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					Sentence Elements, Patterns,
        and Types

                 Objectives
• Recognize subjects and predicates.
• Convert fragments into complete
  sentences.
• Recognize basic sentence faults
  such as comma splices and run-on
  sentences.
  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 2
Sentence Elements, Patterns,
        and Types

• Complete sentences in three basic
  patterns.
• Punctuate statements, commands,
  questions, and exclamations.




  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 3
      What is a sentence?

A sentence is a group of words
expressing a complete thought.




  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 4
        Sentence Elements

• A sentence is composed of two
  essential elements:
  • 1. A subject
  • 2. A predicate




   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 5
     Sentence Elements

                     Subject
• What is being talked about

                    Predicate
• What the subject is
• What the subject is doing
• What is being done to the subject



Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 6
           Subject Elements

A DataTech manager has been calling you.
What is being talked about?




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 7
          Subject Elements

A DataTech manager has been calling you.
\________________/
  complete subject




   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 8
           Subject Elements

A DataTech manager has been calling you.
What is the subject doing?




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 9
          Subject Elements

A DataTech manager has been calling you.
                   \_________________/
                                complete predicate




   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 10
            Subject Elements

A DataTech manager has been calling you.
What is the simple subject?




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 11
           Subject Elements

A DataTech manager has been calling you.
           \______/
            simple subject




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 12
            Subject Elements

A DataTech manager has been calling you.
What is the simple predicate?




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 13
           Subject Elements

A DataTech manager has been calling you.
                   \_____________/
                              simple predicate




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 14
          Subject Elements

• Most frequently used helping verbs:
   am      is  are   was                 were been
   have    has had   must                can   will
   do      did does  ought               might could
              would should




   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 15
           Subject Elements

• To be a sentence, a group of words
  must make sense.

   A set of guidelines was developed.
   \______________/ \___________/
    complete subject complete predicate




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 16
         Subject Elements

• To be a sentence, a group of words
  must make sense.

 Being used to order computer supplies




  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 17
         Subject Elements

• To be a sentence, a group of words
  must make sense.

 Being used to order computer supplies

 Fragment. Does not make sense.



  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 18
           Check your skill . . .

Select the complete subject.

My company office is installing new equipment.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 19
           Check your skill . . .

Select the complete subject.

My company office is installing new equipment.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 20
           Check your skill . . .

Select the complete predicate.

My company office is installing new equipment.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 21
           Check your skill . . .

Select the complete predicate.

My company office is installing new equipment.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 22
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple subject.

My company office is installing new equipment.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 23
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple subject.

My company office is installing new equipment.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 24
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple predicate.

My company office is installing new equipment.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 25
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple predicate.

My company office is installing new equipment.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 26
           Check your skill . . .

Select the complete subject.

Our competitor hired one of our best designers.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 27
           Check your skill . . .

Select the complete subject.

Our competitor hired one of our best designers.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 28
           Check your skill . . .

Select the complete predicate.

Our competitor hired one of our best designers.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 29
           Check your skill . . .

Select the complete predicate.

Our competitor hired one of our best designers.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 30
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple subject.

Our competitor hired one of our best designers.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 31
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple subject.

Our competitor hired one of our best designers.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 32
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple predicate.

Our competitor hired one of our best designers.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 33
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple predicate.

Our competitor hired one of our best designers.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 34
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple subject.

Skilled with computers, Jan was hired today.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 35
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple subject.

Skilled with computers, Jan was hired today.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 36
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple predicate.

Skilled with computers, Jan was hired today.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 37
           Check your skill . . .

Select the simple predicate.

Skilled with computers, Jan was hired today.




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 38
        Sentence Faults

                Three Types
       • Fragment

       • Comma Splice

       • Run-on Sentence




Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 39
          Sentence Faults

A fragment is only part of a sentence
and should not be punctuated as if it
were complete.
Which will be answered when we discuss the
next chapter
A student who won honors at graduation



  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 40
          Sentence Faults

A comma splice results when two
complete sentences are incorrectly
joined with a comma.
Mr. Hudson will take his vacation in June,
Miss James will vacation in July.




  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 41
          Sentence Faults

A comma splice results when two
complete sentences are incorrectly
joined with a comma.
Mr. Hudson will take his vacation in June,
Miss James will vacation in July.




  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 42
          Sentence Faults

A comma splice results when two
complete sentences are incorrectly
joined with a comma.
Mr. Hudson will take his vacation in June,
Miss James will vacation in July.




  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 43
          Sentence Faults

A comma splice results when two
complete sentences are incorrectly
joined with a comma.
Mr. Hudson will take his vacation in June,
Miss James will vacation in July.




  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 44
          Sentence Faults

A comma splice results when two
complete sentences are incorrectly
joined with a comma.
Mr. Hudson will take his vacation in June.
Miss James will vacation in July.




  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 45
           Sentence Faults

A run-on sentence (or fused
sentence) results when two complete
thoughts are run together without
punctuation.
We hope to continue doing business with
you call us if you have further questions.



   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 46
           Sentence Faults

A run-on sentence (or fused
sentence) results when two complete
thoughts are run together without
punctuation.
We hope to continue doing business with
you call us if you have further questions.



   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 47
           Sentence Faults

A run-on sentence (or fused
sentence) results when two complete
thoughts are run together without
punctuation.
We hope to continue doing business with
you call us if you have further questions.



   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 48
           Sentence Faults

A run-on sentence (or fused
sentence) results when two complete
thoughts are run together without
punctuation.
We hope to continue doing business with
you call us if you have further questions.



   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 49
           Sentence Faults

A run-on sentence (or fused
sentence) results when two complete
thoughts are run together without
punctuation.
We hope to continue doing business with
you. call us if you have further questions.



   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 50
           Sentence Faults

A run-on sentence (or fused
sentence) results when two complete
thoughts are run together without
punctuation.
We hope to continue doing business with
you. Call us if you have further questions.



   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 51
           Check your skill . . .

Select the sentence fault.

1. Unless I hear from you to the contrary.
   a. Fragment
   b. Comma Splice
   c. Run-on Sentence




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 52
           Check your skill . . .

Select the sentence fault.

1. Unless I hear from you to the contrary.
   a. Fragment
   b. Comma Splice
   c. Run-on Sentence




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 53
           Check your skill . . .

Select the sentence fault.

2. No stock market prices were available, the
   market was closed for the holiday.
   a. Fragment
   b. Comma Splice
   c. Run-on Sentence



     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 54
           Check your skill . . .

Select the sentence fault.

2. No stock market prices were available, the
   market was closed for the holiday.
   a. Fragment
   b. Comma Splice
   c. Run-on Sentence



     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 55
           Check your skill . . .

Select the sentence fault.

3. Which you said you would finish in the near
   future.
   a. Fragment
   b. Comma Splice
   c. Run-on Sentence



     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 56
           Check your skill . . .

Select the sentence fault.

3. Which you said you would finish in the near
   future.
   a. Fragment
   b. Comma Splice
   c. Run-on Sentence



     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 57
          Check your skill . . .

Select the sentence fault.
4. Some employees will work Sunday other
   employees will come in early Monday.
   a. Fragment
   b. Comma Splice
   c. Run-on Sentence




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 58
          Check your skill . . .

Select the sentence fault.
4. Some employees will work Sunday other
   employees will come in early Monday.
   a. Fragment
   b. Comma Splice
   c. Run-on Sentence




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 59
       Sentence Patterns

               Three Types

• Subject-Verb

• Subject-Action Verb-Object

• Subject-Linking Verb-Complement



 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 60
         Sentence Patterns

Pattern No. 1
Subject                        Verb
He                             drove.
Somebody                       was yelling.
All the people                 might be voting.



   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e    Ch. 3 - 61
       Sentence Patterns

Pattern No. 2a
Subject        Action Verb             Object
He               drove                 cars.
Somebody         carried               the message.
All the people   marked                their ballots.




 Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e    Ch. 3 - 62
            Sentence Patterns

Pattern No. 2b
Action     Indirect            Direct
Subject    Verb                Object           Object
Janell     brought             him              the forms.
The dealer offered             Bob              a good price.




      Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e     Ch. 3 - 63
          Sentence Patterns

Pattern No. 3
Subject     Linking Verb                 Complement
The manager      is                      Ms. Andrews.
The caller may have been                 he.
Their files      are                     neat.




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 64
        Sentence Patterns

A sentence is said to be inverted
when its verb precedes its subject.
Inverted Order:
    Winning easily was the varsity team.
Normal Order:
    The varsity team was winning easily.



  Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 65
          Check your skill . . .

Normalize the verb-subject order of this
sentence.
Leading the charity drive is Renee Cornell.




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 66
          Check your skill . . .

Normalize the verb-subject order of this
sentence.
Leading the charity drive is Renee Cornell.
Renee Cornell is leading the charity drive.




    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 67
           Check your skill . . .

Revise this sentence to attain normal
subject-verb order.
Have you read your e-mail?




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 68
           Check your skill . . .

Revise this sentence to attain normal
subject-verb order.
Have you read your e-mail?
You have read your e-mail?




     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 69
         Check your skill . . .

Arrange the words of this sentence in
normal subject-verb order.
Here are the materials.




   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 70
         Check your skill . . .

Arrange the words of this sentence in
normal subject-verb order.
Here are the materials.
The materials are here.




   Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 71
        Sentence Types

                Four Types
              • Statement

              • Question

              • Command

              • Exclamation


Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 72
            Sentence Types

Statement
Janice designed the brochures.
Question
Will Michael distribute them?
Command
Tell me where to send them.
Exclamation
What a handsome brochure it is!
    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 73
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
1. One of my friends is preparing for a job
   interview.
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 74
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
1. One of my friends is preparing for a job
   interview.
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 75
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
2. During the interview if you are honest,
   enthusiastic, polite, and positive.
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 76
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
2. During the interview if you are honest,
   enthusiastic, polite, and positive.
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 77
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
3. Why do you think you should work for us?
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation


    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 78
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
3. Why do you think you should work for us?
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation


    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 79
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
4. What an adventure that interview was!
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation


    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 80
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
4. What an adventure that interview was!
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation


    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 81
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
5. Prepare carefully by practicing questions
and answers.
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 82
          Check your skill . . .

Classify the sentence type.
5. Prepare carefully by practicing questions
and answers.
a. Statement
b. Question
c. Command
d. Fragment
e. Exclamation

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 83
              Chapter 3 - Quiz

1. What is the simple subject in the
   following sentence?
   Three job candidates sent their résumés.
   a. Three
   b. job
   c. candidates
   d. résumés

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 84
              Chapter 3 - Quiz

1. What is the simple subject in the
   following sentence?
   Three job candidates sent their résumés.
   a. Three
   b. job
   c. candidates
   d. résumés

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 85
              Chapter 3 - Quiz

2. What is the simple subject in the
   following sentence?
   There are two open positions.
   a. There
   b. are
   c. two
   d. positions

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 86
              Chapter 3 - Quiz

2. What is the simple subject in the
   following sentence?
   There are two open positions.
   a. There
   b. are
   c. two
   d. positions

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 87
            Chapter 3 - Quiz

3. How would you label the following
   group of words?
  Because she was hired
  a. Complete sentence
  b. Complement
  c. Fragment
  d. Complete predicate

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 88
            Chapter 3 - Quiz

3. How would you label the following
   group of words?
  Because she was hired
  a. Complete sentence
  b. Complement
  c. Fragment
  d. Complete predicate

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 89
            Chapter 3 - Quiz

4. What is the subject in the following
   sentence?
   Proofread your résumé carefully.
   a. Proofread
   b. You (understood)
   c. résumé
   d. your

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 90
            Chapter 3 - Quiz

4. What is the subject in the following
   sentence?
   Proofread your résumé carefully.
   a. Proofread
   b. You (understood)
   c. résumé
   d. your

    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 91
             Chapter 3 - Quiz

5. What is the principal verb in the
   following sentence?
   She should have been listening.
   a. should
   b. have
   c. been
   d. listening

     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 92
             Chapter 3 - Quiz

5. What is the principal verb in the
   following sentence?
   She should have been listening.
   a. should
   b. have
   c. been
   d. listening

     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 93
            Chapter 3 - Quiz

6. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
  Although the computer was delivered a week
  ago and the printer installed yesterday.
  a. Correctly punctuated sentence
  b. Fragment
  c. Comma splice
  d. Run-on sentence
    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 94
            Chapter 3 - Quiz

6. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
  Although the computer was delivered a week
  ago and the printer installed yesterday.
  a. Correctly punctuated sentence
  b. Fragment
  c. Comma splice
  d. Run-on sentence
    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 95
             Chapter 3 - Quiz

7. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
  Five candidates filled out applications for the
  position, two will be selected for interviews.
  a. Correctly punctuated sentence
  b. Fragment
  c. Comma splice
  d. Run-on sentence

     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 96
             Chapter 3 - Quiz

7. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
  Five candidates filled out applications for the
  position, two will be selected for interviews.
  a. Correctly punctuated sentence
  b. Fragment
  c. Comma splice
  d. Run-on sentence

     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 97
             Chapter 3 - Quiz

8. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
Some candidates ask only about job benefits
others are more interested in responsibilities
and advancement.
   a. Correctly punctuated sentence
   b. Fragment
   c. Comma splice
   d. Run-on sentence
     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 98
             Chapter 3 - Quiz

8. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
Some candidates ask only about job benefits
others are more interested in responsibilities
and advancement.
   a. Correctly punctuated sentence
   b. Fragment
   c. Comma splice
   d. Run-on sentence
     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 99
            Chapter 3 - Quiz

9. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
When the human resources director completes
interviewing next Wednesday, she will
announce the names of the new employees.
   a. Correctly punctuated sentence
   b. Fragment
   c. Comma splice
   d. Run-on sentence
    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 100
            Chapter 3 - Quiz

9. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
When the human resources director completes
interviewing next Wednesday, she will
announce the names of the new employees.
   a. Correctly punctuated sentence
   b. Fragment
   c. Comma splice
   d. Run-on sentence
    Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 101
             Chapter 3 - Quiz

10. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
Prospective employers don’t want your entire
job history, they want to see only essential
points that qualify you for a job.
   a. Correctly punctuated sentence
   b. Fragment
   c. Comma splice
   d. Run-on sentence
     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 102
             Chapter 3 - Quiz

10. Classify the group of words shown
   below.
Prospective employers don’t want your entire
job history, they want to see only essential
points that qualify you for a job.
   a. Correctly punctuated sentence
   b. Fragment
   c. Comma splice
   d. Run-on sentence
     Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 103
                 END

Mary Ellen Guffey, Business English, 8e   Ch. 3 - 104

				
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