propaganda AP English Language by ert634


									AP English Language & Composition                                                                                Summer Reading Assignment
Welcome to AP English Language & Composition. We are excited that you made the decision to take this valuable course. The summer reading
assignment serves multiple purposes: introduce foundational rhetorical concepts (Everything’s An Argument), launch a study of professional writers
and current events (The New York Times), and initiate a discussion of American values (The Glass Castle).

Assignment #1: Foundational Rhetorical Concepts
Text: Everything’s An Argument by Andrea A. Lunsford and John J. Ruszkiewicz (4th Edition) ISBN #: 978-0312447493
Directions: Read chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 (pages 3-101). Create flashcards (term on front, definition/example on back) for the listed terms. Study
the terms over the summer; you should be able to define and apply this jargon on the first day of school.

Chapter 1: Everything’s An Argument
  • purpose
  • argument
  • persuasion
  • propaganda
  • intended reader
  • invoked reader
  • real reader
  • rhetorical situation                                                   (front of flashcard)
  • rhetorical triangle

Chapter 2: Arguments from the Heart—Pathos
  • appeals to pathos /emotional appeals

Chapter 3: Arguments Based on Character—Ethos                                                     definition: writing that sets out to
  • appeals to ethos / ethical appeals                                                            persuade at all costs, abandoning
                                                                                                  reason, fairness, and truth altogether
Chapter 4: Arguments Based on Facts and Reason—Logos
  • appeals to logos / logical appeals                                                            example: advertising
         o facts
         o statistics                                                                                        (back of flashcard)
         o surveys and polls
         o testimonies, narratives, and interviews
         o enthymeme                                                                                         (back of flashcard)
         o cultural assumptions and values
         o degree
         o analogies
         o precedent
Assignment #2: Professional Writers and Current Events
Text: The New York Times
Directions: Over the course of the summer, collect five columns (some from June, some from July, and some from August) from varied writers that
you will critically read and rhetorically analyze.

Step #1: Visit The New York Times website—opinions page.


    •   Select a writer from the featured columnists who publish weekly: Charles M. Blow, David Brooks, Roger Cohen, Gail Collins, Ross
        Douthat, Maureen Dowd, Thomas L. Friedman, Bob Herbert, Nicholas D. Kristof, Paul Krugman, Frank Rich. Print the column. Vary the
        professional writers you study.

Step #2: Closely read and thoroughly annotate the column applying the knowledge you gained from Everything’s An Argument.

    •   Note: The columnist is writing about a current event. You will need to understand the event (read: do additional reading) before
        analyzing the column.

Step #3: Complete the reading journal for the column.

    •   See attached for the template and a sample.

    •   You may handwrite or type your response.

    •   Repeat this process throughout the summer in order to collect five columns and complete five reading journals.

Assignment #3: American Values
Text: The Glass Castle by Jeannette Walls

Directions: Read the memoir. Expect an exam the first week of school. Your annotations will not be evaluated; however, they may me helpful to
review prior to the exam.



AP English Language & Composition         Reading Journal



Context (summary of the current event):




   • intended:

   • invoked:

   • real:
Audience Appeals:

    appeals to   via   examples from the column   intended effects



AP English Language & Composition                                                                             Reading Journal

Author:    Bob Herbert

Title: “Upending Twisted Norms”

Context (summary of the current event):
Since sixteen-year-old Fenger High School student Derrion Albert was beaten to death in September 2009, the city of Chicago

(and the media) has placed more emphasis on creating safe learning and neighborhood environments. The Chicago Police

Department plans to institute multiple initiatives—gang intelligence, computer analytics, and mobile strike teams—to work to

curb violence this summer. Herbert advocates for CeaseFire—suggesting its track record merits more attention.

   •   To illustrate the severity of the problem of youth violence

   •   To rally support for Dr. Slutkin’s organization—CeaseFire

  • “But we also need an immediate campaign to upend the norm of murderous violence in big cities.       CeaseFire is offering
       a blueprint that deserves much wider distribution” (paragraph 16).

  • intended:       Chicago community members, potential donors to CeaseFire, city alderman, community organizers, school

   •   invoked: “If a stranger or someone from a rival clique steps on your clean, white sneakers, or makes a crack about
       your manhood, or laughs at you, putting a bullet in his heart of his head is seen by an awful lot of young people as an
       appropriate response” (paragraph 2).

   •   real:   readers of The New York Times
Audience Appeals:
appeals to   via                     examples from the column                                 intended effects
pathos    hypothetical    “If we really cared about the youngsters in the     Creates a visual image of citizens protesting
          situation       inner cities, the murder of so many of them         mistreatment of youngsters—no one favors youth
          imagery         would be a huge national story. Civil rights        violence. The move attempts to position the
                          groups would be marching relentlessly against       reader against youth violence and for
                          the violence…” (paragraph 13)                       CeaseFire.
                                                                              The conditional statement (“if”) suggests that
                                                                              community members do not care about the
                                                                              youth in hopes of causing an emotional
                                                                              backlash: “yes, we do!” Herbert is arguing if
                                                                              citizens care about youth, then they should
                                                                              support CeaseFire.
ethos     citing          “Dr. Gary Slutkin, an epidemiologist who began      Casts an image of Dr. Slutkin as accomplished
          experts         focusing more than a decade ago on urban            and knowledgeable—“more than a decade”
          and their       violence as a public health matter…”                suggests he is committed to his work. CeaseFire
          credentials     (paragraph 3)                                       is not a random idea that popped into a
                                                                              random community member’s head, but rather
                          “As Chicago’s police superintendent, Jody Weis,     a result of both scholarship and experience .
                          told me…” (paragraph 14)
                                                                              Illustrates Herbert’s investment in the article—
                                                                              personally spoke with Weis (top official on
                                                                              Chicago crime) about homicides .
logos     statistics      “Two to three dozen school-age children are         Illustrates—with hard data—the success of
                          killed in Chicago…” (paragraph 4)                   CeaseFire in nearly all neighborhoods.

                          “A study of CeaseFire’s efforts in Chicago by the   The fact that the U.S. Department of Justice (an
                          U.S. Department of Justice found substantial        outside party) not CeaseFire conducted the
                          reductions in homicides, ranging from 41            study further supports the validity of the
                          percent to 73 percent…” (paragraph 12)              program .

                          “Typically, when one of these shootings occur,      Addresses and refutes the argument that
                          the public pays for the medical care, for police    CeaseFire is an expensive solution to administer.
          list of costs
                          investigation, for the prosecutors and defense      The list shows the magnitude of the costs the
                          lawyers…” (paragraph 15)                            public pays—often without realizing—due to
                                                                              youth violence.

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