AP English Language & Composition Summer Reading Assignment Welcome to AP English Language & Composition. We are excited that you made the decision to take this valuable course. The summer reading assignment serves multiple purposes: introduce foundational rhetorical concepts (Everything’s An Argument), launch a study of professional writers and current events (The New York Times), and initiate a discussion of American values (The Glass Castle). Assignment #1: Foundational Rhetorical Concepts Text: Everything’s An Argument by Andrea A. Lunsford and John J. Ruszkiewicz (4th Edition) ISBN #: 978-0312447493 Directions: Read chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 (pages 3-101). Create flashcards (term on front, definition/example on back) for the listed terms. Study the terms over the summer; you should be able to define and apply this jargon on the first day of school. Chapter 1: Everything’s An Argument • purpose • argument • persuasion • propaganda • intended reader propaganda • invoked reader • real reader • rhetorical situation (front of flashcard) • rhetorical triangle Chapter 2: Arguments from the Heart—Pathos • appeals to pathos /emotional appeals Chapter 3: Arguments Based on Character—Ethos definition: writing that sets out to • appeals to ethos / ethical appeals persuade at all costs, abandoning reason, fairness, and truth altogether Chapter 4: Arguments Based on Facts and Reason—Logos • appeals to logos / logical appeals example: advertising o facts o statistics (back of flashcard) o surveys and polls o testimonies, narratives, and interviews o enthymeme (back of flashcard) o cultural assumptions and values o degree o analogies o precedent Assignment #2: Professional Writers and Current Events Text: The New York Times Directions: Over the course of the summer, collect five columns (some from June, some from July, and some from August) from varied writers that you will critically read and rhetorically analyze. Step #1: Visit The New York Times website—opinions page. • http://www.nytimes.com/pages/opinion/index.html • Select a writer from the featured columnists who publish weekly: Charles M. Blow, David Brooks, Roger Cohen, Gail Collins, Ross Douthat, Maureen Dowd, Thomas L. Friedman, Bob Herbert, Nicholas D. Kristof, Paul Krugman, Frank Rich. Print the column. Vary the professional writers you study. Step #2: Closely read and thoroughly annotate the column applying the knowledge you gained from Everything’s An Argument. • Note: The columnist is writing about a current event. You will need to understand the event (read: do additional reading) before analyzing the column. Step #3: Complete the reading journal for the column. • See attached for the template and a sample. • You may handwrite or type your response. • Repeat this process throughout the summer in order to collect five columns and complete five reading journals. Assignment #3: American Values Text: The Glass Castle by Jeannette Walls Directions: Read the memoir. Expect an exam the first week of school. Your annotations will not be evaluated; however, they may me helpful to review prior to the exam. AP English Language & Composition Reading Journal Author: Title: Context (summary of the current event): Purpose: Thesis: Audience: • intended: • invoked: • real: Audience Appeals: appeals to via examples from the column intended effects pathos ethos logos AP English Language & Composition Reading Journal Author: Bob Herbert Title: “Upending Twisted Norms” Context (summary of the current event): Since sixteen-year-old Fenger High School student Derrion Albert was beaten to death in September 2009, the city of Chicago (and the media) has placed more emphasis on creating safe learning and neighborhood environments. The Chicago Police Department plans to institute multiple initiatives—gang intelligence, computer analytics, and mobile strike teams—to work to curb violence this summer. Herbert advocates for CeaseFire—suggesting its track record merits more attention. Purpose: • To illustrate the severity of the problem of youth violence • To rally support for Dr. Slutkin’s organization—CeaseFire Thesis: • “But we also need an immediate campaign to upend the norm of murderous violence in big cities. CeaseFire is offering a blueprint that deserves much wider distribution” (paragraph 16). Audience: • intended: Chicago community members, potential donors to CeaseFire, city alderman, community organizers, school employees • invoked: “If a stranger or someone from a rival clique steps on your clean, white sneakers, or makes a crack about your manhood, or laughs at you, putting a bullet in his heart of his head is seen by an awful lot of young people as an appropriate response” (paragraph 2). • real: readers of The New York Times Audience Appeals: appeals to via examples from the column intended effects pathos hypothetical “If we really cared about the youngsters in the Creates a visual image of citizens protesting situation inner cities, the murder of so many of them mistreatment of youngsters—no one favors youth imagery would be a huge national story. Civil rights violence. The move attempts to position the groups would be marching relentlessly against reader against youth violence and for the violence…” (paragraph 13) CeaseFire. The conditional statement (“if”) suggests that community members do not care about the youth in hopes of causing an emotional backlash: “yes, we do!” Herbert is arguing if citizens care about youth, then they should support CeaseFire. ethos citing “Dr. Gary Slutkin, an epidemiologist who began Casts an image of Dr. Slutkin as accomplished experts focusing more than a decade ago on urban and knowledgeable—“more than a decade” and their violence as a public health matter…” suggests he is committed to his work. CeaseFire credentials (paragraph 3) is not a random idea that popped into a random community member’s head, but rather “As Chicago’s police superintendent, Jody Weis, a result of both scholarship and experience . told me…” (paragraph 14) Illustrates Herbert’s investment in the article— personally spoke with Weis (top official on Chicago crime) about homicides . logos statistics “Two to three dozen school-age children are Illustrates—with hard data—the success of killed in Chicago…” (paragraph 4) CeaseFire in nearly all neighborhoods. “A study of CeaseFire’s efforts in Chicago by the The fact that the U.S. Department of Justice (an U.S. Department of Justice found substantial outside party) not CeaseFire conducted the reductions in homicides, ranging from 41 study further supports the validity of the percent to 73 percent…” (paragraph 12) program . “Typically, when one of these shootings occur, Addresses and refutes the argument that the public pays for the medical care, for police CeaseFire is an expensive solution to administer. list of costs investigation, for the prosecutors and defense The list shows the magnitude of the costs the lawyers…” (paragraph 15) public pays—often without realizing—due to youth violence.