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									Workshops on Pedagogy
and Resources for
Learning and Teaching
of Sixth Form Chemistry

        Session 1
 Introduction to Resources
     Group Discussion
Directions for Revision
 Trimming of topics to allow rooms for students
    to develop scientific investigation skills and
    higher order thinking skills
   Articulating pedagogies recommended in
    S4-5 Chemistry Curriculum
   Suggest appropriate learning activities so that
    students may have opportunities to develop
    their scientific investigation skills as well
    as higher order thinking skills
   Generic Skills: 3C 1P
   Updating the information of the curriculum
Major Changes of the Curriculum

 Deletion
     Radioactivity; Faraday and Mole; Writing cell
      diagrams; Corrosion of iron and its prevention;
      Phase equilibrium-two component systems; Hydrides
      and Chlorides; Nitrogen and its compounds; Sulphur
      and its compounds; Stereo-structures of 4- & 6-
      coordinated complexes; Chemistry and the
 Addition
     Spontaneity of changes; Octahedral and tetrahedral
      holes; Solubility product; Nernst equation; Group IV
      elements; Silicon and silicates; Bidentate and
      multidentate ligands; General mechanisms of
      electrophilic substitution and nucleophilic acyl
      substitution; Mass spectra; Chemistry in Action
Old Education                   New Learning
Paradigm                        Paradigm
Content emphasized –            Learning emphasized –
acquiring the „right‟           focused on „learning how to
information and giving „right   learn‟, asking questions, etc.;
answers‟ once and for all;      lifelong learning
education for a lifelong job
Teacher as source of all        Teacher facilitate students to
knowledge, “Teaching as         access information
Student as a passive            Student act as an active
recipient of knowledge          participant and sometime
Learning is a product, a        Learning is a process, a
destination                     journey
Relatively rigid structure;     More flexible structure;
prescribed curriculum           mixed teaching and learning
Surface and Deep
Approaches to Learning
 Surface approach
    Students reduce what is to be learnt to the
     status of unconnected facts to be
                             REGURGITATE !!!
 Deep approach
    Students attempt to make sense of what is
     to be learnt, which consists of ideas and
    This involves thinking, seeking integration
     between components and between tasks,
     and „playing‟ with ideas
                                  Gibbs, G.(1992)
Key Elements of Good Teaching

 Motivational Context
    Deep learning is more likely when student
     experience a need to know something
    Situated learning
 Learner Activity
    Student need to be active rather than passive
 Interaction with others
    Easier to negotiate meaning and to manipulate
     ideas with others than alone
 A well Structured Knowledge Base
    Link to students‟ existing knowledge and
    Content is taught in integrated wholes rather
     than in small separate pieces
Exemplars of L/T Activities

1. IT for Interactive Learning Activities
2. Datalogging Experiments
3. Microscale Chemistry Experiments
4. Problem Solving Activities
5. Inquiry-based Experiments
6. Reading to Learn Activities
7. Other Learning Activities

→ Strategies for fostering a deep approach
   Inquiry-based activity in which some or all of the
    information that learners interact with comes
    from resources on the internet (Bernie Dodge)
   Involves real life activity where students are
    engaged in solving real-life problems
   Acquire new information and make sense of it
   Analyse a body of knowledge deeply and
    transform it in some way
   Chemicals in the House
 Requires students to make
    decisions to manipulate variables of
    a system in order to accomplish a
   Students can carry out a number of
    experiments quickly and discover
    the trends for themselves
   Allows students to take control of
    the organisation and content of
    their learning
   Students learn from mistakes
    without paying the price of real
   Dangerous, slow or costly
   Revision of the topic at any time
Interactive 3D Chemical
Structures (1/8)
 Provides multiple representations of
  molecules – wireframe, ball and stick, and
  space-filled modes
 Interactive
      structure positioned by using the mouse
      measurement of bond distances and bond angles
       (right click → “Select” → “Mouse Click Action” →
 Cost saving
 Filename extensions: mol, pdb, xyz
 Require web-browser plug-in: MDL Chime
 Sources of 3D structures
Interactive 3D Chemical
Structures (2/8)
 Formation of transition metal complexes with
  monodentate ligands, bidentate ligands and
  multidentate ligands
Interactive 3D Chemical
Structures (3/8)
 Convert 2D
  structures to their 3D
 Measure bond angles
 Hybridisation states
  of atoms
 Chemsketch/3D
  com) able to export
  structures as mol and
  wrl (VRML) files
Interactive 3D Chemical
Structures (4/8)
 Stereoisomerism

                                 mirror image

 Learning Activities
Interactive 3D Chemical
Structures (5/8)
 Embedding Interactive 3D Images in
 Using Dreamweaver or Frontpage
  “Insert Web Component” → “Advanced
  Controls” → “Plug-In” → “Plug-in Properties”
 Using HTML codes
  <embed src=„test.mol' display3d=ball&stick
  align=abscenter width=300 height=300
 More details on embedded tags
Interactive 3D Chemical
Structures (6/8) - Vibration
 Vibrational Modes of Small Molecules

 Animations for Vibrational Mode of Molecules
 IR Interactive Visualizations
Interactive 3D Chemical
Structures (7/8) - VRML
 Virtual Reality Crystal Lattices, Dr Yeung, HKIEd

 Filename extension: wrl
 VRML browser plug-in is needed e.g. Cortona & Cosmo
Interactive 3D Chemical Structures
(8/8) - Photo Objects
 View objects from different angles
 Create 3D photo objects from a series of
  2D photos taken as slight different angles
 Examples: tetrahedron, benzene and
  molecular orbital (require Apple Quicktime)
 Students can also build their own
  interactive products using “SimplyVR” (£29.95)
 Analgyph images through red-blue glasses

Reading to Learn
 Promote more independent
    learning capabilities
   Consolidate and widen students‟
    understanding of chemistry
   Historical and latest
    development in chemistry
   Reading materials: Internet,
    newspaper, magazines, journals,
   Post-reading activities are
    essential to help students reflect
    on what they have learnt
 Problem Solving Activities
“It represents the ultimate goal of chemistry
   education. Individuals who can address
   novel situations and arrive at a suitable
   course of action are valued in society”
Routine vs Nonroutine; Well-defined vs Ill-
  defined; Adversarial vs Nonadversarial
“Essentially any activity that increase
  conceptual knowledge, encourage
  persistence, increase motivation, and helps
  students to see connections among ideas, to
  reflect on and check what was done, to
  consider alternative interpretations, and try
  different strategies is likely to improve
  problem solving.”
E.g. How much do you order?
Problem Solving Activities
 “Student should spend more
  time on thinking than on doing,
  „more time interacting with
  ideas and less time
  interacting with apparatus’.”
 Free learners from some of the
  drudgery that goes with
  practical work in order to allow
  them to move on higher order
  skills e.g. predicting, observing,
  discussing, explaining,
  hypothesising, interpreting
Problem Solving
Problem Solving
 Virtual Lab Problems
   Integration with Learning
   Management System


Ubiquitous – learning at anywhere and anytime,
Harness the benefits of IT in learning & teaching !
    Inquiry-based Chemistry
 Scientific Inquiry - an active engaging
    process that mimics the work done by
    actual scientists.
   Structured, Guided and Open Inquiry
   Increase the opportunities for students
    to think about the data they should
    collect and their presentation
   Require students to design some or all
    of the procedures (autonomy,
    ownership and motivation) and justify
    their decisions
   Authentic problems
   Become active participants and actually
    enjoyed science
   Lead to a deeper understanding of
    scientific concepts

•You may also refer to the draft learning and teaching activities.
•Results of discussion will be posted on the workshops webpages.
Grouping for Discussion

    Group 1     A        Group 6

    Group 2     B        Group 7

    Group 3     C        Group 8

    Group 4     D        Group 9

    Group 5     E        Group 10

    Group 5            Group 10
Analysing Learning

             “Methods that are more
             pupil-directed, practical
             and heuristic will be more
             effective for developing
             pupils’ initiative, creativity
             and independence, and
             will better cater for their
             needs and interests.”
                   Eggleston’s Model of
                  Learning Experiences
 Different methods serve different goals.
  Successful teachers draw from a wealth
  of pedagogical strategies
 Learning how to reflect upon the selection,
  planning and orchestration of science
  content and pedagogy that provide
  meaningful learning for students is the
  essence of pedagogical content
 Developing students‟ overall capacities
  for self-directed, life-long learning by
  embedding independent learning and
  generic skills into subjects
Developing student
autonomy in learning
The role of teachers is not simply to
transmit knowledge but also to encourage
students to take increasing responsibility
for their own education and help them to
find ways in which they can learn without
the constant presence or supervision of a

                            (David Boud, 1988)
    Reference Books

Details of the reference books provided at “chem.htm”.
Thank you !

       Mr W C HO
     Tel 2712 8476

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