Page 104
           Score 2.0:
           Student exhibits major errors or omissions related to the more complex ideas
           identified in Score 3.0, but no major errors or omissions regarding simpler details
           related to creativity and innovation, including:
           	    •	 Demonstrating	difficulty	in	presenting	original	explanations,	interpretations,		
                   and applications of complex ideas and skills presented by the instructor.
           	    •	 Thinking	within	the	parameters	of	basic	teacher-presented	knowledge	and	skills.
           	    •	 Following	instructions	and	operating	within	the	parameters	of	teacher-
                   delineated standards.
           Score 1.0:
           With help, the student displays a partial understanding of some simpler details and
           processes associated with Score 2.0 and some complex ideas and processes in Score
           3.0, but does not demonstrate creativity and innovation as a consistent or regular part
           of his or her actions (using either complex or basic knowledge and skills presented by
           the instructor).
           Score 0.0:
           Even with help, the student displays no understanding of complex or simple teacher-
           presented knowledge and skills, with no demonstration of creativity and innovation.




Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 105
 Try Creating Your Own Scoring Scale for a Learning Goal You Will Be
 Teaching in the Next Few Weeks
     A Sample Scoring Scale (Aligned with a Specific Learning Goal):
     Learning Goal:



     Score 4.0:
     In addition to score 3.0, student work demonstrates in-depth inferences and applications that go
     beyond what was directly taught.
     Score 4.0:
     Score 3.0:
     Student’s work contains no major errors or omissions related to any of the information and/or
     processes (simple or complex) that were explicitly taught.
     Score 3.0:
     Score 2.0:
     Student’s work contains no major errors or omissions related to any of the simpler details and
     processes that were explicitly taught, but major errors or omissions are present involving more
     complex ideas and processes.
     Score 2.0:
     Score 1.0:
     With help, student demonstrates a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes
     and some of the more complex ideas and processes directly taught.
     Score 1.0:
     Score 0.0:
     Even with help, student demonstrates no understanding or skill related to what was directly taught.
     Score 0.0:


Literacy Framework                                                                                         Page 106
  Literacy Strategies for English Language Learners (ELL)
     1. Levels of English Language Acquisition: According to Jane D. Hill and Cynthia L. Bjork
        (in Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners: Participant’s Work
        book, Alexandria,VA: ASCD, 2008, P. 10), English Language Learners typically go through
        five identifiable stages of language acquisition:
             •	 Pre-Production:	minimal	comprehension;	does	not	verbalize;	nods	“yes”	and	“no”;
                draws and points.
             •	 Early	Production:	limited	comprehension;	produces	one-	or	two-word	responses;	uses		
                key words and familiar phrases; uses present tense verbs.
             •	 Speech	Emergence:	good	comprehension;	produces	simple	sentences;	makes	grammar	
                and pronunciation errors; frequently misunderstands jokes.
             •	 Intermediate	Fluency:	excellent	comprehension;	makes	few	grammatical	mistakes.
             •	 Advanced	Fluency:	near-native	level	of	speech.
     2. Key Principles of Effective ELL Literacy Instruction: According to the California Association of
        Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages:
            •	 It	is	desirable	to	develop	literacy	in	the	language	used	at	home	first,	while	beginning	to	
               build students’ fluency in English.
            •	 A	good	foundation	in	primary	language	literacy	facilitates	the	later	transfer	of	literacy	
               skills to English.
            •	 Where	primary	language	reading	instruction	is	not	provided,	students	should	have	
               language-rich, developmentally appropriate programs of English language development
               which include exposure to print.
            •	 Ongoing	assessment	of	literacy	development	is	essential	to	ensure	student	success.	
               Before beginning literacy instruction for English learners, there should be a thorough
               diagnosis by trained professionals—including oral proficiency and literacy in both
               English and the primary language.
            •	 This	diagnosis,	along	with	parent	consultation	and	a	study	of	the	student’s	school
               history, should determine initial placement in a literacy program.
            •	 An	ongoing	monitoring	system	is	needed,	with	students	assessed	periodically	for
               development of oral English, literacy in their primary language and English, and
               success with the mainstream curriculum. This assessment should be used to help
               teachers plan effective instruction and to assist in the allocation of school and district
               resources.

Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 107
     3. Key Literacy-Based Instructional and Intervention Strategies for ELL Students: The California
        Association of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages suggests that:
         •	 ELL	English	language	literacy	instruction	should	be	balanced,	meaning-centered,	and
            contextualized.
         •	 Instruction	should	include	reading	and	responding	to	literature,	writing,	and	the
            development of essential skills (e.g., instruction in phonics, phonemic awareness, and
            vocabulary).
         •	 Beginning	literacy	instruction	in	students’	primary	language	should	also	be	balanced	and		
            meaning-centered.
         •	 Knowledge	and	understanding	derived	from	primary	language	literacy	should	be	linked	
            explicitly to English.
         •	 Younger	students’	initial	English	reading	experiences	should	be	integrated	with
            continuing oral language development, which includes many opportunities to hear, read,
            develop, and use new vocabulary and language patterns.
         •	 Literacy	programs	for	older	students	should	build	on	their	prior	knowledge	and
            experiences.
         •	 In	addition	to	incorporating	appropriate	literature,	instruction	should	help	students	read		
            academic texts, read for recreation and survival, and develop independent reading strategies.
         •	 All	English	learners	should	have	reading	instruction	tailored	to	the	student’s	level	of	English		
            proficiency, knowledge of English syntax and primary language fluency.
     	   •	 Students	should	be	helped	to	develop	structure,	clarity,	spelling	and	mechanics	in	writing.
     	   •	 Differentiation	and	similarities	between	the	primary	language	and	English	will	affect	the	
            content of writing, phonics and spelling instruction.




Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 108
      4. Literacy-Based Cues and Questions: According to Hill and Bjork (2008), teachers of ELL students
         should focus upon the following instructional interventions to promote their literacy development:
             a. Cues and Questions:
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Provide	ELL	students	with	concrete,	contextual	cues	so	that	they	stay	on	target	for		 	
                      learning.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Help	ELL	students	access	background	knowledge	and	connect	to	cues	and
                      questions more quickly by using real objects, pictures, and sketches as well as
                      shorter, simpler sentences.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Engage	all	ELL	students	in	higher	order	thinking	with	prompts	and	supports	that		 	
                      match their stages of language acquisition.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Use	wait	time	to	help	ELL	students	formulate	responses	in	their	second	language.
             b. Setting Objectives:
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Establish	clear	literacy	objectives	in	addition	to	content	objectives.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Set	specific	literacy	objectives	that	facilitate	ELL	students’	academic	learning.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Design	academic	opportunities	that	help	ELL	students	build	language	proficiency.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Set	literacy	objectives	related	to	both	language	functions	and	language	structures.
             c. Providing Feedback:
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Ensure	that	feedback	is	timely	and	realistic	in	order	for	ELL	students	to	know	how		 	
                      they are doing in the classroom.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Use	feedback	that	is	appropriate	for	the	language	acquisition	level	of	the	ELL	student.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Use	the	Word-MES	strategy	to	provide	reinforcement	and	feedback:
                           (1) Provide feedback on word selection with pre-production students;
                           (2) Model for early production students;
                           (3) Expand what speech emergent students have said or written; and
                           (4) Help intermediate and advanced fluency students to “sound like a book.”
             d. Summarizing:
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Use	appropriate	visuals	and	questioning	strategies	to	promote	the	understanding		 	
                      of ELL students.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Asking	ELL	students	to	summarize	helps	them	learn	to	analyze	information	at	a		            	
                      fairly deep level: i.e., When I summarize, what should information should I keep?
                      Which information should I abstract or present in a more general way? Which
                      information should I eliminate?
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Reciprocal	teaching	helps	ELL	students	understand	text.	Model	its	key	elements		           	
                      and give sentence starters to guide students’ facilitation of text analysis.
  	   	 	 	 	 •	 Use	summarizing	as	a	tool	for	helping	ELL	students	become	more	aware	of	the		              	
                      explicit structure of information.

Literacy Framework                                                                                  Page 109
              e. Nonlinguistic Representations:
                   •	 Nonlinguistic	representations	promote	ELL	students’	understanding	and	literacy	
                      development.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 They	can	include	real	objects,	pictures,	pictographs,	diagrams,	physical	models,		
                      video clips, recorded sounds, gestures, and movement.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Use	mental	and	sensory	images	to	help	ELL	students	understand	new	academic		
                      language.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Ask	students	to	elaborate	on	new	knowledge	by	providing	explanations	for		 	
                      choices made.
              f. Practice and Homework:
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Tiered	literacy-based	homework	(based	upon	students’	varying	readiness	levels		
                       and language acquisition levels) should be used to meet the language demands
                       required by the subject and language needs of ELL students.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 ELL	students	should	have	practice	and	homework	focused	on	speaking	and	listening.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Practice	and	homework	should	be	geared	to	each	ELL	students’	stage	of	language		
                       acquisition.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Nonlinguistic	tools	such	as	photos,	objects,	visual	organizers,	and	graphic	repre	
                       sentations should be used to support ELL students’ knowledge and language
                       acquisition.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Allow	time	to	explain	homework	to	ELL	students,	showing	clear	examples	of			
                       expected outcomes.
              g. Cooperative Learning:
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Using	a	range	of	cooperative	learning	structures	and	processes	with	ELL	students		
                      provides them with meaningful peer-based interaction and language modeling
                      opportunities.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Remember	that	for	students	coming	from	outside	the	United	States,	cooperative		
                      learning may be a new or unknown experience. Be sure to provide models and
                      explanations for specific cooperative learning strategies and tasks.
  	   	   	   	 	 •	 Directly	teach	students	how	to	help	each	other,	establishing	a	culture	in	the
                      classroom of friendly and mutually supportive learning.




Literacy Framework                                                                                Page 110
      j. Note Taking:
            •	 Teach	ELL	students	to	use	a	combination	of	note-taking	strategies,	including	running	notes,	
               summaries (e.g., main ideas, key vocabulary, generalizations), and visual representations of
               key information.
  	   	 	 •	 The	more	active	the	note-taking	process,	the	more	ELL	students	will	be	engaged	in
               generating and synthesizing key knowledge.
      k. Reinforcing Effort:
            •	 Encourage	ELL	students	to	believe	that	there	is	a	direct	relationship	between	their	personal		
               effort and their achievement.
  	   	 	 •	 Help	ELL	students	to	track	and	understand	the	relationship	between	their	efforts	and			          	
               achievement.
  	   	 	 •	 Provide	ELL	students	with	reinforcement	on	a	regular	basis—especially	in	light	of	their
               having to learn both new subject matter and a new language.
      l. Providing Recognition:
              •	 Provide	criterion-based	recognition	and	feedback	to	ELL	students.
  	   	   	   •	 Make	praise	and	feedback	as	personal	as	possible	for	individual	students.
  	   	   	   •	 In	addition	to	verbal	praise,	use	concrete	symbols	such	as	stickers,	awards,	and	coupons	to		 	
                 recognize ELL students’ achievements and accomplishments.
  	   	   	   •	 Ensure	that	recognition	provided	to	ELL	students	is	culturally	appropriate.
      m. Generating and Testing Hypotheses:
              •	 Encourage	students	to	formulate	predictions	and	hypotheses	(e.g.,	What	do	you	think	will	
                 happen next in this story?).
  	   	   	   •	 When	ELL	students	are	asked	to	explain	their	hypotheses	and	conclusions,	guide	them	with			
                 sentence starters, key vocabulary, and graphic organizers).
  	   	   	   •	 When	generating	and	testing	hypotheses,	ELL	students	should	receive	reinforcement	via		 	
                 cooperative learning opportunities, non-linguistic representations, and Word-MES
                 strategies:
                       (1) Provide feedback on word selection with pre-production students;
                       (2) Model for early production students;
                       (3) Expand what speech emergent students have said or written; and
                       (4) Help intermediate and advanced fluency students to “sound like a book.”




Literacy Framework                                                                                      Page 111
  Literacy Strategies for Special Education Learners
  A wide range of literacy strategies have been proven in helping students with specific disabilities to
  extend and refine their literacy skills and competencies. According to the British Columbia Ministry of
  Education, these include:
     Reading (Decoding and Comprehension):
         1. Provide background experiences (e.g., field trips, critical-input previewing experiences) to
             expose students to reading selection themes and new vocabulary.
         2. Use pictures, models, and diagrams to reinforce key ideas and concepts.
         3. Use story maps, webs, and related visual organizers to reinforce students’ conceptual under
             standing of text.
         4. Use art projects to make abstract concepts more concrete.
         5. Interview, dramatize, or debate to clarify key points in written selections and to predict
             outcomes.
         6. Use guessing games to clarify character traits.
         7. Have students create a different ending for stories.
         8. Write a story from a different point of view.
         9. Write or draw what you think will happen next.
         10. Pair target students with strong readers to read difficult passages out loud to each other.
             Encourage the stronger reader to read longer passages.
         11. Read written directions orally to class before students proceed with an assignment.
         12. Read written directions orally to class before students proceed with an assignment.
         13. Provide a special copy of required reading material with the important points highlighted.
         14. Provide an audio tape or DVD of essential reading material.
         15. Select alternate materials with similar content at a lower reading level.
         16. Provide summaries or simplified forms of novels or other reading material to augment
             understanding.
         17. Provide opportunities for student to predict, summarize, and paraphrase.
         18. Model effective reading strategies such as previewing, highlighting, and note taking.
         19. Encourage students to use visualization and verbalization to support comprehension.
         20. Consider ways to alter the format of handouts and other print materials to reduce the
             amount of material in students’ visual field.



Literacy Framework                                                                                    Page 112
     Academic Vocabulary:
        1.   Teach students the meanings of common root words.
        2.   Find familiar “chunks” in multi-syllabic words (prefixes, suffixes, roots).
        3.   Decode the word from back to front (e.g., tion; vention; prevention).
        4.   Use context to determine the meaning of an unknown word (read up to the word, beyond the
             word, rerun strategy, etc.).
        5.   Pre-teach key vocabulary concepts.
        6.   Encourage students to preview material to develop a list of words that may cause difficulty.
        7.   Provide students with a list of key vocabulary to be used in a lesson.
        8.   Help students develop note cards with a personal vocabulary list.
        9.   Teach key connecting words which cue relationships between ideas.

     Writing:
        1.  Model and teach pre-writing activities such as brainstorming and freewriting.
        2.  Provide opportunities for students to discuss topics for assigned writings, including clear
            criteria for completing the assignment.
        3. Consider the communication of ideas as a primary goal of writing rather than its form or style
            during initial stages of the writing process.
        4. Allow for oral demonstrations of knowledge to complement students’ written expression.
        5. Teach students to proofread in pairs, using rubrics or scoring guides to guide their revision
            process.
        6. Provide teacher consultation for revision stages of the writing process.
        7. Encourage students to use the word processor to complete composition assignments.
        8. Allow audio or video taped recordings of assignments as an alternative to written formats.
        9. Encourage students’ use of electronic spell and grammar checkers.
        10. Limit the weighting of spelling as part of writing evaluation.
        11. Model and teach editing skills.
        12. Establish and reinforce peer editing processes, norms, and protocols.




Literacy Framework                                                                                  Page 113
  Literacy Strategies for Talented and Gifted Learners
      1. Addressing Gifted Students’ Cognitive Needs: Dr. David Levine (Southern Connecticut
         State University) in his article “Gifted Readers and Reading Instruction” identifies the following
         cognitive needs of gifted children (Clark, 1983):
              •	 To	be	exposed	to	new	and	challenging	information	about	their	environment	and	culture.
              •	 To	be	exposed	to	varied	subjects	and	concerns.
  	   	   	   •	 To	be	allowed	to	pursue	ideas	as	far	as	their	interests	take	them.
  	   	   	   •	 To	encounter	and	use	increasingly	difficult	vocabulary	and	concepts.
  	   	   	   •	 To	be	exposed	to	ideas	at	rates	appropriate	to	the	individual’s	pace	of	learning.
  	   	   	   •	 To	pursue	inquiries	beyond	allotted	time	spans.
      2. Suggested Guidelines: According to Dr. Levine, researchers (Bartelo & Cornette, 1982; Bagaj,
         1968; Cornette & Bartelo, 1982; and Sakiey, 1980) agree on the following guidelines for
         teachers working with gifted students:
              •	 Instruction	in	basic	word	attitude	skills	should	be	kept	to	a	minimum.
              •	 Challenging	materials	should	be	made	available,	especially	to	young	gifted	readers.
  	   	   	   •	 Instruction	should	facilitate	critical	and	creative	reading.
  	   	   	   •	 Use	of	analogies	should	be	studied,	especially	with	older	gifted	students.
  	   	   	   •	 Inductive	(i.e.,	inquiry-based	and	experiential)—rather	than	deductive/lecture
                 instruction—should be emphasized.
              •	 Flexibility	in	assignments	should	be	stressed.
  	   	   	   •	 Unnecessary	repetition	in	instruction	should	be	eliminated.
  	   	   	   •	 Students’	divergent	and	diversified	interests	should	be	nurtured.
  	   	   	   •	 Independent	projects	such	as	sociograms,	time	machine	models,	newscasts,	games	based		
                 on story themes and simulation role-playing activities should be encouraged.




Literacy Framework                                                                                     Page 114
      3. The Renzulli Enrichment Triad Model: Consider using a range of differentiated instructional
         strategies in promoting gifted students’ literacy development. For example, the Renzulli
         Enrichment Triad model encourages self-directed reading and independent study. In Renzulli’s
         model, three types of interrelated activities are emphasized:
              •	 Initial	exploratory	activities	in	which	students	investigate	avenues	of	interest	and	then
                 decide on a topic or problem to study in depth;
  	   	   	   •	 Activities	in	which	students	are	provided	with	the	technical	skills	and	thinking	processes		 	
                 needed to investigate the research topic or problem selected in step one; and
  	   	   	   •	 Investigative	activities	in	which	students	explore	their	topic	or	solve	their	problem	through		 	
                 individual or small group work, with students then developing an end product that reflects
                 their learning.
      4. Specific Literacy Strategies for Gifted Students: Although the following instructional strategies
         can benefit all learners, they are especially useful in promoting the literacy development of gifted
         students:
              •	 Clearly	articulate	the	purpose	and	goals	of	a	lesson	or	unit,	engaging	students	in	activating	
                 prior learning and reinforcing their sense of purpose and value.
  	   	   	   •	 Collaborate	with	students	to	build	a	rubric	or	set	of	scoring	guides	to	guide	and	inform	their		
                 self-monitoring during the unit.
  	   	   	   •	 Introduce	new	knowledge	and	skills	by	establishing	a	relevant	and	authentic	context	and		 	
                 purpose.
  	   	   	   •	 Use	critical-input	experiences	at	the	beginning	of	key	instructional	juncture	points	to	engage		
                 students with experience-based and inquiry-focused investigations.
  	   	   	   •	 Engage	students	with	pre-existing	background	knowledge	in	designing	and	presenting
                 previewing experiences for other students.
  	   	   	   •	 Use	a	range	of	higher-order	questions	to	provoke	student	inquiry,	debate,	and	discourse:	e.g.,
                 interpretive, analytical, evaluative, synthesis.




Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 115
              •		 Model	and	reinforce	students’	use	of	a	range	of	higher-order	thinking	skills	as	part	of	task		 	
                  and assessment design: e.g., comparison, classification, inductive reasoning, error analysis,
                  and analysis of perspectives.
  	   	   	   •	 Build	culminating	performance	assessment	tasks	around	meaningful	and	authentic
                  opportunities for student transfer.
  	   	   	   •	 Design	culminating	tasks	using	one	or	more	of	the	following	complex	reasoning	processes:		 	
                  problem solving, decision making, investigation, systems analysis, invention and creative
                  self-expression.
  	   	   	   •	 Encourage	students	to	be	metacognitive,	monitoring	their	use	of	such	intellectual
                  dispositions as creative, critical, and self-regulated thinking.




Literacy Framework                                                                                       Page 116
    The Role of Technology in Promoting Student Literacy
Toward a 21st Century Definition of Technology Literacy:
     According to the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory in its article “Critical Issue: Using
     Technology to Enhance Literacy Instruction
     (http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li300.htm):
          Literacy instruction usually refers to the teaching of basic literacy skills—reading, writing, listening, and
          speaking. In today’s digital world, however, technology has contributed to an expanded understanding of
          literacy. Besides having basic literacy skills, today’s students also need technology skills for communicating,
          investigating, accessing, and using information, computing, thinking critically about messages inherent in
          new media, and understanding and evaluating data. As policymakers and educators ponder what it
          means to be literate in a digitalized society, an array of literacy definitions is emerging.

     NCREL identifies the following forms of technology-based literacy essential to the success of the 21st
     century learner:
           •		 Information	Literacy: The ability to access and use information, analyze content, work
                with ideas, synthesize thought, and communicate results.
	    	 	 •		 Digital Literacy: The ability to attain deeper understanding of content by using
                data-analysis tools and accelerated learning processes enabled by technology.
           •		 Computer	Literacy:	The ability to accurately and effectively use computer tools such as
                word processors, spreadsheets, databases, and presentation and graphic software.
           •		 Critical	Literacy:	The ability to look at the meaning and purpose of written texts, visual
                applications, and spoken words to question the attitudes, values, and beliefs behind them.
                The goal is development of critical thinking to discern meaning from an array of
                multimedia, visual imagery, and virtual environments, as well as written text.
	    	 	 •		 Media	Literacy:	The ability to communicate competently in all media forms—print and
                electronic—as well as access, understand, analyze, and evaluate the images, words, and
                sounds that comprise contemporary culture.




Literacy Framework                                                                                                   Page 117
  A Self-Reflective Questionnaire:
  How Does Your Classroom Align the Use of Technology and Students’ Literacy Development?
     1. Do you use technology for more than skills reinforcement?
     2. Do you model and encourage students to use technology as part of complex task completion (e.g.,
        integrate technology into students’ ongoing work with research and report writing, including
        using the Internet for research; word processing software to write and format the text; and
        hypermedia software to add images)?
     3. To what extent are you able to keep up with changes in technology and support students’ under
        standing and responsiveness to these changes?
     4. Do you use technology to help students construct meaning and extend and refine their learning?
     5. Do you anchor students’ use of technology around spiraling assessment tasks that encourage them
        to move from initial acquisition of knowledge and skills toward growing levels of constructed
        meaning and independent application/transfer?
     6. To what extent do you make use of technologies to help students develop critical and analytical
        reading skills? (e.g., audiobooks, online texts, related forms of online books)
     7. How do various electronic/technology-based resources and interventions in your classroom rein
        force students’ sense of growth and control relative to their own learning process?
     8. To what extent does your use of technology in the classroom reinforce students’ decoding and
        comprehension skills during reading?
     9. How do you use technology to enhance students’ ability to express ideas and creativity?
     10. How extensively does your use of electronic books with students support reading instruction by
         providing background information, extended response action opportunities, play actions, and
         explanatory notes?
     11. To what extent do you use technology (e.g., word processing, desktop publishing, multimedia
         composing) to extend and refine students’ ability to use writing as a tool for communication?
     12. How are you using technology to enhance and extend students’ work with research (e.g., Internet
         search engines, online tools for evaluating web-based information, web sites that offer
         collaborative activities)?



Literacy Framework                                                                                 Page 118
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