Chapter 5- TSL 2083

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					      Chapter 5
Language Development
through the Preschool
   Prof. Manny Maestre
      5 Stages of Language
 Stage 1(12-26 Mos.)
 Production of first
  words and ends with
  production of
  combinations of words.
 Vocabulary grows from
  1 word to 200 to 300
  words by the end of the
 Stage 2- Elaborating Structure and Refining
   27-30 Months
   Emergence of grammatical morphemes,
    pronouns, and auxiliary verbs
   Using phrases and clauses to create more
    adult-like sentences
   early versions of negation, the
    interrogative form, and imperatives
   cognitive development reflected in
    vocabulary and semantic advances
   struggles with conversational skills such
    as turn-taking and repair
 Stage 3- Producing Longer, More Adultlike
 31-34 Months
 More consistent use of grammatical
  morphemes, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs
 elaboration of noun phrases in both
  subjective and objective positions of
 more adult-like versions of negation and the
  interrogative form
 slow progress on the conversational front
   Stage 4- Elaboration by Embedding
   35-40 Months
   elaboration of sentences by embedding
   improvements in turn taking, topic
    maintenance, and presuppositional
    skills, and learning the art of indirect
   Stage 5- Polishing the Act
   41-46 Months
   Mastery of majority of grammatical morphemes
   noun and verb phrases do not increase significantly
    in length but are more complete and correct,
    according to adult standards
   multiple embeddings and clausal conjoining
   struggling with rules of conversational etiquette
   the beginnings of narrative discourse
   understanding language
   language comprehension and production supported
    by cognitive development
   understanding active and passive sentences
   learning English word order: Does comprehension
    precede production?
   understanding words that identify, spatial, temporal,
    quantity, and dimensional relationships
 So, what does it all mean?
 Stage 2= 2.0 to 2.5 MLU’s (Mean of Length of
 greatest change occurs
 “modulations of meaning” in simple sentences=
  modify or regulate
 example- adding “ed” to a verb such as “show”- we
  are modifying the tense from present to past
 grammatical morphemes- used to regulate or govern
  forms of words so that we create the precise
  meaning of what we want to say. example: the timing
  of “to show” may be just as important to the message
  as the meaning of the verb itself.
 Prepositions are also important to meaning- “Did he
  put my daughter on the car or in the car?”
      Parts of Grammar
 Inflection- is sometimes used to refer to a
  change in a word created by the addition
  of a grammatical morpheme.
 Ex:- inflect nouns = making them plural or
 ex:- inflect verbs= make them past tense
  or present progressive
 present progressive= an action of limited
  duration that is taking place right now
  (running, writing, eating)- present
  progressive forms of common verbs
         To be or not to be...
 The verb “to be” presents some special
  problems of its own. This verb can be a
  main verb or copula as in “He is my dog”,
  or “I was a bad boy”.
 Contracting verbs= reduced
 example= proper to contract He is in
  either the copula or auxiliary form to
  He’s, but it is not acceptable to contract I
Grammatical Morphemes at
 Look at the informational
  charts on page 168
 Grammatical Morpheme-
  Example- Age Range of
        More Grammar
 overextending/overgeneralizing= adding “s” to
  all words- making them plural-
 Him eated it!
 Pronouns= word used in place of a noun
 subjective pronouns= I, she, he, they
 objective pronouns= me, her, him, them
 Very hard for children to get the use of these
        More grammar...

 primary auxiliary verbs= have and do
 secondary auxiliary verbs=modals=
 morpheme= smallest unit of language
 words are made up of one or more
  morphemes- but morphemes are made up of
  smaller parts called phonemes or speech
  sounds and phonemes are made up of smaller
  bits called distinctive features!!!!
What’s in a sentence
 Basic parts/components in a sentence=
  phrases and clauses
 phrases= combination of words that are
  related to one another- but does not
  contain a subject and a predicate.
 two kinds of phrases= noun phrases and
  verb phrases
            Modify THIS!!!!!!!
 4 kinds of Modifiers in noun phrases:
 determiners= first unit in a noun phrase and
  is an article (a, the), possessive pronoun
  (my, his, her), demonstrative pronoun (this,
  that, these, those), or a qualifier (some,
  most, any).
 adjectival= modifies a noun and can be an
  adjective (pretty, tall), an ordinal (second,
  last), or a quantifier (one, couple, few).
 initiator= comes before a determiner and
  places a limit on the noun (only, all, both,
 postmodifier= a modifier that comes after
  the noun- might be a prepositional phrase
  “The fish in the little tank is Fred”.
 Look at Table 5.1 on page 172
 During Stage 3- the child begins to do “topic
  collaborating”= matching the topic of one’s
  partner in conversation
 In stage 4, a child places a phrase within a
  clause and combines two or more clauses
  into one clause= embedding= results in a
  complex sentence.- most syntactic
  development in stage.
     Four kinds of phrases
 prepositional phrase- contains a
  preposition such as “in”, “on” “under”,
  “over”, or “onto”, together with an object of
  the preposition and accompanying
  modifiers or articles.
 participial phrase- contains a participle
  and functions as an adjective = “The
  woman calling my name is Aunt Bertha”
 infinitive phrase- “I called to confirm...
              gerunds- Compulsive eating....
 these are known as semiauxiliaries-
  they are not true infinitives
   Know how to say NO!!!
 The Development of Negation in Brown’s
  Five Stages
 How long does it take for a child to learn to
  say NO in different ways and with different
 See Table 5.7 pg 210
 For Development of Question Forms- see
  Table 5.8- pg . 211
Let’s Have a Great NIGHT!!!!!

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