PLD (programmable logic device) is used as a common integrated circuit manufacturing, and his logic functions programmed by the user of the device to get. PLD of integration in general high enough to meet the design needs of digital systems in general. This can be programmed by the designers themselves and put a digital system, "integrated" in a PLD, while chip manufacturers do not have to please the design and production of a special integrated circuit chip.
Microprocessor & Control Experiment No. 1 Experiment No. 1 1.0 Title : Know your microprocessor Laboratory. 2.0 Prior Concepts : 1. The curriculum of the subject. 2. Basic concepts of digital Logic. 3. Data Bus, Address Bus, Control Bus.. 4. Definitions of Instruction and Program. 3.0 New concepts : Proposition 1 : Laboratory experiment : Laboratory experiments are expected to develop intellectual skills, Motor skills and attitudes in students. Concepts structure 1 : Proposition 2 : Logical thinking : Logical thinking is developed in students through systems approach, content analysis and sequential planning of laboratory work. Concepts structure 2 : Teacher's Activity :- The teacher should see that the students become aware of … - All aspects of block diagram of microprocessor kit. - List of experiments to be performed. - Different ICs used in the kit. - The safety precautions to be adopted. - Switching ON/OFF system supply. - Instructions to be followed. Student's Activity :- - Observe the set up of the laboratory. - Note carefully ON/OFF switching of system supply. - Follow the oral /written instructions in the laboratory. - To become familiar with the equipments and safety precautions etc. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION o 1 Experiment No. 1 Microprocessor & Control Proposition 3 : Computer : It is a digital system, which processes information and gives output. The information to be processed is provided by the user. The user provides information to the computer through input peripheral and the computer provides processed information to the user through output peripheral. Proposition 4 : Micro-computer Architecture The following figure shows a general block diagram of Microcomputer. Proposition 5 : Microprocessor A microprocessor is a multipurpose programmable logic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device (memory), accepts binary data as input and processes data according to the instructions, and provides result at output. Microprocessor, memory, input & output devices work together to perform specified tasks. These all together form a microprocessor based system. The physical components of the system are called as hardware. The set of instructions written for the microprocessor to perform a specified task is called program. The set of programs is called as software. Proposition 6 : Programming language The microprocessor communicates and operates in the binary numbers 0 and 1, called bits. Microprocessor understand a program written in 0's and 1's form,(binary-symbols). Program written in binary code is called as machine-level-language program. The program written in binary is very cumbersome and error-prone and hence binary instructions are abbreviated in code called, as mnemonics. The program written by using mnemonics is called as assembly language program. Proposition 7 : Memory module It is used to store program and data. Normally used memory chips are categorized as follows. 2 o MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION Microprocessor & Control Experiment No. 1 The memory module is divided into three sections viz. 1. Program memory 2. Data memory 3. Stack memory 1. Program Memory It is used to store program (set of instructions) i.e. in microcomputer all programs are stored in program memory. It consists of ROM and RAM chips. ROM is used to store system or monitor program. The system program has highest priority. After reset operation, the microprocessor executes only system software. The user can communicate with the microprocessor by executing system software commands. The system software is always fixed. RAM is used to store user or application programs. 2. Data Memory: It is used to store program, operands, data and results. It consists of ROM and RAM chips. ROM is used to store constant values like gray code, ASCII code etc. RAM is used to store variables, operands and results. 3.Stack Memory: It is used to save contents of the registers of CPU in RAM area. Stack is defined in RAM area only. It operates in LIFO (last in first out) mode. During write operation the microprocessor saves bytes from bottom to top in the stack memory (i.e. it grows in reverse order) but it reads bytes from top to bottom during read operation i.e. it reads recently stored byte first. Proposition 8 : Input/ Output Module It is used to interface external peripherals to the microprocessor. To connect external devices to the microprocessor, two facilities are required : input/output port and interface circuitry. Generally input device used is keyboard and Output device used is Monitor or display. Proposition 9 : Bus It is a group of conductors. It is used to transfer information between two modules. It consists of data, address and control lines. Data bus : It is a bi-directional bus. It is used to transfer data between two modules. It has three states viz. logic 0, logic 1 and high impedance state. Address bus: It is a unidirectional bus. It is used to transfer address word from microprocessor to memory or microprocessor to input/output module. It is always latched. MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION o 3 Experiment No. 1 Microprocessor & Control Control bus: 1) It consists of control input and control output lines. 2) It is used to carry control signals between CPU and peripherals. 4.0 Learning objectives :- a) Identify different IC's on microprocessor kit. b) Identify memory mapping and input-output mapping. c) Store the instructions in the user memory of the microprocessor kit. 5.0 Equipment : The 8085 microprocessor kit along with its power supply unit. 6.0 Stepwise procedure : 6.1 List all the ICs observed in the microprocessor kit and mention their names. 6.2 Memory Mapping of Kit : The system memory is also as important as the CPU itself because this is where the system program resides and the CPU takes its instructions from. The memory is of two types viz. ROM and RAM. Refer to the manual of the kit and enter the details of memory map table 4 o MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION Microprocessor & Control Experiment No. 1 6.3 Refer the user's manual and write I/O map for the peripherals available with the kit. 6.4 Keyboard : Refer to the Microprocessor kit and manual and draw the layout of the keyboard in the following space. The keyboard is hexadecimal keyboard. When any key is pressed, hexadecimal scan code is generated. This code is accepted by keyboard and display controller and is then processed by the CPU. Space for keytboard layout. :- Refer user's manual and state the various keys required to perform following functions: MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION o 5 Experiment No. 1 Microprocessor & Control (Fill in the remaining details with the help of users manual) Dated signature of subject teacher 7.0 Conclusion : (Teacher shall guide the students to write conclusion.) 8.0 Questions : (Note :- Student to answer Q ……. , Q ………. , Q ………. And the question numbers shall be allotted by the teacher.) 8.1 What is the importance of link diagram of the curriculum of the subject? 8.2 Classify the curriculum of Diploma in different groups of subjects. 8.3 How graphical structure of a subject is useful in understanding the scope of the subject. 8.4 List the safety precautions to be taken in the laboratory. 8.5 How many memory locations you can address if address -width is 20 bit. 8.6 Why address /data bus is multiplexed? 8.7 What is the need to demultiplex the address/data bus? 8.8 Which signal is used to demultiplex the address/data bus? 8.9 State the function of IO/M pin 8.10 What actions are performed after reset key is pressed. 8.11 What will be the content of program counter after reset key is pressed? 8.12 State what happens if Reset pin is connected to ground. 8.13 If a crystal of 3 MHz is used what will be the internal operating frequency of microprocessor 8.14 Enlist hardware and software interrupts. 8.15 State the priorities and memory locations of vectored interrupts. 8.16 What is the use of Reset-Out signal? 6 o MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION Microprocessor & Control Experiment No. 1 Space for Answers MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION o 7 Experiment No. 1 Microprocessor & Control Space for Answers Date :- Signature of Subject Teacher 8 o MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
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