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Anatomical Terminology (DOC)

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Anatomical Terminology (DOC) Powered By Docstoc
					              INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY

I.     The Anatomical Position: In all anatomical descriptions, it is assumed that the
body is in the standing position, toes pointed forward, arms at the side with palms facing
forward and the face towards the observer.

II. Planes of the body - see figure
        A. sagittal - a vertical plane that separates left side from right side
        B. mid-sagittal - a sagittal plane in the midline
        C. parasagittal - any sagittal plane not in the midline
        D. coronal or frontal - a vertical plane that separates front from back
        E. horizontal or transverse - a cross-section of the body or organ

III.   Relationships: describes relative location - see figure
       A.     anterior - toward the front
       B.     caudad - toward the tail
       C.     central - toward the center
       D.     cephalad - toward the head
       E.     contralateral - opposite side
       F.     deep - further from the surface
       G.     distal - farther from the trunk or point of origin
       H.     dorsal - toward the back
       I.     external - toward the outside
       J.     inferior - lower or below
       K.     internal - away from the surface
       L.     ipsilateral - same side
       M.     lateral - further from the midline
       N.     medial - closer to the midline
       0.     median - in the midline
       P.     Parietal - pertaining to external wall of body cavity
       Q.     peripheral - away from center
       R.     posterior - toward the back
       S.     proximal - closer to trunk or point of origin
       T.     rostral - toward the head
       U.     superficial - closer to the surface
       V.     superior - upper or above
       W.     ventral - toward the front
       X.     visceral - pertaining to an organ
       Y.     opposites
              1.       anterior - posterior
              2.       central -peripheral
              3.       medial - lateral
              4.       dorsal - ventral
              5.       deep - superficial
              6.       external - internal
              7.       inferior - superior



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               8.      ipsilateral - contralateral
               9.      parietal - visceral
               10.     proximal - distal
               11.     rostral (cephalad) - caudad
1V. Movements
      A. abduction - movement away from the midline
      B. adduction - movement toward the midline
      C. anteflexion - bending forward
      D. anteversion - tipping forward
      E. depression - lowering down, downward movement
      F. dorsiflexion - moving foot toward its dorsal surface
      G. elevation - raising up, upward movement
      H. eversion - turning outward
      I. extension - opposite to flexion, increasing the angle of a joint
      J. flexion - bending, decreasing the angle of a joint
      K.hyperextension - extension beyond normal
      L. inversion - turning inward
      M. lateral flexion - bending to one side
      N lateral rotation - anterior surface turning away from midline
      0. plantar flexion - moving foot toward its plantar surface
      P. medial rotation - anterior surface turning toward midline
      Q. pronation - movement toward the prone position
      R. prone - lying face down
      S. protraction - forward movement
      T. retraction - backward movement
      U. retroflexion - bending backward
      U. retroversion - tipping backward
      V. supination - movement toward the supine position
      W. supine - lying face up
      X. opposites
               1. abduction - adduction
               2. anteversion - retroversion
               3. anteflexion - retroflexion
               4. dorsiflexion - plantar flexion
               5. elevation - depression
               6. eversion - inversion
               7. flexion - extension
               8. medial rotation - lateral rotation
               9. prone - supine
               10. pronation - supination
               11. protraction - retraction




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V. Prefixes, suffixes and words
       a = from              ad = to                 am = around
       a = not               ad = toward             ambi, ambo = in two directions
       ab = from             -l pertaining to        amphi = on both sides
       again = through       ante = before           anti = against
       cervix = neck         circum = around         -cis = cut
       -cle = small          com, cum = together contra = against
       cubitum = elbow       de = from               di = two, double
       dia = through         dis = asunder, not, apart
       ec = out of           ect = outside           en = in, on
       endo = within         ento = within           epi = upon
       ex = out of           exto = outside          extra = outside
       hallux = great toe    hamus = hook            hamulus = little hook
       hydro = water         hyper = above           hypo = under
       -iasis = disease      in = in                 in = not
       infra = beneath       inter = between         -itis = inflanimation
       intro = within        juxta = nera to         lamel-, lamin- = thin plate
       litho = stone         manus = hand            mast = breast
       meso = middle         met-, meta-, = after, beyond
       neo = new             non = not               nucha = back of neck
       ob = against          -oid = like             os, oss = bone
       oste = bone           os, ostium = mouth, door
       para = beside         per = through           pen = around
       phil = lower          pollex = thumb          porta = gate
       post = after          pre = before            preter = beyond
       pro = for or before   pros = in front of      retro = backward
       sect = cut            sep = putrify           serr = saw
       sinus = basin         stom = mouth            sub = under
       super = above         supra = above           syn = together or with
       thel = nipple         trans = across          -ule = diminutive suffix
       ultra = beyond        uncus = hook            vagus = wandering
       vas = duct

VI. Singular versus pleural
       A. foramen--foramina
       B. ganglion--ganglia
       C. lamina--laminae
       D. plexus--plexuses
       E. ramus--rami
       F. vertebra--vertebrae




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