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					I am grateful you published my letter "Optimum Digestion and a Vital Diet Necessary for Treating Porphyria" (in the July, 2000 issue) because it draws attention to what is often a 'blind spot,' hypochlorhydria.

Because hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid) is so common and yet leads to terrible degenerative diseases such as cancer, congestive heart failure, osteoporosis and even Alzheimer's, patients as well as doctors need to become aware
of its causes and symptoms and how to respond to them. I believe by working together in community we can apply healing helpful principles to ourselves, to others and the land. Your journal encourages us to do just that.

When my doctor told me to take antacids 21 years ago, he diagnosed hypoglycemia and hypothyroidism. Since writing the aforementioned letter, I've learned that these are caused by hypochlorhydria; let me explain why. We need a
healthy level of hydrochloric acid (HCI) to stimulate digestive action in the small intestine, to break down fiber, to provide enzyme activity for nutrient absorption, and to assimilate minerals. Herein lies the electrical and
manufacturing potential of our entire body. Non-absorbable, cooked or heated minerals become absorbable liquid crystalloid electrolytes, and organic minerals from raw foods are made more available and their electrical quality is
maintained via healthy gastric activity. The body needs most of its minerals to be 'ionic' (electrically charged) and in solution. With low stomach acid there are fewer and fewer electrolytes in the body, and even these can lose their
ionic quality and go out of solution-to form troublesome deposits. Liquid crystalloid electrolytes give us the correct alkali and acid balance (pH) needed before almost any chemical activity can occur. When the pH of the stomach is
chronically 'off' (from low gastric activity -- hypochlorhydria), the pH won't be correct anywhere else in the body.

Not one enzyme, can be produced without the assistance of liquid. crystalloid electrolytes. All hormones, vitamins, proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, sugars, oils, etc. require electrolytes and enzymes to be properly
metabolized. Even a slight deficiency of electrolyte minerals has a progressive effect (in hypochlorhydria) on our assimilation of all nutrients and every bodily process suffers. [1, 2]

Hypoglycemia: We cannot digest the protein needed for a stable blood sugar. Over 50% of digested protein is converted to glucose, [3] and there are deficiencies of magnesium, copper, chromium and zinc. These minerals are needed
to maintain proper levels of blood sugar. The symptoms of hypoglycemia are tremulousness, palpitation, faintness and hunger. Because glucose is one of the main fuels for the brain, there may also be confusion, headache, dizziness
and even coma. [4]

One of the most deleterious results of hypochlorhydria is our inability to assimilate B complex vitamins. (Vitamins serve as coenzymes. A deficiency of vitamins, especially B vitamins, means that many enzymes cannot and will not
work. Enzymes are required for every bodily function necessary to keep us alive. [5])

Hypothyroidism: To function properly the thyroid needs sufficient B vitamins especially B2, B3 and B6, and minerals -- especially iodine, zinc, selenium, magnesium, copper and molybdenum, essential fatty acids and the amino acid
Tyrosine. [6] Because my diet and supplements contain all that's needed to maintain a healthy blood sugar and thyroid (after a year on betaine 1101 with pepsin and enterically coated pancreatic enzymes), I no longer feel
hypoglycemic and I no longer need thyroid medication.

There are other reasons for hypoglycemia and hypothyroidism, e.g. low adrenal output, [7] poor liver function [4] and aluminum toxicity, [8] and we will address them in the following list of symptoms, conditions and. diseases
associated with hypochlorhydria.

Additional hormonal conditions are: Thyroiditis, [9] Parathyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Thyrotoxicosis, Graves disease [10] and weakening adrenal gland function leading to adrenal exhaustion and nervous breakdown. [7]

There are myriad manifestations of hypochlorhydria because it affects every cell in the body. (When minerals are 'ionic' it means they have magnetic. attraction to other electrically charged substances and can form complex
molecules. The body uses liquid crystalloid electrolytes to feed, oxygenate, detoxify and energize each cell. [11]) Here are some visible examples of hypochlorhydria's deficiencies.

Deteriorating Nails: I learned my nails definitely indicated hypochlorhydria. At first they developed longitudinal ridges, then horizontal dents, then they split chronically, deep into the nail bed and their edges peeled. [10] They are
much- thicker and stronger now, quite smooth and have a healthy sheen.

Geographic Tongue: Lines traverse the tongue forming a road map effect. At the beginning lines are usually only small and in the center. of the tongue. [10] Eventually they multiply to cover the top surface of the tongue: some
become deep furrows. This shows a B complex deficiency and possibly intestinal permeability (leaky gut syndrome). After the porphyria attack that caused the most intestinal damage, the lines on my tongue increased dramatically in
depth and number. A healthy intestinal lining regenerates completely every three to five days [10] and to do so needs a large supply of B vitamins and liquid crystalloid electrolytes

Cracks develop at the corners of the mouth from a B2 deficiency. [12]

There are recurrent canker sores (aphthous stomatitis and ulcerative stomatitis) from B12, folic acid, B6, B1 and iron deficiencies. [13] I no longer have them since using the correct amount of betaine hydrochloride to restore my
stomach's acidity. during main meals.

EYES: (The health of the eyes, ears, skin and hair depends on an adequate supply of B vitamins, which depends on sufficient zinc, selenium, sulphur, manganese and, magnesium -- in their soluble electrolyte form, to cover the
individual's needs.)

Blepharitis: A bacterial eye infection caused by vitamin A, B complex, C and zinc deficiencies [14] Absorption of vitamin A and the B complex depends on zinc. [15]

Cataracts: Caused by calcium deposits and zinc, magnesium, manganese, copper, sulfur and selenium deficiencies which cause antioxidant and B vitamin deficiencies. [14] Those with hypochlorhydria are low in vitamin C. An
adequate supply of calcium and magnesium (missing with low stomach acid), is needed, for the utilization of vitamin C. [15] of the first indications of low gastric activity may be the need to switch from ascorbic acid to a buffered o
because of digestive problems. Eventually the buffered C causes digestive difficulties too. [16]

The following conditions are also the result of a lack of assimilation from low stomach acid:

Macular degeneration: From zinc, selenium, vitamin E and taurine deficiencies. [17]

Chronic open angle glaucoma: caused by elevated Nitric Oxide levels - one of the many consequences of hypochlorhydria's iron and oxygen deficiencies. [17b]

Night Blindness: from zinc and vitamin A deficiencies.

EARS

Recurrent ear infection: From zinc, vitamin C and A deficiencies. [18]

Age related hearing loss: In a recent study, 55 women with age related hearing loss were discovered to have B12 and folic acid deficiencies. [17]

Migraine headaches: from magnesium and B6 deficiencies. [17]

Bloodstream

Anemia: Its symptoms are: shortness of breath, with loss of energy and appetite, incapacity for work and loss of concentration. This condition can be caused by hypochlorhydria's iron, calcium, copper, protein, vitamin C and
electrolyte deficiencies. These nutrients are needed to make hemoglobin, (the blood compound that carries oxygen), and the red blood cells. (B12 and folic acid are also needed for the maturation of the red blood cells.)

As these deficiencies progress with low stomach acid, extreme fatigue deepens and secondary symptoms appear: apathy, brittle nails, depression, dizziness, fainting, hair loss, headaches, irritability, weakened immune response,
impaired memory, poor circulation, (especially in the legs) and pale lips and skin. [19]

B12 deficiency: When we do not produce sufficient HCl from the parietal cells in the stomach, we cannot secrete enough intrinsic factor from the same cells to bind with B12. Intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of B12 in the
ileum of the small intestine. B12 is required for proper digestion. It aids in cell formation and longevity. It is linked to the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that assists memory and learning

Symptoms are: abnormal gait, chronic fatigue, constipation, depression, digestive disorders, hallucinations, headaches, inflammation of the tongue, irritability, labored breathing, memory loss, moodiness, nervousness, neurological
damage, palpitations, pernicious anemia, [12] ringing in the ears with or without hearing loss from noise, spinal cord degeneration and sleep-wake rhythm disorders. (B12 influences melatonin secretion.) It takes five to six years for
the body to use up its stores of B12 and for symptoms to appear. [20] For these reasons it is very important for those with hypochlorhydria to ensure that adequate amounts of B12 are in the diet and are being taken in sublingual
supplements or injections. However, injections of B12 are not a sufficient treatment for hypochlorhydria, achlorhydria or pernicious anemia, when so many other processes are affected by the lack of HCl.

There may be dilated blood vessels [10] in the cheeks and nose (in non-alcoholics) due to B6, selenium and magnesium deficiencies and consequent platelet aggregation. [20] Magnesium and selenium keep blood platelets from
clumping together.

High blood pressure and stroke: At least 28 independent studies show that patients with high blood pressure have a magnesium deficiency, which increases the risk of stroke. [21] Research reveals that selenium also offers protection
against heart disease and strokes. Both selenium and magnesium levels are low with hypochlorhydria, so the protection is missing. Selenium increases the ratio of HDL to LDL cholesterol. (Supplementation of selenium over time can
cause psychological problems, nausea and vomiting, a garlic odor of the breath and sweat, and even loss of hair and fingernails. This is rare from dietary sources. [20]) With low stomach acid, a zinc deficiency causes cadmium
toxicity, which also results in high blood pressure and stroke. [22]

As long as we are deficient in liquid crystalloid electrolytes, we are vulnerable to accumulating all kinds of toxic metal deposits in our bloodstream, cells and tissues. With hypochlorhydria we are unable to digest and absorb iron, zinc
and calcium properly. This causes lead, cadmium and aluminum levels to rise in the body. [1,8,12,122] Non-absorbable iron and calcium become deposited in the arteries and joints leading to arteriosclerosis, heart disease and
arthritis. Without electrolytes inorganic iron is loose like a free radical in the bloodstream. [1] In hypochlorhydria, aluminum, antigens and xenobiotics enter the bloodstream where they inflame and irritate the arteries, causing the
buildup of plaque. Aluminum severely reduces the elasticity of blood vessels by its production of cross linkages wherever it lodges [23] (caused by a deficiency of absorbable calcium. See bone metabolism.) Low stomach acid leads
to B6 and copper deficiencies, which could contribute to the development of aortic aneurysms due to impaired lysyl oxidase activity. [20]

Heart: "The nutrition most needed by your heart is the very nutrition that requires adequate stomach acid for digestion." [24] Hypochlorhydria causes the following conditions:

PreviousElevated homocysteine levels: A contributory factor in the development of atherosclerosis due to folic acid and B6 deficiencies. [25]
There may be heart arrhythmias due to B complex, mineral (especially magnesium) and omega 3 fatty acid deficiencies, food allergies or hyperthyroidism. [24] Magnesium deficiency causes an oxygen deficiency resulting in coronary
artery spasms and angina. Low magnesium levels result in low HDL levels (the good cholesterol) and an increase in the amount of oxidized LDL (the bad cholesterol) so increasing arterial damage. A magnesium deficiency can create
potassium and calcium deficiencies. Potassium and magnesium are needed for the production of HCl, which in turn, is needed for the absorption of calcium and magnesium. HCl generates alkalizing and oxygenating electrolytes.
Deficiencies of these electrolytes are the seedbed of most, if not all, degenerative diseases. The heart medication digitalis can be toxic if you have a magnesium or potassium deficiency. [21]

B4 Deficiency: This little known portion of the vitamin B complex, discovered in pigeon studies decades ago, is essential for a healthy rhythmic heart. B4 is not found in synthetic B vitamins. It is especially found in liver, yeast and
wheat germ. The following lead to congestive heart failure: deficiencies of the B vitamins (linked together in food by phytochemicals), deficiencies of organic absorbable minerals and omega 3 fatty acids, plus hypochlorhydria's
hypothyroidism and adrenal failure. [24]

Hypochlorhydria begins imperceptibly and progresses gradually (unless one takes acid stoppers or antacids), so it is difficult to know if one has it. A pH test with pH paper is the easiest and quickest way to know if one's stomach acid
is low. Test your saliva first thing in the morning and then again about half an hour after eating. The numbers should rise after eating, e.g. seven before and nine after. If they go down (seven to five or six), and especially if the first pH
is around five and stays the same or goes down to 4.5, you need more stomach acid. [3]

Dental Problems: Your mouth is acid, from a lack of alkalizing, oxygenating electrolytes. Your dental health reflects your nutritional deficiencies, [12] and looking back you may see the history of your hypochlorhydria reflected in the
number of fillings and root canals that needed to be done. [26] On antacids or acid stoppers and with dental metal toxicity, [23] your mouth becomes even more acid. As we saw, selenium levels are low with hypochlorhydria, which
result in depressed immune function. Heavy metals bind with selenium causing its further depletion. [20] The gums can become inflamed from a vitamin C deficiency and bacterial infections. [12]

Increased Bacterial Adherence in the Mouth and Bowel: The bacteria that cause dental decay and intestinal infection find a receptive environment and a route of entry in a mouth that lacks a neutral pH of around 6.5 to 6.8. [1]

When something goes wrong in the production of stomach acid, there are repercussions all the way down the digestive tract and throughout the body and brain. The effort it takes to produce sufficient hydrochloric acid in the parietal
cells of the stomach's lining is immense. Dr. Michael Gershon, the neurobiologist, writes in his book The Second Brain that it's "not unlike going up Niagara Falls in a barrel." [27] The body goes to a tremendous effort expending an
enormous amount of liquid crystalloid electrolytes and B vitamins in order to make hydrochloric acid (HC1) and protect the stomach and duodenal lining from the acid, because HC1 with a healthy pH of 0 is not only the gate to the
entire body's nutrition, but also the gate to the intestine's immune system, shutting microbes out. It effectively sterilizes the stomach and, via its effect on the gallbladder's secretion of bile, the small intestine too. [1,2] In contrast, low
stomach acidity with its unhealthy pH levels (from nutritional deficiencies of their essential components), allows bacterial activity and adherence, and there is a progressive loss of even more nutrients throughout the bowel, causing
repair and immune systems to fail and toxins and oxidative stress to increase. [28

                  Deficiencies of B12, B6, niacin, C, E, iron and zinc, all present in those with low stomach acid, damage our DNA by causing single and double strand breaks, oxidative lesions or both. DNA damage leads to cancer.
                   [29] The demand for nutrients and antioxidants grows progressively higher, but their supply progressively declines.

                  Dysbiosis: [2] Low levels of hydrochloric acid in the stomach encourage the overgrowth and imbalance of bacteria all the way from the colon to the stomach. Dysbiosis weakens our ability to protect ourselves from
                   food poisoning and from disease-causing microbes. Low virulence microbes are insidious: if left unrecognized and untreated they become deepseated, eg. rheumatoid arthritis has been linked to a prevalence of a
                   bacteria called Proteus. This bacteria may also be involved in the initiation of myasthenia gravis and is associated with ankylosing spondylitis. [10] What originates as a local infection becomes an autoimmune
                   illness. There is often a long transit time with hypochlorhydria; the longer bacteria sit inside us, the more they proliferate. In 24 hours one E. coli bacteria produces nearly 5,000 identical bacteria. Perforations in the
                   digestive tract form in a matter of days. Bacterial enzymes recreate estrogen levels and estrogen-dependent breast cancer. When there are abnormal levels of microflora t here's a malabsorption of vitamin K needed
                   for blood clotting and there is an increased susceptibility to bruising. [2]

                  Published research has listed Dysbiosis as the cause of arthritis, autoimmune illness, chronic fatigue, cystic acne, the early stages of colon and breast cancer, eczema, food allergy/sensitivity, inflammatory bowel
                   disease, irritable bowel syndrome, psoriasis and steatorrhea. All bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections found with hypochlorhydria are linked to Dysbiosis. Liver detoxification is further compromised by the
                   growing load of toxic byproducts from these infections. [10] Because the body is extremely depleted with long term hypochlorhydria, there is a very low immune response (e.g. a significant number of the immune
                   system's enzymes work best in the presence of zinc, iron and B 6.) [30] Antibody blood tests with negative findings may mislead doctors and patients while infections rage on unchecked. A rectal swab test (for
                   parasites) may be helpful. Probiotic supplementation is essential. [16]

                  General Symptoms of Hypochlorhydria are: halitosis (bad breath), a loss of taste for meat, epigastric pain, distress, fullness, distension, nausea, gas, diarrhea and constipation, vomiting and even severe heartburn.
                   [31]

                  The emptying time of the stomach is slowed and the food ferments, producing irritating acids and gasses. [2,10] Undigested food alone can damage the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestine. [28] Under
                   normal conditions, the stomach is protected by a thick alkaline mucous coating, and by prostaglandins, the underlying cell messengers which signal a cell to move over and take the place of a damaged cell. However,
                   this protection is often missing under conditions causing or caused by hypochlorhydria, Under psychological stress, mucous secretion decreases and with the use of aspirin or anti-inflammatories for pain etc. the
                   biosynthesis of prostaglandins is inhibited. [32] But far more damage results from the deficiencies caused by low stomach acid.

The synthesis of linoleic acid into gammo-linolenic acid (GLA), as well as GLA into the prostaglandin PGI, are dependent on zinc, B6 and magnesium. Prostaglandins of 3 series are dependent on zinc, niacin and vitamin C.
(Manganese and chromium are also needed for the synthesis of fatty acids.)20 Series I and 3 (PG1 and PG3) are the anti-inflammatory prostaglandins. They work with antioxidants such as C and E (both low or missing with
hypochlorhydria) to quench or modulate the inflammatory process. Through the inflammatory process, damaged cells are removed, toxins are eliminated, invading microorganisms are overcome, and the repair process begins. [2]
With hypochlorhydria's deficiencies, this process goes seriously awry. The necessary nutrients for a healthy digestion, digestive tract and body are the same ones we have more and more difficulty digesting. [31] Vitamins A, E and
especially C offer significant protection against virtually all forms of cancer, including cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, col on; pancreas, breast and cervix; [20] their essential cofactors cannot be adequately supplied with low
stomach acid. [15] Hypochlorhydria is self-perpetuating and has growing complex ramifications.

In the Stomach: nausea after taking supplements, [10] gastroesophageal reflux, [3] helicobacter pylori infection causing erosion of the lining, gastric ulcers and using up 75% of the ascorbic acid in the gastric juice. This infection can
lead to achlorhydria, pernicious anemia and stomach cancer. [1,31] (Gastric ulcers can also be caused by hypochlorhydria's nutritional deficiencies and trauma to the stomach's lining.) Aluminum toxicity that occurs with low stomach
acid, (see bone metabolism), inflames and undermines the bowel's lining. [8,23]

In the Small Intestine: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), [10] chronic candida albicans infection [10] and parasites, [31] leaky gut syndrome (intestinal permeability) causing diverse bacterial infections, multiple food allergies and
autoimmune disorders, Celiac disease, [10] peptic and duodenal ulcers (Helicobacter pylori can infect both the stomach and small intestine, with low stomach acid, ulcers can also be caused by deficiencies and stress.) [3] and
intestinal obstruction. [33] (Intestinal obstructions form when fiber is not broken down by sufficient stomach acid.)

In the Large Intestine: Ulcerative Colitis, [34] Crohn's disease and colon cancer. [10]

In the Rectum: Pruritus ani (or itching), undigested food is found in the stools. [10]

In the Liver: Problems with detoxification, greater sensitivity to drugs (e.g. brain and nervous system dysfunction and damage from Benzodiazepines, valium, prozac, halcion, etc.), [35] chronic hepatitis. [10] Hypochlorhydria's
growing deficiencies of liquid crystalloid electrolytes, vitamins and amino acids weaken liver function, thereby increasing the liver's burden. [37] For example, manganese and zinc deficiencies cause a choline deficiency. Choline is
essential for the health of the liver. [15]


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                  In the Bladder: Recurrent bladder infections. [10] Bladder cancer from the liver's problems with detoxifiction. [36]
                     In the Prostate: Prostatisis, enlarged prostate (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) and prostate cancer have been linked to a zinc deficiency and the consequent problems of hypochlorhydria. [12,38] Zinc is essential for the
                      production of hydrochloric acid and is critical to many aspects of male hormone metabolism. One of zinc's actions is to inhibit the activity of the 5-alpha-reductase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to
                      dihydrotestosterone, which is toxic to the prostate. [2]

                     In the Gall Bladder: gallstones. With low stomach acid there is an incomplete emptying of the common bile duct because the pyiorus or opening to the small intestine is in a state of spasm. Gallstones form in a
                      stagnant gallbladder. [31] Especially in the absence of choline. [15] Hypochlorhydria causes an iron deficiency and consequently the production of higher amounts of transferrin (an iron transporting protein).
                      Transferrin causes cholesterol crystals to form more rapidly. Gallstones develop when deposits of either cholesterol or non-absorbable calcium combine with bile. Gallstones may form in the cystic duct, hepatic duct,
                      common bile duct or gallbladder for all of these reasons in those with low gastric activity. [39]

                     Inadequate bile production: Hypochlorhydria's protein deficiency prevents adequate bile production. Undigested fats coat food inhibiting digestion even further. [15] It takes a great deal of enzyme assistance (pepsin
                      in the acid medium of the stomach and pancreatic enzymes in the alkaline medium of the small intestine) to break down protein into amino acids. [4,10] The correct pH for these enzymes to be able to work is
                      provided by liquid crystalloid electrolytes produced by the extremely acid pH of 1 of healthy stomach acid. [1,2,30]

                     In the Pancreas: Without sufficient HCl and bile, an extra load is placed on the pancreas, the head of the pancreas becomes enlarged, there is incomplete emptying of the pancreatic duct and the electrolytes needed to
                      activate and produce pancreatic enzymes are absent or in very short supply. This results in chronic pancreatitis. The pancreas becomes hard and sore to touch. Diabetes can also occur from stagnation of the pancreas
                      and many nutritional deficiencies, [31] e.g. the pancreas of a diabetic contains about half as much zinc and manganese as a healthy pancreas. Zinc prolongs the effect of insulin on blood sugar, [15] and manganese is
                      an important cofactor in the key enzymes of glucose metabolism. [20] The active liquid crystalloid electrolyte for a substance called glucose tolerance factor (GTF) is chromium; niacin and amino acids complete the
                      formula. [15] All of these ingredients are deficient with low stomach acid. Vanadium sulphate mimics insulin and improves cell sensitivity to insulin. Julian Whi taker, MD calls vanadium the single most effective
                      and intriguing factor for helping diabetes. [40]

                     In the Kidneys: Low back and abdominal pain, fever, chills, fatigue, edema, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, a frequent urge to urinate, blood or albumin in the urine. These are all symptoms of nephritis caused in
                      hypochlorhydria by diverse and chronic bacterial infections, protein, choline and vitamin E deficiencies. [15] Extra vitamin E is needed because of toxic byproducts including aluminum and mercury toxicity that
                      accompanies low stomach acid production. [41] Because of the body's consequent digestive problems with low HCl, fat soluble vitamins, such as E, and protein and choline are less available. [15]



                     idney Stones: Minerals go out of solution in the body forming deposits which can lead to the formation of stones.[1] Aluminum and other toxic metals such as Cadmium disturb the pH, producing an overacid serum
                      state which leads to aberrant calcium accumulation in cells. [23] (See Bone Metabolism Cadmium and Aluminum Toxicity)

                     In the Skin: Sun sores, itching skin, greater susceptibility to burn in the sun, skin cancer. "Perhaps the most powerful preventive for sun damage in humans is the amount of calcium in skin cells." [42] Omega 3 fats
                      (as in flax oil and fish oil) are necessary to remove calcium out of the blood and into the cells. [43] One cannot metabolize sufficient fats without adequate stomach acid production, nor can one keep calcium and
                      copper soluble, in their liquid crystalloid electrolyte form, without healthy gastric activity. [1] Copper is needed for the conversion of the amino acid tyrosine into melanin (the dark pigment that colors hair and skin).
                      [15] Melanin absorbs ultraviolet light and protects us from sun damage. [44] When the kidneys and liver are overloaded, as with hypochlorhydria, the skin will take over in eliminating toxins from the body. [44] The
                      following are implicated with low HCl deficiencies and toxicity: Septicemia (electrolytes are needed to heal wounds [11]), boils, abscesses, adult acne, infl ammatory skin disease, rosacea, psoriasis, chronic hives,
                      eczema, lupus erythematosis, dermatitis herpetiformes [10] and vitiligo. [2] (See Dysbiosis)

                     In the Bone Metabolism: Too many minerals in the wrong form and ratios can be as damaging as a mineral deficiency. With hypochlorhydria there are too many inorganic minerals and not enough liquid crystalloid
                      electrolytes. This can cause alkalosis.

                     Bone spurs: Non-ionized calcium goes out of solution in the body and forms deposits. [1] (See alkalosis)

                     Osteoporosis and Osteomalacia: Healthy bones need all of the minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, boron, manganese, copper, silica and zinc. [46] For example, the electrical properties of copper hold the
                      apatite crystals and collagen fibers in bone together. [47] Vitamins K, E and D are also essential. Amino acids and vitamin C form the protein fibers of the bone matrix. [46] Elevated homocysteine levels from
                      deficiencies of B6 and folic acid, as found with low stomach acid lead to a defective bone matrix. [20] Liquid crystalloid electrolytes are needed for the absorption of all of these nutrients. No electrolytes are formed
                      without sufficient HCl. [1] "A deficient intake of an element can allow toxic accumulation of another element." [48] In hypochlorhydria impaired mineralization of bones and stored aluminum [8] and cadmium
                      makes us prone to osteoporosis and osteomalacia. [23] The earliest symptoms of these conditions are muscle and leg cramps and low back pain leading to spasms, loss of twisting and b ending strength and
                      spontaneous fractures. [30]

                     Poor hormonal balance and production: Omega 3 fatty acid and trace mineral absorption and metabolism is inadequate to maintain the healthy balance and production of hormones needed for strong bones. [1] A
                      healthy magnesium level (missing with hypochlorhydria) suppresses the parathyroid hormone, which draws calcium out of the bones. Magnesium also stimulates calcitonin, the hormone which increases and
                      maintains the level of calcium in the bones, allowing us to use our body's calcium supply more efficiently. [30]


   1
    2Incorrect pH: As the body fights for its essential pH balance with a declining supply of alkalizing minerals, it decalcifies the bones. [1]

    Cadmium and Aluminum toxicity is found in those with low stomach acid. Because of zinc and calcium deficiencies, the body absorbs cadmium and aluminum, [12,22,23] The impairment of calcium metabolism that occurs with
    cadmium toxicity contributes to bone disorders. Aluminum is a cross-linking agent for collagen, particularly when phosphate groups are present. This leads to malnourishment of the cells and further demineralization of the bone. [23]
    Daily use of calcium and magaesium is recommended to reduce the body burdens of aluminum which accumulate in liver, lungs, bones, brain and thyroid. [1] Cadmium accumulates in the kidneys, arteries and liver, brain, fat deposits
    and joints. Additional supplementation of copper, iron, zinc and selenium can lessen cadmium toxicity. [23] We need a good balance and supply of liquid crystalloid electrolytes, otherwise excessive levels of toxic minerals
    accumulate in cells and tissues. [1]

    Next Month: Hypochlorhydria: Review & Treatment

    Correspondence:

    Judy Kitchen

    3637 Serra Road

    Malibu, California 90265 USA

    Phone/fax 310-456-6837


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