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					                     Matthias Bertsch
         IWK - University for Music, Vienna, Austria



          Variabilities in Trumpet Sounds




A lot of variables and aspects makes trumpets sounding different.
                                _

                   An attempt to systematize




                                    overview

                          aspects concerning the player

                   the instrument - variables of the trumpet

                          influence of the environment




                                           V A R I A B I L I T I E S IN T RUMPET S OUNDS
                      1
                                                 DR. MATTHIAS BERTSCH - IWK
                  trumpet                overview
                   sound                                        Variables
                                                                (an attempt to
                                                                systematize)
                reception                                       Part 1 - main idea
               (receiver)
               auditorium


          transmission


  acoustic
output (wave              optical output
   signal)                  (images)                                        3.2
                                                                           room


                                                                                     3.1 time
                                           interaction


                                                                   3.
                                            feedbacks         environment




                            1. player             2. instrument
     1.1
    ability
                                                                                   2.2
                                                                                subjective
                 1.2                                                              quality
              intention                                       2.1
                                        1.3                objective
                                    realization             quality




                                                    V A R I A B I L I T I E S IN T RUMPET S OUNDS
                                2
                                                          DR. MATTHIAS BERTSCH - IWK
                                                                                                                                                                              Variables
                                                1.1.6.3 air           1.1.6.4            1.1.6.1 lips                                           1.1.6.2.2                     (an attempt to
                        1.1.6.5                                                                                1.1.6.2.1
 1.1.6.8 age                                   support (lung          auditory          and mucous                                               dental                       systematize)
                        muscles                                                                               dental care
                                              and breathing)          system            membranes                                              prosthesis                     Part2 - player




  1.1.6.6
                                                                                                          1.1.6.2 teeth
 endurance                                                                                                                                 1.1.5 creativity                                             * psychiatrist


                                            1.1.7.1                                                           1.1.6
1.1.6.7 gender                                                                                                                                   1.1.4 psyche                                               1.1.3
                        * pedagogics       exercise          1.1.7 technical ability                      physiological
                                                                                                                                                  (character)                                           intelligence
                                           methods                                                         constitution

     1.2.2.3                                                                                                                                         1.1.1
                      1.2.2 cultural        1.2.2.4          1.2.3 music
    regional                                                                           * composer             1.1 ability                          education                                            1.1.2 talent
                      environment          zeitgeist            genre
  influences                                                                                                                                         level

                                                                                                                                                   1.3.3.3 blood
                                                                                      1.2.3.1
    * trumpet        1.2.2.1 sound.     1.2.2.2 tone                                                                                                  supply               1.3.3.4 other
                                                                                    composition                            1.3.3.2 pulse                                                                  * physician
     teacher         concept. /idea       systems                                                                                                    muscles               vital functions
                                                                                       rules
                                                                                                                                                    (warm-up)

                                                                                                       1. player
                                                                                                                                                                             1.3.3                     1.3.3.1 blood
                                                 1.2.1                                                                                               1.3.1
  1.2.1.2.3                                                                                                                                                                physical                      pressure
   media                1.2.1.2                 musical                                   1.2                                                      familiarity
                                                                                                                                                     with                 constitution
                     environmental            background                               intention
                                                                                                                                                  instrument


1.2.1.2.1 parents,
                                                                        1.2.6                                                                                                 1.3.4.3
  family, school,    1.2.1.2.2 idols             1.2.1.1                                                                                                                                               1.3.3.5 drugs
                                                                     experiences                                                                                              overall
     friends,..                                  heredity                                                                                         1.3.4 playing                                          (alcohol)
                                                                                                                    1.3                                                      difficulty
                                                                                                                                                   technique
                                                                                                                realization

1.2.4.3.1 non-                                     1.2.4.3                                                                                                                 1.3.4.2 other                1.3.4.2.1 air
                                                  loudness                       1.2.4 context                  1.3.2                                                                                       flow
    cyclic                                                                                                                                                                  body work
                                                                                 within piece               psychological             1.3.4.1
 modulations
                     1.2.4.3.2 cyclic                                              of music                  constitution           embouchure
  (dynamic)
                      modulations
                        (vibrato)
                                                                                                                                                                      1.3.4.2.3
                                                                                                             1.3.2.1                                                                      1.3.4.2.2     1.3.4.2.1.4
                                                                                                                                                                     instrument
                                                                                                          concentration                                                                   fingering    amount of air
                                                                                                                                                                       position
    1.2.4.5
importance of        1.2.4.6 timbre           1.2.4.2 register
   the part                                                                                                                                                                           1.3.4.2.1.2       1.3.4.2.1.3
                                                                                                             1.3.2.2             1.3.4.1.6                                            diaphragm        wind pressure
                                                                                                            motivation        facial muscles                                            activity

1.2.4.2.2 "high
                                              1.2.4.4
note syndrom"        1.2.4.2.1 pitch                                                                                                                1.3.4.1.2                       1.3.4.1.5            1.3.4.2.1.1
                                            articulation                                                  1.3.2.3 frame        1.3.4.1.6.1         mouthpiece                                           lung function
                                                                                                             of mind                                                                laryngeal
                                                                                                                                 nerves             pressure                       movements

 1.2.4.2.1.1
 modulation            non-cyclic                                                   1.2.4.8 interval                                                                     1.3.4.1.1 lip
                                                                                                                                                  1.3.4.1.4 oral
  (vibrato)           modulations                                                       next &            1.3.2.3 stress                                                  oscillation
                                                                                                                                                   adjustment
                                                                                    previous tone


                                                       1.2.4.1                                                                                                    1.3.4.1.1                     1.3.4.1.2 function of
                                                                                                                                 1.3.4.1.3                                                     shape and amplitude of
  1.2.4.9.1                                       familiarity with                  1.2.4.7               1.3.4.1.3 .1 dry                                     participation of
                     1.2.4.9 rhythm                                                                                             mouthpiece                                                           oscillation
  duration                                              piece                      orchestra                or wet lips                                       upper vs lower lip
                                                   (information)                                                                placement
                                                                                     pitch




                                    aspects concerning the player




                                                                                                                  V A R I A B I L I T I E S IN T RUMPET S OUNDS
                                                                       3
                                                                                                                        DR. MATTHIAS BERTSCH - IWK
                                                                                                       Variables
                                                                                                     (an attempt to
                                                                                                      systematize)
                                                                                                   Part 3 - instrument
           the instrument - variables of the
                       trumpet

                 2.1.1b.1.3            2.1.1b.3.4           2.1.1b.3.1             2.1.1b.3.2              2.1.1b.3.3 valve
2.1.1b.1.2 cup
                 backbore               valve oil           valve type            valve position            discontinuities




                  2.1.1b.1              2.1.1b.2 lead          2.1.1b.3                                         2.1.1b.4.1
2.1.1b.1.1 rim                                                                       2.1.1b.4 bell
                 mouthpiece                  pipe               valves                                            mutes




                                            2.1.1b                     2.1.1                                 * manufacturer
                                        characteristics             mechanical
                                           of parts                 parameters

                                                                                            2.1.1.2               2.1.1.2.2
                                                                                            material
   2. instrument                                                                                                lacquer and
                                                                                                                   plating

                                 2.2                       2.1
  2.2. 5 age                  subjective                objective               2.1.1.3 shape
                               quality                   quality                                               2.1.1.2.1 wall
                                                                                                                 thickness

 2.2.1 optical                                                     2.1.1.1 bore         2.1.1.3.1
 appearance                                                                            construction

                                                                                                                 2.1.1.3.2
                                                                                                               deformations
                                                                    2.1.1.1.1
 2.2.2 trade                                                        tightness          2.1.1.1.2 wall
    name                                                              (leaks)             surface

                                                                                                                2.1.1a .3.2
                                                        2.1.1a                       2.1.1a .3                attack, startup
                        * acoustician                  physical                      impulse
 2.2.3 owner
                                                      parameters                    response


                                                                                                                2.1.1a .3.1
                        2.1.1a .1.1
                                                 2.1.1a .1 transfer                                             response
 2.2.4 value           sound, timbre
                                                      function


                       2.1.1a .1.2
                         sound                        2.1.1a .1.3                  2.1.1a .2                    2.1.1a .2.2
     * dealer           radiation                   dynamic range                 impedance                     intonation




                                                                V A R I A B I L I T I E S IN T RUMPET S OUNDS
                                     4
                                                                      DR. MATTHIAS BERTSCH - IWK
                                                                                         Variables
                                                                                       (an attempt to
                                                                                        systematize)
    frequencies             amplitudes              time domain                     Part 4 - environment
                                                                                      & transmission




                                                                                                       microphone
     trumpet sound               * musicologist         analysis / synthese        manipulations        position




         reception
   (receiver) auditorium             transmission



                                                             acoustic output                   optical output
                                                              (wave signal)                      (images)
   * sound                    transfer
  engineer                 characteristics




                                             3. environment
                                                                               influence of the
                                                                                 environment
    3.1 time                           3.2.1.1                        3.2 room                 3.2.5 auditorium
                                     dimension
                                       (size)


                                                                                                   3.2.4 location

                                       3.2.1.2
3.1.2 season                                                      3.2.1 acoustic
                                    reverberation
                                                                                                    3.2.3 haptic



                                      3.2.1.3              3.2.1.4               3.2.1.5
    3.1.1 daytime                    absorption           humidity             temperature           3.2.2 optic




                                                               V A R I A B I L I T I E S IN T RUMPET S OUNDS
                                         5
                                                                     DR. MATTHIAS BERTSCH - IWK

				
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