Exam2 by ashrafp


									TU170 Learning On Line

Section 3: computer with Confidence
Section 3.3: creating you picture

  1. Creating pictures start from the earliest days of personal computers by using a
      programming language. You need to learn how to program to do so.
  2. Creating picture became easier with the coming of first Apple Macintosh Computers
      and the using of the mouse.
  3. Now there are many tools for creating a sophisticated graphics, even some world
      processors include tools for creating simple line drawings. Here is some types of
      graphics software:
      3.1. Paint which is coming with windows.
      3.2. ClarisWorks.
      3.3. Carol Draw.
  1. Pain Programs:
      1.1. The image is made up of lots of tiny colored dots, like the image on the
           television screen.
      1.2. This kind of images are called "bitmaps", the file name ends with .bmp.
      1.3. Bitmap images are stored as description of the color and brightness of each
      1.4. Picture that provided by digital cameras, or by Scanning photographs, are
           paint images, or bitmaps.
      1.5. You can compress the bitmaps by changing the type to two standard formats
           called "JEPG" and "GIF" which is the commonly used on the World Wide Web.
      1.6. Windows Paint, Painter, PainterBox are a sample of Paint Programs.
      1.7. Paintings are good for fine detail and subtle shadings of color.
  2. Drawing Programs:
      2.1. The images are made up of lines and rectangles, or round shapes of various
      2.2. The graphs, pie charts, business charts and other business drawings which
           are produced by spreadsheets are a type of drawing images.
      2.3. Drawing images are made up of lots of different 'objects', where each object
           is a line, rectangle, or other shape.
      2.4. These objects require much less storage than bitmaps.
      2.5. FreeHand, Illustrator or Corel Draw are a sample of Drawing Programs.
      2.6. You can go back to objects you have already drawn and move them around,
          change their size, line thickness, color, and so on.
   2.7. Drawings are good for simpler graphical shapes where you want to be able
       to change and manipulate objects.
3. Page layout programs:
   3.1. Such as Quark Express or PageMaker.
   3.2. It's combining the features of a word processor with a drawing program
        (and adding more).
   3.3. They are used to produce books, magazines or advertisements where the
        designer wants precise control over exactly how and where text and
        graphics appear on a page.
4. Image-manipulation programs:
   4.1. Such as Photoshop.
                                             4.2. They are used for retouching

        images, stretching or distorting
        parts of them, changing areas
        of color, etc.

 1. To Change a part of the image, use the command flips.
 2. To Change The Size, use a command Stretch/Skew.
Section 3.4: Working With numbers and Graphs.
1. Spreadsheets are the choice for the most PC users who work with numbers and
2. Examples of spreadsheets:
   2.1. Microsoft Excel.
   2.2. Lotus 1-2-3.
3. Spreadsheets uses:
   3.1. Keeping simple records of numbers, like the fuel use of your car, bills, etc.
   3.2. To complex financial calculations.
4. A spreadsheet is a program which allows you to enter and manipulate data,
   including numbers, text, dates and formulas.
5. Spreadsheet arranged in a set of columns and rows. Usually the rows are
   designated by a number and the columns by a letter. This allows you to specify any
   particular cell in the spreadsheet, for example the top left cell will be A1.
6. A spreadsheet allows you to ask questions about the data you have entered and
   perform actions with them.
7. Common features of spreadsheet:
   7.1. General Features:
       7.1.1. You can have more than one sheet in a workbook.
       7.1.2. You can use many of the functions you will have encountered with word
              processors, including the edit functions (Copy, Paste, Cut, etc.), formatting
              functions (Bold, Underline, different fonts, etc.), file options (Save, Open, New,
   7.2. Entering Data:
       7.2.1. Spreadsheets consist of cells, in which you can enter data.
       7.2.2. The most common forms of data are numbers, words, dates and times.
       7.2.3. To enter data into a cell click on it with your mouse and type the data in.
       7.2.4. You can enter data far beyond the amount you can see on the screen.

   7.3. Formatting Data:
       7.3.1. You can make the text or numbers appear bold, underlined, italicized, in different
             fonts and in different sizes.
       7.3.2. You can also specify the format for certain types of data.
       7.3.3. You can format cells by going to the Format menu, and selecting Cells, and then
             selecting the category I want, such as Time.
   7.4. Selecting Cells: Spreadsheets allow you to specify the cells on which you want
       to perform an action. If you want to act on a column, select the letter at the top
       of the column to highlight the whole column. The same applies to rows, with
       their numbers. You can also specify a rectangular group (or 'range') of cells by
       clicking on the first cell, holding down the left mouse button, and dragging
       across the cells you want in your selection, as shown in the figure below.
7.5. Formulas:
   7.5.1. Formulas allow you to create a value in one cell by performing actions on another
         cell                     or              range                  of                  cells.

   7.5.2. Formulas types: Arithmetic (+, -, /, *, where / and * indicate division and multiplication
                 respectively). Sum (to find a total). Average (to find the mean of a set of numbers). Max (to find the maximum value of a set of numbers). If-Then is very important because it allows you to perform tests. You can add formula to a cell by going to insert menu and select functions. Count (To Count Cells that contains numbers). There is many more function.
   7.5.3. Charts: Spreadsheets also allow you to represent the data you have in a
                 variety of ways. These include pie charts, bar charts, line graphs and
                 so forth. These can be color coded, and labeled to provide a useful method of
                 viewing the data You need to specify the range of cells you wish your graph to
                 represent. Most spreadsheets have 'wizards' which provide you with a number
                 of questions to answer in order to create your graph.
       7.5.4. Column Width: Columns containing labels-words-usually need to be wider
             than columns for numbers. Columns can also be made narrower, incidentally,
             although less common, it is also possible to alter the height of the row).
       7.5.5. Headings: if a heading is desired, it can be invoked as a wide column and
             can even be centered.
       7.5.6. Number symbols: a number values can be shown with dollar sign ($), a
             percent sign (%), and commas and decimals places, as desired.
       7.5.7. Appearance off data: Spreadsheet data can be presented in one of many
             proffered fonts and in boldface or italic. Furthermore, data can be centered
             within the cell or can be justified right or left within the cell. Often an entire
             column of cells will be
             justified right or left.
       7.5.8. Some         type       of                                               100
             graphics:                                       80

       Line Graphs.                        60                        60

       Bar graphs.                         40
       Pie charts.                                                   0
                                              Feb         Mar       6   5    4     3     2   1
                                                Bar Chart                   Line Chart           Pie Chart

Section 3.5: Storing and finding information's:
1. A database is an organized collection related data, it's also a set of records about a
   particular area.
2. We use database particularly for organizations.
3. DBMS: is software that helps you organize data in a way that allows fast and easy
   access to the data.
4. With database packages you can:
   4.1. Create and maintain a database.( Add, delete, and revise records).
   4.2. Extract and list information that meets certain conditions.
   4.3. Sort record in ascending or descending sequence by key fields.
   4.4. Generate formatted reports for with totals and subtotals.
5. Advantage of Databases:
   5.1. Reduce redundancy: most pieces of information would appear just once.
   5.2. Integrated data: data can be retrieved from any place in the database.
   5.3. Integrity: files are accurate and up-to-date.
6. There are two steps to create a database file:
   6.1. Designing the structure of the database.
   6.2. Entering the data into the file.
7. Database main field types:
   7.1. Field name: must be unique name.
   7.2. Field type:
     7.2.1.   Character fields.
     7.2.2.   Numeric fields.
     7.2.3.   Data fields.
     7.2.4.   Logical fields.
     7.2.5.   Date and time fields.
   1. Databases probably differ between products more than other applications such
      as word processors or spreadsheets.
   2. They are all constructed around the same basic elements however.

Section 3.6: Integrated Document:
An 'integrated document' is one in which elements of different
software types are mixed, (as) for example, graphs and tables from a
spreadsheet in a word processing document, or graphics in a
Section 4: Web Skills
Section 4.1: creating you picture
 1. The internet was provided in 1969, as a way for linking large multi-users computers.
   1.1. The physical links that were setup between them was weirs.
   1.2. Now there are many types of links: microwave links, satellite links, and optical
   1.3. The internet includes the standards and mechanisms for routing information's
        from one computer to the next; a type of standards is "TCP/IP" protocol.
 2. The World Wide Web is one of many services that run on the internet, E-mail is
   2.1. Web first public in January 1991. It used as a way for scientists to put up
         information's and link to each other's documents.
   2.2. Web Standards:
        2.2.1. HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol: specify how information's exchange
              between machines should be handled.
        2.2.2. URL: Universal Resource Locater: Defines the location at which documents
              are stored.
        2.2.3. HTML: Hypertext Markup Language: it can be read by software that
              understands HTML, the software that designed for this purpose was called
 1. HTML including:
     1.1. Ways of formatting text.
     1.2. Several levels of headings.
     1.3. Several types of lists.
     1.4. Character formats.
     1.5. Creating hyperlinks between documents.
     1.6. Color, pictures, tables and frames.

Section 4.2: Finding information's in the web
 1. To navigate use the forward and backward buttons on your web browser. Or the go
    menu which lists all the sites you have visited recently.
 2. If there is a long delay in a site appearing, use the stop button to interrupt the
    transfer, and then try the reload or refreshed button , or just retype the URL and try
 1. You can create "folders" in which you can put your bookmarks/favorites.
2. You can create a hierarchy of folders if necessary.
3. If the name of the Bookmark or favorite is not clear you can edit it and give more
    clearly name.
4. All the command that you need will probably be on a Bookmark of Favorite menu.
  Search engines:
1. Alta Vista.
2. Arab Site.
3. AiwaGulf.
4. Arab World Search Engine (AWSE).
5. WebCrawler.
6. Yahoo.
7. Mamma: The mother of all search engines.
8. NISS: A UK information service for educations.
9. BUBLE: A UK information service for higher educations.
10. Google.
11. Fast. All the Web all the time.
12. Some Signe which will help you in your search:
    12.1.       (") to reduce the search result according to the text between this sign.
    12.2.       (+) To be sure that the text after this will be in the search result.
    12.3.       (-) To be sure that the text after this sign will not be in the search result.
1. Commercial software: the best ideas are jealously guarded, with lawsuits if
2. Free Software: Software was distributed free, together with the original
    programmer's 'source code'.
    2.1. With this, another programmer could improve the program.
    2.2. Learn what clever tricks the first programmer had used.
    2.3. The result was that programmers could build on the best of each other's
   2.4. Programmers could catch and correct errors they had found.
3. Shareware: is software which allows free copying and trial use, but asks users to pay
   a small fee if they like and use it.
4. Freeware: Freeware is basically the gift of the programmer to the user community.
5. Plug-ins, which are extensions to other software such as browsers or graphics
Section 4.3: Creating Web Pages Using HTML.
 1. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): is a set of codes which format the various
    parts of the page, the headings, lists, links, and so on. For a page to be displayed
    on the World Wide Web.
 2. The codes of HTML are called 'tags'.
 3. WYSIWYG: What you see is what you get such as word processing.
 4. WYSIWYM: What you see is what you meant such HTML and other programming
 5. HTML Structure: Main Tags
6. HTML Codes:

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