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					Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                               City Development plan



                   REPLY TO THE COMMENTS IN THE APPRAISAL REPORT
                                           ON THE CDP OF
                    THIRUVANANTHAPURAM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION
                                        UNDER JNNURM




   Para wise reply is noted below:

   Para 1. Noted

   Para 2. Noted

   Para 3. Aspects regarding vision and governance which are discussed at different
   places in the CDP are now integrated.

                           Demography, Economy and Land use

   Para 4.       The project area considered in the CDP is Thiruvananthapuram UA (TUA)
   as per Census of India 2001. The past trend of population growth was not discussed
   earlier as the figures may mislead a reader since the area of TUA has been changing in
   the last three decades. To help comparative study, the present TUA area figures are
   computed for 1991 &1981. Discrepancies may occur since a whole panchayat area
   was not included in the UA but only a part of the panchayat is considered as Census
   Town (CT) or Out Growth (OG). In spite of this an attempt is made to compute the past
   area and relevant population to facilitate a comparative study. (Table 3.5 A). Tables 3.5
   A (1).3.5 A ( 2 ) & 3.5 A (3) under Para 5 may also be seen.

   Table 3.5 A

                                                                       Estimated
                                                                                        Average
    Sl.                                                                                 Annual
        CONSTITUENT UNITS OF TUA      1981      1991       2001
    No                                                              2005      2011      Growth
                                                                                         Rate

     1   Thiruvananthapuram M.C      483086    524006    744983    753550    835228         3.58
     2     Kazhakkuttam   (OG)         -        12515    14410      14743     15084         1.15
     3    Sreekaryam      (OG)         -        17245    21431      21927     22434         1.24
     4    Kudappanakkunnu (OG)         -        33534    38175      39058     39962         1.13
     5    Vattiyoorkavu    (OG)        -        33653    41890      42859     43850         1.24
     6   Kovalam            (OG)       -        25419    28746      29411     30091         1.13




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       Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


          Table 3.7 gives details of the TUA as per Census of India, 2001
          Table 3.9 falls in Vizhinjam Panchayat gives a picture of the panchayat 5 where these
          outgrowths fall. It may be noted that Kovalam (OG)The change in total population
          figures in Table 3.7 and Table 3.9 (2001 figure) speaks for the variation in the areas of
          outgrowths and the panchayat where these outgrowths fall.
           The population growth in the TUA cannot be split into natural increase and migration
          since such figures are not collected by the Census. Moreover comparing with the
          population increase at the district level for separating the natural growth and attempting
          to identify migration after subtracting from such natural increase may not give a correct
          picture since natural increase in the district and the city area may not be comparable.
          Kerala’s urbanisation is such that rural to urban migration is marginal, and population
          growth within the TUA but outside the city is substantial. The increasing rate of
          urbanisation in the peripheral panchayat areas around the earlier city area of 74.93 sq
          km during the last two decades is clearly reflected in the rate of growth of population in
          Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration. Hence data as per Table 2 of Toolkit could
          not be included.

          Defining the CDP area
          Para 5. Since the TUA area is changing during the last few decades, it has not been
          possible to discuss the same area as TUA over a period of three decades. Table 3.8
          shows the constituent units of TUA and the name of the local body in which these units
          fall, with area and population as per 2001 Census.Tables 3.5, 3.6 and 3.7 the
          constituent units of TUA in 1991, 1991 & 2001 give a better understanding of the
          variation in the constituent units of TUA over the three decades which henceforth
          remain un comparable.
          Table 3.8 : Variation in the Demographic details of Thiruvananthapuram Urban
          Agglomeration and the Constituent local bodies, 2001.


Sl.No.        Constituent     Area      Population      Name     of    Loc Area 2001      Population
                 Units        sq.km          2001       Body                   sq.km      2001
                of TUA
         Thiruvananthapu                    744983 Thiruvananthapuram
   1     am                   141.74                Municipal         141.74                  744983
            (MC )                                   Corporation
   2     Kazhakkoottam        5.03           14410 Kazhakkoottam       19.47                  34131
         (OG)                                       panchayath
   3     Sreekariyam (OG      8.87            21431 Sreekariyam         23.73                 49145
                                                    panchayath
   4     Kudappanakkunn       7.69            38175 Kudappanakkunnu     7.69                   38175
         u (OG)                                     panchayath
   5     Vattiyoorkavu        11.11           41890 Vattiyoorkavu       11.11                  41890
         (OG)                                       panchayath
   6     Kovalam (OG)         3.33            28746 Vizhinjam           12.62                 47170
                                                    panchayath

            TOTAL            177.77        889635          TOTAL               216.36         955494
         Source :      census of India, 2001




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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                           City Development plan


           Table 3.6 : Demographic Details of Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration,
                   1991

       sl.no    Constituent Units              Area     Population 1991
                   of TUA                      sq.km
          1     Thiruvananthapuram                        524006
                Municipal Corporation          74.93
          2     Kazhakkoottam (OG)             5.02       12515
          3     Thumpa (OG)                    16.03      33880
          4     Sreekariyam (OG)               8.87       17245
          5     Cheruvikkal                    8.7        21286
          6     vattiyoorkavu (OG)             10.61      33653
          7     Thiruvallom (OG)               12.69      31868
          8     Kovalam (OG )                   4.68      25419
          9     Ulloor ( CT )                   7.97      25719
          10    Kudappanakkunnu                7.69       33534
                (CT )
          11    Anayara (CT )                  8.14       24541
          12    Nemom (CT )                    12.87      42559
                   TOTAL                       178.20     826225

               Source :census of India, 1991

      Table 3.5 : Demographic Details of Thiruvananthapuram Urban
                   Agglomeration, 1981


               Sl.n Constituent Units           Area      Population 1981
                      of TUA                    sq.km
               1 Thiruvananthapuram             74.93         483086
                      Municipal Corporatio
               2 Thumba (OG )                   10.67         16445
               3 Kadakampally ( CT )             8.14         20594
                            TOTAL               93.74         520125

               Source :census of India, 1981




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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                               City Development plan


             Table 3.10 : Literacy Rate

                                        1981                  1991              2001
                               M      F Total       M      F    Total M    F     Total
         State                75.26 65.73 70.42    93.62 86.17 89.81 94.24 87.72 90.86

         District          75.29 65.85 70.50 92.84 85.76 89.22         92.64 86.14 89.28
         Thiruvananthapuram80.01 72.62 76.31 94.82 89.73 92.24         95.12 90.30 92.66
         Outgrowths
         Kazhakkuttam      81.21 70.69 76.05 95.56 89.40 92.87         96.06   89.48   92.64
         Sreekaryam        82.17 73.81 80.84 96.84 91.74 94.24         97.34   93.39   95.30
         Kudappanakkunnu 79.28 72.1 76.13 96.23 91.52 94.43            97.01   92.52   94.71
         Vattiyoorkavu     78.89 71.32 75.30   94.2 88.89 92.25        94.90   89.66   92.21
         Kovalam                 not availab 70.06 66.24 68.60         76.95   72.18   74.63
                           data
             source computed from the Census data

   Para 6 : The literacy rates for the constituent units in the TUA are given in 3.10 Table.
   These figures are derived based on comparative studies

        The slum population of TMC given as 11667 is taken from the Census, 2001.It may
   be noted that the state government or the TMC has not ‘notified ‘ any urban slum,
   though the Kerala Slum (Improvement and Clearance) Act,1980 has provisions for
   notification of slums. The Department of Town &Country Planning had carried out
   studies on urban slums and published report on urban slums in Kerala in 1985 and
   modified in 1995. Since these figures cannot be adopted in 2006 and also since the
   City area has almost doubled in 2001, the CDP had to adopt the survey on urban poor
   conducted by the GOK under the BPL survey, 2001.This survey has identified 1,20,367
   persons within the city area of 141.74 sq.km to be falling under the category of urban
   poor based on the identification criteria laid down for the BPL. Since this is an official
   GOK figure, this is adopted in the CDP. This obviously means that majority of the
   urban poor live outside the urban slums.


   Para 7     Economic Role of TUA

   Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration comprising the capital city of
   Thiruvananthapuram is not an industrial region. The main functional role as reflected in
   the occupational structure is services which comprise mainly of Government jobs and
   trade &commerce.




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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                           City Development plan


                  Category of workers in Thiruvananthapuram Urban
                             Agglomeration is given below.

              Perso     Total     Cultivators   Agricultural   Workers in     Other Workers
              n/      Workers                    labourers     household
              Male/    (Main+
              Femal   Marginal)
              e                   Numb    %     Numb     %     Numb     %     Number      %
                                    er            er             er
    Thiruva   P        248054     16789   6.8   30952   12.5   15664    6.3   184649     74.4
    nantha    M        187385     12416   6.6   23438   12.5    6318    3.4   145213     77.5
    puram     F        60669       4373   7.2    7514   12.4    9346   15.4   39436       65
    (MC)
    Kazhak    P          4506     313     7.0   248     5.5     38     0.8        39.7   86.7
    kuttam    M          3515     229     6.5   207     5.9     18     0.5        3061   87.1
    (OG)      F          991       84     8.5    41     4.1     20     2.0        846    85.4
    Sreekar   P          7001     176     2.5   308     4.4    130     1.9        6387   91.2
    yam       M          5250     163     3.1   287     5.5     69     1.8        4704   89.6
    (OG)      F          1751      13     0.8    21     1.2     34     1.9        1683   96.1
    Kudapp    P         12258     128     1.0   336     2.7    143     1.2       11651   95.1
    anakku    M          9160     114     1.2   299     3.3     91     1.0        8656   94.5
    nnu       F          3098      14     0.4    37     1.2     52     1.7        2995   96.7
    (OG)
    Vattiyo   P         14068      95     0.7   402     2.9    299     2.1       13272   94.3
    orkkavu   M         10940      81     0.7   352     3.2    215     2.0       10292   94.1
    (OG)      F          3198      14     0.4    50     1.6     84     2.7        2980   95.3
    Kovala    P          8386      53     0.6    66     0.8    326     3.9        7941   94.7
    m (OG)    M          7533      33     0.5    54     0.7    296     3.9        7150   94.9
              F          853       20     2.4    12     1.4     30     3.5        791    92.7




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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                         City Development plan


       Distribution of Main workers in Thiruvananthapuram UA is given below.

Table 2.14: Distribution of main workers in TUA
 Sl.         Type of works        Main       % to total     Main     % of total     Total    % to total
 No                              workers      main         workers    main          main      main
                                  1981       workers        1991     workers       workers   workers
                                              1981                    1991          2001      2001
  1   Cultivators                      957         0.70       6991         2.86      17554         5.97
  2   Agricultural labours            8974         6.52      25222       10.31       32312       10.98
  3   Livestock, fishing,               NA          NA       17189         7.03        NA           NA
      forestry
  4   Mining & Quarrying                NA         NA          907          0.37      NA           NA
  5   Household industries            3056        2.22       31189         12.75    16600         5.64
  6   Other than H.I                    NA         NA           NA           NA       NA           NA
  7   Construction                      NA         NA        13096          5.35      NA           NA
  8   Trade and                         NA         NA        44487         18.19      NA           NA
      Commerce
  9   Transport and                    NA          NA        23757          9.91       NA          NA
      communication
 10 Others                        124668         90.57       81760         33.43   227807         77.4
      Total                       137655                    244598                 294273
Source: Census of India, 2001


The major noticeable economic activity centres and job centres within the TUA are
given below.


           Sl.no             Centre                       Major activity           approximate
                                                                                   numbers of
                                                                                   jobs
       1           ISRO / VSSC             space research                          7000
       2           Technopark & other Inf software         and     hardwar
                   parks                   development,                    25000
                   and industrial parks    HRD for IT, ITES, etc.
       3           KINFRA                   Film & Video Park, Apparel par 5000
                                           etc.
       4           Kerala University       central administration offices o 3000
                                           KU /
                                           academic & research institution
       5           Secretariat    &    Gov HQ      offices   of   all  gov 15000
                   offices                 departments, & governmen
                                           secretariat offices &
                                           and offices & assembly halls o
                                           the
                                           state legislature and Cent. Gov
                                           Offices
       6           Defence : Southern A HQ of SAC & their offices             600
                   Command
       7           Defence: Artillery Arm Pangode army camp unde 7000
                   Units                   Brigadier
       8           Science & Technolog RRL of CSIR, CTCRI, RGCB 4000
                   Institutions            CESS,


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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                  City Development plan


                                       NATPAC,
    9        Kovalam tourist centre    tourism related activities            5000
    10       International Airport                                           1500



    Industries in Thiruvananthapuram District

   (a) Medium and Large scale industries

   Based on a study of district wise break up of medium and large scale industries in
   Kerala (source Economic Review 2005, State Planning Board) it is seen that out of
   the 720 medium and large scale industries located in Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram
   district has 89 industries (the maximum is in Eranakulam district – 254)
   Out of the 89 industries in Thiruvananthapuram district

   2 are in central sector, 14 in state sector, 2 in coop sector
   4 in Joint sector and, 67 in Private sector

   By the number of medium and large scale industries, Thiruvananthapuram district
   ranks second among the 14 districts of Kerala

   (b) Small scale units
   Out of the 1,87,676 units registered in Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram district has
   20,918 units (of which 510 are reported sick) By the number of small scale industrial
   units, Thiruvananthapuram district ranks third (next to Eranakulam – 23,786 and
   Thrissur – 21,465)

   In spite of this higher ranking in the number of industries, Thiruvananthapuram
   district is not recognised as an industrial district.

   The occupational structure in TUA reflects that about 75 % of the workers are
   engaged in other services, which mainly include jobs in government and non
   governmental sectors and in trade and commerce.

   However in the last decade this picture has started changing because I.T and
   Tourism sectors have emerged as major economic activities in TUA. Also there is a
   recent trend focussing on Health Tourism in this district.

   Tourism As aCore Competent Sector Of Development


   Kerala tourism has made significant growth during the last two decades. From the
   sluggish tourist arrivals of the 1980s, tourism scenario in Kerala has shown
   substantial growth. Foreign tourist arrivals have increased from 2 lakhs in the year
   2000 to 3.50 lakhs in 2004. Domestic tourist arrivals have increased from 50 lakhs to
   60 lakhs from 2000 to 2004. Foreign exchange earnings have increased from Rs.
   525 crores in the year 2000 to Rs. 1267 crores in 2004, thereby contributing
   substantially to Kerala economy. It is estimated that the total foreign tourist flow to
   Kerala in 2004 constituted 10.26 percent of the total foreign tourists visited India. It is


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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                City Development plan


   broadly estimated that in the year 2004 the total direct and indirect revenue
   generation through tourism has been of the order of Rs. 6800 crores.
                  This leap in tourism growth was made possible because the
   Department of Tourism had initiated the following approaches in promoting tourism
   in Kerala.
   •        Tourism Product Development - Developments in the natural scenic areas,
   development of backwaters, conservation of heritage etc.;
   •        Development of tourism infrastructure - including increase in tourist
   accommodation by Government and private sector; and
   •        Aggressive tourism marketing – both in international and domestic travel
   marts and through various media
   Kerala tourism has bagged a large number of international awards including PATA
   (Pacific Asia Travel Association) awards, a large number of Government of India
   awards from 1999 to 2005, FICCI award 2004 and the recent NDTV award for
   business promotion in July 2006.
   Government of Kerala (GoK) has recognized tourism as one of the core competent
   sectors of economy of the state.

   With Kovalam beach as a world tourism destination, Thiruvananthapuram is the
   gateway for tourism in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram district prides itself in many of
   the tourism attractions noted below:

   • Beach tourism
   • Hill area tourism – with Ponmudi hill resort within 70 km & within the district
   • Backwater tourism
   • Heritage tourism – with a large number of attractions including fort area &
   environs, which received national award for heritage & conservation
   • Health tourism – gaining on the strength of Ayurveda & allopathic treatment
   facilities providing quality services

   In view of the above, the city region is able to provide a variety of attractions for the
   tourists, making Thiruvananthapuram a must visit location in the tour itinerary of
   domestic and foreign tourists.


   SWOT ANALYSIS FOR THIRUVANANTHAPURAM URBAN AGGLOMERATION


   Thiruvananthapuram city has a long history of being on an elevated pedestal as the
   capital city; earlier of the erstwhile Travancore and later of the State of Kerala. The
   princely state of Travancore had initiated a large number of reforms which included
   English Education, Institutions of higher learning, cultural institutions etc. All these
   happened to be located at Thiruvananthapuram. However over the last few decades,
   the city region has made a quantum leap in attracting many institutions of learning and
   research and also quite a few modern industrial establishments.




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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                City Development plan


   The natural endowments of TUA are getting recognition only now. These are taken into
   account in the SWOT analysis.

   STRENGTHS

      •   The City being the administrative capital of Kerala attracts a very large number
          of people from Kerala and also from other states on government business.

      •   The City has a long history of recognition as the centre of learning and therefore
          students from all over the state converge to the City: this continues in spite of
          the fact that educational institutions have got located also in the other regions of
          the state .

      •   Kovalam Beach in Thiruvananthapuram was one of the locations selected by
          Government of India in the early seventies to be developed as a tourism
          destination in India. During the last three decades Kovalam has been
          recognised as one of the world tourism destinations.

      •   Thiruvananthapuram was the location of the first IT Park in India. Recently many
          IT giants like Infosys and U.S. Software have set up their establishments in and
          around the Technopark. GoK is in the process of acquiring 500 more acres
          about 6 km from Technopark for establishing a ‘Technocity’. IT professionals
          consider Thiruvananthapuram as providing the right environment for their living
          and working.

      •   Though Vizhinjam in Thiruvananthapuram was talked about as a potential
          harbour location ,in the light of development of world shipping ,designation of
          international shipping route and studies on World Shipping Vision, the state and
          the central governments have now realised the importance of development of
          ICTT ( International Container Transhipment Terminal ) at Vizhinjam. Estimate
          of revenue generation and savings in cargo import have reemphasised the
          importance of Vizhinjam ICTT. With the realisation of this Port,
          Thiruvananthapuram City Region in particular and the state in general stand to
          make substantial economic gains in addition to gaining from the job market
          generated by the ICTT.

      •   The natural endowments of Thiruvananthapuram make it the most livable city in
          South India. The city is least affected by natural calamities. Because of its
          physiography and terrain the city is not plagued by environmental problems like
          water pollution, inundation during storms etc. Compared to any city in Kerala
          and Tamil Nadu, Thiruvananthapuram has a much better water supply and
          sewerage system. Thiruvananthapuram also has a very amiable climate
          throughout the year without extreme summer and winter, without the need for
          winter clothing.

      •   The city is well connected with the important cities within the country and
          abroad. In addition to rail, road and air connectivity, water transport
          development is also in the offing.



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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


      •   The city region accommodates a large number of reputed hospitals and medical
          research institutions which offer a fairly high level of service, even attracting
          foreigners to the medical facilities in the city region. The holistic health facilities
          based on ayurveda offering not only curative but also health rejuvenation
          programmes are considered to be the added strength of Thiruvananthapuram
          city region.


    WEAKNESS


      •   A large number of foreign and domestic tourists and people for governmental
          and non governmental business converge to the city of Thiruvananthapuram
          with high aspirations. But the carrying capacity of the city is such that it cannot
          provide high quality infrastructure to the satisfaction of its users.

      •   Though a major percentage of the area of the old city of Thiruvananthapuram
          spreading over an area of 74.93 sq km is covered under the sewerage scheme,
          with the extension of the city to cover an area of 141.74 sq km, the coverage is
          limited to about 30% of the city area. With the reducing land man ratio, the
          extension of the sewerage system to the entire city and the urban agglomeration
          area, which is the urbanising area, remains as a priority component which needs
          to be addressed.

      •   The existing water supply system, with the main centralised system and a few
          stand alone systems, which cater to specific areas, is incapable of providing a
          satisfactory level of service. This is in spite of its designed capacity. In many of
          the areas, the service level remains at 80/90 lpcd at 2 to 4 hours of supply per
          day. Weak distribution systems, transmission losses, leakages, loss of pressure
          etc. are attributed to this unsatisfactory service level.

      •   With the exploitation of the available potentials for development such as IT,
          Vizhinjam port etc and also taking in to account of the present developments, the
          number of vehicles catering to the needs of the city users is increasing at an
          alarming rate. Lack of quality system for mass transport is experienced which
          compels the road users to use their own individual personal vehicles adding to
          traffic volume. Substantial improvements in public transport systems are
          required.

      •   The local self government does not have complete control over the city’s
          infrastructure. A few state departments and para statal agencies are responsible
          for some important components of development infrastructure. The TMC may
          however have to respond to public grievances, when any dysfunction of any city
          infrastructure or dissatisfaction in the service of any city infrastructure occurs.

      •   Being a state capital, Thiruvananthapuram happens to beat the receiving end,
          when disruption of traffic, disruption of city infrastructure, destruction of public
          properties etc. occur due to political upheavals, agitations, hartals etc.




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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                  City Development plan


   OPPORTUNITIES

      •   The prospects for beach tourism, health tourism and adventure tourism clubbed
          with the development potential for IT, Vizhinjam port etc would attract direct and
          indirect jobs in various sectors.
      •   The above development potential combined with high quality of infrastructure
          can attract both foreign and domestic investments. NRIs from Kerala may find
          such a situation very conducive for investments in their home state.
      •   Availability of land in the peripheral areas of the city calls for inducing
          developments therein through providing supporting infrastructure.

   THREATS

      •     Thiruvananthapuram being a coastal city is frequently affected by coastal
            erosion, which often necessitates rehabilitation of fisher folk.
      •     Thiruvananthapuram being the capital city of Kerala becomes venue for public
            properties etc. which occur due to political upheavals, agitations, and hartals etc.
            which cause disruption of traffic, disruption of city infrastructure and destruction
            of public properties.
      •     The LSGD may have to elevate its status as an urban manager and
            administrator to effectively implement the infrastructure development
            programmes and to continue to maintain and manage the assets created out of
            the JNNURM programme.


   Para 8        Land Use and Growth Patterns of Developed, Underdeveloped and
               Undeveloped Land in the City

   In addition to these rivers, the city is also blessed with five canals namely, Ulloor
   thodu, Pattom thodu, Vanchiyoor thodu, Thekkinakara thodu and 75 canal. These
   five canals flow through the valleys and they also drain off the surface water of the
   city. There are also many natural ponds. Surface run off from the nearby area flows
   into these ponds also.

   The city area has an average density of about 5000 persons per sq km. A peculiar
   phenomena observed in the Census 1991 & 2001 was that when the old city area of
   74.93 sq km experienced a decadal population growth rate of 5 to 10 percent, a few
   peripheral panchayat areas contiguous to the city experienced growth of the order of
   20 to 25 percent. A few of these panchayats namely, Kadakampally, Attipra, Ulloor,
   and Nemom have been attached to the city area in 2000, thus expanding the city
   area to the present 141.74 sq km. Some are of the panchayat areas which now exist
   outside the city area, namely Kudappanakunnu, Vattiyoorkavu etc. are also fringe
   area panchayats which have shown high population increase. Such fringe area
   growth is not necessarily due to the overspill of the city population due to high
   density developments within the city.

   Another feature of the development pattern in the city is that intensity of
   development is comparatively high for one plot depth of land abutting the major city
   roads, leaving the central areas with poor access with less than optimum



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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                               City Development plan


   development. Redevelopment to achieve optimum intensity of development within
   the allowable FAR has been made difficult due to the smaller sizes of land holdings
   and larger number of land owners with skewed land ownership pattern. (This is one
   of the objectives of the ‘Urban Regeneration’ programme included under theCDP.

   The low lying land parcels in the valleys within the city region (TUA) have been
   acting as drainage basins, receiving surface run off during flash floods and slowly
   releasing the waters into the streams and canals. The dual advantage of this system
   of drainage was that on the one hand percolation of water into the soil is allowed
   recharging underground water and on the other hand avoiding flooding of developed
   areas in the city. But due to population pressure, many of these low lying valleys
   have been subjected to conversion for building purposes, mostly as deviations to the
   land use regulations of the City Master Plan.

   The city area offers opportunities for redevelopment and intensification of activities
   provided the city managers are able to provide higher capacity infrastructure to
   support such redevelopment. Such an attempt would be much cheaper than allowing
   urban sprawl and trying to expand the coverage area of infrastructure. Such
   unplanned urban sprawl has also the disadvantage of steady depletion of
   agricultural and horticultural land in the rural areas adjoining the city.


   Characteristics of urban land market

   The urban land market in Kerala is totally controlled by private sector. The land value
   escalated drastically during early 1980’s based on a general trend of the national
   economy. However for Thiruvananthapuram City major change in land values occurred
   in 1990’s when the construction sector gained importance and the people started
   speculating investments in Real Estates. Moreover the two decades from 1981-2001
   witnessed high densifications of at least four panchayat areas which lie contiguous to
   the city boundary. This made a strong impact in construction sector in the TUA resulting
   in escalation of land values. The negative impact of these has been marginalisation of
   the lower MIG and LIG families, who could not compete in the private land market for
   land. Therefore during these two decades, these groups who did not have access to
   developed urban land, either acquired low lying marshy land within the City or moved to
   the fringe areas for construction of residences since they could obtain land at much
   lower price than the developed land in the city. This upset the City land use strategy
   causing environmental problems and flooding of low lying areas during monsoons.

   The developed commercial land in the central city now goes at Rs.25,000+ per sq m
   whereas land in the intermediate area demands Rs.15,000+ per sq m and the
   peripheral areas Rs.7500+ per sq m. Residential land in the above locations is going at
   50 to 75 % of the above rates.

   Government have responsibility for social equity in urban land distribution. However the
   tools available with Government for intervention to stabilise land values and to create a
   climate for accessibility for the poor to urban land are limited. Master Plan zoning
   regulation is one such tool. Similarly regulation on the allowable intensity of
   development on a parcel of urban land limits the rent the land can earn and this may
   stabilise the land value. Other tools like DCR relating it to TDR, reservation of land for


                                                                                        12
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


   urban infrastructure development, compulsory reservation of land for LIG in
   government and privately developed housing schemes etc. are measures to ensure
   that the poor have access to land. GoK is considering the process of developing such
   tools as part of the City Region Master Plan. Similarly the FAR provisions for the
   various parts of the city relating it to the carrying capacity are also under consideration.

   Implementation and Impact of Master Plan


   The first Master Plan for Thiruvananthapuram City was prepared in 1966 by the then
   Chief Town Planner &Consulting Architect to Government. This Master Plan was
   approved by Government in 1971. The planning area consisted of the city of 74.93 sq
   km and part of the adjacent panchayat areas of Ulloor and Thiruvallam. The Master
   Plan had a horizon period of 20 years .The plan proposed the land use structure of
   1986 and had estimated the major infrastructure requirements.

   The road network envisaged in the Master Plan was broadly taken as a framework
   when the Department of Town Planning (formed in 1969.This Department was later
   renamed as Department of Town &Country Planning – DTCP - in 1998) prepared
   Detailed Town Planning Schemes (D.T.P. Schemes as area development plans for
   priority development areas within the City. When the National Highway Authority
   proposed a City By pass the Master Plan was consulted for suggesting probable
   alignment .The Comprehensive Traffic &Transportation Study (CTTS) for the City
   carried out by consultants during 2000-2002 for GOK considered the Master Plan as
   the relevant document to propose a road network plan for the City. The
   Thiruvananthapuram City Road Development Project prepared in 2002 and being
   implemented now has generally followed the road widening and improvement
   proposals indicated in the Master Plan and the DTP Schemes.

   Thiruvananthapuram City can generally be proud of a compatible land use
   development for the last three decades, except very few sore spots where variance is
   noticed. This was greatly possible because of the enforcement of the land use plans of
   the 1971 Master Plan. The State Electricity Board (KSEB) and the Kerala Water
   Authority (KWA ) attempted preparation of Thiruvananthapuram Master Plan for their
   subject areas. For this purpose both of them referred the infrastructure requirements
   and the population density proposals for the various zones envisaged in the Master
   Plan. In view of the above it can be broadly stated that the Master Plan 1971 was
   helpful as a planning tool in guiding the development of the City.

   A Draft Development Plan was prepared by the Department of Town Planning for 2001
   which was published by the then Trivandrum Development Authority (TRIDA). The
   suggestions from the public and the TRIDA necessitated major changes. The main
   proposals and Status of the Development Plan (2001) are detailed the Table below.
   Subsequently the City area was expanded, UDPFI guidelines were issued by
   Government of India and the new Census findings published. In view of these, the
   published draft Plan did not reach approval stage nor was it enforced. A new
   Development Plan for the City Region is on the anvil and is expected to be published in
   2007.

   Para 9      Housing


                                                                                          13
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                  City Development plan



   The CDP does not pose housing in the city as a major development issue, since the
   city region has not experienced explosive urban population growth or urban migration.
   But housing is definitely a major issue in the case of the coastal population in the city
   and the houseless urban poor. The coastal population is mainly engaged in fishing and
   related activities. In addition the CDP addresses the issue of housing for the slum
   population. Most of them squat on public land on the beach. Land tenure, construction
   of dwelling units, availability of basic infrastructure; social amenities etc. are issues that
   need to be addressed. These are discussed in PART – C, Chapters 14 &15 (now
   combined) under Basic Services to the Urban poor.

    Para 10.     Gender

       Noted. An attempt was made to engender the CDP addressing the areas where
   gender mainstreaming can be tried out. It is also specified in the CDP that while
   preparing Detailed Project Reports for the sector UBSP and the other respective
   sectors, these aspects need to be taken in to consideration. However specific aspects
   with regard to gender issues wherever relevant are included in the subject chapters.

   Consultative Process

   Para 11      Noted

   Para 12 .         Ward Committees are statutory bodies constituted under the Kerala
   Municipality Act 1994 with the ward councillor as the Chairman. The ward committee
   meets once in three months. The proposals to be included in the annual and five year
   plans of the TMC are recommended by the Ward Committees for consideration in the
   plan coordination group. Ward Sabha, comprising of all the people residing in the
   particular ward, meets only once in an year. Similarly Grama Sabhas in Panchayat
   areas comprise of all the people living in the Panchayat which meet at regular intervals.
   During the preparation of the CDP development proposals originated in Ward
   Committees within the City and Grama Sabhas of the Panchayat areas included in the
   TUA were referred. In the specific context of the projects which can be considered
   under the CDP the Core Committee had detailed consultations with the Chairmen of
   the Ward Committees and the Chairmen of the Grama Sabhas. They were given
   adequate time to get back to their respective members and come out with suggestions
   .A second round of discussions with them resulted in a number of the Chairmen giving
   their suggestions in writing. Before these discussions the Core Committee had
   identified the priority project components and their scope. These were presented in the
   discussions so that the Councillors and the Panchayat Presidents could derive help
   from the note and the discussions to crystallise their ideas. The draft CDP including the
   priority components identified for inclusion in the Project was subjected for scrutiny by
   the stakeholders. The draft CDP was presented in the council meeting for discussions
   and approval with or without modifications. The Council which met on 20.09.06 had
   approved the CDP without modifications.


   Studies and Surveys




                                                                                           14
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                City Development plan


   Para 13: The studies conducted in the past are reviewed to make clear that attempts
   have been made previously in the TMC to analyse the issues pertaining to each sector.
   Such studies have been considered as base data in analysing issues and thus in
   arriving at policy decisions.

    The National level policy documents like National Environment Policy 2006, Urban
   Transport Policy 2006, National Policy on Inland Water Transport 2001 etc are
   reviewed and the recommendations therein have been considered as the overall
   framework within which policy propositions under each of the corresponding sectors
   have been formulated as part of the CDP. Similar is the case with Kerala Tourism
   Policy and I T Policy for Kerala. These policies were selected for review, since they
   pertain to the thrust sectors identified as part of stakeholder consultations which
   ultimately converged to the CDP proposals. The main intention was to uphold the fact
   that the policies envisaged under each sector in the CDP for Thiruvananthapuram has
   got a legitimate backing either at the National /State level or both and also that it is not
   merely a wish list.
   It has been specified under each of the review how the particular study could be made
   applicable in the context of formulation and implementation of CDP for
   Thiruvananthapuram.

   Vision

   Para14:. In pages 12 to 15 of Chapter 1, the Development Vision of
   Thiruvananthapuram is not presented. What is mentioned in these pages is the earlier
   attempt by GOK to evolve development vision through two consultancy groups. But
   these attempts for vision development were halted on the way. In Chapter 1 we have
   only reviewed these earlier attempts to get better enlightened to develop vision
   statements under the CDP.

    CDP development vision is given in pages 56, 57 & 58. A single vision statement is
   given in para 4.1.1 (page 56).
   This vision statement comprises of 7 different aspirations all put together in a single
   statement. Attempt is made in para 4.1.2 to spell out all these 7 aspirations in detail,
   giving also the background and strength to justify these aspirations. It may be
   comprehended that the CDP’s Development Vision is presented in para 4.1.1

    In the discussions on the various project components in the subsequent chapters the
   sectoral development vision is mentioned, but these need not be confused with the
   city’s development vision. However the sector wise development vision is modified to
   present it in a tabular form giving milestones of achievement as per Table 20 of the
   Toolkit.

   Governance

   Para 15 :     Chapter 2 is combined with Chapters 16 & 17, to avoid duplication. The
   reforms attempted and achieved at the state level and at the level of the TMC are
   stated in the modified chapter.

   Para 16 : State Finance Commission



                                                                                         15
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                City Development plan


   During 1999 the Govt. of Kerala made comprehensive amendments to the Kerala
   Panchayat Raj Act 1994 and the Kerala Municipality Act 1994. Right to Information,
   and constitution of institutions like Ombudsman & Tribunal for Local Self Govt
   Institutions have been introduced in the Acts through the above amendments

   As part of Right to Information every Local Self Government Institution (LSGI) is bound
   to publish and update annually a Citizen’s Charter embodying the services available to
   the public and the norms and procedure for achieving it. The Thiruvananthapuram
   Municipal Corporation has published Citizen’s Charter and is updating it periodically.
   The Ombudsman for Local Self Government Institutions is chaired by a retired Judge of
   the High Court and is empowered to look in to allegations of maladministration and
   corruption against elected members and officials of Local Self Government Institutions.
   The seat of Ombudsman is at Thiruvananthapuram and he is arranging camp sittings
   at Ernakulam and Kozhikode. The Act embodies Tribunal for Local Self Government
   Institutions in all districts to consider appeals on review petitions against the decisions
   of LSGIs. To begin with, a Tribunal with state wide jurisdiction has been established in
   Thiruvananthapuram and the Tribunal is considering the appeals and revision petitions
   against decisions of different LSGIs. The Tribunal is chaired by a serving Judicial
   Officer in the cadre of District & Sessions Judge.

   The State Government has decided in principle to set an audit commission for LSGIs.
   Audit Commission has not been set up in the state so far. However three Regional
   Performance Audit Teams under a State Performance Audit Authority is auditing the
   plan schemes of the LSGIs. The State Performance Audit Authority is assisted by State
   Performance Audit Officer in the rank of Deputy Accountant General drawn from the
   Indian Audit & Accounts Department. The above arrangement is running well and has
   made positive impact in the functioning of LSGIs.

   Role of Private Sector in Infrastructure Development

   It is increasingly accepted that the entire infrastructure development required in any city
   cannot be developed by government alone. The Urban and Rural Local Governments
   in Kerala which are now empowered to function as local self governments are looked
   upon by the people to provide them infrastructure of a higher order. The local
   governments lack financial resources, manpower and expertise to implement
   infrastructure programmes to satisfy the level of expectation of the people.
   The LSGDs are considering aspects of infrastructure which could be taken up with
   private sector participation. Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation has already
   initiated the process five years ago with Solid Waste Management. Solid waste
   disposal arrangement was implemented through private sector by constructing a plant
   in the neighbouring Vilappil panchayat. This composting plant produces green manure
   which is partly lifted by the State Agricultural Department. During 2004-05 the TMC
   commenced door-to-door collection of garbage through voluntary organisations which
   employ women from BPL households. These women are paid through the monthly
   contribution of Rs.30 which every HH pays for this collection service.

   The TMC has initiated discussions on the various infrastructure components, which can
   be considered for implementation and management through TMC - Private Sector
   Participatory Programmes. These sectors are noted in Table 19 below.


                                                                                        16
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                City Development plan



   Urban Infrastructure                          Role of Private Sector

   Water Supply                  i.     Kerala Water Authority used to have the exclusive
                                        mandate for production and distribution of potable
                                        water. Govt. have now approved that LSGIs can
                                        implement and run stand – alone W.S. Projects
                                 ii.    Govt. have also approved scheme for bulk supply by
                                        the KWA to the LSGI and distribution, maintenance
                                        and collection of water charges by LSGI.




   Sewerage                      i.     Since the capital investment for establishment of
                                        Sewerage system is high, Govt. is examining
                                        alternatives like private sector role in establishment
                                        of STP, private sector participation in establishment
                                        of zone wise Sewerage system, establishment of
                                        package plants etc.


   Drainage


   Storm Water Drainage          i.     Departing from the traditional practice of constructio
                                        drains to drain off surface water into rivers and sea,
         (SWD)                          JNNURM concept envisages a package of activities
                                 ii.    The existing and uncared ponds within the city woul
                                        be conserved and storm water in the respective
                                        zones would be channelled to these ponds after
                                        filtering so that this would enable maintenance of
                                        ponds and also help ground water recharging. Thes
                                        ponds would be maintained by the nearby Residents
                                        Associations.
                                 iii.   The Project also envisages Rain Water Harvesting.


   Solid Waste Management        i.     Composting Plant installed under PPP



                                                                                        17
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                   City Development plan


                                 ii.        Door to door waste collection implemented through
         (SWM)                              voluntary organisations based on levy of user
                                 charges
                                  iii.       IMA has established disposal arrangements for
                                            hospital    wastes, which are collected based on
                                            user charges




   Municipal Roads               i.         Under the decentralised planning approaches, TMC
   ( including Fly over )                   has taken up many road widening and improvement
                                            projects at ward level through ‘beneficiary
                                            committees’, who have even arranged for voluntary
                                            surrender of land from private land owners. This
                                            approach may be continued.
                                 ii.        Roads like ORR are identified for widening and
                                             improvement as self sustaining projects, with
                                           revenue generated from LA and land development
                                           through PPP.




   Street Lighting               i.      Street lights are now maintained based on a
                                  participatory process between TMC & KSEB. Materials ar
                                  procured by TMC and handed over to KSEB. The KSEB
                                  changes the tubes etc and maintains the street light
                                  system.
                                 ii. The KSED in turn have contracted out the street light
                                 maintenance work. On receipt of notice from the local
                                 councillor regarding non-working of any street light, KSEB
                                 arranges through the contract worker to attend to the
                                 repairs. Perhaps, this arrangement may continue for some
                                 time.




                                                                                          18
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                               City Development plan


   Kerala Municipality Act 1994, as amended in 1999, provides for constitution of Audit
   Commission. This has not been constituted till now. Audit in local self government
   institutions is now carried out by the State Local Fund Audit Department. In addition
   LSGD has also constituted Performance Audit Wings with LSGD and Finance
   Department staff.
   Section 271 (S) of the Kerala Municipality Act provides for constitution of LSG
   Tribunals. The state has constituted a state level tribunal under a law officer of the
   grade of District Judge. Any person aggrieved by a decision of any panchayat and
   urban local body can appeal to this tribunal for redressal of his grievances. Government
   have not constituted district level tribunals, though they are not beyond the scope of the
   law. In the first two years the Tribunal was flooded with appeals. But this has come
   down substantially. One factor is that the LSGIs are conscious of their actions. Another
   is that because of transparency in LSGI actions and procedures, being insisted during
   the last two years, wrong doing has considerably come down.

   Para 17: Noted

   Para18:    Water Supply

   • Coverage of Water Supply distribution network across different areas
   including slums and percentage of access to the households:

   The number of service connections as on 2001 was 1, 59,590. By 30/09/2006 the
   approximate number of households and number of service connections are computed
   as 2,30,646 and 1,72,984 respectively.

   As far as area coverage is concerned the old Trivandrum City (of 74.93 sq km) is fully
   covered and the extended area is more than 90% covered.


   Most of the households in slum areas and a few households below poverty line depend
   on public stand posts. Accounting for stand post service together with individual
   connections, the coverage is 90%. A small area is left out in the extended area (i.e., in
   the area added to TMC in 2000). This area is proposed to be covered in the project,
   resulting in 100 percent coverage in the entire city area of 141.74 sq km.

      •   Number of house service connections (as against number of households)
          and Public stand posts in the City.



                                                                                          19
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                   City Development plan




   Present status of connections as on 30/09/2006 under the TWSS is as follows:

   Domestic connections                   1, 48,447

   Non-domestic connections                24,505 (inclusive of public stand posts)

   Industrial connections                       32
                                           -------------------
                             TOTAL        1, 72,984

   • Metering system and their working status – percentage of meters working and
   not working:

   As per the amendment to clause 12(a) of Kerala Water Authority (WS) Regulations –
   1991 vide G.O.(P)No.65/98/Ird., Tvpm. dtd.20/6/1998, defective water meters are to be
   replaced by the consumer at his cost; otherwise surcharge at the rate of 25% on the
   water charges for the first month, 50% for the next 2 months, and 100% beyond that
   period would be collected. With the enforcement of this surcharge clause, there has
   been tremendous improvement in the replacement of non-working meters. The present
   status of meters in domestic & non-domestic categories is attached. On an average
   1000 non-working meters are being replaced every month.


   Effective monitoring and management of the system is done based on relevant
   provisions in the K.W.S. Regulations, 1991. The number of defective meters as on
   30/09/2006 is 38420. The meters, on turning defective, are changed with new working
   meters by the consumers themselves under the supervision of KWA. This is based on
   consumer participation and relevant rules in the K.W.S. Regulations.


    On an average 100 meters become defective every month and 1000 defective meters
   are replaced. With the present attitude and participation of the consumers, defective
   meters at any point of time can be brought to a minimum, once all defective meters are
   replaced. This can be achieved by replacing all the defective meters as part of the
   project. In addition, it is assessed that 70 % of the present running meters are showing
   either slow or fast reading (+ - 5%) and these are also to be replaced as part of the
   project. Thus the total number of meters to be replaced as part of the project works out
   to 85,000.



                                                                                         20
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                  City Development plan


   •   Households with non-working meters:

   Calculation of water charges in cases of non-working meters is explained in clause
   17(d) of W.S. Regulations, which reads.


   “If on examination, any meter is found to be out of order and not registering correctly,
   the consumption dating from the reading previous to the last reading, till the repair, or
   replacements of the meter be calculated at the average consumption registered for any
   previous period during which, in the opinion of the Assistant Executive Engineer the
   meter installed at the premises was registering correctly and the consumption of water
   was not abnormal”.

  Water charges for consumers with non-working meters are fixed by KWA           according to
 this clause.

   • Expenditure on O&M of water supply system and percentage of cost
   recovery:

   The average O&M expenditure per year for the TWSS consumers is Rs. 2300 lakhs.
   Total annual revenue from water charges is Rs.3300 lakhs. Actual financial figures
   have now been worked out and included in the CDP. Actual figures now show the O&M
   expenses as 2000 lakhs and revenue collection as Rs. 2400 lakhs. So the percentage
   cost recovery as per the financial projection is 120% without considering capital share
   contribution /interest and capital/depreciation of assets.


   •   The institutional aspects of Water Supply, i.e., the role of KWA and TMC –
   issues of co-ordination and convergence:


   O & M of the scheme, extensions of service facilities etc. are undertaken by KWA in
   consultation with the TMC. A Management Committee for the scheme, with TMC
   representatives and KWA representative shall be constituted to manage the scheme
   within the framework of applicable rules and regulations.


   • Methods of co-ordination and convergence in water supply management of
   the panchayats within Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration:




                                                                                        21
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


   Local Self Government plays a major role in rendering service to the consumers. W.S.
   connections will be provided only on the recommendation by the LSG. Further the
   management of the system may be carried out by the Management Committee.

   • In the project proposals, changing of non-working meters is proposed over a
   period of 6 years at a cost of Rs 6 crores. It is not clear whether the entire cost
   will be borne by the TMC and Panchayats or any contribution from the
   community is proposed. Similarly as metering is a priority item, which fetches
   revenues to Corporation, could metering be taken on a mission mode and reduce
   the period of implementation?

   With the implementation of the ‘surcharge’ clause for non-working      meters, consumers
   are coming forward in large numbers for replacement of meters and this process is
   going on at a very fast pace.

   As on 30-09-2006, number of defective meters come to 38,420 With the present
   attitude and participation of consumers, defective meters at any point of time can be
   brought to a minimum once all the defective meters are replaced. This can be
   achieved by replacing all defective meters as part of the project. In addition it is
   assessed that 70 % of the present running meters are showing either slow or fast
   reading (+/ - 5%) and these are also to be replaced as part of the project. Thus the total
   number of meters to be replaced as part of the project works out to 85,000.

   Out of this replacement of the 38,420 non-working meters can be completed in the first
   2 years.

   • Communication strategy and human resource development are expected to
   cost Rs.3.50 and Rs.10 crores respectively. This appears to be on a very high
   side.

   As part of the communication strategy, a networking of all offices for a complaint
   redressal system is envisaged. The HRD package includes construction of a full
   fledged training centre also for the Trivandrum Water Supply Scheme, which can be
   made beneficial to the whole of the KWA and other water supply & sewerage
   institutions in future. The total provision for these works is Rs.13.50 crores, which is
   only 1.85 % of the total project cost of approximately Rs. 730 crores (excluding the
   project cost under JBIC assisted water supply improvement project).




                                                                                          22
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                              City Development plan


   •   There is need to review the costing of all the proposed projects more
   carefully.

   As part of the City Development Plan (CDP), rough cost estimate for all the sub
   projects envisaged were prepared. Realistic costing will be done at the stage of
   preparation of DPR. It is presumed that there may be marginal differences between
   DPR and rough cost estimates. (expected variation considering the past experiences is
   of the order of 10 to 15 percent)


   Para 19      Sewerage

   1.   Number of sewerage connections in the city and reasons for low access.
   At present only 30% of the area covered under water supply is covered by the
   functioning sewerage system. This area is the most thickly populated one in the city.
   The present number of sewerage connections in the sewered area is 80,000.The
   approximate number of households in the TMC area is 1,72,752 out of which 30% was
   already been covered. The lesser coverage is owing to inadequacy of treatment
   facilities in the sewerage system.

   2. Cost of accessing sewerage connection by households and sewerage tariff
    No monthly or annual sewerage service charges are collected .The one time service
   connection fee charges for availing sewerage connection is as given below;
   Category                            Rate                        Minimum ( Rs )
   Domestic                 10% of estimated cost for connection           500.
   Non domestic                        do                                 1000
   Casual                              do                                 1000
   Industrial                           do                                 2500



   3. Operation and Maintenance expenditure of sewerage system and percentage
   cost
   O&M expenditure at present is 530 lakh per annum for the area under coverage .No
   specific O&M cost is realised at present. Approximate amount collected as new service
   connection fee comes to Rs.75 lakh per annum which works out to 14.15% of annual
   O&M cost.

   4. Community’s willingness to pay



                                                                                      23
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


   An analysis of survey results provides an indication of community’s willingness to pay
   for improved services depending on existing access or reliability.

   For survey purpose the households were grouped into 6 household categories:

   High Income Group (HIG), Middle Income Group (MIG), Low Income Group (LIG ) ,
   Upper crest of the Poor (UP ), Just above Vulnerable (JV ) and most Vulnerable
   (MV). The composition of the population by income group is as follows: HIG (6 %),
   MIG (34 %), LIG (39%), UP (7%), JV (7%) and MV (7%).

   The result of the survey did not specify an amount that each group is willing to pay for
   improved water supply and sanitation services. The survey however indicated a low
   willingness to pay among the poor and a bit higher willingness to pay from the non-poor
   for obvious financial reasons. The low willingness to pay for improved services among
   the poor is largely due to (i) relative satisfaction with the present water supply and
   sanitation services. (ii) use of water from street tap, which is the major source of water
   among the poor, is currently free of charge; and (iii) respondents view that Government
   has the responsibility to provide the services to its residents; (iv) the subsidy involved in
   the present arrangement.

   5. Link between proposed sewerage master plan and work proposed under
   existing system
     It is proposed to prepare a master plan benefiting entire TRIDA area extending to
     Balaramapuram on the East and Vattappara on the north. The interior thickly
     populated area will be covered in the present project and scope can be widened for
     future population since the present project proposed in master plan are independent.

   6. Likely additional beneficiaries in the TMC area and adjoining Panchayats.
   The population benefited in 2036 is 10.70 lakh and the present population           benefited
   is estimated to be 2.59 lakh. Hence at the end of the project period, 8.11 lakh people
   will be covered additionally.

   7. Rehabilitation of existing network and extending to uncovered areas                       is
      proposed over a period of six years. Alternate plans
   The rehabilitation is spread over only 30 % of the entire project area. An appropriate
   Project Implementation Plan (PIP) and Environment Management Plan (EMP) shall be
   developed so as to bring down the inconvenience to the public during implementation,
   to the minimum extent possible.



                                                                                           24
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                City Development plan


   8. Communication strategy and HRD
     Noted
   Para 20    Storm Water Drainage
   Noted. Corrections incorporated
   Para 21    Solid Waste Management

   Door to Door Collection of Solid waste is being carried out in 25 of the 86 wards in the
   Corporation at present. It is planned to extend the same to all 86 wards by 2007. The
   budget provides for Rs. 1 crore in 2006 and 1.18 crore in 2007. With this amount most
   of the infrastructure requirement will be met and door to door collection can be done in
   all 86 wards. However all households may not be using the facility initially. As more and
   more households join the scheme additional infrastructure will be needed. For this an
   additional amount of 20 lakhs is provided in 2009. The infrastructure so created will be
   sufficient to achieve 100 % coverage by door to door collection and hence additional
   funds are not earmarked in subsequent years. Cent percent door to door coverage will
   be achieved in four years.

   Para. 22     Environment
   Table: Environment services
   The KSPCB has monitors the ambient air quality at 11 stations in the state. Based on
   these studies, the annual mean concentration range for Thiruvananthapuram is given.
Environmental level in Thiruvananthapuram
 Environment                                       Quality
   services

                Water quality in the two rivers flowing through the city
Water
                 has been steadily declining over the last two
                 decades, due to encroachments, waste dumping,
                 and sewage disposal. River and pond
                conservation projects included in the CDP may
                alleviate these problems.
                30% of the city area is sewered. Attempts are
Waste Water      proposed for total coverage under sewerage
                 system, construction of STP, rehabilitation of
                existing sewerage system etc.
                TMC has implemented project for house level
Solid Waste     collection of solid waste. Segregation is also
                attempted. Collection is done through voluntary



                                                                                      25
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


                  groups. Such collected waste is collected in
                  TMC trucks and transported to disposal site.
                 This collection arrangement is extended now to all
                  the 86 wards. Disposal is through composting
                  plant operated by private sector. Satisfactory
                 level of service does not exist now.
                 SO2 – Industrial –Low Residential – L
Air*             NO2 – Industrial –Low Residential – L
                 SPM – Industrial –Low Residential – Moderate
                 Vehicle pollution is brought down by insisting on
                  ‘PUC’ ( pollution under control) certificate issued
                  every 6 months by approved testing laboratories.


   * Source: CPCB/ Economic Review 2005, State Planning Board


   2. The Kerala State Pollution Control Board (PCB) is a statutory body constituted
   under the Central Environment Protection Act and has the mandatory responsibility to
   monitor and take actions regarding water, air and noise pollution. Any project under
   implementation or in operation is being reviewed by the PCB to see whether the project
   is within the allowable tolerance level with regard to pollution. On their own PCB can
   initiate litigation against any such activity which violates environmental pollution levels.
   Therefore, projects of any local body, government department, parastatal agency or
   private sector will come under the scrutiny of the PCB.

   3.   Any discussion on environment in Thiruvananthapuram highlights the issue of raw
   sewage being let off into the ‘Parvathy Puthanar’ which is on the coastal zone. In
   addition to this the second issue that is highlighted is on storm water stagnation in
   certain low lying areas of the city. Solutions to these two environmental issues are not
   included under the Project ‘Environment’ in the CDP, since construction of STP and
   sewerage improvements are covered under the Project on Sewerage. Similarly
   improvements to Parvathy Puthanar (canal) and proposals for surface water drainage
   are proposed under the Project ’Surface Water Drainage’.

   Similarly environmental upgradation of coastal belt is a major component under the Sub
   mission for UBSP, which includes coastal area development.




                                                                                         26
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                City Development plan


   Para 23         Urban Regeneration and Renewal

   The Project envisages, at the initial phases, redevelopment of the central parts of
   the city where, though land value is high in view of location advantages, optimum
   developments have taken place. The inner pockets do not have adequate access
   roads leaving them with FAR below 1.00; some of such parcels of land are also left
   vacant in the absence of adequate access. About 90 percent of the buildings are old
   and dilapidated. These exist and continue to serve commercial uses only with some
   cosmetic treatments. The owners are not able to reconstruct them due to many
   factors:
   •          Stipulations regarding open spaces and parking spaces as per the Building
               Rules
   •          Leased out many years ago and the rent the premises fetch is far too small
              to consider redevelopment with huge investments
   •          Tenancy /sub tenancy issues; most of which are under litigation
   •          Inner pockets without adequate access may not yield good returns if
              substantial investment is made for reconstruction


   Based on reconnaissance surveys and preliminary studies, it was felt that Chalai
   bazaar area – the stretch from Aryasala to East fort and the M.G. Road area – the
   stretch from District Treasury Building to S.M.V. School (Overbridge) could be
   considered for the renewal project.
   Chalai bazaar area is the old part of the city, which is still considered as the main
   market street. Exclusive streets also exist for specialized market activities, as noted
   below:
   •          Vegetables and fruits
   •          Rice bazaar
   •          Iron & steel, building materials and the like
   •          Groceries etc.
   The Chalai area also consists of residential inner pockets, which are also considered
   under the urban renewal project. It should be possible to take up renewal project
   block by block. Each block would consist of area/plots/buildings comprised within
   four surrounding streets. There could be 4 blocks each on either side of Chalai
   bazaar road. The project basically would involve grouping all the land and building


                                                                                       27
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


   owners and occupiers together and encourage them to redevelop the area under a
   participatory process with TMC acting as a catalyst to promote the redevelopment
   process. Technical input will come from TMC, with external experts associating with
   TMC. Initial expenditure on provision of infrastructure would come from TMC;
   however this expenditure could be recouped as soon as the project is completed.
   The revolving fund created for the purpose can be utilized for the second block and
   so on. It is also possible to undertake redevelopment of more than one block at a
   time, provided adequate technical trained manpower is available.


   It is seen that three blocks of land on either side of M.G. Road may also be
   considered for redevelopment. Each block may have an area of 10 to 15 acres.
   This Urban Regeneration project need not be limited to the above two roads only.
   Any area comprising of old buildings and having unplanned layouts (including such
   housing areas), requiring redevelopment can be considered under the project. This
   project is to a large extent self sustaining and capable of meeting the development
   resource requirements from within, necessitating only TMC intervention, technical
   inputs and initial funds for initiating the process.


   Para 24     Heritage and Tourism
   Noted. An integrated vision for heritage and tourism has been articulated at one
   place. The integrated vision may be read as: “Conserve heritage for us and the
   generations to come, tapping the potential for sustainable tourism, and promote
   tourism”.


   Para 25:     Transportation

  1. Vision in terms of travel time reduction, increase in share of public transport
     and safety

   The following goals are set towards realizing the vision:
   Road safety: To bring down the average growth (in number of accidents) from 7% to
   0% in 15 years.
   Speed of traffic: To achieve average speed of 30 to 35 km per hour in peak hours in the
   main traffic corridors of the city in 7 years




                                                                                       28
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


   Public transport system: To increase the share of public transport system from the
   present 35% in the city area to 50% in 15 years.

   2.   Provision for transport to the poor

   Other than the roads taken under slum area development and the transport facilities
   proposed, the roads in the City too directly benefit the poor. These Corporation roads
   are functioning as link roads to major traffic corridors through the arterial/radial roads
   considered in the CDP. Specific benefits of these roads to the poor will be discussed
   separately in the DPR.




   3. Expectations of common citizens with respect to transport sector

   The projects under the transport sector are prepared on the basis of a series of
   consultations made with various forums representing the public. Since transport sector
   issues are visible and experienced on a day-to-day basis, a large number of
   suggestions have come for this sector. Such suggestions are broadly appended to the
   CD. The priority road components included in the CDP are derived based on these
   suggestions and the study of the road network system and the present and future traffic
   volume on these roads.

   Generally the expectation of the citizens had been for a good road network with
   improved riding surface and capacity, good mass transportation facilities and specific
   off-street parking facilities.

   Importance given to mass transport system by road and rail are expected to satisfy the
   travel needs of the common man. The thrust given to safety aspects in designing road
   improvement schemes and in building road safety awareness is further meant for a
   reassurance to the common man in meeting his travel needs.

   4. Institutional issues



                                                                                           29
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                City Development plan


   o          Multiplicity

   The transport sector development is possible only with the contribution of private and
   public sectors. Within the public sector, three broad sectors emerge – road, water and
   rail. Except rail, the other two sectors are developed / maintained with State
   intervention. Within the road sector itself, multiple agencies manage the roads viz.
   PWD (NH), PWD (B&R) and City Corporation. Each of these agencies has their own
   way of developing and maintaining the roads under them, in accordance with the
   functions of each.

   o          Overlapping responsibilities

   Since there is a clear demarcation regarding the roads under each agency, the
   responsibilities of the agencies are also clearly defined. There is no overlapping of
   responsibilities.

   o          Coordination

   Road sector as a whole expects to carry out the works in coordination with utility
   providers and agencies whose networks use road space. Coordination is required
   before construction, during construction and also after the construction. To enable such
   coordination under the Thiruvananthapuram Road Development Project a Road
   Protocol was drafted and approved. This example would be emulated.

       o      Institutional mechanism

   Since the JNNURM will not support Land Acquisition (LA), and since some of the road
   development requires LA, there need to be an institutional mechanism to make the land
   available for road constructions. The form and constitution of such a mechanism will be
   finalized in consultation with the Government.

   Para 26     Social Infrastructure

   Reg: private sector participation and partnership in projects under social infrastructure
   development:

   The following projects are proposed in the CDP of JNNURM under social infrastructure:



                                                                                           30
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                  City Development plan


       •   Redevelopment of public markets
       •   Construction of service abattoirs
       •   Redevelopment of cremation grounds
       •   A few projects under leisure and recreation

   Discussions on these projects show that private sector participation is proposed in
   projects wherever possible. These measures are briefly noted below:

   •   In public markets, part of the area may be occupied by shopping complexes. This
       area is not included under the project. Only marketing stalls & yards, where the
       poor vendors temporarily occupy spaces to trade their wares brought in baskets,
       are included. In addition public toilets, storage facilities, if any required, water
       supply etc. are proposed to be included in the project.

       Most of these facilities would be auctioned out to the private sector for upkeep and
       maintenance.

   •   The infrastructure for abattoirs would be created by the TMC and the operation and
       maintenance would be leased to selected operators on payment of annual fee.
       These operators would employ butchers and cleaning staff. Abattoir is a must
       service facility to be provided by the TMC to ensure safe meat to the citizens and to
       prevent the unhealthy practice of unauthorised slaughtering.
   •   TMC maintains one crematorium with electric furnaces and other facilities. This is
       being improved. There are many private cremation grounds within the city under
       the ownership on certain communities/religious groups. These do not have good
       burning and other arrangements. These are situated amidst residential areas which
       are now thickly populated. In view of this frequent quarrels result. To prevent such
       incidents, TMC proposes a scheme under which TMC would stipulate minimum
       standards under which only these cremation grounds can function. Technical
       assistance and part funding for upgradation with furnaces, flues, water supply etc.
       would be provided by TMC. These cremation grounds would continue to be under
       private operation.
   •   Leisure and recreation facilities are proposed to be developed and maintained
       through private sector participation. The support of local Residents’ Associations,



                                                                                              31
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                               City Development plan


       which are now municipal recognised bodies, would be sought. These possibilities
       would be detailed out when preparing DPR.

   Basic Services to the Urban Poor

   Para 27.    Noted

   Para 28.    The data on Poverty relates to Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation
   area including the grama panchayats merged with the City Corporation during 2000.
   However data in respect of the adjoining panchayats, which form part of the
   Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration is not readily available. It has been pointed
   out in the CDP that lack of authentic data is a major constraint in the formulation and
   implementation of poverty reduction programmes. This aspect will be specifically taken
   care of while preparing the DPR. In fact Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation
   has already commenced survey to assess the needs of the poor in the city area as well
   as the panchayats in the urban agglomeration.

   The household income of Rs 10,155/- given in Table 14.1 of the CDP is annual income
   and may be read accordingly.


       •   The identified slum areas have been considered during the last three decades
           for infrastructure improvement projects, which consisted of provision of potable
           water ,sanitary latrines ,access improvement ,street lighting and surface water
           drainage . However land tenure and house construction were not considered in
           toto . Solid waste collection from the slum areas was considered only as part of
           the city level SWM system. GOK had a policy of providing household level
           power connection to the poor who applied for such benefits.

              However strategic development initiatives for the urban poor outside such
           identified slum areas were not taken under specific projects: though piecemeal
           attempts were made by the TMC, voluntary organisations or parastatal
           agencies. Grievances generally raised by the municipal councillors and the
           voluntary organisations are regarding the inadequate basic infrastructure for the
           urban poor.

   •   Role of Kudumbashree in implementation of urban poverty programmes



                                                                                        32
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                               City Development plan


   Kudumbashree is a mission initiated by the State Government to eradicate absolute
   poverty from the State within a period of 10 years. The mission was launched during
   1998.

   Kudumbashree implements its programmes through Community Based Organization
   (CBOs) of poor. The CBOs are women centered and three tier in structure The Basic
   entities are Neighourhod Groups (NHG), Area Development Society (ADS) ,and
   Community Development Societies (CDS). NHG is a collective of 15-40 women, each
   representing a poor family identified through a nine point non-economic risk indicators (
   which are so transparent and easily understandable by the community). The second
   tier is the Area Development Society (ADS) which is at the ward level. The
   representatives of the NHGs constitute the General Body of the ADS. Community
   Development Society (CDS) is the apex body at the Local Body level and is registered
   under the Charitable Societies Act.

   NHG, the basic unit of CBOs meet regularly and discuss their issues. The felt needs
   of the community arise through a regular weekly discussion and a ‘micro plan’ based
   on felt needs is evolved. The micro plans of all the NHGs are co-ordinated and
   prioritised at the ADS level and this forms ‘mini plans’ of that particular ADS. The ‘mini
   plans’ of the various ADSs are again co-ordinated at the CDS level and it forms the
   ‘Town Plan’ for poverty alleviation. The Action Plan for SJSRY, NSDP, IHSDP and
   UBSP component of JNNURM are prepared by the Community through a participatory
   process on felt needs.

   As on today there are 11681 NHGs covering 503586 families in urban areas. There
   are 58 ULBs in the State (5 are corporations and 53 are municipalities).   There are 59
   CDSs (one each in each ULB except in Kochi where there are 2 CDSs).

   Kudumbashree as State Urban Development Agency

       In the State of Kerala, Kudumbashree, the State Poverty Eradication Mission is
   designated as the State Urban Development Agency (SUDA). With its capacity as
   SUDA Kudumbashree implements various urban poverty alleviation programmes in the
   State. Centrally sponsored poverty reduction programmes such as Swarana Jayanthi
   Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), the erstwhile National Slum Development



                                                                                        33
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


   Programme (NSDP) and Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) are being
   implemented in the State by Kudumbashree. Under the SJSRY, Kudumbashree has
   developed 1528 group enterprises (a group with minimum of 10 women) and 20760
   individual enterprises. Most of these enterprises are innovative, sustainable and roll
   models. Under VAMBAY, Kudumbashree took up construction of 20048 houses
   during the last 4 years.

       Kudumbashree is also designated as the State Level ‘Nodal Agency’ for the
   newly launched Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Integrated Housing & Slum
   Development Programme (IHSDP).

      State Government has also declared Kudumbashree as the State Level Nodal
   Agency for the implementation of the sub mission on Basic Services to the
   Urban poor (BSUP) of JNNURM in both cities in the State viz. Thiruvananthapuram
   and Kochi.

   UPA Cell – its organisation , working and Convergence

   Previously urban poverty reduction programmes were implemented by the erstwhile
   Urban Poverty Alleviation Cell (UPA Cell) which was merged with Kudumbashree in
   1998. The UPA Cells in the ULBs were subsequently replaced by the Community
   Development Societies (CDS).

      At the CDS level, a Project Officer (an official from the Health division of Municipal
   Corporation) who is also the Member Secretary of CDS along with CDS functionaries
   implement the programmes. At the ADS level, the Community Organizer who is also an
   official from health division of the Municipal Corporation co-ordinates the activities of
   ADS. Apart from this, the CBO system has a very good linkage with Municipal
   Corporation functionaries. At the ADS level there is an Advisory and Monitoring
   Committee, which is headed by the Ward Councillor. Similarly, at the CDS level there
   is a City Management Committee which is chaired by the Mayor/Chairperson of the
   ULB concerned .

       The most significant aspect of Kudumbashree CBOs is that it forms the
   convergence platform for implementing activities of various departments. ‘Take Home



                                                                                          34
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                               City Development plan


   Ration’ project in collaboration with Social Welfare Department, Pulse Polio
   Immunization and other health related programmes in association with Health
   Department, IT @ School project of Education Department are few examples of
   convergence in practice. In the JNNURM programme also there is ample scope for
   converging various programmes of line departments such as Social Welfare, Urban
   Development, Education, Health etc.

   •   Convergence in infrastructure programmes for the urban poor

   Basic infrastructure development programmes, either in the slum areas or in isolation,
   were always proposed and implemented by sectoral agencies under specific projects
   which permitted only one or more components in the project. In most of the cases the
   project dealing with water supply or street lighting was implemented without integrating
   such projects with other infrastructure projects. The voluntary organisations, some of
   which are under religious institutions, implemented social infrastructure projects
   especially in the coastal areas without a comprehensive planning approach. What is
   intended under the JNNURM is that there should be a convergence approach at area
   level or at target group level. This approach should take in to account the projects
   under any central or state sponsored scheme, schemes proposed by the government
   or parastatal agencies or voluntary organisations and integrate them in to project
   packages at area level.

   •   The road map for basic services shows that slums will be got rid of completely by
       2031. So the vision statement may be modified as follows:

   A slum free, Thiruvananthapuram City by the Year 2031”

    As suggested in the appraisal report the road map has been restructured and goals
   have been refixed.

   Road Map for Basic Services to the Poor


           Sl.    Vision outcomes                     2006-07      2012     2020        2031
           No.
           1.     Literacy (Percentage)               80           95       100         100

           2.     Access to school                    60           90       90          100



                                                                                          35
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                     City Development plan


           3.      Access to primary health              40             85       90        100

           4.      Sanitation (% coverage)               30             75       90        100

           5.      Drinking Water (% coverage)           50             85       100       100

           6.      Access to housing (% coverag                         80       100       100

           7.      Incidence of poverty                  25             15       0         0

           8.      Slums (% of reduction)                0.5            50       85        100



   Rs 800/- lakhs proposed under shelter is meant for constructions of 400 new houses to
   destitute families. Similarly Rs 50/- lakh is earmarked for repairs of 125 houses of
   destitute families.

   •   Proposals for housing include the following components

       Houses in identified slums

                         Construction of new houses                 6662
                         Relocation of houses situated in          4000
                         hazardous location


       Houses in the Coastal Areas


                         New Construction (relocation)         :    1000
                         Houses requiring in situ              :    3000
                         development
                         Shelter Up gradation                  :    2000
                         New Houses for destitute families     :    500
                         Shelter Up gradation for destitute    :    125


   The Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation will undertake completion of these
   projects now proposed on priority basis and there after take up projects for providing
   housing to persons who are left out, utilizing the own resources and funds from the
   State Government. The State Government have recently announced “EMS
   Namboodiripad Total Housing Scheme” for providing houses to all


                                                                                               36
Thiruvananthapuram Corporation                                 City Development plan


   •   The figures given in table 15.6 (P 215 of CDP) are drawn from census data 2001
   and the figure given in the write up may be corrected and read as 28778.
   • The surveys and studies proposed under different heads can be integrated as a
   comprehensive survey. However, separate survey is needed for identification of street
   vendors, children at risk and destitute. The amount required for the comprehensive
   survey would be Rs.10 lakhs. (except the survey of street vendors, destitutes and
   children at risk)
   • Destitute being the most vulnerable this needs a detailed separate survey for project
   preparation. The criteria used for the identification of the destitute are much more
   different from that of the indicators which are used for the identification of poor. The
   destitutes of Thiruvananthapuram Corporation were not identified earlier by
   Kudumbashree.
   •      Chapters 14 and 15 are clubbed together into one chapter and numbered as
   14.5.0 to 14.5.2.4 as 14.3 to 14.13.

    Para : 30
   (1) Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore in 1750. Correction to this
   effect has been made in page 149 of the CDP

   (2) Modification is made in the CDP deleting the repetition in respect of Tourism Vision
   2025 and Tourism policy for Kerala.

   (3) Tables 3-3 Vs 2-3 page 39

       Tables 12-1 to 12.5 pages 159 Vs 11-1 to 11-5

   (4) The area of Sreekaryam Panchayat which forms part of TRIDA area is 23.73 sq.km
   and is correct (Table 3.4) page 39

   (5) The area of Sreekaryam which is part of Thiruvananthapuram UA is only 5.03 sq
   km which means that the Sreekaryam Panchayat in full is not included in the TUA as
   per the census data.. Hence the figures given in table 3 - 5 are also correct. However
   these tables have been modified to bring more clarity.




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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation   City Development plan




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