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Physics Core _semester II_

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Physics Core _semester II_ Powered By Docstoc
					                                Physics Core (semester II)
                              PHC201 (Atomic & Molecular Physics)
                                   Total marks : 80+20 (Internal)
                                         Total Lecture : 45
                                  Total Credit : 6 (3.5 L+1 T+1H)

I. Atomic Physics: (lectures: 15)

Pauli exclusion principle: spectral terms from two equivalent electrons, calculation of Zeeman
pattern, Paschen-Back effect, Stark effect in hydrogen, hyperfine structure and determination of
nuclear spin and nuclear g factors, radiative transition probabilities, line width: Doppler
broadening, natural broadening, collision broadening and Stark broadening.

II. Molecular Physics : (lectures: 15)                                                             (lecture

IR spectra:         Rotation, vibration and rotation-vibration spectra of diatomic molecules,
                    selection rules, determination of rotational constants.
Electronic spectra: Born-Oppenheimer approximation, (i) vibrational structure of electronic
                    transition, progressions and sequences of vibrational bands, Intensity
                    distribution, Franck-Condon principle, (ii) rotational structure of
                    electronic transition, band head formation.
Raman spectra:      Quantum and classical theory of Raman effect, Vibrational Raman
                    spectrum, selection rules, Stokes and anti-Stokes lines, Rotational Raman
                    spectrum, selection rule.
NMR & ESR spectra: Magnetic properties of nuclei, nuclear resonance, Spin-spin & spin-lattice
                    interaction, chemical shift, nuclear coupling.

III.Lasers : (lectures: 15)

Basic elements of laser; properties of laser light: directionality, intensity, monochromaticity,
coherence; spontaneous and stimulated emission: Einstein coefficients; light amplification,
population inversion and threshold condition for laser oscillations; quality factor; optical and
electrical pumping; optical resonator modes of a rectangular cavity; ammonia maser; Ruby, He-
Ne, CO2 and semi conductor laser: excitation mechanism.
Selected applications of laser: holography and optical communication (basic principles only).

Books recommended:
          1. Introduction to Atomic Spectra ⎯ H. E. White.
          2. Physics of atoms and molecules ⎯ B. H. Bransden, C J. Joachain
          3. Modern Atomic Physics (Vol I)-B Cagnac and J C Pabey
          4. Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy ⎯ C. N. Banwell, E. M. McCash.
          5. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Vol. 1) ⎯ G. Herzberg.
          6. Lasers and Non-linear Optics ⎯ B. B. Laud.
          7. Lasers: Theory and Applications ⎯ K. Thyagarajan, A. K. Ghatak.
          8. Optics- E Hecht
          9. Optoelectronics-Wilson and Hawkes
                               Physics Core (semester II)
                             PHC202 (Condensed Matter Physics)
                                  Total marks : 80+20 (Internal)
                                        Total Lecture : 45
                                 Total Credit : 6 (3.5 L+1 T+1H)

 1. Crystalline Solids : Fundamentals of crystal structure, symmetry operations, point groups
    and space groups, X-ray diffraction, reciprocal lattice, atomic scattering factor, geometrical
    structure factor, types of crystal binding, Van der Waal’s forces, ionic and covalent
    bonding, Madelung constant.                                               (7 lectures)

 2.     Lattice dynamics: Dispersion relations in monoatomic and diatomic linear lattices,
      normal modes, phonons.                                                 (3 lectures)

 3.      Dielectric and ferroelectric properties: Complex dc dielectric constant and dielectric
      loss, dielectric relaxation, Debye equations, dipole theory of ferroelectric domains,
      antiferroelectricity.                                                        (5 lectures)

 4.      Free electron theory of metals: Boltzmann’s equation of state, heat capacity of free
      electrons, electrical and thermal conductivity of metals, Wiedemann-Franz law. (5 lectures)

 5.      Energy bands in solids: Bloch function, Kronig-Penney model, Brillouin zones,
      effective mass of charge carriers.                                 (6 lectures.)

 6.      Semiconductors: Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, number density of carriers in
      intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, expression for Fermi levels, recombination
      processes, continuity equation and I-V characteristics of p-n junction, photoconductivity,
      Hall effect in metals and semiconductors,                                    (6 lectures)

 7.      Megnetic properties: Fundamental concepts, quantum theory of diamagnetism and
      paramagnetism, diamagnetic and paramagnetic susceptibilities of free electrons, molecular
      field theory of ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism, anisotropic energy,
      electron paramagnetic resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance, Bloch equations.
                                                                                    (7 lectures)

 8.     Superconductivity: Thermodynamics of superconducting sate, London equations,
      coherence length, idea of BCS theory, flux quantization, Josephson effect. (6 lectures)

Books recommended
   1. Introduction to Solid State Physics – C. Kittel.
   2. Solid State Physics – A.J. Dekker.
   3. Intermediate Quantum Theory of Crystalline Solids – A.O.E. Animalu.
   4. Introductory Solid State Physics – H.P. Myers.
   5. Solid State Physics – N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin.
   6. Heat and Thermodynamics – W. Zemansky
                             Physics Core (semester II)
                                PHC203 (Electronics)
                               Total marks : 80+20 (Internal)
                                     Total Lecture : 45
                              Total Credit : 6 (3.5 L+1 T+1H)

1. MOS and CMOS devices and applications:
   Static & dynamic characteristics, depletion & enhancement modes, use of the devices in
      amplifiers and oscillators.
     TUNNEL DIODE and APPLICATIONS: Tunneling effect, transfer co-efficient, tunnel
     diode characteristics, use of tunnel diode as oscillator and amplifier.
     GUNN DIODE and APPLICATIONS: Transferred electron effect, modes of TE
     oscillations, Gunn diode in oscillation circuit.
     IMPATT / AVALANCHE DIODE and APPLICATIONS: Drift and scattering
     velocity, relation between field, current and terminal impedance, equivalent circuit of the
     diodes and their use in amplifiers and oscillators.                                     (8 lectures)
   2. OP-AMP APPLICATIONS
     Oscillators: Phase shift, Wien bridge and high frequency and voltage controlled oscillators,
     saw tooth generator.
     Filters: Active low and high pass filters, Butterworth filter (up to second order)
     Analog computation: Solution of differential equation (up to second order), solution of
     simultaneous equations.                                                                 (8 lectures)
 3. DIGITAL CIRCUITS
     Mapping of logic expression and function minimization: SOP, POS expressions and
     circuit configurations, Combinational Logic gates, working and configuration of TTL,
     DTL, RTL, CMOS , MOSFET , ECL and I2L gates, sequential circuits : RS, JK D and T
     FF; register: serial, parallel and shift register-their design, counter: synchronous counter
     and design (up to module–10 counter), microprocessor: flow chart, assembly language,
     solution of simple problems.
 4. SIGNAL TRANSMISSION & DEVICES
     Transmission line: Basic conception of transmission of LF and HF in open wire and
     coaxial lines, wave equation , characteristic impedance, VSWR, Short and open circuit
     impedance , λ matching and stub matching, waveguides: fundamental concepts of signal
     propagation through a wave guide, relation between cutoff frequency and waveguide
     dimension of rectangular waveguide, antenna : λ/4 dipole, antenna arrays, end fire and
     broadside.                                       (10 lectures)
 5. MODULATION AND DE-MODULATION:
     Amplitude modulation : Bandwidth and frequency spectra, frequency modulation :
     narrow band and wide band, power, bandwidth, improvement of S/N with emphasis and
     de-emphasis circuits, detection : balanced detector, zero crossing detector, PLL. PAM:
     basic principles, baseband binary PAM. PCM: sampling of signal, quantization of signal
     uniform and nonuniform, noise and bandwidth.                                            (9 lectures)

    Books Recommended
    1.Modern Digital Electronics -R.P. Jain.
    2. Electronic Communication Systems-Kennedy, Davis
    3.Microwaves-KC Gupta
                             Physics Core (semester II)
                         PHC204 (Nuclear Physics and Cosmic Rays)
                                  Total marks : 80+20 (Internal)
                                        Total Lecture : 45
                                 Total Credit : 6 (3.5 L+1 T+1H)

Part I: Nuclear Physics                                               (Lectures - 37 : Marks – 65)
1. General Properties of Nuclei : Nuclear form factor. Nuclear spin, electromagnetic moments.
Schmidt diagram. Nuclear decay scheme. Meson theory and Yukawa potential                (5 lectures)
2. Two nucleon system :(a) Bound State Problem : Deuteron ground state with square well
potential, electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole moments – experimental values . (3 lectures)
(b) Scattering problem: Low energy n-p scattering, partial wave analysis, scattering length. (3 L)
3. Model of Nuclear Structure : (a) Nuclear stability, mass parabolas – prediction of stability
against beta decay, stability limits against spontaneous fission. (3 lectures) (b) Degenerate Fermi
gas model – applications. (1 lecture) (c) Shell Model : Evidence of shell structure, magic
numbers, effective single particle potentials – square well, harmonic oscillator, Wood- Saxon
with spin orbit interaction, extreme single particle model – its successes and failures in
predicting ground state spin, parity, Nordheim rule (4 lectures)
4. Nuclear Reactions : (a) Classification, conservation principles, laboratory and cms frame of
reference - energy and angle relationship for nonrelativistic cases, kinematics and Q-values, exo-
ergic and endo-ergic reactions, threshold energy. (2lectures) (b) Basic consepts of flux and cross-
sections, attenuation, Coulomb and Rutherford scattering, quantum mechanical and relativistic
effects, extended particles, the compound nucleus hypothesis, Ghoshal experiment.(4 lectures)
5. Nuclear beta decay : Fermi’s theory of beta decay, comparative half-lives and forbidden
decays, Kurie plot, neutrino physics, Reins & Cowen experiment. concept of double beta decay
and Majorana neutrino.                                                                  (4 lectures)
6. Nuclear Radiation Detectors : Ionization, proportional and GM counters, scintillation
counters, solid state detectors (SSND).         (3 lectures)
7. Elementary particles : Classification of elementary particles and their interactions,
conservation laws, symmetry principles & quantum numbers, parity, charge conjugation, time
reversal invariance, CPT theorem (statement only), electric charge, baryon and lepton number
conservation, strangeness and isospin, Gell-Mann Nishijima scheme.                      (5 lectures)

Part II : Cosmic Rays                                                ( Lectures: 8, Marks: 15 )
1. Cosmic ray origin and primary energy spectrum, soft and hard components.          (2 lectures)
2. Propagation through atmosphere (EAS), photon-electron cascade theory, graphical result,
longitudinal (Heitler model) and lateral (Moliere) distribution of EAS.              (2 lectures)
3. Detection of secondary cosmic rays at ground level, elements of coincidence circuits and their
use in cosmic ray studies.                                                           (2 lectures)
4. Absolute intensity measurement of secondary cosmic rays (magnetic spectrograph method),
   determination of mean life time of muons in cosmic rays.                       (2 lectures)

Books recommended
1.  Introductory Nuclear Physics – Kenneth S Krane.
2.  Introductory Nuclear Physics – Samuel SM Wong.
3.  Atomic and Nuclear Physics (Vol.2) – SN Ghoshal.
4.  Concepts of Nuclear Physics – Bernard L Cohen.
5.  Techniques for Nuclear & Particle Physics Experiments – WR Leo
6.  Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics – TK Gaisser
7.  Cosmic Rays – AW Wolfendale.
8.  Extensive Air Showers – MVS Rao and BV Sreekantan
                           Physics Core Practical (semester II)
                               PHC205P (General Practical)
                                  Total marks : 60+20 (Internal)
                                    Total Credit : 6 (12 P hrs)

List of Experiments to be performed in M. Sc 2nd Semester practical Paper (Physics)
The students have to do 8 experiments from either Group A or Group B.
GROUP A:
 1. To determine the minimum number of lines required in given grating for resolution of Na
      lines in 1st , 2nd, 3rd, 4th (any two) order and hence to find the separation between D lines
      (Optics)
 2.   Determine the thickness of a given mica sheet by Jamin’s interferoimeter (Optics)
 3.   To determine the a) Numerical Aperature b) Loss Coefficient of an Optical Fibre
 4. To find the Splice Loss occurred in an Optical Fibre (Optics)
 5. To determine the Numerical Aperature of an Optical Fibre by scanning the far field
      Intensity (Optics)
 6.   To determine the dead time of a GM using single source(Nu)
 7. Verify the Inverse Square Law for Gamma rays using GM tube.(Nu)
 8. To determine the plateau of the given GM counter for radioactive radiations and its
      percentage slope. Hence study the Statistical Fluctuation of the radiation.(Nu)
 9.   To measure the resistivity and hence the band gap of a semiconductor sample with the use
      of four probe apparatus (CMP)
 10. To determine the conductivity type and Hall Constant of a given semiconductor
      specimen(CMP).
 11. Using a 741 IC (a) design 1st and 2nd order LP filter,(b) draw the frequency response ,(c)
      find the roll off rate ,(d) determine the gain and cutoff theoretically and practically
      (Electronics)
 12. Study the working of a Phase Locked loop. Determine the locked range . (Electronics)
 13. To determine the characteristics impedance of a parallel and co-axial transmissiom line and
      solve transmission line problems using Schmitt Chart. (Electronics)
 14. To design an emitter coupled Schmitt trigger with the given transistor and determine the
      width of hysterisis loop. Find the no loop condition (can be given in either 1st or 2nd
      Semester) (Electronics)
 15. Solve the given differential equation using Analog Computation(Electronics)
 16. Design a Digital to analog converter using OPAMS and IC(Electronics)
 17. Use Microprocessor 8085/8086 to solve simple problems(Electronics)
18. To design a single stage common emitter amplifier measuring beta with the help of
     Multimeter or with known values taken from the manual . Draw the frequency response
     graph and find the a) 3dB points b) gain Bandwidth c) Output Impedance of the
     Amplifier.(Electronics)
19. To design a Wein Bridge Oscillator using OPAM(741) or transistors and find the frequency
     of the Oscillator. Compare the value with the theoretical value.(Electronics)
20. To design a wide band pass and Band rejection filter and draw the frequency response
     graph and hence compare their frequency responses .(Electronics)
21. To simplify the given Boolean Equation and verify with NAND/NOR gates(Electronics)
22. To design a Digital to Analog Converter using OPAM using (R-2R) ladder (Electronics).
23. To construct AND, OR, NOT , XOR , Half Adder and verify with NAND/NOR
     gates.(Electronics)


  GROUP B
1.    To determine the grating element of a double slit by observing the interference of a
     monochromatic radiation and verify the results using traveling microscope(Optics)
2.   Determination of wavelength separation by Michaelson’s interferometer for Na-D1 and D2
     lines.(Optics)
3.   To determine the a) Numerical Aperature b) Loss Coefficient of an Optical Fibre(Optics)
4. To find the Splice Loss occurred in an Optical Fibre (Optics)
5.   To determine the Numerical Aperature of an Optical Fibre by scanning the far field
     Intensity (Optics)
6.    To verify the Efficiency of the GM Tube using Gamma Source.(Nu)
7.   To verify the Inverse Square Law for Gamma rays using GM tube.(Nu)
8.   To determine the plateau of the given GM counter for radioactive radiations and its
     percentage slope. Hence study the Statistical Fluctuation of the radiation.(Nu)
9.    To measure the resistivity and hence the band gap of a semiconductor sample with the
     use of four probe apparatus (CMP)
10. To trace the Hysterises Loop of the supplied ferromagnetic material                and find the
     retentivity , co-ercivity and saturation magnetization using BH loop tracer(CMP)
11. Using a 741 IC (a) design 1st and 2nd order LP filter,(b) draw the frequency response ,(c)
     find the roll off rate ,(d) determine the gain and cutoff theoretically and practically
     (Electronics)
12. Study the working of a Phase Locked loop. Determine the locked range . (Electronics)
 13. To determine the characteristics impedance of a parallel and co-axial transmission line
     and solve transmission line problems using Schmitt Chart. (Electronics)
 14. To design an emitter coupled Schmitt trigger with the given transistor and determine the
     width of hysterisis loop. Find the no loop condition (can be given in either 1st or 2nd
     Semester) (Electronics)
 15. Solve the given differential equation using Analog Computation(Electronics)
 16. Design a Digital to analog converter using OPAMS and IC (1st or 2nd
     Semester)(Electronics)
 17. Use Microprocessor 8085/8086 to solve simple problems(Electronics)
 18. To design a single stage common emitter amplifier measuring beta with the help of
     Multimeter or with known values taken from the manual . Draw the frequency response
     graph and find the a) 3dB points b) gain Bandwidth c) Output Impedance of the
     Amplifier.(Electronics)
 19. To design a Wein Bridge Oscillator using OPAM(741) or transistors and find the
     frequency of the Oscillator. Compare the value with the theoretical value(electronics)
 20. To design a wide band pass and Band rejection filter and draw the frequency response
     graph and hence compare their frequency responses .(Electronics)
 21. To simplify the given Boolean Equation and verify with NAND/NOR gates(Electronics)
 22. To design a Digital to Analog Converter using OPAM using (R-2R) ladder (Electronics).
 23. To construct AND, OR, NOT , XOR , Half Adder and verify with NAND/NOR
     gates.(electronics)


                           Physics Core Practical (semester II)
                               PHC205C (Programming Lab)
                                         Total marks : 20
                                     Total Credit : 2 (3 P hrs)

Computer Programming :

Introduction to the FORTRAN programming language with an emphasis to FORTRAN 77 and
structured programming, constants and variabion les, variable declaration, expressions, I/O
statements, assignment statements, control statements, subscripted variables, use of FORTRAN
library functions, subroutines and functions.
Basic concept of O/S (e.g. Linux), compiling & debugging of FORTRAN programs. Students
will be required to write small programs involving key concepts of FORTRAN programming
language as outlined above.

				
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