Year 8 Diff Non-fiction

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Year 8 Diff Non-fiction Powered By Docstoc
					Essex Literacy Team August 2003   1
Essex Literacy Team August 2003                                                                    2

           Year 8 Non-fiction Reading and Writing
                    Medium Term Plan
10. extend the range of prepositions and connectives used to indicate purpose, e.g. in
order to, so that, or express reservations, e.g. although, unless, if;
11. appreciate the impact of figurative language in texts;
12. recognise how the degree of formality influences word choice;
13. understand the implications when a word is in quotation marks or is used ironically;

1. combine clauses into complex sentences, using the comma effectively as a
boundary signpost and checking for fluency and clarity, e.g. using non-finite clauses;
2. explore the impact of a variety of sentence structures, e.g. recognising when it is effective
6. explore and compare different methods of grouping sentences into paragraphs of
continuous text that are clearly focused and well developed, e.g. by chronology,
comparison or through adding exemplification;
7. develop different ways of linking paragraphs, using a range of strategies to improve
cohesion and coherence, e.g. choice of connectives, reference back, linking phrases;
9. adapt the stylistic conventions of the main non-fiction text types to fit different audiences
and purposes, e.g. advertisements, documentaries, editorials;
12. explore and use different degrees of formality in written and oral texts, e.g. formal
speeches, informal journals;

1. combine information from various sources into one coherent document;
3. make notes in different ways, choosing a form which suits the purpose, e.g. diagrammatic
notes, making notes during a video, abbreviating for speed and ease of retrieval;
5. trace the development of themes, values or ideas in texts;
6. recognise bias and objectivity, distinguishing facts from hypotheses, theories or opinions;
7. identify the ways implied and explicit meanings are conveyed in different
10. analyse the overall structure of a text to identify how key ideas are developed, e.g.
through the organisation of the content and the patterns of language used;
11. investigate the different ways familiar themes are explored and presented by different

2. re-read work to anticipate the effect on the reader and revise style and structure, as
well as accuracy,
7. experiment with different language choices to imply meaning and to establish the tone of a
piece, e.g
10. organise and present information, selecting and synthesising appropriate material and
guiding the reader clearly through the text, e.g. a technological process, an information leaflet
13. present a case persuasively, making selective use of evidence, using appropriate
rhetorical devices and anticipating responses and objections;
14. develop and signpost arguments in ways that make the logic clear to the reader;
15. give written advice which offers alternatives and takes account of the possible
consequences, e.g. money management for young people;
16. weigh different viewpoints and present a balanced analysis of an event or issue,
e.g. an environmental issue or historical investigation;
17. integrate evidence into writing to support analysis or conclusions, e.g. data, quotation;
Essex Literacy Team August 2003                                                       3

                            Teaching Sequence

Guidance on Differentiation
   Carefully select structures relevant to needs and abilities, from ’50 ideas for
     starters’. Use ‘Strand Tracker’ for equivalent objectives from other years
  The main body of the lesson
   Questioning in whole class work is the key to differentiation. Needs to relate
     to the lesson objectives. For the more able reference should be made, using
     Strand Tracker, to the objectives for the year above and for the less able,
     the year below. To differentiate for Year 7 less able, reference needs to be
     made to Year 5 & 6 objectives. When giving ‘time-out’ to consider open-
     ended questions this is particularly important.
   Set-up of the classroom to allow paired discussion with carefully selected
   If learning support is available, TAs can monitor understanding of less able
     during whole class time, e.g. during a shared-reading investigation that
     involves annotating text on an OHT. Also if pupils are required to jointly
     answer a question using mini-whiteboards.

  ‘On task time’
  See below, in the ‘Outcomes’ sections of the Teaching Sequence. In some
  cases both task and outcome have been differentiated with appropriate
  objectives from other years or key stage. Where it is appropriate to
  differentiate by difficulty of text or length and composition of written task,
  appropriate objectives only have been given. These objectives will guide
  the variation.

   Carefully select structures relevant to needs and abilities from ’50 ideas for

Stage 1: Review Writing
Reviews: purpose, audience, form and language of a review.
 Encouraging pupils to think critically about, audience, form and language
   of a review, paired or group sharing and feedback about the pitfalls of
   book reviews, linking to starter activity (R10). They may raise:
                 - often say nothing about the book
                 - writer does not express their true opinion
                 - writer says what they think the teacher wants them to hear
                 - describe or retell the story without giving an opinion
                 - does not take account of what the reader wants/needs to
                 - it is important to give the reader a brief idea of what the
                   book is about
                 - it is important to give an opinion and support it with some
                   reference to the book
Essex Literacy Team August 2003                                                 4

  Features of review writing, making a link with the starter (S9 & R10).
   Demonstration of an investigation of a review. Provide a range of reviews,
   book, film, TV programme etc. for pairs/groups to investigate and report
   findings on their features at word, sentence and text level.
 Annotated examples of reviews, labelling the features of the text. (S – Y7,
   13; Y8, 9; Y9, 7). Pupils above level 4 should choose two or three of the
   features of review writing. For each explain why it is a feature.
 As outcomes, using a different example
 Activate prior knowledge about reviews in the first instance, thinking back
   over book reviews done in school and jotting brief notes about,
   ease/difficulty, presenting and organising ideas, the language used, and
   balancing fact and opinion.
 Examination of book review writing frames and their usefulness/provision
   of structure to relate to structures of other reviews

Stage 2: A film review, related to the unit theme, analysis in more depth
 Initially class share knowledge of a recent film and offer opinions.
   Compare with a ‘blurb’ about the film. Groups/pairs separate ‘fact’ and
   ‘opinion’ and share findings. (R6)
 First reading of a review (R10) of the recent the film, pupils annotate a
   copy or make brief notes (R3) about:
                                     - the length
                                     - layout
                                     - beginning and ending
                                     - choices of words
                                     - writer’s sense of audience
 Class shared reading of the review
 A set of criteria for writing an effective review, using own notes and what
   has been learned in shared reading, including positives and pitfalls (S –
   Y7, 13; Y8, 9; Y9, 7) (Wr – Y7, 17; Y8, 15; Y9, 15)
 Write brief notes summing up what has been learned so far about the
   review. (R - Y7, 4; Y8 & 9, 3)
 Collect some examples of reviews related to the theme (e.g. film, book or
 Use homework from the previous stage, reading out sentences explaining
   the features of review writing (S9)
 Dictionary work, picking out key words and phrases from the chosen
   reviews (W6c)
Essex Literacy Team August 2003                                                5

Stage 3: Writing a review
 Preparing to write own review, individually and in pairs looking back at
    work done so far, especially at examples of reviews and the lists of
    features. Pupils choose what to review, e.g. a TV programme, computer
    game, film etc. and where the review will appear, e.g. magazine, website,
    newspaper. (Wr1 – Y7, 8 & 9)
 Research content in terms of, kind of reader, magazine, including, fact and
    opinion, detail, sense of audience. Discuss what a typical reader would be
    with a partner and key words and sentences to use. Focus especially how
    to interest the reader. (R – Y7, 5; Y8 & 9, 4)
 Make an outline plan of the review (Wr1, Y7).
 Peer ‘marking’ of drafts. (Wr2)
Final draft of review (Wr – Y7, 19; Y8, 18; Y9, 17)
Draft review, length dependent on the ability level of the pupils.
Paired discussion and sharing of findings related to the foci for this stage

Focus Stage 4: Information text
 Information leaflet related to the unit theme, in shared reading
   investigate, annotate and relate to the features of a persuasive
   information text. (R - Y7, 7, 8 & 9; Y8, 5, 6 & 7; Y9, 7)
 How successful is the leaflet in its purpose in terms of information, clarity,
   breadth of audience, persuasion of audience to action/view. How does the
   leaflet construct an argument? (R - Y7, 7, 8 & 9; Y8, 5, 6 & 7; Y9, 7)
 Explanation about why information texts are written in this way, including
   quotations from the text to illustrate use of, present tense, use of third
   person and comment on the organisation of paragraphs (Wr – Y7, 12; Y8,
   11; Y9, 10).
 A chart listing the features of the leaflet, under the headings layout,
   vocabulary, sentences, whole text based on the whole class investigation.
   (R – Y7, 4; Y8 & 9, 3).
Starters x 3
 Relate to the conventions of information, explanation and persuasive text.
   (S - Y7, 13; Y8, 9; Y9, 7)

Stage 5: Constructing an argument
 Putting forward an opinion and constructing an argument; dealing with
   challenges to their position; using evidence and recognising when they are
   misusing evidence - role play public meeting debate related to the theme.
   Preparing to put forward an argument, making notes on the argument to
   be put forward in role. (R – Y7, 4; Y8 & 9, 3. Wr – Y7, 16; Y8 & 9, 14)
Essex Literacy Team August 2003                                                  6

 Public meeting role play (S/L – Y7 & 8, 15; Y9, 12).
 Structuring an action plan (Wr – Y7, & 8, 3; Y9, 2).
 Plan of action from debate (Wr – Y7, 12; Y8, 11; Y9, 10).
 Written recap of the arguments put forward in debate and possible action
   to be taken (Y7, 16; Y8 & 9, 14)
 Defining ‘argument’ (7c)
 Differences between information and argument texts (S9)
 Sharing homework ideas

Stage 6: Investigating a newspaper report related to the theme
 Shared reading of a newspaper article related to the theme initially
   focusing on tone, level of seriousness, the aim of the piece. (R – Y7, 7 &
   15; Y8, 5 & 10; Y9, 7 & 11)
 What arguments could be offered for the opposite view? (Wr – Y7, 15; Y8
   & 9, 13)
 Structuring a comparison of original leaflet and newspaper report. (Wr –
   Y7, 18; Y8 & 9, 16)
 Own newspaper column taking the opposite view (Wr – Y7, 15; Y8 & 9,
 Short comparison of the two texts. (Wr – Y7, 18; Y8 & 9, 16)
 Illustrate how many non-fiction texts cross the boundaries of text types.
   Use newspaper extracts that entertain, argue and attempt to persuade –
   finding illustrative examples to share. (S – Y7, 13; Y8, 9; Y9,7)
 Connectives used to structure comparison, e.g. whereas. while, on the
   other hand, in contrast, both, similarly, conversely, on the one hand. (W –
   Y7, 20; Y8,10; Y9, 8)

Stage 7: Letter to your MP based on the theme
 Drafting the letter, start by listing the main points of the letter, using ideas
   generated in previous lessons. Rank-order the points starting with the
   most important. Structure organisation using a writing frame where
   necessary. (Wr – Y7, 8 & 9, 1)
 Shared writing – pooling ideas to write a class letter. (Wr – Y7, 10; Y8, 7;
   Y9, 10)
 Own letter to an MP. (Wr – Y7, 10; Y8, 7; Y9, 10)
 Part of the draft
Essex Literacy Team August 2003                                            7

 Brainstorm of key requirements of a letter to an MP
 Degrees of formality, investigating the differences between spoken and
   written argument. (S – Y7, 15; Y8, 12; Y9, 9)
Essex Literacy Team August 2003                                          8

Some features of review writing
(Based on criteria from The Non-Fiction Book: English and Media Centre

 include, lots of adjectives
 include lots of nouns
 include specialist vocabulary
 include jokes, puns and word play

 present tense
 informal in tone
 use simple and compound sentences for clarity of facts
 use more complex sentences to explain opinion
 use sentences without a verb for impact
 use rhetorical questions to grab attention

Whole text
 uses bold print and headlines
 includes a visual image
 short (200 – 500 words)
 often written in columns
 clear idea of audience is
 contains personal opinion
 refers to other products/texts/people
 includes facts about products/texts/people
 summarises product/text
 analyses product/text
 offers an evaluation

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