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Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan REPLY TO THE COMMENTS IN THE APPRAISAL REPORT ON THE CDP OF THIRUVANANTHAPURAM MUNICIPAL CORPORATION UNDER JNNURM Para wise reply is noted below: Para 1. Noted Para 2. Noted Para 3. Aspects regarding vision and governance which are discussed at different places in the CDP are now integrated. Demography, Economy and Land use Para 4. The project area considered in the CDP is Thiruvananthapuram UA (TUA) as per Census of India 2001. The past trend of population growth was not discussed earlier as the figures may mislead a reader since the area of TUA has been changing in the last three decades. To help comparative study, the present TUA area figures are computed for 1991 &1981. Discrepancies may occur since a whole panchayat area was not included in the UA but only a part of the panchayat is considered as Census Town (CT) or Out Growth (OG). In spite of this an attempt is made to compute the past area and relevant population to facilitate a comparative study. (Table 3.5 A). Tables 3.5 A (1).3.5 A ( 2 ) & 3.5 A (3) under Para 5 may also be seen. Table 3.5 A Estimated Average Sl. Annual CONSTITUENT UNITS OF TUA 1981 1991 2001 No 2005 2011 Growth Rate 1 Thiruvananthapuram M.C 483086 524006 744983 753550 835228 3.58 2 Kazhakkuttam (OG) - 12515 14410 14743 15084 1.15 3 Sreekaryam (OG) - 17245 21431 21927 22434 1.24 4 Kudappanakkunnu (OG) - 33534 38175 39058 39962 1.13 5 Vattiyoorkavu (OG) - 33653 41890 42859 43850 1.24 6 Kovalam (OG) - 25419 28746 29411 30091 1.13 1 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Table 3.7 gives details of the TUA as per Census of India, 2001 Table 3.9 falls in Vizhinjam Panchayat gives a picture of the panchayat 5 where these outgrowths fall. It may be noted that Kovalam (OG)The change in total population figures in Table 3.7 and Table 3.9 (2001 figure) speaks for the variation in the areas of outgrowths and the panchayat where these outgrowths fall. The population growth in the TUA cannot be split into natural increase and migration since such figures are not collected by the Census. Moreover comparing with the population increase at the district level for separating the natural growth and attempting to identify migration after subtracting from such natural increase may not give a correct picture since natural increase in the district and the city area may not be comparable. Kerala’s urbanisation is such that rural to urban migration is marginal, and population growth within the TUA but outside the city is substantial. The increasing rate of urbanisation in the peripheral panchayat areas around the earlier city area of 74.93 sq km during the last two decades is clearly reflected in the rate of growth of population in Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration. Hence data as per Table 2 of Toolkit could not be included. Defining the CDP area Para 5. Since the TUA area is changing during the last few decades, it has not been possible to discuss the same area as TUA over a period of three decades. Table 3.8 shows the constituent units of TUA and the name of the local body in which these units fall, with area and population as per 2001 Census.Tables 3.5, 3.6 and 3.7 the constituent units of TUA in 1991, 1991 & 2001 give a better understanding of the variation in the constituent units of TUA over the three decades which henceforth remain un comparable. Table 3.8 : Variation in the Demographic details of Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration and the Constituent local bodies, 2001. Sl.No. Constituent Area Population Name of Loc Area 2001 Population Units sq.km 2001 Body sq.km 2001 of TUA Thiruvananthapu 744983 Thiruvananthapuram 1 am 141.74 Municipal 141.74 744983 (MC ) Corporation 2 Kazhakkoottam 5.03 14410 Kazhakkoottam 19.47 34131 (OG) panchayath 3 Sreekariyam (OG 8.87 21431 Sreekariyam 23.73 49145 panchayath 4 Kudappanakkunn 7.69 38175 Kudappanakkunnu 7.69 38175 u (OG) panchayath 5 Vattiyoorkavu 11.11 41890 Vattiyoorkavu 11.11 41890 (OG) panchayath 6 Kovalam (OG) 3.33 28746 Vizhinjam 12.62 47170 panchayath TOTAL 177.77 889635 TOTAL 216.36 955494 Source : census of India, 2001 2 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Table 3.6 : Demographic Details of Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration, 1991 sl.no Constituent Units Area Population 1991 of TUA sq.km 1 Thiruvananthapuram 524006 Municipal Corporation 74.93 2 Kazhakkoottam (OG) 5.02 12515 3 Thumpa (OG) 16.03 33880 4 Sreekariyam (OG) 8.87 17245 5 Cheruvikkal 8.7 21286 6 vattiyoorkavu (OG) 10.61 33653 7 Thiruvallom (OG) 12.69 31868 8 Kovalam (OG ) 4.68 25419 9 Ulloor ( CT ) 7.97 25719 10 Kudappanakkunnu 7.69 33534 (CT ) 11 Anayara (CT ) 8.14 24541 12 Nemom (CT ) 12.87 42559 TOTAL 178.20 826225 Source :census of India, 1991 Table 3.5 : Demographic Details of Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration, 1981 Sl.n Constituent Units Area Population 1981 of TUA sq.km 1 Thiruvananthapuram 74.93 483086 Municipal Corporatio 2 Thumba (OG ) 10.67 16445 3 Kadakampally ( CT ) 8.14 20594 TOTAL 93.74 520125 Source :census of India, 1981 3 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Table 3.10 : Literacy Rate 1981 1991 2001 M F Total M F Total M F Total State 75.26 65.73 70.42 93.62 86.17 89.81 94.24 87.72 90.86 District 75.29 65.85 70.50 92.84 85.76 89.22 92.64 86.14 89.28 Thiruvananthapuram80.01 72.62 76.31 94.82 89.73 92.24 95.12 90.30 92.66 Outgrowths Kazhakkuttam 81.21 70.69 76.05 95.56 89.40 92.87 96.06 89.48 92.64 Sreekaryam 82.17 73.81 80.84 96.84 91.74 94.24 97.34 93.39 95.30 Kudappanakkunnu 79.28 72.1 76.13 96.23 91.52 94.43 97.01 92.52 94.71 Vattiyoorkavu 78.89 71.32 75.30 94.2 88.89 92.25 94.90 89.66 92.21 Kovalam not availab 70.06 66.24 68.60 76.95 72.18 74.63 data source computed from the Census data Para 6 : The literacy rates for the constituent units in the TUA are given in 3.10 Table. These figures are derived based on comparative studies The slum population of TMC given as 11667 is taken from the Census, 2001.It may be noted that the state government or the TMC has not ‘notified ‘ any urban slum, though the Kerala Slum (Improvement and Clearance) Act,1980 has provisions for notification of slums. The Department of Town &Country Planning had carried out studies on urban slums and published report on urban slums in Kerala in 1985 and modified in 1995. Since these figures cannot be adopted in 2006 and also since the City area has almost doubled in 2001, the CDP had to adopt the survey on urban poor conducted by the GOK under the BPL survey, 2001.This survey has identified 1,20,367 persons within the city area of 141.74 sq.km to be falling under the category of urban poor based on the identification criteria laid down for the BPL. Since this is an official GOK figure, this is adopted in the CDP. This obviously means that majority of the urban poor live outside the urban slums. Para 7 Economic Role of TUA Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration comprising the capital city of Thiruvananthapuram is not an industrial region. The main functional role as reflected in the occupational structure is services which comprise mainly of Government jobs and trade &commerce. 4 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Category of workers in Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration is given below. Perso Total Cultivators Agricultural Workers in Other Workers n/ Workers labourers household Male/ (Main+ Femal Marginal) e Numb % Numb % Numb % Number % er er er Thiruva P 248054 16789 6.8 30952 12.5 15664 6.3 184649 74.4 nantha M 187385 12416 6.6 23438 12.5 6318 3.4 145213 77.5 puram F 60669 4373 7.2 7514 12.4 9346 15.4 39436 65 (MC) Kazhak P 4506 313 7.0 248 5.5 38 0.8 39.7 86.7 kuttam M 3515 229 6.5 207 5.9 18 0.5 3061 87.1 (OG) F 991 84 8.5 41 4.1 20 2.0 846 85.4 Sreekar P 7001 176 2.5 308 4.4 130 1.9 6387 91.2 yam M 5250 163 3.1 287 5.5 69 1.8 4704 89.6 (OG) F 1751 13 0.8 21 1.2 34 1.9 1683 96.1 Kudapp P 12258 128 1.0 336 2.7 143 1.2 11651 95.1 anakku M 9160 114 1.2 299 3.3 91 1.0 8656 94.5 nnu F 3098 14 0.4 37 1.2 52 1.7 2995 96.7 (OG) Vattiyo P 14068 95 0.7 402 2.9 299 2.1 13272 94.3 orkkavu M 10940 81 0.7 352 3.2 215 2.0 10292 94.1 (OG) F 3198 14 0.4 50 1.6 84 2.7 2980 95.3 Kovala P 8386 53 0.6 66 0.8 326 3.9 7941 94.7 m (OG) M 7533 33 0.5 54 0.7 296 3.9 7150 94.9 F 853 20 2.4 12 1.4 30 3.5 791 92.7 5 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Distribution of Main workers in Thiruvananthapuram UA is given below. Table 2.14: Distribution of main workers in TUA Sl. Type of works Main % to total Main % of total Total % to total No workers main workers main main main 1981 workers 1991 workers workers workers 1981 1991 2001 2001 1 Cultivators 957 0.70 6991 2.86 17554 5.97 2 Agricultural labours 8974 6.52 25222 10.31 32312 10.98 3 Livestock, fishing, NA NA 17189 7.03 NA NA forestry 4 Mining & Quarrying NA NA 907 0.37 NA NA 5 Household industries 3056 2.22 31189 12.75 16600 5.64 6 Other than H.I NA NA NA NA NA NA 7 Construction NA NA 13096 5.35 NA NA 8 Trade and NA NA 44487 18.19 NA NA Commerce 9 Transport and NA NA 23757 9.91 NA NA communication 10 Others 124668 90.57 81760 33.43 227807 77.4 Total 137655 244598 294273 Source: Census of India, 2001 The major noticeable economic activity centres and job centres within the TUA are given below. Sl.no Centre Major activity approximate numbers of jobs 1 ISRO / VSSC space research 7000 2 Technopark & other Inf software and hardwar parks development, 25000 and industrial parks HRD for IT, ITES, etc. 3 KINFRA Film & Video Park, Apparel par 5000 etc. 4 Kerala University central administration offices o 3000 KU / academic & research institution 5 Secretariat & Gov HQ offices of all gov 15000 offices departments, & governmen secretariat offices & and offices & assembly halls o the state legislature and Cent. Gov Offices 6 Defence : Southern A HQ of SAC & their offices 600 Command 7 Defence: Artillery Arm Pangode army camp unde 7000 Units Brigadier 8 Science & Technolog RRL of CSIR, CTCRI, RGCB 4000 Institutions CESS, 6 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan NATPAC, 9 Kovalam tourist centre tourism related activities 5000 10 International Airport 1500 Industries in Thiruvananthapuram District (a) Medium and Large scale industries Based on a study of district wise break up of medium and large scale industries in Kerala (source Economic Review 2005, State Planning Board) it is seen that out of the 720 medium and large scale industries located in Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram district has 89 industries (the maximum is in Eranakulam district – 254) Out of the 89 industries in Thiruvananthapuram district 2 are in central sector, 14 in state sector, 2 in coop sector 4 in Joint sector and, 67 in Private sector By the number of medium and large scale industries, Thiruvananthapuram district ranks second among the 14 districts of Kerala (b) Small scale units Out of the 1,87,676 units registered in Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram district has 20,918 units (of which 510 are reported sick) By the number of small scale industrial units, Thiruvananthapuram district ranks third (next to Eranakulam – 23,786 and Thrissur – 21,465) In spite of this higher ranking in the number of industries, Thiruvananthapuram district is not recognised as an industrial district. The occupational structure in TUA reflects that about 75 % of the workers are engaged in other services, which mainly include jobs in government and non governmental sectors and in trade and commerce. However in the last decade this picture has started changing because I.T and Tourism sectors have emerged as major economic activities in TUA. Also there is a recent trend focussing on Health Tourism in this district. Tourism As aCore Competent Sector Of Development Kerala tourism has made significant growth during the last two decades. From the sluggish tourist arrivals of the 1980s, tourism scenario in Kerala has shown substantial growth. Foreign tourist arrivals have increased from 2 lakhs in the year 2000 to 3.50 lakhs in 2004. Domestic tourist arrivals have increased from 50 lakhs to 60 lakhs from 2000 to 2004. Foreign exchange earnings have increased from Rs. 525 crores in the year 2000 to Rs. 1267 crores in 2004, thereby contributing substantially to Kerala economy. It is estimated that the total foreign tourist flow to Kerala in 2004 constituted 10.26 percent of the total foreign tourists visited India. It is 7 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan broadly estimated that in the year 2004 the total direct and indirect revenue generation through tourism has been of the order of Rs. 6800 crores. This leap in tourism growth was made possible because the Department of Tourism had initiated the following approaches in promoting tourism in Kerala. • Tourism Product Development - Developments in the natural scenic areas, development of backwaters, conservation of heritage etc.; • Development of tourism infrastructure - including increase in tourist accommodation by Government and private sector; and • Aggressive tourism marketing – both in international and domestic travel marts and through various media Kerala tourism has bagged a large number of international awards including PATA (Pacific Asia Travel Association) awards, a large number of Government of India awards from 1999 to 2005, FICCI award 2004 and the recent NDTV award for business promotion in July 2006. Government of Kerala (GoK) has recognized tourism as one of the core competent sectors of economy of the state. With Kovalam beach as a world tourism destination, Thiruvananthapuram is the gateway for tourism in Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram district prides itself in many of the tourism attractions noted below: • Beach tourism • Hill area tourism – with Ponmudi hill resort within 70 km & within the district • Backwater tourism • Heritage tourism – with a large number of attractions including fort area & environs, which received national award for heritage & conservation • Health tourism – gaining on the strength of Ayurveda & allopathic treatment facilities providing quality services In view of the above, the city region is able to provide a variety of attractions for the tourists, making Thiruvananthapuram a must visit location in the tour itinerary of domestic and foreign tourists. SWOT ANALYSIS FOR THIRUVANANTHAPURAM URBAN AGGLOMERATION Thiruvananthapuram city has a long history of being on an elevated pedestal as the capital city; earlier of the erstwhile Travancore and later of the State of Kerala. The princely state of Travancore had initiated a large number of reforms which included English Education, Institutions of higher learning, cultural institutions etc. All these happened to be located at Thiruvananthapuram. However over the last few decades, the city region has made a quantum leap in attracting many institutions of learning and research and also quite a few modern industrial establishments. 8 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan The natural endowments of TUA are getting recognition only now. These are taken into account in the SWOT analysis. STRENGTHS • The City being the administrative capital of Kerala attracts a very large number of people from Kerala and also from other states on government business. • The City has a long history of recognition as the centre of learning and therefore students from all over the state converge to the City: this continues in spite of the fact that educational institutions have got located also in the other regions of the state . • Kovalam Beach in Thiruvananthapuram was one of the locations selected by Government of India in the early seventies to be developed as a tourism destination in India. During the last three decades Kovalam has been recognised as one of the world tourism destinations. • Thiruvananthapuram was the location of the first IT Park in India. Recently many IT giants like Infosys and U.S. Software have set up their establishments in and around the Technopark. GoK is in the process of acquiring 500 more acres about 6 km from Technopark for establishing a ‘Technocity’. IT professionals consider Thiruvananthapuram as providing the right environment for their living and working. • Though Vizhinjam in Thiruvananthapuram was talked about as a potential harbour location ,in the light of development of world shipping ,designation of international shipping route and studies on World Shipping Vision, the state and the central governments have now realised the importance of development of ICTT ( International Container Transhipment Terminal ) at Vizhinjam. Estimate of revenue generation and savings in cargo import have reemphasised the importance of Vizhinjam ICTT. With the realisation of this Port, Thiruvananthapuram City Region in particular and the state in general stand to make substantial economic gains in addition to gaining from the job market generated by the ICTT. • The natural endowments of Thiruvananthapuram make it the most livable city in South India. The city is least affected by natural calamities. Because of its physiography and terrain the city is not plagued by environmental problems like water pollution, inundation during storms etc. Compared to any city in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Thiruvananthapuram has a much better water supply and sewerage system. Thiruvananthapuram also has a very amiable climate throughout the year without extreme summer and winter, without the need for winter clothing. • The city is well connected with the important cities within the country and abroad. In addition to rail, road and air connectivity, water transport development is also in the offing. 9 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan • The city region accommodates a large number of reputed hospitals and medical research institutions which offer a fairly high level of service, even attracting foreigners to the medical facilities in the city region. The holistic health facilities based on ayurveda offering not only curative but also health rejuvenation programmes are considered to be the added strength of Thiruvananthapuram city region. WEAKNESS • A large number of foreign and domestic tourists and people for governmental and non governmental business converge to the city of Thiruvananthapuram with high aspirations. But the carrying capacity of the city is such that it cannot provide high quality infrastructure to the satisfaction of its users. • Though a major percentage of the area of the old city of Thiruvananthapuram spreading over an area of 74.93 sq km is covered under the sewerage scheme, with the extension of the city to cover an area of 141.74 sq km, the coverage is limited to about 30% of the city area. With the reducing land man ratio, the extension of the sewerage system to the entire city and the urban agglomeration area, which is the urbanising area, remains as a priority component which needs to be addressed. • The existing water supply system, with the main centralised system and a few stand alone systems, which cater to specific areas, is incapable of providing a satisfactory level of service. This is in spite of its designed capacity. In many of the areas, the service level remains at 80/90 lpcd at 2 to 4 hours of supply per day. Weak distribution systems, transmission losses, leakages, loss of pressure etc. are attributed to this unsatisfactory service level. • With the exploitation of the available potentials for development such as IT, Vizhinjam port etc and also taking in to account of the present developments, the number of vehicles catering to the needs of the city users is increasing at an alarming rate. Lack of quality system for mass transport is experienced which compels the road users to use their own individual personal vehicles adding to traffic volume. Substantial improvements in public transport systems are required. • The local self government does not have complete control over the city’s infrastructure. A few state departments and para statal agencies are responsible for some important components of development infrastructure. The TMC may however have to respond to public grievances, when any dysfunction of any city infrastructure or dissatisfaction in the service of any city infrastructure occurs. • Being a state capital, Thiruvananthapuram happens to beat the receiving end, when disruption of traffic, disruption of city infrastructure, destruction of public properties etc. occur due to political upheavals, agitations, hartals etc. 10 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan OPPORTUNITIES • The prospects for beach tourism, health tourism and adventure tourism clubbed with the development potential for IT, Vizhinjam port etc would attract direct and indirect jobs in various sectors. • The above development potential combined with high quality of infrastructure can attract both foreign and domestic investments. NRIs from Kerala may find such a situation very conducive for investments in their home state. • Availability of land in the peripheral areas of the city calls for inducing developments therein through providing supporting infrastructure. THREATS • Thiruvananthapuram being a coastal city is frequently affected by coastal erosion, which often necessitates rehabilitation of fisher folk. • Thiruvananthapuram being the capital city of Kerala becomes venue for public properties etc. which occur due to political upheavals, agitations, and hartals etc. which cause disruption of traffic, disruption of city infrastructure and destruction of public properties. • The LSGD may have to elevate its status as an urban manager and administrator to effectively implement the infrastructure development programmes and to continue to maintain and manage the assets created out of the JNNURM programme. Para 8 Land Use and Growth Patterns of Developed, Underdeveloped and Undeveloped Land in the City In addition to these rivers, the city is also blessed with five canals namely, Ulloor thodu, Pattom thodu, Vanchiyoor thodu, Thekkinakara thodu and 75 canal. These five canals flow through the valleys and they also drain off the surface water of the city. There are also many natural ponds. Surface run off from the nearby area flows into these ponds also. The city area has an average density of about 5000 persons per sq km. A peculiar phenomena observed in the Census 1991 & 2001 was that when the old city area of 74.93 sq km experienced a decadal population growth rate of 5 to 10 percent, a few peripheral panchayat areas contiguous to the city experienced growth of the order of 20 to 25 percent. A few of these panchayats namely, Kadakampally, Attipra, Ulloor, and Nemom have been attached to the city area in 2000, thus expanding the city area to the present 141.74 sq km. Some are of the panchayat areas which now exist outside the city area, namely Kudappanakunnu, Vattiyoorkavu etc. are also fringe area panchayats which have shown high population increase. Such fringe area growth is not necessarily due to the overspill of the city population due to high density developments within the city. Another feature of the development pattern in the city is that intensity of development is comparatively high for one plot depth of land abutting the major city roads, leaving the central areas with poor access with less than optimum 11 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan development. Redevelopment to achieve optimum intensity of development within the allowable FAR has been made difficult due to the smaller sizes of land holdings and larger number of land owners with skewed land ownership pattern. (This is one of the objectives of the ‘Urban Regeneration’ programme included under theCDP. The low lying land parcels in the valleys within the city region (TUA) have been acting as drainage basins, receiving surface run off during flash floods and slowly releasing the waters into the streams and canals. The dual advantage of this system of drainage was that on the one hand percolation of water into the soil is allowed recharging underground water and on the other hand avoiding flooding of developed areas in the city. But due to population pressure, many of these low lying valleys have been subjected to conversion for building purposes, mostly as deviations to the land use regulations of the City Master Plan. The city area offers opportunities for redevelopment and intensification of activities provided the city managers are able to provide higher capacity infrastructure to support such redevelopment. Such an attempt would be much cheaper than allowing urban sprawl and trying to expand the coverage area of infrastructure. Such unplanned urban sprawl has also the disadvantage of steady depletion of agricultural and horticultural land in the rural areas adjoining the city. Characteristics of urban land market The urban land market in Kerala is totally controlled by private sector. The land value escalated drastically during early 1980’s based on a general trend of the national economy. However for Thiruvananthapuram City major change in land values occurred in 1990’s when the construction sector gained importance and the people started speculating investments in Real Estates. Moreover the two decades from 1981-2001 witnessed high densifications of at least four panchayat areas which lie contiguous to the city boundary. This made a strong impact in construction sector in the TUA resulting in escalation of land values. The negative impact of these has been marginalisation of the lower MIG and LIG families, who could not compete in the private land market for land. Therefore during these two decades, these groups who did not have access to developed urban land, either acquired low lying marshy land within the City or moved to the fringe areas for construction of residences since they could obtain land at much lower price than the developed land in the city. This upset the City land use strategy causing environmental problems and flooding of low lying areas during monsoons. The developed commercial land in the central city now goes at Rs.25,000+ per sq m whereas land in the intermediate area demands Rs.15,000+ per sq m and the peripheral areas Rs.7500+ per sq m. Residential land in the above locations is going at 50 to 75 % of the above rates. Government have responsibility for social equity in urban land distribution. However the tools available with Government for intervention to stabilise land values and to create a climate for accessibility for the poor to urban land are limited. Master Plan zoning regulation is one such tool. Similarly regulation on the allowable intensity of development on a parcel of urban land limits the rent the land can earn and this may stabilise the land value. Other tools like DCR relating it to TDR, reservation of land for 12 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan urban infrastructure development, compulsory reservation of land for LIG in government and privately developed housing schemes etc. are measures to ensure that the poor have access to land. GoK is considering the process of developing such tools as part of the City Region Master Plan. Similarly the FAR provisions for the various parts of the city relating it to the carrying capacity are also under consideration. Implementation and Impact of Master Plan The first Master Plan for Thiruvananthapuram City was prepared in 1966 by the then Chief Town Planner &Consulting Architect to Government. This Master Plan was approved by Government in 1971. The planning area consisted of the city of 74.93 sq km and part of the adjacent panchayat areas of Ulloor and Thiruvallam. The Master Plan had a horizon period of 20 years .The plan proposed the land use structure of 1986 and had estimated the major infrastructure requirements. The road network envisaged in the Master Plan was broadly taken as a framework when the Department of Town Planning (formed in 1969.This Department was later renamed as Department of Town &Country Planning – DTCP - in 1998) prepared Detailed Town Planning Schemes (D.T.P. Schemes as area development plans for priority development areas within the City. When the National Highway Authority proposed a City By pass the Master Plan was consulted for suggesting probable alignment .The Comprehensive Traffic &Transportation Study (CTTS) for the City carried out by consultants during 2000-2002 for GOK considered the Master Plan as the relevant document to propose a road network plan for the City. The Thiruvananthapuram City Road Development Project prepared in 2002 and being implemented now has generally followed the road widening and improvement proposals indicated in the Master Plan and the DTP Schemes. Thiruvananthapuram City can generally be proud of a compatible land use development for the last three decades, except very few sore spots where variance is noticed. This was greatly possible because of the enforcement of the land use plans of the 1971 Master Plan. The State Electricity Board (KSEB) and the Kerala Water Authority (KWA ) attempted preparation of Thiruvananthapuram Master Plan for their subject areas. For this purpose both of them referred the infrastructure requirements and the population density proposals for the various zones envisaged in the Master Plan. In view of the above it can be broadly stated that the Master Plan 1971 was helpful as a planning tool in guiding the development of the City. A Draft Development Plan was prepared by the Department of Town Planning for 2001 which was published by the then Trivandrum Development Authority (TRIDA). The suggestions from the public and the TRIDA necessitated major changes. The main proposals and Status of the Development Plan (2001) are detailed the Table below. Subsequently the City area was expanded, UDPFI guidelines were issued by Government of India and the new Census findings published. In view of these, the published draft Plan did not reach approval stage nor was it enforced. A new Development Plan for the City Region is on the anvil and is expected to be published in 2007. Para 9 Housing 13 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan The CDP does not pose housing in the city as a major development issue, since the city region has not experienced explosive urban population growth or urban migration. But housing is definitely a major issue in the case of the coastal population in the city and the houseless urban poor. The coastal population is mainly engaged in fishing and related activities. In addition the CDP addresses the issue of housing for the slum population. Most of them squat on public land on the beach. Land tenure, construction of dwelling units, availability of basic infrastructure; social amenities etc. are issues that need to be addressed. These are discussed in PART – C, Chapters 14 &15 (now combined) under Basic Services to the Urban poor. Para 10. Gender Noted. An attempt was made to engender the CDP addressing the areas where gender mainstreaming can be tried out. It is also specified in the CDP that while preparing Detailed Project Reports for the sector UBSP and the other respective sectors, these aspects need to be taken in to consideration. However specific aspects with regard to gender issues wherever relevant are included in the subject chapters. Consultative Process Para 11 Noted Para 12 . Ward Committees are statutory bodies constituted under the Kerala Municipality Act 1994 with the ward councillor as the Chairman. The ward committee meets once in three months. The proposals to be included in the annual and five year plans of the TMC are recommended by the Ward Committees for consideration in the plan coordination group. Ward Sabha, comprising of all the people residing in the particular ward, meets only once in an year. Similarly Grama Sabhas in Panchayat areas comprise of all the people living in the Panchayat which meet at regular intervals. During the preparation of the CDP development proposals originated in Ward Committees within the City and Grama Sabhas of the Panchayat areas included in the TUA were referred. In the specific context of the projects which can be considered under the CDP the Core Committee had detailed consultations with the Chairmen of the Ward Committees and the Chairmen of the Grama Sabhas. They were given adequate time to get back to their respective members and come out with suggestions .A second round of discussions with them resulted in a number of the Chairmen giving their suggestions in writing. Before these discussions the Core Committee had identified the priority project components and their scope. These were presented in the discussions so that the Councillors and the Panchayat Presidents could derive help from the note and the discussions to crystallise their ideas. The draft CDP including the priority components identified for inclusion in the Project was subjected for scrutiny by the stakeholders. The draft CDP was presented in the council meeting for discussions and approval with or without modifications. The Council which met on 20.09.06 had approved the CDP without modifications. Studies and Surveys 14 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Para 13: The studies conducted in the past are reviewed to make clear that attempts have been made previously in the TMC to analyse the issues pertaining to each sector. Such studies have been considered as base data in analysing issues and thus in arriving at policy decisions. The National level policy documents like National Environment Policy 2006, Urban Transport Policy 2006, National Policy on Inland Water Transport 2001 etc are reviewed and the recommendations therein have been considered as the overall framework within which policy propositions under each of the corresponding sectors have been formulated as part of the CDP. Similar is the case with Kerala Tourism Policy and I T Policy for Kerala. These policies were selected for review, since they pertain to the thrust sectors identified as part of stakeholder consultations which ultimately converged to the CDP proposals. The main intention was to uphold the fact that the policies envisaged under each sector in the CDP for Thiruvananthapuram has got a legitimate backing either at the National /State level or both and also that it is not merely a wish list. It has been specified under each of the review how the particular study could be made applicable in the context of formulation and implementation of CDP for Thiruvananthapuram. Vision Para14:. In pages 12 to 15 of Chapter 1, the Development Vision of Thiruvananthapuram is not presented. What is mentioned in these pages is the earlier attempt by GOK to evolve development vision through two consultancy groups. But these attempts for vision development were halted on the way. In Chapter 1 we have only reviewed these earlier attempts to get better enlightened to develop vision statements under the CDP. CDP development vision is given in pages 56, 57 & 58. A single vision statement is given in para 4.1.1 (page 56). This vision statement comprises of 7 different aspirations all put together in a single statement. Attempt is made in para 4.1.2 to spell out all these 7 aspirations in detail, giving also the background and strength to justify these aspirations. It may be comprehended that the CDP’s Development Vision is presented in para 4.1.1 In the discussions on the various project components in the subsequent chapters the sectoral development vision is mentioned, but these need not be confused with the city’s development vision. However the sector wise development vision is modified to present it in a tabular form giving milestones of achievement as per Table 20 of the Toolkit. Governance Para 15 : Chapter 2 is combined with Chapters 16 & 17, to avoid duplication. The reforms attempted and achieved at the state level and at the level of the TMC are stated in the modified chapter. Para 16 : State Finance Commission 15 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan During 1999 the Govt. of Kerala made comprehensive amendments to the Kerala Panchayat Raj Act 1994 and the Kerala Municipality Act 1994. Right to Information, and constitution of institutions like Ombudsman & Tribunal for Local Self Govt Institutions have been introduced in the Acts through the above amendments As part of Right to Information every Local Self Government Institution (LSGI) is bound to publish and update annually a Citizen’s Charter embodying the services available to the public and the norms and procedure for achieving it. The Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation has published Citizen’s Charter and is updating it periodically. The Ombudsman for Local Self Government Institutions is chaired by a retired Judge of the High Court and is empowered to look in to allegations of maladministration and corruption against elected members and officials of Local Self Government Institutions. The seat of Ombudsman is at Thiruvananthapuram and he is arranging camp sittings at Ernakulam and Kozhikode. The Act embodies Tribunal for Local Self Government Institutions in all districts to consider appeals on review petitions against the decisions of LSGIs. To begin with, a Tribunal with state wide jurisdiction has been established in Thiruvananthapuram and the Tribunal is considering the appeals and revision petitions against decisions of different LSGIs. The Tribunal is chaired by a serving Judicial Officer in the cadre of District & Sessions Judge. The State Government has decided in principle to set an audit commission for LSGIs. Audit Commission has not been set up in the state so far. However three Regional Performance Audit Teams under a State Performance Audit Authority is auditing the plan schemes of the LSGIs. The State Performance Audit Authority is assisted by State Performance Audit Officer in the rank of Deputy Accountant General drawn from the Indian Audit & Accounts Department. The above arrangement is running well and has made positive impact in the functioning of LSGIs. Role of Private Sector in Infrastructure Development It is increasingly accepted that the entire infrastructure development required in any city cannot be developed by government alone. The Urban and Rural Local Governments in Kerala which are now empowered to function as local self governments are looked upon by the people to provide them infrastructure of a higher order. The local governments lack financial resources, manpower and expertise to implement infrastructure programmes to satisfy the level of expectation of the people. The LSGDs are considering aspects of infrastructure which could be taken up with private sector participation. Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation has already initiated the process five years ago with Solid Waste Management. Solid waste disposal arrangement was implemented through private sector by constructing a plant in the neighbouring Vilappil panchayat. This composting plant produces green manure which is partly lifted by the State Agricultural Department. During 2004-05 the TMC commenced door-to-door collection of garbage through voluntary organisations which employ women from BPL households. These women are paid through the monthly contribution of Rs.30 which every HH pays for this collection service. The TMC has initiated discussions on the various infrastructure components, which can be considered for implementation and management through TMC - Private Sector Participatory Programmes. These sectors are noted in Table 19 below. 16 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Urban Infrastructure Role of Private Sector Water Supply i. Kerala Water Authority used to have the exclusive mandate for production and distribution of potable water. Govt. have now approved that LSGIs can implement and run stand – alone W.S. Projects ii. Govt. have also approved scheme for bulk supply by the KWA to the LSGI and distribution, maintenance and collection of water charges by LSGI. Sewerage i. Since the capital investment for establishment of Sewerage system is high, Govt. is examining alternatives like private sector role in establishment of STP, private sector participation in establishment of zone wise Sewerage system, establishment of package plants etc. Drainage Storm Water Drainage i. Departing from the traditional practice of constructio drains to drain off surface water into rivers and sea, (SWD) JNNURM concept envisages a package of activities ii. The existing and uncared ponds within the city woul be conserved and storm water in the respective zones would be channelled to these ponds after filtering so that this would enable maintenance of ponds and also help ground water recharging. Thes ponds would be maintained by the nearby Residents Associations. iii. The Project also envisages Rain Water Harvesting. Solid Waste Management i. Composting Plant installed under PPP 17 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan ii. Door to door waste collection implemented through (SWM) voluntary organisations based on levy of user charges iii. IMA has established disposal arrangements for hospital wastes, which are collected based on user charges Municipal Roads i. Under the decentralised planning approaches, TMC ( including Fly over ) has taken up many road widening and improvement projects at ward level through ‘beneficiary committees’, who have even arranged for voluntary surrender of land from private land owners. This approach may be continued. ii. Roads like ORR are identified for widening and improvement as self sustaining projects, with revenue generated from LA and land development through PPP. Street Lighting i. Street lights are now maintained based on a participatory process between TMC & KSEB. Materials ar procured by TMC and handed over to KSEB. The KSEB changes the tubes etc and maintains the street light system. ii. The KSED in turn have contracted out the street light maintenance work. On receipt of notice from the local councillor regarding non-working of any street light, KSEB arranges through the contract worker to attend to the repairs. Perhaps, this arrangement may continue for some time. 18 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Kerala Municipality Act 1994, as amended in 1999, provides for constitution of Audit Commission. This has not been constituted till now. Audit in local self government institutions is now carried out by the State Local Fund Audit Department. In addition LSGD has also constituted Performance Audit Wings with LSGD and Finance Department staff. Section 271 (S) of the Kerala Municipality Act provides for constitution of LSG Tribunals. The state has constituted a state level tribunal under a law officer of the grade of District Judge. Any person aggrieved by a decision of any panchayat and urban local body can appeal to this tribunal for redressal of his grievances. Government have not constituted district level tribunals, though they are not beyond the scope of the law. In the first two years the Tribunal was flooded with appeals. But this has come down substantially. One factor is that the LSGIs are conscious of their actions. Another is that because of transparency in LSGI actions and procedures, being insisted during the last two years, wrong doing has considerably come down. Para 17: Noted Para18: Water Supply • Coverage of Water Supply distribution network across different areas including slums and percentage of access to the households: The number of service connections as on 2001 was 1, 59,590. By 30/09/2006 the approximate number of households and number of service connections are computed as 2,30,646 and 1,72,984 respectively. As far as area coverage is concerned the old Trivandrum City (of 74.93 sq km) is fully covered and the extended area is more than 90% covered. Most of the households in slum areas and a few households below poverty line depend on public stand posts. Accounting for stand post service together with individual connections, the coverage is 90%. A small area is left out in the extended area (i.e., in the area added to TMC in 2000). This area is proposed to be covered in the project, resulting in 100 percent coverage in the entire city area of 141.74 sq km. • Number of house service connections (as against number of households) and Public stand posts in the City. 19 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Present status of connections as on 30/09/2006 under the TWSS is as follows: Domestic connections 1, 48,447 Non-domestic connections 24,505 (inclusive of public stand posts) Industrial connections 32 ------------------- TOTAL 1, 72,984 • Metering system and their working status – percentage of meters working and not working: As per the amendment to clause 12(a) of Kerala Water Authority (WS) Regulations – 1991 vide G.O.(P)No.65/98/Ird., Tvpm. dtd.20/6/1998, defective water meters are to be replaced by the consumer at his cost; otherwise surcharge at the rate of 25% on the water charges for the first month, 50% for the next 2 months, and 100% beyond that period would be collected. With the enforcement of this surcharge clause, there has been tremendous improvement in the replacement of non-working meters. The present status of meters in domestic & non-domestic categories is attached. On an average 1000 non-working meters are being replaced every month. Effective monitoring and management of the system is done based on relevant provisions in the K.W.S. Regulations, 1991. The number of defective meters as on 30/09/2006 is 38420. The meters, on turning defective, are changed with new working meters by the consumers themselves under the supervision of KWA. This is based on consumer participation and relevant rules in the K.W.S. Regulations. On an average 100 meters become defective every month and 1000 defective meters are replaced. With the present attitude and participation of the consumers, defective meters at any point of time can be brought to a minimum, once all defective meters are replaced. This can be achieved by replacing all the defective meters as part of the project. In addition, it is assessed that 70 % of the present running meters are showing either slow or fast reading (+ - 5%) and these are also to be replaced as part of the project. Thus the total number of meters to be replaced as part of the project works out to 85,000. 20 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan • Households with non-working meters: Calculation of water charges in cases of non-working meters is explained in clause 17(d) of W.S. Regulations, which reads. “If on examination, any meter is found to be out of order and not registering correctly, the consumption dating from the reading previous to the last reading, till the repair, or replacements of the meter be calculated at the average consumption registered for any previous period during which, in the opinion of the Assistant Executive Engineer the meter installed at the premises was registering correctly and the consumption of water was not abnormal”. Water charges for consumers with non-working meters are fixed by KWA according to this clause. • Expenditure on O&M of water supply system and percentage of cost recovery: The average O&M expenditure per year for the TWSS consumers is Rs. 2300 lakhs. Total annual revenue from water charges is Rs.3300 lakhs. Actual financial figures have now been worked out and included in the CDP. Actual figures now show the O&M expenses as 2000 lakhs and revenue collection as Rs. 2400 lakhs. So the percentage cost recovery as per the financial projection is 120% without considering capital share contribution /interest and capital/depreciation of assets. • The institutional aspects of Water Supply, i.e., the role of KWA and TMC – issues of co-ordination and convergence: O & M of the scheme, extensions of service facilities etc. are undertaken by KWA in consultation with the TMC. A Management Committee for the scheme, with TMC representatives and KWA representative shall be constituted to manage the scheme within the framework of applicable rules and regulations. • Methods of co-ordination and convergence in water supply management of the panchayats within Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration: 21 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Local Self Government plays a major role in rendering service to the consumers. W.S. connections will be provided only on the recommendation by the LSG. Further the management of the system may be carried out by the Management Committee. • In the project proposals, changing of non-working meters is proposed over a period of 6 years at a cost of Rs 6 crores. It is not clear whether the entire cost will be borne by the TMC and Panchayats or any contribution from the community is proposed. Similarly as metering is a priority item, which fetches revenues to Corporation, could metering be taken on a mission mode and reduce the period of implementation? With the implementation of the ‘surcharge’ clause for non-working meters, consumers are coming forward in large numbers for replacement of meters and this process is going on at a very fast pace. As on 30-09-2006, number of defective meters come to 38,420 With the present attitude and participation of consumers, defective meters at any point of time can be brought to a minimum once all the defective meters are replaced. This can be achieved by replacing all defective meters as part of the project. In addition it is assessed that 70 % of the present running meters are showing either slow or fast reading (+/ - 5%) and these are also to be replaced as part of the project. Thus the total number of meters to be replaced as part of the project works out to 85,000. Out of this replacement of the 38,420 non-working meters can be completed in the first 2 years. • Communication strategy and human resource development are expected to cost Rs.3.50 and Rs.10 crores respectively. This appears to be on a very high side. As part of the communication strategy, a networking of all offices for a complaint redressal system is envisaged. The HRD package includes construction of a full fledged training centre also for the Trivandrum Water Supply Scheme, which can be made beneficial to the whole of the KWA and other water supply & sewerage institutions in future. The total provision for these works is Rs.13.50 crores, which is only 1.85 % of the total project cost of approximately Rs. 730 crores (excluding the project cost under JBIC assisted water supply improvement project). 22 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan • There is need to review the costing of all the proposed projects more carefully. As part of the City Development Plan (CDP), rough cost estimate for all the sub projects envisaged were prepared. Realistic costing will be done at the stage of preparation of DPR. It is presumed that there may be marginal differences between DPR and rough cost estimates. (expected variation considering the past experiences is of the order of 10 to 15 percent) Para 19 Sewerage 1. Number of sewerage connections in the city and reasons for low access. At present only 30% of the area covered under water supply is covered by the functioning sewerage system. This area is the most thickly populated one in the city. The present number of sewerage connections in the sewered area is 80,000.The approximate number of households in the TMC area is 1,72,752 out of which 30% was already been covered. The lesser coverage is owing to inadequacy of treatment facilities in the sewerage system. 2. Cost of accessing sewerage connection by households and sewerage tariff No monthly or annual sewerage service charges are collected .The one time service connection fee charges for availing sewerage connection is as given below; Category Rate Minimum ( Rs ) Domestic 10% of estimated cost for connection 500. Non domestic do 1000 Casual do 1000 Industrial do 2500 3. Operation and Maintenance expenditure of sewerage system and percentage cost O&M expenditure at present is 530 lakh per annum for the area under coverage .No specific O&M cost is realised at present. Approximate amount collected as new service connection fee comes to Rs.75 lakh per annum which works out to 14.15% of annual O&M cost. 4. Community’s willingness to pay 23 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan An analysis of survey results provides an indication of community’s willingness to pay for improved services depending on existing access or reliability. For survey purpose the households were grouped into 6 household categories: High Income Group (HIG), Middle Income Group (MIG), Low Income Group (LIG ) , Upper crest of the Poor (UP ), Just above Vulnerable (JV ) and most Vulnerable (MV). The composition of the population by income group is as follows: HIG (6 %), MIG (34 %), LIG (39%), UP (7%), JV (7%) and MV (7%). The result of the survey did not specify an amount that each group is willing to pay for improved water supply and sanitation services. The survey however indicated a low willingness to pay among the poor and a bit higher willingness to pay from the non-poor for obvious financial reasons. The low willingness to pay for improved services among the poor is largely due to (i) relative satisfaction with the present water supply and sanitation services. (ii) use of water from street tap, which is the major source of water among the poor, is currently free of charge; and (iii) respondents view that Government has the responsibility to provide the services to its residents; (iv) the subsidy involved in the present arrangement. 5. Link between proposed sewerage master plan and work proposed under existing system It is proposed to prepare a master plan benefiting entire TRIDA area extending to Balaramapuram on the East and Vattappara on the north. The interior thickly populated area will be covered in the present project and scope can be widened for future population since the present project proposed in master plan are independent. 6. Likely additional beneficiaries in the TMC area and adjoining Panchayats. The population benefited in 2036 is 10.70 lakh and the present population benefited is estimated to be 2.59 lakh. Hence at the end of the project period, 8.11 lakh people will be covered additionally. 7. Rehabilitation of existing network and extending to uncovered areas is proposed over a period of six years. Alternate plans The rehabilitation is spread over only 30 % of the entire project area. An appropriate Project Implementation Plan (PIP) and Environment Management Plan (EMP) shall be developed so as to bring down the inconvenience to the public during implementation, to the minimum extent possible. 24 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan 8. Communication strategy and HRD Noted Para 20 Storm Water Drainage Noted. Corrections incorporated Para 21 Solid Waste Management Door to Door Collection of Solid waste is being carried out in 25 of the 86 wards in the Corporation at present. It is planned to extend the same to all 86 wards by 2007. The budget provides for Rs. 1 crore in 2006 and 1.18 crore in 2007. With this amount most of the infrastructure requirement will be met and door to door collection can be done in all 86 wards. However all households may not be using the facility initially. As more and more households join the scheme additional infrastructure will be needed. For this an additional amount of 20 lakhs is provided in 2009. The infrastructure so created will be sufficient to achieve 100 % coverage by door to door collection and hence additional funds are not earmarked in subsequent years. Cent percent door to door coverage will be achieved in four years. Para. 22 Environment Table: Environment services The KSPCB has monitors the ambient air quality at 11 stations in the state. Based on these studies, the annual mean concentration range for Thiruvananthapuram is given. Environmental level in Thiruvananthapuram Environment Quality services Water quality in the two rivers flowing through the city Water has been steadily declining over the last two decades, due to encroachments, waste dumping, and sewage disposal. River and pond conservation projects included in the CDP may alleviate these problems. 30% of the city area is sewered. Attempts are Waste Water proposed for total coverage under sewerage system, construction of STP, rehabilitation of existing sewerage system etc. TMC has implemented project for house level Solid Waste collection of solid waste. Segregation is also attempted. Collection is done through voluntary 25 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan groups. Such collected waste is collected in TMC trucks and transported to disposal site. This collection arrangement is extended now to all the 86 wards. Disposal is through composting plant operated by private sector. Satisfactory level of service does not exist now. SO2 – Industrial –Low Residential – L Air* NO2 – Industrial –Low Residential – L SPM – Industrial –Low Residential – Moderate Vehicle pollution is brought down by insisting on ‘PUC’ ( pollution under control) certificate issued every 6 months by approved testing laboratories. * Source: CPCB/ Economic Review 2005, State Planning Board 2. The Kerala State Pollution Control Board (PCB) is a statutory body constituted under the Central Environment Protection Act and has the mandatory responsibility to monitor and take actions regarding water, air and noise pollution. Any project under implementation or in operation is being reviewed by the PCB to see whether the project is within the allowable tolerance level with regard to pollution. On their own PCB can initiate litigation against any such activity which violates environmental pollution levels. Therefore, projects of any local body, government department, parastatal agency or private sector will come under the scrutiny of the PCB. 3. Any discussion on environment in Thiruvananthapuram highlights the issue of raw sewage being let off into the ‘Parvathy Puthanar’ which is on the coastal zone. In addition to this the second issue that is highlighted is on storm water stagnation in certain low lying areas of the city. Solutions to these two environmental issues are not included under the Project ‘Environment’ in the CDP, since construction of STP and sewerage improvements are covered under the Project on Sewerage. Similarly improvements to Parvathy Puthanar (canal) and proposals for surface water drainage are proposed under the Project ’Surface Water Drainage’. Similarly environmental upgradation of coastal belt is a major component under the Sub mission for UBSP, which includes coastal area development. 26 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Para 23 Urban Regeneration and Renewal The Project envisages, at the initial phases, redevelopment of the central parts of the city where, though land value is high in view of location advantages, optimum developments have taken place. The inner pockets do not have adequate access roads leaving them with FAR below 1.00; some of such parcels of land are also left vacant in the absence of adequate access. About 90 percent of the buildings are old and dilapidated. These exist and continue to serve commercial uses only with some cosmetic treatments. The owners are not able to reconstruct them due to many factors: • Stipulations regarding open spaces and parking spaces as per the Building Rules • Leased out many years ago and the rent the premises fetch is far too small to consider redevelopment with huge investments • Tenancy /sub tenancy issues; most of which are under litigation • Inner pockets without adequate access may not yield good returns if substantial investment is made for reconstruction Based on reconnaissance surveys and preliminary studies, it was felt that Chalai bazaar area – the stretch from Aryasala to East fort and the M.G. Road area – the stretch from District Treasury Building to S.M.V. School (Overbridge) could be considered for the renewal project. Chalai bazaar area is the old part of the city, which is still considered as the main market street. Exclusive streets also exist for specialized market activities, as noted below: • Vegetables and fruits • Rice bazaar • Iron & steel, building materials and the like • Groceries etc. The Chalai area also consists of residential inner pockets, which are also considered under the urban renewal project. It should be possible to take up renewal project block by block. Each block would consist of area/plots/buildings comprised within four surrounding streets. There could be 4 blocks each on either side of Chalai bazaar road. The project basically would involve grouping all the land and building 27 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan owners and occupiers together and encourage them to redevelop the area under a participatory process with TMC acting as a catalyst to promote the redevelopment process. Technical input will come from TMC, with external experts associating with TMC. Initial expenditure on provision of infrastructure would come from TMC; however this expenditure could be recouped as soon as the project is completed. The revolving fund created for the purpose can be utilized for the second block and so on. It is also possible to undertake redevelopment of more than one block at a time, provided adequate technical trained manpower is available. It is seen that three blocks of land on either side of M.G. Road may also be considered for redevelopment. Each block may have an area of 10 to 15 acres. This Urban Regeneration project need not be limited to the above two roads only. Any area comprising of old buildings and having unplanned layouts (including such housing areas), requiring redevelopment can be considered under the project. This project is to a large extent self sustaining and capable of meeting the development resource requirements from within, necessitating only TMC intervention, technical inputs and initial funds for initiating the process. Para 24 Heritage and Tourism Noted. An integrated vision for heritage and tourism has been articulated at one place. The integrated vision may be read as: “Conserve heritage for us and the generations to come, tapping the potential for sustainable tourism, and promote tourism”. Para 25: Transportation 1. Vision in terms of travel time reduction, increase in share of public transport and safety The following goals are set towards realizing the vision: Road safety: To bring down the average growth (in number of accidents) from 7% to 0% in 15 years. Speed of traffic: To achieve average speed of 30 to 35 km per hour in peak hours in the main traffic corridors of the city in 7 years 28 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Public transport system: To increase the share of public transport system from the present 35% in the city area to 50% in 15 years. 2. Provision for transport to the poor Other than the roads taken under slum area development and the transport facilities proposed, the roads in the City too directly benefit the poor. These Corporation roads are functioning as link roads to major traffic corridors through the arterial/radial roads considered in the CDP. Specific benefits of these roads to the poor will be discussed separately in the DPR. 3. Expectations of common citizens with respect to transport sector The projects under the transport sector are prepared on the basis of a series of consultations made with various forums representing the public. Since transport sector issues are visible and experienced on a day-to-day basis, a large number of suggestions have come for this sector. Such suggestions are broadly appended to the CD. The priority road components included in the CDP are derived based on these suggestions and the study of the road network system and the present and future traffic volume on these roads. Generally the expectation of the citizens had been for a good road network with improved riding surface and capacity, good mass transportation facilities and specific off-street parking facilities. Importance given to mass transport system by road and rail are expected to satisfy the travel needs of the common man. The thrust given to safety aspects in designing road improvement schemes and in building road safety awareness is further meant for a reassurance to the common man in meeting his travel needs. 4. Institutional issues 29 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan o Multiplicity The transport sector development is possible only with the contribution of private and public sectors. Within the public sector, three broad sectors emerge – road, water and rail. Except rail, the other two sectors are developed / maintained with State intervention. Within the road sector itself, multiple agencies manage the roads viz. PWD (NH), PWD (B&R) and City Corporation. Each of these agencies has their own way of developing and maintaining the roads under them, in accordance with the functions of each. o Overlapping responsibilities Since there is a clear demarcation regarding the roads under each agency, the responsibilities of the agencies are also clearly defined. There is no overlapping of responsibilities. o Coordination Road sector as a whole expects to carry out the works in coordination with utility providers and agencies whose networks use road space. Coordination is required before construction, during construction and also after the construction. To enable such coordination under the Thiruvananthapuram Road Development Project a Road Protocol was drafted and approved. This example would be emulated. o Institutional mechanism Since the JNNURM will not support Land Acquisition (LA), and since some of the road development requires LA, there need to be an institutional mechanism to make the land available for road constructions. The form and constitution of such a mechanism will be finalized in consultation with the Government. Para 26 Social Infrastructure Reg: private sector participation and partnership in projects under social infrastructure development: The following projects are proposed in the CDP of JNNURM under social infrastructure: 30 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan • Redevelopment of public markets • Construction of service abattoirs • Redevelopment of cremation grounds • A few projects under leisure and recreation Discussions on these projects show that private sector participation is proposed in projects wherever possible. These measures are briefly noted below: • In public markets, part of the area may be occupied by shopping complexes. This area is not included under the project. Only marketing stalls & yards, where the poor vendors temporarily occupy spaces to trade their wares brought in baskets, are included. In addition public toilets, storage facilities, if any required, water supply etc. are proposed to be included in the project. Most of these facilities would be auctioned out to the private sector for upkeep and maintenance. • The infrastructure for abattoirs would be created by the TMC and the operation and maintenance would be leased to selected operators on payment of annual fee. These operators would employ butchers and cleaning staff. Abattoir is a must service facility to be provided by the TMC to ensure safe meat to the citizens and to prevent the unhealthy practice of unauthorised slaughtering. • TMC maintains one crematorium with electric furnaces and other facilities. This is being improved. There are many private cremation grounds within the city under the ownership on certain communities/religious groups. These do not have good burning and other arrangements. These are situated amidst residential areas which are now thickly populated. In view of this frequent quarrels result. To prevent such incidents, TMC proposes a scheme under which TMC would stipulate minimum standards under which only these cremation grounds can function. Technical assistance and part funding for upgradation with furnaces, flues, water supply etc. would be provided by TMC. These cremation grounds would continue to be under private operation. • Leisure and recreation facilities are proposed to be developed and maintained through private sector participation. The support of local Residents’ Associations, 31 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan which are now municipal recognised bodies, would be sought. These possibilities would be detailed out when preparing DPR. Basic Services to the Urban Poor Para 27. Noted Para 28. The data on Poverty relates to Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation area including the grama panchayats merged with the City Corporation during 2000. However data in respect of the adjoining panchayats, which form part of the Thiruvananthapuram Urban Agglomeration is not readily available. It has been pointed out in the CDP that lack of authentic data is a major constraint in the formulation and implementation of poverty reduction programmes. This aspect will be specifically taken care of while preparing the DPR. In fact Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation has already commenced survey to assess the needs of the poor in the city area as well as the panchayats in the urban agglomeration. The household income of Rs 10,155/- given in Table 14.1 of the CDP is annual income and may be read accordingly. • The identified slum areas have been considered during the last three decades for infrastructure improvement projects, which consisted of provision of potable water ,sanitary latrines ,access improvement ,street lighting and surface water drainage . However land tenure and house construction were not considered in toto . Solid waste collection from the slum areas was considered only as part of the city level SWM system. GOK had a policy of providing household level power connection to the poor who applied for such benefits. However strategic development initiatives for the urban poor outside such identified slum areas were not taken under specific projects: though piecemeal attempts were made by the TMC, voluntary organisations or parastatal agencies. Grievances generally raised by the municipal councillors and the voluntary organisations are regarding the inadequate basic infrastructure for the urban poor. • Role of Kudumbashree in implementation of urban poverty programmes 32 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Kudumbashree is a mission initiated by the State Government to eradicate absolute poverty from the State within a period of 10 years. The mission was launched during 1998. Kudumbashree implements its programmes through Community Based Organization (CBOs) of poor. The CBOs are women centered and three tier in structure The Basic entities are Neighourhod Groups (NHG), Area Development Society (ADS) ,and Community Development Societies (CDS). NHG is a collective of 15-40 women, each representing a poor family identified through a nine point non-economic risk indicators ( which are so transparent and easily understandable by the community). The second tier is the Area Development Society (ADS) which is at the ward level. The representatives of the NHGs constitute the General Body of the ADS. Community Development Society (CDS) is the apex body at the Local Body level and is registered under the Charitable Societies Act. NHG, the basic unit of CBOs meet regularly and discuss their issues. The felt needs of the community arise through a regular weekly discussion and a ‘micro plan’ based on felt needs is evolved. The micro plans of all the NHGs are co-ordinated and prioritised at the ADS level and this forms ‘mini plans’ of that particular ADS. The ‘mini plans’ of the various ADSs are again co-ordinated at the CDS level and it forms the ‘Town Plan’ for poverty alleviation. The Action Plan for SJSRY, NSDP, IHSDP and UBSP component of JNNURM are prepared by the Community through a participatory process on felt needs. As on today there are 11681 NHGs covering 503586 families in urban areas. There are 58 ULBs in the State (5 are corporations and 53 are municipalities). There are 59 CDSs (one each in each ULB except in Kochi where there are 2 CDSs). Kudumbashree as State Urban Development Agency In the State of Kerala, Kudumbashree, the State Poverty Eradication Mission is designated as the State Urban Development Agency (SUDA). With its capacity as SUDA Kudumbashree implements various urban poverty alleviation programmes in the State. Centrally sponsored poverty reduction programmes such as Swarana Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), the erstwhile National Slum Development 33 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Programme (NSDP) and Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) are being implemented in the State by Kudumbashree. Under the SJSRY, Kudumbashree has developed 1528 group enterprises (a group with minimum of 10 women) and 20760 individual enterprises. Most of these enterprises are innovative, sustainable and roll models. Under VAMBAY, Kudumbashree took up construction of 20048 houses during the last 4 years. Kudumbashree is also designated as the State Level ‘Nodal Agency’ for the newly launched Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP). State Government has also declared Kudumbashree as the State Level Nodal Agency for the implementation of the sub mission on Basic Services to the Urban poor (BSUP) of JNNURM in both cities in the State viz. Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi. UPA Cell – its organisation , working and Convergence Previously urban poverty reduction programmes were implemented by the erstwhile Urban Poverty Alleviation Cell (UPA Cell) which was merged with Kudumbashree in 1998. The UPA Cells in the ULBs were subsequently replaced by the Community Development Societies (CDS). At the CDS level, a Project Officer (an official from the Health division of Municipal Corporation) who is also the Member Secretary of CDS along with CDS functionaries implement the programmes. At the ADS level, the Community Organizer who is also an official from health division of the Municipal Corporation co-ordinates the activities of ADS. Apart from this, the CBO system has a very good linkage with Municipal Corporation functionaries. At the ADS level there is an Advisory and Monitoring Committee, which is headed by the Ward Councillor. Similarly, at the CDS level there is a City Management Committee which is chaired by the Mayor/Chairperson of the ULB concerned . The most significant aspect of Kudumbashree CBOs is that it forms the convergence platform for implementing activities of various departments. ‘Take Home 34 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan Ration’ project in collaboration with Social Welfare Department, Pulse Polio Immunization and other health related programmes in association with Health Department, IT @ School project of Education Department are few examples of convergence in practice. In the JNNURM programme also there is ample scope for converging various programmes of line departments such as Social Welfare, Urban Development, Education, Health etc. • Convergence in infrastructure programmes for the urban poor Basic infrastructure development programmes, either in the slum areas or in isolation, were always proposed and implemented by sectoral agencies under specific projects which permitted only one or more components in the project. In most of the cases the project dealing with water supply or street lighting was implemented without integrating such projects with other infrastructure projects. The voluntary organisations, some of which are under religious institutions, implemented social infrastructure projects especially in the coastal areas without a comprehensive planning approach. What is intended under the JNNURM is that there should be a convergence approach at area level or at target group level. This approach should take in to account the projects under any central or state sponsored scheme, schemes proposed by the government or parastatal agencies or voluntary organisations and integrate them in to project packages at area level. • The road map for basic services shows that slums will be got rid of completely by 2031. So the vision statement may be modified as follows: A slum free, Thiruvananthapuram City by the Year 2031” As suggested in the appraisal report the road map has been restructured and goals have been refixed. Road Map for Basic Services to the Poor Sl. Vision outcomes 2006-07 2012 2020 2031 No. 1. Literacy (Percentage) 80 95 100 100 2. Access to school 60 90 90 100 35 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan 3. Access to primary health 40 85 90 100 4. Sanitation (% coverage) 30 75 90 100 5. Drinking Water (% coverage) 50 85 100 100 6. Access to housing (% coverag 80 100 100 7. Incidence of poverty 25 15 0 0 8. Slums (% of reduction) 0.5 50 85 100 Rs 800/- lakhs proposed under shelter is meant for constructions of 400 new houses to destitute families. Similarly Rs 50/- lakh is earmarked for repairs of 125 houses of destitute families. • Proposals for housing include the following components Houses in identified slums Construction of new houses 6662 Relocation of houses situated in 4000 hazardous location Houses in the Coastal Areas New Construction (relocation) : 1000 Houses requiring in situ : 3000 development Shelter Up gradation : 2000 New Houses for destitute families : 500 Shelter Up gradation for destitute : 125 The Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation will undertake completion of these projects now proposed on priority basis and there after take up projects for providing housing to persons who are left out, utilizing the own resources and funds from the State Government. The State Government have recently announced “EMS Namboodiripad Total Housing Scheme” for providing houses to all 36 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan • The figures given in table 15.6 (P 215 of CDP) are drawn from census data 2001 and the figure given in the write up may be corrected and read as 28778. • The surveys and studies proposed under different heads can be integrated as a comprehensive survey. However, separate survey is needed for identification of street vendors, children at risk and destitute. The amount required for the comprehensive survey would be Rs.10 lakhs. (except the survey of street vendors, destitutes and children at risk) • Destitute being the most vulnerable this needs a detailed separate survey for project preparation. The criteria used for the identification of the destitute are much more different from that of the indicators which are used for the identification of poor. The destitutes of Thiruvananthapuram Corporation were not identified earlier by Kudumbashree. • Chapters 14 and 15 are clubbed together into one chapter and numbered as 14.5.0 to 126.96.36.199 as 14.3 to 14.13. Para : 30 (1) Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore in 1750. Correction to this effect has been made in page 149 of the CDP (2) Modification is made in the CDP deleting the repetition in respect of Tourism Vision 2025 and Tourism policy for Kerala. (3) Tables 3-3 Vs 2-3 page 39 Tables 12-1 to 12.5 pages 159 Vs 11-1 to 11-5 (4) The area of Sreekaryam Panchayat which forms part of TRIDA area is 23.73 sq.km and is correct (Table 3.4) page 39 (5) The area of Sreekaryam which is part of Thiruvananthapuram UA is only 5.03 sq km which means that the Sreekaryam Panchayat in full is not included in the TUA as per the census data.. Hence the figures given in table 3 - 5 are also correct. However these tables have been modified to bring more clarity. 37 Thiruvananthapuram Corporation City Development plan 38
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