Chapter 2 Colonizing America _1519-1733_

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					    Chapter 2
Colonizing America
       Why It Matters
• Spanish, French, and English
  colonists came to North America. The
  colonies they founded often reflected
  the values and traditions of their
  homelands. These values and
  traditions helped shape core beliefs
  that most Americans share today.
       The Impact Today
Several developments of the early colonial
  period are evident in our nation today
• The language & culture of the
  southwestern U.S. reflect the influence of
  the early Spanish settlers
• Religious conflicts convinced the colonists
  of the importance of toleration and
  freedom of religion, values important to
  Americans today
  The Impact Today con’t

•The democratic
 traditions and
 institutions of the
 modern U.S. originated
 during colonial times.
In the spring of 1519, a courier arrived in
Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec empire. He
had news for the emperor, Montezuma II.
Bearded white men bearing crosses were
encamped on the eastern shores of the
emperor’s realm.
Montezuma was worried. For several years he
had heard reports of strange men with “very
light skin” operating in the Caribbean. His
subjects had also seen “towers or small
mountains floating on the waves of the sea.”
Now these strange white men had come to his
lands, and Montezuma did not know what to
The men on the coast were Spanish soldiers. As
  they watched the soldiers, the people of
  eastern Mexico felt both fear and awe. One
  Aztec later recalled:
“They came in battle array, as conquerors…their
  spears glinted in the sun, and their pennons
  fluttered like bats. They made loud clamor as
  they marched, for their coats of mail and their
  weapons clashed and rattled…They terrified
  everyone who saw them.”
 I. The Conquest of Mexico
• Hernan Cortes – led march into
  Aztec empire
• Velasquez – conquered Cuba in
  1511. Asked Cortes to march
  into Yucatan Peninsula to find
  people to work for the Spanish
Hernan Cortes
Diego Velazquez
Once Cortes reached the Yucatan, he
 found a shipwrecked sailor to be his
 translator. Still was attacked by
 thousands of warriors from a nearby
Battle showed Spanish had
 technological advantage over the
 locals…killed over 200 warriors
 quickly with their swords, crossbows,
 guns, and cannons.
• Malinche – translated for Cortes;
  he was impressed & had her
  baptized and changed her name
  to Dona Marina.
• Quetzalcoatl – prophesied God
  that would someday return from
  the E to conquer the Aztecs (fair
  skinned, bearded beauty)
 II. Cortes Defeats the Aztec
• Tenochtitlan astonished the Spanish
• Cortes took Montezuma hostage
• Aztec priests became enraged at their loss
  of power and organized rebellion in 1520
• Battle went on for days…Montezuma was
  killed during the battle. 450 Spaniards died
  in battle compared with 4,000 Aztecs who
   III. New Spain Expands
• Ordered a new city to be built
  on top of Tenochtitlan, and he
  called it Mexico
• Pizarro conquered the Incas in
      A. Cities of Gold
• Explorers looking for 7 Golden
  Cities of Cibola
• Hernando de Soto – expedition N of
  FL; as they marched across the region
  Spanish killed many Native
  Americans & raided villages for
    B. Spanish Settle SW
• Spanish gave term ‘New Mexico’ to
  territory N of New Spain
• Pedro de Peralta, 1 st gov of NM,
  founded capital city Santa Fe in 1609
  or 1610; Spanish build presidios
  throughout region for protection and
  trading posts.
  IV. Spanish American Society
• The Encomienda System
• A Society Based on Class
  * Birth, income, and education
  determined a person’s position
• Council of the Indies
• Mining and Ranching - silver
 V. French Empire in America
• Verrazano sent to map North
  America’s coastline (king looking
  for Northwest Passage)
• Jacques Cartier discovered and
  mapped the St. Lawrence River;
 came back a 3 rd time to found a
 colony but left b/c of harsh winter
         VI. New France
• Champlain founded French colony in Canada
  – named it New France.
• Life: Most French were coureurs de bois
  (runners of the woods) – fur traders
• De la Salle – 1 st Euro to discover the MS River
• Settled Louisiana
• 1 st permanent European town in North
  America – St Augustine by the Spanish

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