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Individual Differences

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					Human Behavior in
Organizations


                      MGMT/PSYC 352:
                  Cayce Lawrence, Ph.D.
       Associate Professor of Management
             Christian Brothers University
Understanding
Individual Differences


Psychological Type
Relationship Orientation
Learning Style
Strength Building
Psychological Type
Jung’s Concept of Type
   Two basic mental functions:
        Perceiving: how we form perceptions or process information
              Sensing: form perceptions through sense experience (see, touch, feel, hear, taste, etc.)
              Intuition: form perceptions through abstraction and conceptualization
        Judging: how we form mental judgments and make decisions
              Thinking: form judgments using objective principles, rules, standards – emphasis on “right” action regardless
               of effect on people
              Judging: form judgments using personal values – emphasis on people regardless of technical correctness of the
               action

   Energizing: basic orientation to our experiences
        Extraversion: energized by external experiences and people (outward)
        Introversion: energized by internal reflection (inward)

   Everyone uses all four mental functions and both orientations

   We have an innate preference for each mental function and a dominant orientation to the world
                  So What Is My Type??


                                               How Do I Make Decisions




  What is my primary
source of mental energy?




                     What do I Pay Attention
                                               How Do I Operate in the
                               To?
                                                  External World?
       Very Clear        Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear   Very Clear

E extraversion                                                                                  introversion I

       Energized by Outer World                                                       Energized by Inner World

E extraversion
       Energized by Outer World                                                       Energized by Inner World

E extraversion
       Energized by Outer World                                                       Energized by Inner World

E extraversion
       Energized by Outer World                                                       Energized by Inner World

       Very Clear        Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear   Very Clear


                                                      E/I      S/N   T/F        J/P

                    Self-Assessment
                    Work-Situation
                    MBTI
                    Best-Fit
1. Dominant Orientation/Direction - Energizing




       Extroverts: Outward!                           Introverts: Inward!
     the world of other people and events      In quiet places away from people and activity
     Focus on people and things                Focus on thoughts, concepts
     Active (let’s go out!)                    Reflective
     Breadth of interest                       Depth of interest
     Live it, then understand it               Understand it before living it
     Interaction with others – Joiners!        Concentration
     Outgoing                                  Feel lost/lonely in large crowds
     Like variety and action                   Prefer to work alone, dislike interruptions (phone!)
     Act, then think                           Think, then (maybe) act
     Like to develop ideas by discussion       Develop ideas by reflection
     Phone calls welcome
       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear

E extraversion                                                                                                         introversion I
                                                                                                     X
       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


S sensing                                                                                                               intuition N

       Work with Known Facts                                                              Look for Possibilities and
                                                                                          Relationships
T thinking                                                                                                                 feeling F

       Base Decisions on Impersonal                                                       Base Decisions on Personal
       analysis and Logic                                                                 Values

J judging                                                                                                              perceiving P

       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear


                                                          E/I      S/N   T/F        J/P

                        Self-Assessment                   I
                        Work-Situation
                        MBTI
                        Best-Fit
    2. The First Mental Function - Perceiving




    Sensors: Common Sense!                               Intuitives: Big Picture!
   Facts, data, detail                               Meanings, associations, theories
   “reality” based – focus on what is in the         Possibilities – speculation – focus on what
    present                                            might be
   Practical                                         Future oriented –
   Like information orderly, precise, and clear      Conceptual and abstract – like information to
   Prefer using “standard” procedures and             flow freely
    processes rather than creating new ones           Prefer change and learning n ew skills
   Details first!                                    Global schemes first!
   Learn through their senses – distrust             Learn through imagination – question sense
    hunches                                            experiences
       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear

E extraversion                                                                                                         introversion I
                                                                                                     X
       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


S sensing                                                                                                               intuition N
                                                                                                                  X
       Work with Known Facts                                                              Look for Possibilities and
                                                                                          Relationships
T thinking                                                                                                                 feeling F

       Base Decisions on Impersonal                                                       Base Decisions on Personal
       analysis and Logic                                                                 Values

J judging                                                                                                              perceiving P

       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear


                                                          E/I      S/N   T/F        J/P

                        Self-Assessment                   I         N
                        Work-Situation
                        MBTI
                        Best-Fit
    3. The Second Mental Function - Judging




    Thinking: Objective!                          Feeling: Subjective!
   Analysis, logic, reason                     People, sympathy, caring
   Impersonal, focus on criteria and           Highly personal, focus on circumstances
    objective principles
                                                 and personal values
   Firm-minded, willing to give criticism
                                                Concerned for people’s feelings, prefer
   Brief and concise
                                                 to give praise rather than criticize
   Persuaded by cool reasoning, not
    passion                                     Persuaded by passion rather than
                                                 reasoning
   Goals and objectives first!
   Fairness! Justice! Principles!              Points of agreement first!
                                                Mercy! Forgiveness! Values!
       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear

E extraversion                                                                                                         introversion I
                                                                                                     X
       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


S sensing                                                                                                               intuition N
                                                                                                                  X
       Work with Known Facts                                                              Look for Possibilities and
                                                                                          Relationships
T thinking                                                                                                                 feeling F
                                                                                                          X
       Base Decisions on Impersonal                                                       Base Decisions on Personal
       analysis and Logic                                                                 Values

J judging                                                                                                              perceiving P

       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear


                                                          E/I      S/N   T/F        J/P

                        Self-Assessment                   I         N    F
                        Work-Situation
                        MBTI
                        Best-Fit
4. Operating in the External World: Which
   Preference do Others See?



             Perceiving:                                       Judging:
     Continue gathering/processing information      Bring decisions to a close - decisive
     Flexible, spontaneous, tentative               Organized, planned, systematic
     Open to change                                 Need sense of control over time and work
     Undaunted by surprises – welcome them!         Require deadlines
     Burst of energy at last minute                 Work at steady pace according to the plan
     Feel closed in by routines and schedules       Feel empowered by routines and schedules
     Uncomfortable with deadlines                   Uncomfortable with change once a decision
                                                      is made
       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear

E extraversion                                                                                                         introversion I
                                                                                                     X
       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


S sensing                                                                                                               intuition N
                                                                                                                  X
       Work with Known Facts                                                              Look for Possibilities and
                                                                                          Relationships
T thinking                                                                                                                 feeling F
                                                                                                          X
       Base Decisions on Impersonal                                                       Base Decisions on Personal
       analysis and Logic                                                                 Values

J judging                                                                                                              perceiving P
                                                                                                                       X
       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear


                                                          E/I      S/N   T/F        J/P

                        Self-Assessment                   I         N    F          P
                        Work-Situation
                        MBTI
                        Best-Fit
The MBTI

 Assesses clarity of preference not degree of attribute:
 Creates a four-letter code for “translating” Jungian
  types
 Contributed a fourth category (lifestyle) to help
  understand how we use our preferences
 Treats test results as a “hypothesis” and asks
  participants to interpret their own type.
Determining your Type

1. Compare your self-assessment with the results from
   the online survey.
2. Read through the printed material and determine if it
   fits you.
3. If your self-assessment differs from the survey, which
   do you agree with? Why?
       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear

E extraversion                                                                                                         introversion I
                                                                                                     X
       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


S sensing                                                                                                               intuition N
                                                                                                                  X
       Work with Known Facts                                                              Look for Possibilities and
                                                                                          Relationships
T thinking                                                                                                                 feeling F
                                                                                                          X
       Base Decisions on Impersonal                                                       Base Decisions on Personal
       analysis and Logic                                                                 Values

J judging                                                                                                              perceiving P
                                                                                                                       X
       Energized by Outer World                                                           Energized by Inner World


       Very Clear            Clear    Moderate   Slight         Slight   Moderate          Clear      Very Clear


                                                          E/I      S/N   T/F        J/P

                        Self-Assessment                   I         N    F          P
                        Work-Situation
                        MBTI                              I         N    F          P
                        Best-Fit                          I         N    F          P
Summary of Types

 ISTJ   ISFJ   INFJ   INTJ

 ISTP   ISFP   INFP   INTP

 ESTP   ESFP   ENFP   ENTP

 ESTJ   ESFJ   ENFJ   ENTJ
Watch Your Language!!!!

   Sensors Want:
        the facts FIRST
        the situation outlined before the idea
        to know the status
        Simple, direct language
        Consistency with current practice
   Intuitors Want
        The idea(s) FIRST
        the possibilities
        Implications and interpretations of facts
        Analagous, metaphorical, conceptual language
        Innovation beyond current practice
Watch Your Language!!!

   Thinkers want to consider:
      pros and cons
      logical consequences
      COSTS
      What is the consequence of not acting?
   Feelers want to consider:
        Personal investment in alternatives
        values involved
        People’s possible reactions
        Level of commitment
        Will the outcome contribute to individual or group harmony?
More About Type: Dynamics

 The Myers-Briggs research group has developed tools for understanding how people
    use their mental functions, called Type Dynamics, based on the following
    concepts:
 •   Everyone uses all of the mental functions, but they develop differently AND people express them
     differently.
 •   The Type Indicator shows how Type typically develops and helps people understand differences more
     clearly.
 •   The four categories of Type Development are:
      •    Dominant Function: appears FIRST, develops FASTEST, feels most NATURAL – begins developing at birth
      •    Auxiliary Function: appears SECOND, develops fairly early (high school/college), is most obvious to others
           for introverts
      •    Tertiary Function: develops third, usually in early adulthood, difficult to acquire skills, rarely becomes a
           “strength”. It is the opposite of the Auxiliary Function.
      •    Inferior Function: develops last, if at all, in later adulthood, very difficult to acquire skills. It is the opposite of
           the Dominant
More About Type: Dynamics

   45
   40
   35
   30                   Dominant
   25
                        Auxiliary
   20
                        Tertiary
   15
   10                   Inferior

    5
    0
        Time
More About Type: Dynamics


          Jane Doe           ISTJ

          Mike Smith         ISTJ

          Dmitri Popovich    ISTP

          Glynceria Watson   ISFP

          Mary Ellis         ENFP

          Tim Johnson        ESFJ
 More About Type: Dynamics

                          Step 1: Determine the “Extraverted” Function

Jane Doe           ISTJ   •   Look at the “J/P” Preference.

Mike Smith         ISTJ         • If it is “J”, then the person uses his/her Judging preference in the
                                  Extravered Mode
Dmitri Popovich    ISTP
                                • e.g. Jane Doe is ISTJ – she “extraverts” her judging preference, T.
Glynceria Watson   ISFP           She “introverts” her perceiving preference, S.

Mary Ellis         ENFP         • e.g. Mary Ellis is ENFP – she “extraverts” her perceiving
                                  preference, N. She “introverts” her judging preference, F.
Tim Johnson        ESFJ
 More About Type: Dynamics

                          Dominant Step 2: Determine the “Dominant” Orientation

Jane Doe           ISTJ       Si     •    Look at the “E/I” Preference.

Mike Smith         ISTJ       Si           • If it is “E”, then the dominant function is the one the person
                                             uses in the Extraverted Mode
Dmitri Popovich    ISTP      Ti            • If it is “I”, then the dominant function is the one the person
                                             uses in the Introverted Mode
Glynceria Watson   ISFP       Fi
                                           • e.g. Jane Doe is ISTJ – Her dominant function is the one
Mary Ellis         ENFP      Ne              she uses in the Introverted Mode, i.e. her Perceiving
                                             preference - S. This is Noted with the symbol Si

Tim Johnson        ESFJ      Fe            • e.g. Mary Ellis is ENFP – Her dominant function is the one
                                             she uses in the Extraverted Mode, i.e. N . This is noted with
                                             the symbol Ne.
More About Type: Dynamics

                                    Dominant   Auxiliary         Step 3: Determine the “Auxiliary” Orientation

Jane Doe                     ISTJ      Si            Te          The Auxiliary (second) Function is the other Mental
                                                                 Function Preference, used in the mode Opposite the
Mike Smith                   ISTJ      Si            Te          Dominant Function.

Dmitri Popovich              ISTP      Ti            Se                    e.g. Jane Doe is ISTJ – Her dominant
                                                                           function is Introverted Sensing, or Si. Her
Glynceria Watson             ISFP      Fi            Se                    Auxiliary Function is Extraverted Thinking, Te.

                                                                           e.g. Mary Ellis is ENFP – Her dominant
Mary Ellis                   ENFP      Ne            Fi
                                                                           function is Extraverted Intuition, Ne. Her
                                                                           Auxiliary function is Introveted Feeling, Fi.
Tim Johnson                  ESFJ      Fe             Si


Si = Introverted Sensing                       Ti = Introverted Thinking
Se = Extraverted Sensing                       Te = Extraverted Thinking
Ni = Introverted Intuition                     Fi = Introverted Feeling
Ne = Extraverted Intuition                     Fe = Extraverted Feeling
More About Type: Dynamics
                                                                Step 4: Determine the “Tertiary” and “Inferior”
                     Dom. Aux.      Tertiary         Inferior   Functions

Jane Doe      ISTJ    Si   Te            F                N     The Tertiary (third) Function is the opposite of the
                                                                Auxiliary. The Orientation (E/I) does not matter.

Mike Smith    ISTJ    Si   Te            F                N     The Inferior Function is the opposite of the Dominant.
                                                                The Orientation does not matter.
Dmitri
              ISTP    Ti   Se            N                F             e.g. Jane Doe is ISTJ – Her dominant function
Popovich
                                                                        is Introverted Sensing, or Si. Her Auxiliary
Glynceria                                                               Function is Extraverted Thinking, Te. Her
              ISFP    Fi   Se            N                T             Tertiary function is Feeling, or F. Her Inferior
Watson                                                                  Function is Intuition, N.

Mary Ellis    ENFP    Ne   Fi            T                S
                                                                        e.g. Mary Ellis is ENFP – Her dominant
                                                                        function is Extraverted Intuition, Ne. Her
Tim Johnson   ESFJ    Fe   Si            N                T             Auxiliary function is Introveted Feeling, Fi. Her
                                                                        Tertiary function is Thinking, or T. Her Inferior
                                                                        Function is Sensing, S.

                                 Si = Introverted Sensing                                      Ti = Introverted Thinking
                                 Se = Extraverted Sensing                                      Te = Extraverted Thinking
                                 Ni = Introverted Intuition                                    Fi = Introverted Feeling
                                 Ne = Extraverted Intuition                                    Fe = Extraverted Feeling
     Relating to Others




Who are you,
and what is your preferred
work style?
     Introduction

                          FIRO-B                                                              MBTI
           Fundamental Interpersional Relationship Orientation                          Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


1.    Measures Interpersonal Needs                                        1.   Assesses Preferences for using basic mental functions
      a)       Inclusion – belonging, involvement, recognition,                a)      Perceiving (Sensing/iNtuition)
               participation                                                   b)      Judging (Thinking/Feeling)
      b)       Control – power, authority, responsibility, consistency,   2.   Assesses the dominant Direction and energizing
               influence
                                                                               preference (Extravert/Introvert)
      c)       Affection – personal ties, support, consensus, openness,
               sensitivity                                                3.   Assesses how individuals structure the external
                                                                               world (Judging/Perceiving)
2.    Measures the direction of each need
      a)       expressed – the extent to which a person initiates the     4.   Assesses Type – that is and either/or condition
               behavior                                                        that is innate and develops over time in
      b)       wanted – the extent to which a person wants or will             predictable patterns
               accept that behavior from others                           5.   Constant over time and situation (innate)
3.    Measures traits – that is, the presence of more or less of a
      preference or orientation
4.    Subject to change over time and situation (learned)
Factors Influencing Results

   Life events
   Cultural differences
   Terminology
   Avoidance of extremes
   Environmental change
   Differences in degree over time based on
    experiences in relationships
            FIRO-B Results

              Inclusion                    Control                    Affection
            Expressed Inclusion    eI   Expressed Control     eC   Expressed Affection    eA   Total Expressed Behavior
Expressed




                        0                           0                          2                            2

            Wanted Inclusion       wI   Wanted Control        wC   Wanted Affection       wA    Total Wanted Behavior
Wanted




                        0                           1                          5                            6

             Total Need for Inclusion    Total Need for Control     Total Need for Affection   Overall Interpersonal Needs


                        0                          1                           7                            8
Average Scores and Ranges



                                                ROW
            INCLUSION   CONTROL    AFFECTION   TOTALS

              4 to 7     2 to 5      3 to 6    9 to 18
EXPRESSED
               5.4        3.9         4.1       13.4

              5 to 8     3 to 6      3 to 6    11 to 20
 WANTED
               6.5        4.6         4.6        15.9

 COLUMN      9 to 15     5 to 11     6 to 12   20 to 38
 TOTALS       11.9         8.5         8.9       29.3
FIRO-B Incompatibilities


 Reciprocal – Difference between one person’s
  expressed behavior and another person’s
  wanted behavior
 Originator – Match between expressed scores
  of two individuals
Discovering Your
Strengths
Understanding Individual Differences: Developing
individual strengths
Developing individual strengths

 Step 1: Assess Progress from Last Review
Developing individual strengths
Step 1: Assess Progress
        from Last Review




    Step 2: Discuss Deficiencies, aka “areas of opportunity”
Developing individual strengths
Step 1: Assess Progress                       Step 2: Discuss Deficiencies, aka
        from Last Review                              “areas of opportunity”




                           Step 3: Set “Development” Goals”
Developing individual strengths
Step 1: Assess Progress    Step 2: Discuss Deficiencies, aka
        from Last Review           “areas of opportunity”




Step 4:
 Train,
 Train,
 Train
                           Step 3: Set “Development” Goals”
Developing individual strengths
Step 1: Assess Progress           Step 2: Discuss Deficiencies, aka
        from Last Review                  “areas of opportunity”




Step 5: Repeat




Step 4: Train, Train, Train…………   Step 3: Set “Development” Goals”
Developing individual strengths
Step 1: Assess Progress                             Step 2: Discuss Deficiencies, aka
        from Last Review                                    “areas of opportunity”




                   Exhausting    Is this the best
                                way to maximize          Confusing
Step 5: Repeat
                                the productivity
                                      of our
                 Resistant to      employees?
                                                         Ignore
                   Change
                                                        Strengths

Step 4: Train, Train, Train…………                     Step 3: Set “Development” Goals”
Developing individual strengths

                          Unsociable
Developing individual strengths




    Procrastination    Time Management



     Tempermental     Emotional Intelligence


     Disorganized     Project Management
Developing individual strengths

Three Great Myths

      I Can Be Anything I Want to Be if I Just Try Hard Enough!


    The greatest room for growth is in my areas of greatest weakness!

   My Strengths will take care of themselves – I need to focus my energy on
                         overcoming those weaknesses!
Developing individual strengths


    A New Way of Thinking……….

    Talent (a natural way of thinking, feeling or behaving)
X   Investment (time spent practicing, developing skills, building knowledge base)

    Strength (the ability to deliver consistently exceptional performance)
Understanding Individual Differences: Developing
individual strengths



The Strength Building Process……….

                    1.    Identify Talent Themes


                2. Invest Resources Developing Talent


        3. Continually Grow in Your Areas of Greatest Strength
Developing individual strengths


   The History…
     Follow up to National Bestseller “Now, Discover Your Strengths”
      by Clifton and Buckingham
     2 million have taken assessment since 2001
           Many of those interviewed to develop suggestions for each theme
     Designed to go beyond industry applications to a global focus on
      “what’s right” about each of us
     Based upon 40 years of Gallop research
Developing individual strengths


   The Theory (continued)…
       Naturally
           Innate
           Synaptic connections
       Unique
           No one else like you!!! (32 million combinations)
           Knowledge, experiences, values, skills
       Talents
           Patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior that can be productively applied
       Strengths
           Consistent, near-perfect performance in a specific task
           WITH PRACTICE!!!
Developing individual strengths


                                Consistency



Empathy
          34 Talent Themes
               Woo




                      Learner
Developing individual strengths


                                Consistency



Empathy
          Top Five Themes
               Woo




                      Learner
Developing individual strengths


                                Consistency



Empathy
           “Plus” Themes
               Woo




                      Learner
Developing individual strengths
                 • Create alternative ways to proceed when presented with
                   obstacles
   Strategic
                 • Quickly spot relevant patterns and issues in different
                   situations
   Ideation      • Play out “what if ” scenarios in the mind


  Intellection


  Futuristic


  Developer
Developing individual strengths


   Strategic     • Fascinated by ideas
                 • Enjoy explaining why things are the way they are
   Ideation      • Look for connections
                 • Look at world from multiple perspectives
                 • Excited by new view of things and brand new ideas
  Intellection


  Futuristic


  Developer
Developing individual strengths


   Strategic

                 • Like to think – mental activity
   Ideation      • Focus depends on other strengths (for me can be both ideas
                   and feelings)
                 • Enjoy time alone for musing and reflection
  Intellection
                 • Introspective
                 • Can experience discontent when reflection exposes
  Futuristic       internal inconsistency


  Developer
Developing individual strengths


   Strategic


   Ideation



  Intellection
                 • Inspired by the Future
                 • Interested in possibilities
  Futuristic
                 • Inspire others with vision of the future

  Developer
Developing individual strengths


   Strategic


   Ideation



  Intellection


  Futuristic     • See the potential in others
                 • See each individual as a work in progress
  Developer      • Help others experience success
                 • Able to see small increments of improvement in others
Understanding Individual Differences: Developing
individual strengths

 The    Good News…
   Engagement comes from focusing on strengths
      six times as likely to be engaged in their jobs

      more than three times as likely to report having an excellent quality of life in
       general
   Engagement leads to
      Higher employee retention

      Increased productivity

      Enhanced profitability

      Improved customer engagement

      Superior safety
Developing individual strengths

Discovering Uniqueness: The Three Levers
  1.    Strengths & Weaknesses:
       a.   what is the best day you had at work in the last three months? What were you
            doing? Why did you enjoy it so much?
       b.   What was your worst day at work in the last three months? What were you
            doing? Why did it grate on you so much?
  2.    Triggers:
       a.   what was the best relationship you ever had with a manager? What made it
            work so well?
       b.   What is the best praise or recognition you’ve ever received? What made it so
            good?
  3.    Learning Style
       a.   When in your career did you learn the most? Why did you learn do much?
       b.   What’s the best way for you to learn?
Developing individual strengths
Strategies for Developing Employees:
   1.    Rigorously identify and build on talent:
        a.   Strengthsfinder results
        b.   Myers-Briggs and other personality inventories
        c.   Honor differences
   2.    Rigorously identify weaknesses and systematically seek to:
        a.   Neutralize their effect on performance
        b.   Build well-rounded teams, not well rounded individuals
        c.   Work with employees to develop basic skills in areas of weakness when it is
             necessary.
   3.    Break the traditional rules
        a.   Invest in talent, not in remediation
        b.   Focus on outcomes, not on procedures
        c.   Redefine “strengths” and “weaknesses” appropriately
        d.   Hire for talent, not technical qualifications
Leadership Challenge




LPI Results
                          Self   A    B    C    Average

    Model the Way          19    23   24   24       24

Inspire a Shared Vision    24    25   29   19       24

Challenge the Process      22    23   27   16       22

 Enable Others to Act      27    28   26   24       26

 Encourage the Heart       24    21   24   21       22
       Model      Inspire a      Challenge      Enable        Encourage
      the Way   Shared Vision   the Process   Others to Act    the Heart
100    *30          *30             *30            *30           *30

                    *29             *29            *29
       *29                                                       *29
       *28          *28             *28
                    *27             *27
       *27                                         *28
90                                                               *28
                                    *26
                    *26                            *27
       *26                          *25                          *27
80                  *25

       *25
                                    *24            *26           *26
                    *24
70
       *24                          *23            *25           *25

                    *23
60
       *23                                                       *24
                                    *22
                                                   *24
                    *22
50
                                    *21
                    *21
                                                                 *23
40     *22
                                    *20
                    *20                            *23

       *21                                                       *22

30                                  *19
                    *19
                                                   *22
       *20          *18             *18                          *21
20                                  *17            *21
                    *17                                          *20
       *19
                                    *16                          *19
                    *16
                                                   *20
       *18          *15             *15
10                                                 *19           *18
       *17
                    *14                            *18           *17
                                    *14
                                              What
                                             Leaders
                                               Do




                                                                          The Secret   Application to
                    Ten                                      Strengthen
Five Practices                 Credibility   Collaboration                   To           Stages
                 Commitments                                   Others
                                                                           Success        Model
The Five Practices

  Model the                      Enable others
    Way                             to Act

                 Encourage the
                    Heart

 Challenge the                     Inspire a
   Process                       Shared Vision
    Model the Way
   Behavior Wins Respect
   Clear About Their Principles                   Enable others
                                                      to Act
   Lead by Example
   Clear Communication of
    Direction
   Even Minor Details are
                                   Encourage the
    Important                         Heart




     Challenge the                                   Inspire a
       Process                                     Shared Vision
Inspire a Shared Vision
Model the                                            Enable others
  Way                                                   to Act


                                 Speak their Language
                                 Understand Their Needs
                Encourage the    Ignite Passion with Enthusiasm
                   Heart
                                 Inspire Commitment (not
                                  Command it)
                                 Dialogue (not Monologue)



Challenge the
  Process
    Challenge the Process
    Model the                                        Enable others
      Way                                               to Act




                                     Encourage the
                                        Heart
   Seek and Accept the Challenge
   No fear of Changing from Status Quo
   Challenge System
   Recognize and Support New Ideas
   Learn from Success and Failures                    Inspire a
                                                     Shared Vision
Enable Others to Act
                   Team Effort (Never an Individual)
                   Frequency of the Use of the Word We
Model the
  Way              Empower them to Ownership
                   Enable them to Feel Strong, Capable and Committed
                   Strengthen their Capacity to Deliver

                      Encourage the
                         Heart




Challenge the                                             Inspire a
  Process                                               Shared Vision
Encourage the Heart
Model the                                                       Enable others
  Way                                                              to Act



                   Genuine Acts of Caring
                   Show Appreciation for Contributions
                   Recognition and Celebration Show
                    Encouragement
                   Link Rewards to Performance
                   Share Vision to Align them with Cherished
                    Values

Challenge the                                                     Inspire a
  Process                                                       Shared Vision
  The Ten Commitments

                Model the Way                                                               Enable others to Act
 •Find your voice by clarifying your personal values                      •Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust

 •Set the example by Aligning Actions with Shared Values                  •Strengthen others by sharing power and discretion



                                                 Encourage the Heart
                                   • Recognize contributions by showing appreciation for individual excellence
                                   • Celebrate the values and victories by creating a spirit of community




          Challenge the Process                                                          Inspire a Shared Vision
• Search for opportunities by seeking innovative ways to change, grow          •Envision the future by imagining exciting and ennobling possibilities
  and improve
                                                                               •Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to shared aspirations
• Experiment and take risks by constantly generating small wins and
  learning from mistakes
Credibility

  Honest                                            Forward-Looking
   88%                                                   71%




Leaders who do what they say they will do:
                   Practice what they preach
                        Walk the talk
                Act consistent with their words
               Put their money where their mouth
               Follow through with their promises



   Competent                                           Inspiring

     66%                                                  65%
Fostering Collaboration



     Create a                                       Facilitate
     Climate                                         Positive
     of Trust                                   Interdependence
                    “(The) challenge is to instill
                 confidence in (team members) and
                help them recognize their abilities.”
                              p. 279


                            Support
                          Face-to-Face
                          Interactions
Fostering Collaboration

Trust
others


         Create a                                    Facilitate
         Climate                                      Positive
         of Trust                                Interdependence
                     “Collaboration is the critical
                     competency for achieving and
                    sustaining high performance.”
                               p. 242


                             Support
                           Face-to-Face
                           Interactions
Fostering Collaboration

Trust
others


         Create a                                    Facilitate
         Climate                                      Positive      Support
         of Trust                                Interdependence   Norms of
                     “Collaboration is the critical                Reciprocity
                     competency for achieving and
                    sustaining high performance.”
                               p. 242


                             Support
                           Face-to-Face
                           Interactions
Fostering Collaboration

  Trust
  others


                    Create a                                     Facilitate
                    Climate                                       Positive          Support
                    of Trust                                 Interdependence       Norms of
                                 “Collaboration is the critical                    Reciprocity
                                 competency for achieving and
                                sustaining high performance.”
                                           p. 242


                                         Support
                                       Face-to-Face
                                       Interactions



Connect Others to              Develop Social Awareness                        Share Information
Sources of Power                   and Social Skills                             and Resources
                                 Strengthen Others
     “Feeling powerful…comes from a                                                                            “We become most powerful when we
     deep sense of being in control of                                                                            give our own power away.”
                   life.”
                                                                                                                            p. 284
                   p. 282                           Generate                             Ensure
                                                    Power All                              Self-
                                                     Around                             Leadership



“Accountability results in feelings of                                                                              “With increased discretion comes an
 ownership, that we – not someone                             “(The) challenge is to instill                        increased ability to use and expand
  else – have the responsibility for                       confidence in (team members) and                         our talents, training and experience.
     what’s going on around us.”                          help them recognize their abilities.”                           The payoff is improved
                                            Foster                                                   Provide
                                         Accountability                 p. 279                       Choice                     performance.”
               p. 301
                                                                                                                                   p. 291

                                                                      Develop
                                                                     Competence
                                                                        And
                                                                     Confidence


                        “…leaders act as coaches, helping others to use their skills and talents, as well as learn from their
                                                                   experiences.”
                                                                        p. 298
     The Secret to Success….


“The best-kept secret of successful leaders is love: staying in
 love with leading, with the people who do the people who do
  the work, with what the organizations produce, and with
     those who honor the organization by using its work.
                           p. 398
Groups and teams
Work Team Effectiveness
Model




                          Exhibit 18.2
Characteristics of Teams
       Spend time and energy helping the team reach its goal

    Member Roles-
      Task specialist role spend       Socio-emotional role
       time and energy helping           support team
       the team reach its goal           members’ emotional
               Initiate ideas           needs
               Give opinions                     Encourage
               Seek information                  Harmonize
               Summarize                         Reduce tension
               Energize                          Follow
                                                  Compromise
Stages of Team Development
                    Exhibit 18.5
Perception, Stereotypes and
how they affect Conflict
So What Do You See?
So What Do You See?
So What Do You See?
So What Do You See?
So What Do You See?
So What Do You See?
The Basics of Perception

   How we interpret what we see is the unconscious
    process of:
     Separating into figure and background
     Selecting what we “look at” or “listen to”
     Ordering the environment into a “whole” that makes
      sense to us
What Does He See/Hear/Sense?

  Waiting Line             Manager/Supervisor



Facial Expression           “inbox” of work




“fat” deposit bag           Other Tellers




    Gender          Mood     Time of Day
The Perceptual Process
  Waiting Line

Manager/Supervisor

Facial Expression

 “inbox” of work

“fat” deposit bag
                                                                       So What went
  Other Tellers                                                        on during this
                                                                       Transaction?
                                                        Noise,
    Gender                                          Education, Prior
                     Learning Style,                  Experience
                                       Perceptual
  Time of Day         Personality,        Bias
                        Culture
Perceptual Errors
                    Stereotyping
   Halo Effect




                      Primacy/Recency




  Reflection
                 Learning Style

 The way a person perceives, interprets and responds
  to information
 Two key dimensions:
     how you gather information
     how you evaluate and act on information
           Learning Styles - Kolb

   Information Gathering
     Concrete experience – learn through personal involvement
     Abstract conceptualization – build theories using logic, ideas and
       concepts
   Evaluation and Action
     Reflective observation – seek meaning through study
     Active experimentation – change situations and influence others to
       see what happens
     Learning Styles – Four Types

   Accommodating
        Concrete experience – learn through personal involvement
        Active experimentation – change situations and influence others to see what happens
   Diverging
        Concrete experience – learn through personal involvement
        Reflective observation – seek meaning through study
   Assimilating
        Reflective observation – seek meaning through study
   Converging
        Abstract conceptualization – build theories using logic, ideas and concepts
        Active experimentation – change situations and influence others to see what happens
                                Accomodating (CE/AE)

                                Best at hands-on learning
       Enjoy carrying out plans and involvement in new, challenging experiences
                      Act on "gut feeling" more than logical analysis
                        Solve problems by interacting with others
                     Inclined toward careers in marketing and sales
                 Prefer to work in groups to accomplish learning tasks

                                  Converging (AC/AE)

                    Best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories
   Prefer technical tasks and prescribed problems over social or interpersonal issues
             Best at solving problems where one correct solution is required
            Inclined toward technical careers (engineering, computers, etc.)
        Prefer to learn via simulations, lab assignments, and assigned problems

                                 Assimilating (AC/RO)

    Best at arranging broad range of information into concise, cohesive, logical form
     Prefer working through abstract ideas and concepts to working with people to
                                       solve problems
                        Prefer logical soundness to practical value
                         Inclined to scientific or academic careers
          Prefer to learn through lectures, readings, models, and thinking time

                                   Diverging (CE/RO)

              Best at viewing concrete situations from various perspectives
Work best in situations requiring generation of ideas and alternative solutions to problems
                           Excel at creative, inventive activites
                          Inductive thinkers with broad interests
              Like to gather lots of information and engage in brainstorming
            Prefer to learn in groups where diverse perspectives are present
         Tend to select careers in the arts, social service, and communication
Perceptual Biases

   Stereotyping
   Halo
   Projection
   Primacy and recency
   Selective perception
   Denial
   Perceptual defense
   Expectancy
   Self-fulfilling prophecy
Perceptual Biases


   Stereotyping
     The application of a standardized impression of a (readily
      discernable) group of people to influence our perception of the
      traits or behavior of a particular individual. Basically, generalizing
      about many from one or a few
   Halo
     Allowing one characteristic of an individual to form our
      perception of all of that individuals’ characteristics.
Perceptual Biases

   Projection
     Blaming our problems on others or attributing our feelings to
       other people.
   Primacy and recency
     First impressions count; the most recent thing you see or hear is
       what you remember.
   Selective perception
     The filtering process, including both selective attention and
       selective retention.
Perceptual Biases


   Denial
     Refusing to acknowledge or act on threatening
      information.
   Perceptual defense
     Clinging to the perceptions we have
   Expectancy
     Seeing what we expect to see.
Attribution: How We Form
Judgments


   Internal vs. external attribution
     Internal: behavior/outcome the result of internal processes
      (intention, planning, hard-work, etc.); i.e., it is caused by the
      person
     External: behavior/outcome the result of external processes
      (luck, chance, favoritism, birth, etc.); i.e., it is caused by the
      situation
Attribution: How We Form
Judgments


   Internal vs. external
    attribution
     Internal: success through
      own abilities and efforts
     External: success through    Self
      luck or others’ help

                                  Others



                                           Success   Failure
Attribution: How We Form
Judgments


   Internal vs. external
    attribution
     Internal: success through
      own abilities and efforts
     External: success through    Self
      luck or others’ help

                                  Others



                                           Success   Failure
 What Does He See/Hear/Sense?
                                       Children Noise
          Weather



                                          Helper Comments
Condition of Bus




                                           Road Signs/Lights
   Pedestrians



                                    Children Seating
                   Advertisements
The Perceptual Process
    Weather

Condition of Bus

  Pedestrians

 Advertisements

Helper Comments                                           So How What
                                                          went on during
Road Signs/Lights                                          the Trip This
                                             Other Past      Morning?
                                              Learning
Children Seating    Selection   Perceptual
                                  Bias
Perceptual Errors
                    Stereotyping
   Halo Effect




                      Primacy/Recency




  Reflection
Accurate and supportive
communication
2



               Communication
    The sharing of information between two or more
    individuals or groups to reach a common
    understanding (but not necessarily agreement).
8

    The Basic Model
5




               Communication - Key Terms

       Sender: The individual, group, or organization that needs or wants to share
        information with some other individual, group, or organization.

       Receiver: The individual, group, or organization for which the information is
        intended.

       Message: The information that a sender needs or wants to share with other
        people (needs to be both clear and complete
6




               Communication - Key Terms
       Encoding: Translating a message into symbols or language that a receiver can
        understand.

       Medium: The pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a
        receiver.

       Decoding: Interpreting or trying to make sense of a sender’s message.

       Noise: Anything that interferes with the communication process.
              Obstacles to Accurate
                 Communication
                Mood          Learned Bias



                                             Characteristics of
  Physical
                                             Sender/Receiver

                        Noise!!!
Environment



                                              Sounds, lights,
  People
                                                movement

              Time of Day     Technology
12




     Selecting the Right Medium
13


           Choosing the Medium: Trade Offs

        Information richness versus the amount of time required to
         communicate
             Important and complex messages need to be sent using media high in
              information richness
             Less important and/or simpler messages can be sent using media lower in
              information richness
        Information richness versus the need for a paper trail
             More complex and important messages will require a paper trail
14


              Selecting the Right Medium

        Make sure it is one that the receiver will pay attention to
        Make sure it is appropriate for the message you are trying to
         convey
        Use multiple media for very important messages to ensure
         that they are understood and well documented
       Beware of the Barriers…

  Barriers to Effective
Individual Barriers             Communication Barriers
                                      Organizational

 Conflicting or inconsistent cues      Semantics
 Credibility about the subject         Status or power differences
 Reluctance to communicate             Different perceptions
 Poor listening skills                 Noise
 Predisposition about the subject      Overload
                                       Languages




                                                               Table 12.1
How Messages get Distorted




Message



                                       Noise and other
          Encoding/Decoding   Medium       Barriers
Effective Communication

   Accurate, complete shared meaning – what sender means is
    what receiver gets
   Supportive – relationship between sender and receiver is enhanced
    by communication
   Timely – message arrives when receiver can use
    information
                          Obstacles


   DEFENSIVENESS
     One individual feels threatened or attacked as a result of the
      communication
     Self-protection becomes paramount
     Energy is spent on constructing a defense rather than on listening
     Aggression, anger, competitiveness, and/or avoidance as a result
      of the communication
                               Obstacles

   DISCONFIRMATION
     One individual feels incompetent, unworthy, or insignificant as a
      result of the communication
     Attempts to reestablish self-worth take precedence
     Energy is spent trying to portray self-importance rather than on
      listening
     Showing off, self-centered behavior, withdrawal, and/or loss of
      motivation are common reactions
Supportive Communication
Principles

Problem-oriented, not person-oriented

   Hey Jane, it looks
like there’s a problem
    with the HVAC
  system at the XYZ
School. Do you think
 you could come take
        a look?
Supportive Communication
Principles

Problem-oriented, not person-oriented
                                         Hey, Jane, it
   Hey Jane, it looks                   looks like you
like there’s a problem                  messed up the
    with the HVAC                          way you
  system at the XYZ                      designed the
School. Do you think                    HVAC system
 you could come take                      at the XYZ
        a look?                             School
Supportive Communication
Principles

Words Congruent with Behavior

   No, John,
   nothing is
bothering me, I
just have a little
   headache
Supportive Communication
Principles

Words Congruent with Behavior
                                 Yes, John,
                                 I’m having
   No, John,                       difficulty
   nothing is                   dealing with
bothering me, I                  the conflict
just have a little              that I see in
   headache                          your
                                workgroup.
  Incongruent
                                 Incongruent
Supportive Communication
Principles

Descriptive, Not Evaluative

John, you just don’t
  get how I feel. I
  don’t know if it’s
because you’re too
  stupid or you’re
   just not trying.
Supportive Communication
Principles

Descriptive, Not Evaluative
                                 Jane, when
                               you forgot our
John, you just don’t           anniversary, I
  get how I feel. I           felt very angry.
  don’t know if it’s            I want you to
because you’re too                know how
  stupid or you’re             important this
   just not trying.                is to me.
Supportive Communication
Principles

Validating, not Invalidating

  Listen, Mark, I
don’t have time to
 argue with you.
 Here’s what you
need to do to solve
  your problem.
Supportive Communication
Principles

Validating, not Invalidating
                                Well, Mark, I
                                 have some
  Listen, Mark, I               ideas about
don’t have time to             how we might
 argue with you.               approach the
 Here’s what you               problem, but I
need to do to solve               wanted to
  your problem.                   hear your
                                 ideas first.
Supportive Communication
Principles

Specific, not Global
                             You always
                            forget things
                                like our
                             anniversary
                           and you never
                               pay any
                           attention to my
                               feelings.
Supportive Communication
Principles

Specific, not Global
                             You always
                            forget things
  The last three                like our
  times we had               anniversary
problems with this         and you never
you accused me of              pay any
 not caring about          attention to my
  your feelings.               feelings.
Supportive Communication
Principles

Owned, not Disowned
                              They’re
                             making me
                            change your
                           plans because
                               some
                           problems were
                            found in the
                              design.
Supportive Communication
Principles

Owned, not Disowned
                              They’re
                             making me
 I have decided to          change your
     make some             plans because
   changes to the              some
plans you and your         problems were
 group developed            found in the
 because I believe            design.
there are problems
    in the design.
          Strategies for Alienating
                   Others
                 Blame bad stuff
                    on “them”                       “Always, Never,
                                                     All, and None”

 Ignore what the
 other person just             When there are problems, use the
said – skip to your          words “you” and “your” rather than “we”
       point                               and “our”

 No Eye Contact                                               “Yeah, but…”


                             Multi-task!!!!!             Answer the Cell
                                                            Phone
           Strategies for Effective
                  Listening
                   Non verbal
                   responses                    Ask occasional
                                              questions or take a
                                                  quick note
  Include their
comments in your
    response
                                                             Be honest when
                     Turn your back on the computer and
                                                             you fade out and
                   turn off phones where they can see you
                                                            ask them to repeat.


                                    Eye
                                  Contact!!!

				
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