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Sociology 266

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Sociology 266 Powered By Docstoc
					Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism
Social Class
   Cultural Capital
Social Capital
Assignments…must handed in
   Ephram…can’t open your files

A word on notes

   You should not try to write down everything that is on a slide…this
   will simply make your hand and brain hurt
   Jot down NOTES…key ideas…examples…main points…
   I will post slides one week prior to the final exam

   http://www2.widener.edu/~spe0001
Multiculturalism?
Anyone know what this term refers to?
Multiculturalism
Term becomes widespread in the 1980s with recognition that
most courses had certain unacknowledged biases
   Focus on White European men

Few, if any, women, people of color or working class people
were dealt with in class
   Abe Lincoln but no Harriet Tubman
   George Washington but no Susan B. Anthony
   President Franklin D. Roosevelt but no John L. Lewis

Multicultural courses emerge that begin to incorporate the
previously “invisible” subjects into the curriculum

This course will spend time exploring previously “invisible”
issues of class, race, ethnicity, immigration and gender…
Class Society
One of the “invisible” topics that often goes
unexamined is the topic of “class”

So…when a sociologist says America is a
class society, what does she mean?
Class Society
Class
  A grouping of individuals
  with similar economic
  positions within a society
Class…
THE tale of Lisa Bonder Kerkorian, the 36-year-old former
tennis pro who is demanding $320,000 a month in child
support from her former husband, the 84-year-old billionaire
Kirk Kerkorian, has caused a stir among hard-working
Americans. Mrs. Kerkorian, who was married to Mr.
Kerkorian for one month in 1998, filed court papers on Jan. 7
seeking support for their daughter, Kira, 3. Among other
things, she wants $14,000 a month for parties and play dates;
$5,900 for eating out; $4,300 for eating in; $2,500 for movies
and other outings; $7,000 for charitable donations; $1,400 for
laundry and cleaning; $1,000 for toys, books and videos; $436
for the care of Kira's bunny rabbit and other pets; and
$144,000 for travel on private jets. Sure, that sounds like a lot
of Taco Bell for a 3-year-old, but Mrs. Kerkorian will need
every penny. -NYT, 2002
Class…
 Katie and Todd Clarke of Parkersburg know the feeling.
 The paycheck Katie earns on $10.90 an hour as a
 secretary isn't enough to cover all of the family's
 expenses. Food takes priority; money left over goes to
 whichever bill collectors threaten to cut off services first.

 "There's no way to pay it all," said Katie Clarke.

 The Clarkes and Bergers are like thousands of Iowans
 who work hard without getting ahead. Many of these
 families will cover their basic monthly expenses and have
 little, often nothing, left over. Most are white, between 19
 and 64 years old. Many have a high level of education,
 and they're often single women.
 http://www.wcfcourier.com/articles/2005/04/04/news/top_story/bd7b5d0be02b283386256fd9004ea9b2.txt
Different Classes…
5 of 10 wealthiest people on planet are Waltons
  Fortunes range in the $20 to $40 billion range
   • H. Scott, President and CEO WALMART received $17,165,783 in
     total compensation in 2001


In 2001 most Walmart “associates” made <
$8.50…$17,680 a year full time
   • Poverty for Family of 4 (2001) $18,104

   • Wal-Mart wages for all of California is 20 to 30 percent below the
     average wage paid by retailers with 1,000 or more workers. (NYTSeptember
     2, 2004 Wal-Mart and Productivity By JEFF MADRICK )
Different Ways to Measure Class
Socio-economic status
   Income & wealth                                    Upper Class
    • Measure by counting the $                      Upper Middle
                                                        Class
   Occupational prestige
    • Autoworker, Chemical Engineer, Janitor         Middle Class
          Measure by asking people to rank
                                                     Lower Middle
   Educational level                                    Class
    • Measure by counting the years
                                                      Lower Class
Combine the measures above and get a scale that might look
something like this
   Different Researchers get different scales…but you get the idea
Class Society Assignment
So classes differ in terms of money, education and occupations…
    We’ll study money more on Thursday

Differ on other dimensions too…that’s what “The Mighty Wedge of
Class” was about…Let’s explore…

Video clip from the TV show “Rescue Me”
    Tommy Gavin (blonde guy) is a firefighter…his wife is a home-maker

    This clip shows a visit to their daughter’s school…daughter is embarrassed
    by her parent’s class background and has told lies

      • A meeting with daughter’s roommate and a dinner

      • Just to warn you…Some “salty” language…but was on regular tv…

Please identify at least two differences between the “Gavins” and the
other dinner guests that you think relates to their different social classes.
Class Society Assignment
Please identify at least two differences between the
“Gavins” and the other dinner guests that you think
relates to their different social classes.

Residency… “the city”
  Second Homes…
Dress…jeans & last years dress
Drinking
Eating with wrong fork…
Sense of Humor…Jews into Connecticut
Lifestyle…liposuction
“Looking down their noses…”
Cultural Capital
Cultural capital- general cultural background,
knowledge and disposition

Linguistic and cultural competence which help ensure
success in school and the workplace

  Linguistic competence: proper English, absence of swearing,
  gesticulating, “like”, proper pronunciation

  Vocabulary exposure…Anyone remember what I mentioned
  the other day?
Cultural Capital
Cultural capital- general cultural background,
knowledge and disposition

Vocabulary exposure varies by class
   • Child in professional home exposed to 2,000 words an hour vs. child
     in a working class home who his exposed to 1,300 words vs. child in
     a welfare mother’s home who is exposed to 600

   • By age three Professional kids vocabulary 50% larger

   • Will impact academic achievement throughout schooling

   • What looks like natural talent or effort (good vocabulary) is actually
     something kids inherit
Cultural Capital
general cultural background, knowledge & disposition

   Linguistic and cultural competence which help ensure
   success in school and the workplace

    • Linguistic competence: proper English, absence of swearing,
      gesticulating, “like”, proper pronunciation

    • Cultural competence:knowledge of literature, art, music, architecture,
      foreign cultures, or current events
         Hip Hop or Vivaldi; Football or Polo; Pizza or Pate; Palermo or
          Wildwood

    • Disposition: style of dress, hair, mannerisms, chewing gum,
      confidence
         Corn rows or straight hair; Low rider pants or Brooks Polo Shirts
More than just money…
F. Scott Fitzgerald to Ernest Hemingway: “You know,
Ernest, the rich are different from you and me.”

It’s about more than money…

In “The Mighty Wedge of Class,” the author suggests
that his working class background left him unprepared
for the new world of college. Explain some of the
reasons that he felt that way.
“The Mighty Wedge of Class”
“”…there was no measure of the things I didn’t know…my working class
background left me unprepared for this new world. It wasn’t just poise or
spending money that I lacked. Everything from my colloquial speech to my
primitive social skills to my wardrobe drew a discreet line between me and
my new peer group” (Erkel 1994: 102).

Family at home that had low educational expectations

Internalized low expectations and feelings of shame and helplessness

Poorly spoken, lacking confidence, reluctant to ask for help

Stuck between two worlds… doesn’t quite fit in anywhere
   Friends at home who resented him
   People at college who were different and had no recognition of importance of
   class

Author was lacked Cultural Capital that would help in college…
Class, College and Cultural Capital
Most of you are in this program because of your class background
   Act 101: Economically disadvantaged by having an annual family income equal
   to or less than 200% of the family income level in the US

   Not news to you that your families have less money that most other families in
   America…

Want you also to be aware of how you come to college with different types
of Cultural Capital

These differences will present you with challenges that differ from many
other college students

   At times will feel like guy in the article…note that you are not alone in feeling
   this way…many members of your social class experience this

   College will be opportunity to build new types of cultural capital…take
   advantage of it
Ok…so now lets look at money and
Class
Breaking the population into quintiles is a
common method of looking at class


    Top Quintile (20%) of Income Earners
     Second Quintile of Income Earners
     Middle Quintile of Income Earners
       4th Quintile of Income Earners
     Bottom Quintile of Income Earners
Income & Wealth
Wealth-assets, particularly those that are
income producing.
  For most people their home…for many nothing

  But for some people a second home in the Hamptons
  or Virgin Islands, an apartment in London, a Van
  Gogh, race horses, shopping malls, hotels, ships,
  sports teams, bonds, stocks, cash reserves, etc.
Wealth and Income
Income-money, wages, and payments that are
periodically received from investments
  For most people a paycheck
Income & Wealth
 Which do most Americans depend on to
 make ends meet?
Income & Wealth
 Which do most Americans depend on to make
 ends meet?

 Income
   80% of us are production and non-supervisory workers
   who depend primarily on a paycheck to make ends
   meet…we have no real wealth
    • Factory workers, cops, construction workers, teachers,
      cashiers, nurses, secretaries, cooks, janitors, computer
      technicians, social workers, engineers etc.
Income and Wealth
 So how are income and wealth distributed
 among a society’s population…
   How do we divide the pie?
Class Society
 2. In the “Great Divergence” Paul Krugman
 discusses recent trends in inequality. How
 have ordinary American’s fared in the
 recent economy? Who has benefitted the
 most from recent economic growth? What
 has the trend for CEO pay been? Be sure to
 incorporate at least one direct quote from
 the text into your answer.
Multiculturalism
Inequality
    Distribution of Income
    Distribution of Wealth
Social Mobility

Assignment
    Most did well…Some did not
      • Some did not answer clearly, or did not complete all parts of a question
      • Out of 2, those who got 1.5 or better did ok…others need to step it up…this is not High
        School…this is college
    New One now…last one returned at end of class

A word on notes
    There are MANY charts and graphs today… take notes on the general trends you see
    You should not try to write down everything that is on a slide…this will simply make
    your hand and brain hurt
    Jot down NOTES…key ideas…examples…main points…
    I will post slides one week prior to the final exam

    http://www2.widener.edu/~spe0001
Income and Wealth
 So how are income and wealth distributed
 among a society’s population…
   How do we divide the pie?
Class Society
   What does the data show about the distribution of
   income in America?
Video Clip
 Video addresses who gets
 what and why in the US
    “Why is the middle class
    shrinking?”

 From Now, a weekly show
 on PBS hosted by Bill
 Moyers

 Based on research in th
 chapter you were assigned
 this week…
Krugman
 1. Income Gains…Who has benefitted the
 most from recent economic growth?
Increasing Inequality in America…The
“Super Rich” have gained the most…
Last 30 years have witnessed an “astonishing concentration of income
and wealth in just a few hands.” (Krugman, p.2)

Top 1% of families have seen after tax income rise
157%…compared to 10% for middle income families

Most income gains since the 1970s were to the top 1%… those people
making more than $230,000

   And 60% of those gains went to the top .1%, those who make more than
   $790,000

   And almost half of those gains went to the top .01%, those with
   income of at least $3.6 million
Growing Inequality
 “…Top 10%, top
 1% and fractions
 of the top 1
 percent enjoyed
 their greatest
 share of income
 since 1928 and
 1929” (Johnston 2007:1)

 Note the Blue
 Boxes
Income Distribution Over Time…note
the “Great Compression”
The hope of some…the fear of
others…We’ll see…
Krugman
2. Relationship of top gains to other’s
  position? What does it mean for the rest of
  society if the rich take more of the money?
Upward Redistribution of Income
   What does the data show about the distribution of
   income in America?
Winners and Losers
  Simple Math tells us… “if the rich get
  more, that leaves less for everyone else.”
  (Krugman p. 9)



  The richest 13,000 families have almost as
  much income as the 20 million poorest…
CEO Pay
 What has the trend for CEO pay in the US
 been?
              Huge and Growing Pay Gap
              Between U.S. CEOs and Workers
                                                        • By 2000, CEO pay had
      • In 1980, CEO pay
                                                          grown to 531 times the
        equaled 42 times the
                                                          average blue collar
        average blue collar
                                                          worker’s pay -- by far
        worker’s pay.
                                                          the widest gap in the
                                                          world.




Sources: Business Week; New York Times; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
                                                                           38
Business Week, Fall 2004
CEO Pay Compared….
It hasn’t always been like this…
It’s not like this elsewhere…
This is a big issue right now…
Now and Krugman
3. Home prices vs. income…
New Home Prices Up, Income Flat
 New Home Prices Up
 120%

 Income for Middle up
 10%
Shifting Pension Risks
 What happened to the teacher’s retirement
 nest egg?
“The Great Risk Shift”
Bottom line: American Exceptionalism… “No other
advanced country has seen the kind of surge in inequality
that has taken place here”
                         (Krugman p.137)




  Ratio of Top 10% to Bottom 10%
So what does a typical person
earn…
 When studying income, median is better than
 mean (average)

 What do we mean by median income?
When studying income, median
is better than mean…
 What do we mean by median income?

 The midpoint of a distribution

 Why do we look at Median Income instead of
 Mean….”Bill Gates walks into a bar…”

 Imagine 5 people…
   $25,000; $30,000; $35,000; $50,000, $10,000,000

   Mean vs. Median???
When studying income, median
is better than mean…
 Why do we look at Median Income instead of
 Avg….Imagine 5 people…
   $25,000; $30,000; $35,000; $50,000, $10,000,000
    • Average. vs. Median???


 Note the difference
   Average = $2,028,000…doesn’t really reflect reality
   Median=$35,000…better representation of reality

 So what was the Median Household Income, 2006
Median income over time…
 $48,201…up a bit over time…but much of this is
 thought to because households are selling more
 labor…whose labor in particular?
So what do people earn…
Some typical incomes?
  Cop                         $41,950
  Middle School Teacher       $43,580
  Accountant                  $50,000
  Lodging Manager             $36,000
  Social Worker               $31,800
  Corrections Officer         $33,700
  Registered Nurse            $48,240
  Civil Engineer              $61,000   Annual Earnings, 2002




It will take most of us 20 years to make a million
dollars…
    Percentage of Households by
    Income, 2005
Income                        % of Population

Under $10,000                       8.3         72% of American
                                                households earn
$10-14,999                          6.4         less than $75,000 a
                                                year
$15-$24,999                        12.4

$25-$34,999                        11.4

$35-$49,999                        14.9

$50-$74,999                        18.4

$75-$99,000                        11.1

More than $100,000                 17.2
Census Bureau: Marger, p.63
Income & Wealth
Wealth-assets, particularly those that are
income producing.
  For most people their home…

  But for some people a second home in the Hamptons
  or Virgin Islands, an apartment in London, a Van
  Gogh, race horses, shopping malls, hotels, ships,
  sports teams, bonds, stocks, cash reserves, etc.
This American life…
 Wealth…

 10 Volunteers Up Front…
Fewer People Own More Wealth

                                                    1976: richest 10% of
                                                   the U.S. population
                                                   owned 50% of all wealth.


                                                    2001: richest 10% of
                                                   the U.S. population
                                                   owned 70% of all wealth.

 Source: Edward N. Wolff, “Recent Trends in Wealth Ownership”



                                                                    54
Try this with a pizza tonight…
US has highest rate of inequality in Wealth
Distribution
(Gini Index: closer to 100 the > inequality)

Japan                                          24.9

Sweden                                         25

Germany                                        30

UK                                             36

US                                             40
Interesting to note changes over
time…Again, note the New Deal
           Year        Pct. Of Wealth
                       Held by Top 1%
           1922              31.6
           1929              36.3
           1939              30.6
           1949              20.8
           1958              23.8
           1969              20.1
           1989              38.3
           1995              38.5
Concentration of Wealth
BOTTOM LINE:
Top 10% own vast majority of everything…
The rest of America splits what left




Thus the widespread discussion of the new inequality
What of Social mobility?
 Social Mobility
    The movement between
    different class positions
                                  Top Quintile (20%) of Income Earners
    within a society
     • Occupations, income          Second Quintile (20%) of Income
       brackets, social classes                Earners
                                    Middle Quintile (20%) of Income
     • How likely to go from                   Earners
       bottom to top…             4th Quintile (20%) of Income Earners
                                    Bottom Quintile (20%)of Income
     • Is the “rags to riches”                 Earners
       story a common story
Social Mobility
 O.K…immense inequality…but if people in the
 bottom 90% don’t like it, they can always work
 harder and join the top 10%…

 Of the poorest 20 percent of Americans in 1988,
 what percent were still in the poorest 20 percent
 in 1998?
Family Mobility
Social Class is sticky…The Next
Generation
Class + Race…
Comparative Mobility…US Lags
US and Europe…

   By international standards, the United States has an unusually low
   level of intergenerational mobility: our parents’ income is highly
   predictive of our incomes as adults.

   Intergenerational mobility in the United States is lower than in
   France, Germany, Sweden, Canada, Finland, Norway and Denmark.
   Among high-income countries for which comparable estimates are
   available, only the United Kingdom had a lower rate of mobility than
   the United States.

“…Americans are clearly mistaken if they believe they live
in the world’s most mobile society.” Meritocracy in America
Class Matters…
Studies of Social Mobility pose a serious challenge to the idea
that is primarly talent and hard work, not inherited social
advantage that separates the classes…
   Hard for some to accept…but mountains of research demonstrate


What would help explain why most people don’t move very far
from the class in which they where born?

Put another way…
   What keeps the low income people and their kids low income?
   What keeps middle class people and their kids middle class?
   What keep the rich people and their kids rich?
What to do?
 What if anything, should our society do
 about the difficulties faced by middle class
 families and others? Is it just life, or does it
 not have to be this way?

				
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