Chapter 5 Language Development through the Preschool Years Prof. Manny Maestre 5 Stages of Language Development Stage 1(12-26 Mos.) Production of first words and ends with production of combinations of words. Vocabulary grows from 1 word to 200 to 300 words by the end of the stage. Stage 2- Elaborating Structure and Refining Meaning 27-30 Months Emergence of grammatical morphemes, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs Using phrases and clauses to create more adult-like sentences early versions of negation, the interrogative form, and imperatives cognitive development reflected in vocabulary and semantic advances struggles with conversational skills such as turn-taking and repair Stage 3- Producing Longer, More Adultlike Sentences 31-34 Months More consistent use of grammatical morphemes, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs elaboration of noun phrases in both subjective and objective positions of sentences more adult-like versions of negation and the interrogative form slow progress on the conversational front Stage 4- Elaboration by Embedding 35-40 Months elaboration of sentences by embedding improvements in turn taking, topic maintenance, and presuppositional skills, and learning the art of indirect requests Stage 5- Polishing the Act 41-46 Months Mastery of majority of grammatical morphemes noun and verb phrases do not increase significantly in length but are more complete and correct, according to adult standards multiple embeddings and clausal conjoining struggling with rules of conversational etiquette the beginnings of narrative discourse understanding language language comprehension and production supported by cognitive development understanding active and passive sentences learning English word order: Does comprehension precede production? understanding words that identify, spatial, temporal, quantity, and dimensional relationships So, what does it all mean? Stage 2= 2.0 to 2.5 MLU’s (Mean of Length of Utterance’s) greatest change occurs “modulations of meaning” in simple sentences= modify or regulate example- adding “ed” to a verb such as “show”- we are modifying the tense from present to past grammatical morphemes- used to regulate or govern forms of words so that we create the precise meaning of what we want to say. example: the timing of “to show” may be just as important to the message as the meaning of the verb itself. Prepositions are also important to meaning- “Did he put my daughter on the car or in the car?” Parts of Grammar Inflection- is sometimes used to refer to a change in a word created by the addition of a grammatical morpheme. Ex:- inflect nouns = making them plural or possessive ex:- inflect verbs= make them past tense or present progressive present progressive= an action of limited duration that is taking place right now (running, writing, eating)- present progressive forms of common verbs To be or not to be... The verb “to be” presents some special problems of its own. This verb can be a main verb or copula as in “He is my dog”, or “I was a bad boy”. Contracting verbs= reduced example= proper to contract He is in either the copula or auxiliary form to He’s, but it is not acceptable to contract I was. Grammatical Morphemes at work! Look at the informational charts on page 168 Grammatical Morpheme- Example- Age Range of Mastery More Grammar overextending/overgeneralizing= adding “s” to all words- making them plural- (dog/dogs...man/mans...child/childs) Him eated it! Pronouns= word used in place of a noun subjective pronouns= I, she, he, they objective pronouns= me, her, him, them Very hard for children to get the use of these correctly More grammar... primary auxiliary verbs= have and do secondary auxiliary verbs=modals= can/shall/may/will morpheme= smallest unit of language words are made up of one or more morphemes- but morphemes are made up of smaller parts called phonemes or speech sounds and phonemes are made up of smaller bits called distinctive features!!!! What’s in a sentence Basic parts/components in a sentence= phrases and clauses phrases= combination of words that are related to one another- but does not contain a subject and a predicate. two kinds of phrases= noun phrases and verb phrases Modify THIS!!!!!!! 4 kinds of Modifiers in noun phrases: determiners= first unit in a noun phrase and is an article (a, the), possessive pronoun (my, his, her), demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these, those), or a qualifier (some, most, any). adjectival= modifies a noun and can be an adjective (pretty, tall), an ordinal (second, last), or a quantifier (one, couple, few). Modifiers..... initiator= comes before a determiner and places a limit on the noun (only, all, both, just). postmodifier= a modifier that comes after the noun- might be a prepositional phrase “The fish in the little tank is Fred”. Look at Table 5.1 on page 172 Conversation During Stage 3- the child begins to do “topic collaborating”= matching the topic of one’s partner in conversation In stage 4, a child places a phrase within a clause and combines two or more clauses into one clause= embedding= results in a complex sentence.- most syntactic development in stage. Four kinds of phrases prepositional phrase- contains a preposition such as “in”, “on” “under”, “over”, or “onto”, together with an object of the preposition and accompanying modifiers or articles. participial phrase- contains a participle and functions as an adjective = “The woman calling my name is Aunt Bertha” infinitive phrase- “I called to confirm... gerunds- Compulsive eating.... Gotta...Wanna... these are known as semiauxiliaries- they are not true infinitives Know how to say NO!!! The Development of Negation in Brown’s Five Stages How long does it take for a child to learn to say NO in different ways and with different meanings???? See Table 5.7 pg 210 For Development of Question Forms- see Table 5.8- pg . 211 Let’s Have a Great NIGHT!!!!!