Financial Terms related to Yield This document is part of the valuable contents available at www.ftpall.com, a free online glossary with more than five thousand financial and business terms. This document can be copied and distributed freely Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com respecting its original format. It is forbidden its transcription, translation or change on its format without authorization of its author or editor. YIELD Annual percentage yield • Abbreviated APY. The effective, or true, annual rate of return. The APY is the rate actually earned or paid in one year, taking into account the affect of compounding. The APY is calculated by taking one plus the periodic rate and raising it to the number of periods in a year. For example, a 1% per month rate has an APY of 12.68% (1.01^12). Average dividend yield • Combined with price appreciation, the average dividend yield (if any) can show a potential total return from a security investment. The formula for the average dividend yield is: (EPS *Average Payout) / current price where EPS = Estimated Future High EPS / (1 + EPS Growth) 2.5 Companies that pay a dividend will generally increase the dividend as EPS grow. www.ftpall.com 2|Page Share price growth will usually follow the dividend increases, and thus keep dividend yield at a constant percentage. Bond equivalent yield • Is the procedure which relates discounted rates such as treasury bills and eurodollars to a bond standard. It is typical for discounted paper to be computed on the basis of a 360-day year whereas bonds are usually based on a 365 day year. If this equivalency is not done then the quoted short-term rates for discounted instruments may be understated. Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com • The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield. • Bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual effective yield. Capital gains yield • The price change portion of a stock's return. Convenience yield • The extra advantage that firms derive from holding the commodity rather than the future. • Is the assumed or expected benefit of holding a long position in a physical commodity. Othen this holding is to satisfy existing near-term delivery commitments or to maintain uninterrupted manufacturing processes. It highlights the marginal value of an inventory relative to the anticipated usage. High convenience yields tend to occur in inverted or backwardation markets. In these situations, the costs of being without the physical commodity are greater than the premium paid to hold the commodity. A positive convenience yield is greater than the sum of the financing plus other storage carrying costs. Cost yield • The annual income from an investment divided by the purchase cost. Because it www.ftpall.com 3|Page does not include the effect of premiums and discounts which may have been included in the purchase cost, it is an incomplete measure of return. Coupon equivalent yield • True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year. Current yield • Coupon payments on a security as a percentage of the security's market price. In many instances the price should be gross of accrued interest, particularly on Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com instruments where no coupon is left to be paid until maturity. • The annual income from an investment divided by the current market value. Since the mathematical calculation relies on the current market value rather than the investor's cost, current yield is unrelated to the actual return the investor will earn if the security is held to maturity. • Annual income (interest or dividends) divided by the current price of the security. For stocks, this is the same as the Dividend Yield. • For bonds or notes, the coupon rate divided by the market price of the bond. Dividend yield • Is a term that can have several different meanings. It can refer to an annualized (cash) dividend rate of return. This is computed by dividing the cash dividend by the price per share at the time of purchase. If the stock were trading at 100 and the dividends equaled $2.80, then the yield would be 2.80 percent. Also, the term is used on the assumption that the current trading price is the implied purchase price. The computation process remains the same. • The dividends per share paid to shareholders, expressed as a percentage of the share price. Total return on your stock investment is usually measured by adding the dividend yield percentage to the percentage return from price growth of the stock. www.ftpall.com 4|Page Dividend yield funds • Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not redemption charges. Dividend yield stocks • Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price. Earnings yield Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com • The ratio of earnings per share after allowing for tax and interest payments on fixed interest debt, to the current share price. The inverse of the price/earnings ratio. It's the Total Twelve Months earnings divided by number of outstanding shares, divided by the recent price, multiplied by 100. The end result is shown in percentage. • Earnings per share for the most recent 12 months divided by market price per share. Relates the generation of earnings to share price. It is the inverse of the Price-Earnings Ratio. Effective annual yield • Annualized interest rate on a security computed using compound interest techniques. Equivalent bond yield • Annual yield on a short-term, non-interest bearing security calculated so as to be comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities. • Annual yield on a short-term, non-interest-bearing security calculated so as to be comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities. Equivalent taxable yield • The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax yield as a tax-exempt issue. www.ftpall.com 5|Page • The yield on a taxable security that would leave the investor with the same aftertax return he would earn by holding a tax-exempt municipal; for example, for an investor taxed at a 50% marginal rate, equivalent taxable yield on a muni note issued at 3% would be 6%. Flat yield curve • A yield curve that reflects relatively similar borrowing costs for both short- and longer-term loans. • A chart showing the yields of bonds with short maturities as equal to the yields of Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com bonds with long maturities. See also: Inverted Yield Curve; Normal Yield Curve; Yield Curve. Flattening of the yield curve • A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term and short-term Treasury has decreased. Compare steepening of the yield curve and butterfly shift. High yield • The highest Dividend Yield for a particular year. It is useful to measure the current dividend yield against the historical high yield. If the current yield is lower, then there may be room for an increase in dividend to bring the yield closer to the former high. High yield bond • See:junk bond. Holding period return/yield • Income plus price appreciation during a specified time period divided by the cost of the investment. Indicated yield • The yield that a share of stock would return based on its current Indicated www.ftpall.com 6|Page Dividend, calculated by dividing the indicated dividend by the current share price. • The yield, based on the most recent quarterly rate times four. To determine the yield, divide the annual dividend by the price of the stock. The resulting number is represented as a percentage. See: dividend yield Inverted yield curve • A downward-sloping yield curve that indicates generally cheaper long-term borrowing costs than short-term borrowing costs. Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com • A chart showing long-term debt instruments having lower yields than short-term debt instruments. Also known as a Negative Yield Curve. See also: Flat Yield Curve; Normal Yield Curve. • Is the market condition whereby the near-term interest rates are higher than long- term interest rates. For example, the two year rate is greater than the ten year rate; or, the spot (overnight) rate is higher than the thirty year rate. This inversion may be induced or result from changes in monetary policy, foreign exchange movements, immediate liquidity needs within the financial system, constrictions in money/credit and other financial forces. Liquid yield option note • Abbreviated LYON. Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill Lynch & Co. Negative yield curve • See Inverted Yield Curve. Nominal yield • Also known as Coupon Rate and Stated Yield. The interest rate stated on the face of a bond that represents the percentage of interest to be paid by the issuer on the face value of the bond. www.ftpall.com 7|Page Non parallel shift in the yield curve • A shift in the yield curve in which yields do not change by the same number of basis points for every maturity. Related: Parallel shift in the yield curve. Normal yield curve • An upward-sloping yield curve that indicates generally cheaper short-term borrowing costs than long-term borrowing costs. • Also known as Positive Yield Curve. A chart showing long-term debt instruments Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com having higher yields than short-term debt instruments. See also: Flat Yield Curve; Inverted Yield Curve; Yield Curve. Parallel shift in the yield curve • A shift in the yield curve in which the change in the yield on all maturities is the same number of basis points. In other words, if the 3 month T-bill increases 100 basis points (one percent), then the 6 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 20 year, and 30 year rates increase by 100 basis points as well. Related: Non-parallel shift in the yield curve. Positive yield curve • See Nominal Yield Curve. Potential average dividend yield • Suggests the potential percentage dividend payments, compounded yearly over the next 5 years. Combined with price appreciation, Yield makes up the possible total return percentage. Pure yield pickup swap • Moving to higher yield bonds. Realized compound yield • Yield assuming that coupon payments are invested at the going market interest www.ftpall.com 8|Page rate at the time of their receipt and rolled over until the bond matures. Realized yield • The change in value of the portfolio due to interest received and interest earned and realized gains and losses. It does not give effect to changes in market value on securities in the portfolio not yet sold. Relative yield spread • The ratio of the yield spread to the yield level. Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com Reoffering yield • In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which the underwriter offers to sell the bonds to investors. Required yield • Generally referring to bonds, the yield required by the marketplace to match available returns for financial instruments with comparable risk. Riding the yield curve • Buying long-term bonds in anticipation of capital gains as yields fall with the declining maturity of the bonds. Stated yield • See Nominal Yield. Steepening of the yield curve • A change in the yield curve where the spread between the yield on a long-term and short-term Treasury has increased. Compare flattening of the yield curve and butterfly shift. Weighted average portfolio yield • The weighted average of the yield of all the bonds in a portfolio. www.ftpall.com 9|Page Yield • The rate of annual income return on an investment, expressed as a percentage. Yield does not include capital gains. (a) INCOME YIELD is obtained by dividing the current dollar income by the current market price for the security. (b) NET YIELD or YIELD TO MATURITY is the current income yield minus any premium above par or plus any discount from par in purchase price, with the adjustment spread over the period from the date of purchase to the date of maturity of the bond. • The yield is the rate of return that investors require from the bond. Equivalently, it is Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com the rate of return that they require from bonds of similar risk. • (1) The amount of interest paid on a bond or stock divided by the price; a measure of the income generated by the security. (2) The rate of return on an investment, usually expressed as an annual percentage rate. A yield is not a total return measure because it does not include capital gains or losses. See also: Current Yield; Dividend Yield; Nominal Yield. • The percentage rate of return paid on a stock in the form of dividends, or the effective rate of interest paid on a bond or note. • Is the rate of return on an asset. It is frequently expressed as a percent of the current market price. Yield burning • Is the activity whereby yields on treasury securities were (artificially) lowered to purchasing municipal organizations by raising the prices of those treasury or equivalent securities. This increase in prices caused these transactions to be conducted at levels which were higher than the prevailing market. Yield curve • A graph of the term structure of interest rates that depicts the relationship between the yield to maturity of a security (y-axis) and the time to maturity (x-axis); it shows www.ftpall.com 10 | P a g e the pattern of interest rates on securities of equal quality and different maturity. • A graph showing, for securities that all expose the investor to the same credit risk, the relationship at a given point in time between yield and current maturity. Yield curves are typically drawn using yields on governments of various maturities. It is also called the termstructure of interest rates. Typically the yield curve rises with maturity. • A graphic representation of a curve that shows Interest Rates at a specific point for all securities having equal risk but different maturity dates. Usually, government Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com securities are used to construct such curves. See also: Flat Yield Curve; Inverted Yield Curve; Normal Yield Curve. • The graphical depiction of the relationship between the yield on bonds of the same credit quality but different maturities. Related: Term structure of interest rates. Harvey (1991) finds that the inversions of the yield curve (short-term rates greater than long term rates) have preceded the last five U.S. recessions. The yield curve can accurately forecast the turning points of the business cycle. • Refers to the graghical or tabular representation of interest rates across different maturities. The presentation often starts with the shortest term rates and extends towards longer maturities. It reflects the market's views about implied inflation/deflation, liquidity, economic and financial activity and other market forces. Yield curve option pricing models • Models that can incorporate different volatility assumptions along the yield curve, such as the Black-Derman-Toy model. Also called arbitrage-free option-pricing models. Yield curve strategies • Positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in the shape of the Treasury yield curve. www.ftpall.com 11 | P a g e Yield ratio • The quotient of two bond yields. Yield spread strategies • Strategies that involve positioning a portfolio to capitalize on expected changes in yield spreads between sectors of the bond market. Yield to call • The percentage rate of a bond or note, if you were to buy and hold the security until Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com the call date. This yield is valid only if the security is called prior to maturity. Generally bonds are callable over several years and normally are called at a slight premium. The calculation of yield to call is based on the coupon rate, length of time to the call and the market price. Yield to call, option or event date • Is akin to Yield to Maturity but adjusts for a short life expectancy. It is the rate of return which is measured by the current expected income stream relative to the prevailing market price assuming that the asset is held until the exercise of the first option or termination event. If the instrument is trading at a discount, then the yield to call, option or event date, will be greater than the coupon rate. If the instrument is trading at a premium, then the yield to call, option or event date, will be less than the coupon rate. Yield to maturity • The annualized internal rate of return on an investment that equates the expected cash flows from the investment to its cost. • The rate of return investors expect to earn if they buy a bond at a specific price and hold it until it matures. Assumes that issuer makes all scheduled interest and principal payments as promised. Annual rate of interest earned on a security purchased on a given day and held to maturity. This is an ex ante (forecast) www.ftpall.com 12 | P a g e calculation that assumes the coupon interest, when received is reinvested at YTM for the remaining term to maturity. It is that discount rate that equates the current price of the bond with the sum of the discounted value of all promised cash flows. • Abbreviated YTM. The rate of return yielded by a debt security held to maturity when both interest payments and the investor's capital gain or loss on the security are taken into account. For a risk-free bond, the YTM equals the market capitalization rate. • The rate of return anticipated on a bond if it is held until the Maturity Date. Find thousands of financial terms at www.ftpall.com • The percentage rate of return paid on a bond, note or other fixed income security if you buy and hold it to its maturity date. The calculation for YTM is based on the coupon rate, length of time to maturity and market price. It assumes that coupon interest paid over the life of the bond will be reinvested at the same rate. • Is the rate of return which is measured by the current expected income stream relative to the prevailing market price assuming that the asset is held until maturity. If the instrument is trading at a discount, then the yield to maturity will be greater than the coupon rate. If the instrument is trading at a premium, then the yield to maturity will be less than the coupon rate. Yield to worst • The bond yield computed by using the lower of either the yield to maturity or the yield to call on every possible call date.