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Ch 24 Pages 364-373 Note-Taking Template

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					NOTE-TAKING GUIDE: The Brief American Pageant, Ch 24, “Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900, PAGES 364-373”
Learning Objectives
After reading pages 364-373, you should be able to:


    1.   Indicate how the American economy came to be
         dominated by large and often monopolistic
         corporations in industries like steel and oil, and
         outline the public and governmental response to
         these huge combinations.



    2.   Explain why the South was generally excluded
         from major industrial development, and what were
         the economic and social consequences of its
         largely rural isolation for the region and the nation.



    3.   State how industrialization altered American
         society, particularly the roles of the working class
         and of women.



    4.   Explain why nineteenth century American labor
         unions generally failed to mobilize the mass of
         American workers, despite numerous organizing
         efforts.



OUTLINE

Lords of Industry

Miracles of Mechanization
--abundance of natural resources
--American inventiveness
--Alexander Graham Bell
--Thomas Alva Edison

The Trust Titan Emerges
--Andrew Carnegie
--John D. Rockefeller
--J.P. Morgan
--vertical integration
--the trust
--the syndicate (preceding terms on previous
   assignment, Outline Template pages 357-364)

Pages 364-373:

The Supremacy of Steel
--heavy industry
--transformation of steel industry after 1870
--William Kelley
--Bessemer and Bessemer-Kelley process
--Andrew Carnegie, the “Napoleon of the Smokestacks”
--J. Pierpont “Jupiter” Morgan
--sale of Carnegie Steel to Morgan
--Creation of U.S. Steel, America’s first billion dollar
   corporation?

Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose
--“Drake’s Folly”
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NOTE-TAKING GUIDE: The Brief American Pageant, Ch 24, “Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900, PAGES 364-373”
--kerosene
--gasoline internal combustion engine
--John D. Rockefeller
--Standard Oil Company of Ohio
--“Reckafella”
--“the giant American Beauty rose”
--gaining control of the petroleum industry
--trust, monopoly, and consolidation (combination)
--the rise of the trusts

The Gospel of Wealth
--justification by the “Gospel of Wealth”
--Hebert Spencer and William Graham Sumner
--Social Darwinists
--laissez-faire
--David Ricardo and Thomas Malthus
--“survival of the fittest” and natural selection
--the plight of the poor
--Rev. Russell Conwell, “Acres of Diamonds”
--plutocracy
--Trusts and the Fourteenth Amendment

Government Tackles the Trust Evil
--trusts, monopolies, and state legislation
--Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
--The Sherman Act and labor unions
--early prosecutions under the Sherman Act
--will government control the trusts or will the trusts control
   the government?
--Will private greed be subordinated to public need?

Industry in the South

The South in the Age of Industry
--the North compared to the “backwater” South
--absentee landownership
--share-croppers and tenant farmers
--Mass production of “coffin nails:” James Buchanan Duke
   and the American Tobacco Company
--Durham, NC and Duke University
--Henry W. Grady and visions of a “New South”
--barriers to industrialization in the South
--the South as a “Third” World nation
--Birmingham and the “Pittsburgh Plus” pricing system
--Textile Mills: a mixed blessing
--hillbillies and lint-heads
--the labor of women and children

Workers and Unions

The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America
--rising wealth, incomes, standards of living
--increased urbanization and immigration
--smokestacks smother Jeffersonian ideals?
--regimentation of time
--tremendous impact on women
--Impact of recent inventions on women in the workplace
--treatment of women workers= INEQUALITY
--accentuated class divisions
--industrial buccaneers and conspicuous consumption
--Immigrants, socialists, and radicals
--Oligarchy in 1900: 10% of American’s owned 90% of
   the nation’s wealth.

In Unions There Is Strength
--the dehumanization of the worker
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NOTE-TAKING GUIDE: The Brief American Pageant, Ch 24, “Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900, PAGES 364-373”
--a losing battle: the individual vs. the corporation
--scabs, thugs and the boast of Jay Gould
--Injunctions and government protection of corporations
--the lockout
--yellow-dog contract
--“black list”
--the company town and the shackles of debt
--attitudes of the middle-class
--unlike corporations, union combinations of power seen as
   foreign, socialistic, and un-American

Labor Limps Along
--Civil War gave labor unions a boost
--The significance and groundbreaking practices of the
   National Labor Union (NLU)
--Colored National Labor Union
--Great Railroad Strike of 1877
--from the ashes of the NLU rises the Noble and Holy Order
   of the Knights of Labor (known as simply the Knights of
   Labor)
--like NLU, Knights of Labor were all-inclusive: attracted
   a membership of both skilled AND unskilled workers, men
   and women, whites and blacks
--fought for broad goals of economic and social reform;
   producers’ cooperatives
--led by Terence V. Powderly

Unhorsing the Knights of Labor
--1886 May Day strikes
--unjustified association with anarchists in the minds of the
   middle-class
--May 4, 1886, outbreak of violence in Haymarket Square,
   Chicago when police attempt to break-up peaceful
   Protest of union members. During ensuing confusion,
   unknown person or persons detonate a bomb that kills
   and wounds dozens, including police.
--with little or no proof, several anarchists charged with
   conspiracy (based on a judge’s determination that they
   promoted incendiary doctrines and therefore could be
   charged with conspiracy in the incident). All convicted.
--Impact of Haymarket on the Knights




NOTES: TO FOLLOW UP / QUESTIONS TO ASK IN CLASS




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