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MODEL
Arbitrage free option pricing models

   • Yield curve option-pricing models.

Asset pricing model

   • A model, such as the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), that determines the
   required rate of return on a particular asset.

Bankruptcy prediction models

   • Bankruptcy Prediction Models refer to the quantitative models that estimate the
   probability of bankruptcy for a given firm or a bank.

Baumol model

   • A model that provides for cost-efficient transactional cash balances; assumes that
   the demand for cash can be predicted with certainty and determines the economic
   conversion quantity (ECQ).
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Binomial option pricing model

   • An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
   possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in
   the preceding time period.

Black option model

   • Is the Black-Scholes option model modified by Fischer Black for the futures
   markets.




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Black scholes option model

   • Is the seminal work about options pricing models. It was developed by Fisher Black
   and Myron Scholes. It initially focused on securities prices. Subsequently, it was
   refined by Fisher Black for the futures markets. Most options models depart from this
   seed. This important work was published by Fischer Black and Myron Scholes in the
   May-June 1973 edition of The Journal of Political Economy. It laid the foundation for
   the quantitative analysis and practical calculation of puts and calls. The model
   indicated that options would eliminate risk from stock portfolios subject to some
   assumptions. The lognormal model stated that option values could be determined by
   using the current stock price, time left to expiration, the strike or exercise price, the
   variance of the stock's rate of return (standard deviation applied) and the risk-free
   rate of interest.

Black scholes option pricing model

   • A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments that uses the stock
   price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the
   standard deviation of the stock return.

Business model eps projection

   • Estimates EPS by applying profit and tax margins to the projected sales rate five
   years into the future. This centers attention on profitability rather than sales
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   expansion. This formula may be used to estimate earnings per share five years
   ahead. It starts with the sales growth projection. (This is used because sales growth
   is historically more consistent and stable than earnings growth.) Expenses, taxes,
   and preferred dividends are then subtracted from sales. Finally, the result is divided
   by the shares outstanding to show the 5-year forecast for EPS. It is worthwhile to
   compare this sales-based EPS projection with other methods. This should help to
   confirm the reasonableness of your future 5-year EPS projection.

Capital asset pricing model




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   • Abbreviated CAPM. The basic theory that links together risk and return for all
   assets. The CAPM predicts a relationship between the required return, or cost of
   common equity capital, and the nondiversifiable risk of the firm as measured by the
   beta coefficient.

   • Abbreviated CAPM. An economic theory that describes the relationship between
   risk and expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities.
   The CAPM asserts that the only risk that is priced by rational investors is systematic
   risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification. The CAPM says that
   the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free
   security plus a risk premium.

   • Is a tool that relates an asset's expected return to the market's expected return. It
   combines the concepts of efficient capital markets with risk premiums. The idea of
   capital market efficiency assumes immediate instantaneous -response to perfect or
   near perfect information. The risk premiums relate an investment to the market's
   risk-free or riskless rate of return. Typically, this risk-free rate is viewed in terms of
   principal safety for short term U.S. government obligations. Here, beta relates the
   volatility of an asset to the market.

Constant growth dividend valuation gordon model

   • Assumes that the value of a share of stock equals the present value of all future
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   dividends (assumed to grow at a constant rate) that it is expected to provide over an
   infinite time horizon. The model assumes that dividends will grow at a rate that is
   less than the required rate of return.

Constant growth model

   • Also called the Gordon-Shapiro model, an application of the dividend discount
   model which assumes (1) a fixed growth rate for future dividends and (2) a single
   discount rate.

   • A widely cited dividend valuation approach that assumes that dividends will grow at




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   a constant rate that is less than the required return.

Country risk analysis models

   • Country Risk Analysis Models incorporate variables such as Debt Service ratio,
   Import Ratio, Variance of Export Revenue. Domestic Money Supply Growth Rate
   and others to predict the probability of debt rescheduling problems.

Credit scoring models

   • These are quantitative models that predict bankruptcy. They establish which
   factors are important with regard to credit risk. They evaluate the relative importance
   of these risk factors, improve the estimation of default probability, automate the
   rejection of bad loan applicants, and improve the pricing of the loan. They also help
   calculate any potential future loan losses and possible revenues.

Deterministic models

   • Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset
   cash flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models

Discounted dividend model

   • Abbreviated DDM. A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the
   present value of all expected future dividends.
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Dividend discount model

   • Abbreviated DDM. A model for valuing the common stock of a company, based on
   the present value of the expected cash flows.

Dividend growth model

   • A model wherein dividends are assumed to be at a constant rate in perpetuity.

Dividend valuation model

   • Abbreviated DVM. The value of common shares is dependent upon the sum of the




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   present value of the dividends received over an infinite time horizon.

Extrapolative statistical models

   • Models that apply a formula to historical data and project results for a future period.
   Such models include the simple linear trend model, the simple exponential model,
   and the simple autoregressive model.

Factor model

   • A way of decomposing the factors that influence a security's rate of return into
   common and firm-specific influences.

Garmen kohlhagen option pricing model

   • A widely used model for pricing foreign currency options.

Gordon model

   • A common name for the constant growth model that is widely cited in dividend
   valuation.

Ho lee option model

   • Is an Arbitrage Free Model which uses an estimated spot curve to evaluate
   embedded options in credit or fixed income securities.

Index model
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   • A model of stock returns using a market index such as the S&P 500 to represent
   common or systematic risk factors.

Market model

   • This relationship is sometimes called the single-index model. The market model
   says that the return on a security depends on the return on the market portfolio and
   the extent of the security's responsiveness as measured, by beta. In addition, the
   return will also depend on conditions that are unique to the firm. Graphically, the
   market model can be depicted as a line fitted to a plot of asset returns against




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   returns on the market portfolio.

Miller orr model

   • A model that provides for cost-efficient transactional cash balances; assumes
   uncertain cash flows and determines an upper limit and return point for cash
   balances.

Modeling

   • The process of creating a depiction of reality, such as a graph, picture, or
   mathematical representation.

Option adjusted spread model

   • Is an approach whereby securities are evaluated by considering the implied option
   characteristics. Two key variables are interest rate and prepayment rate behavior.
   These models incorporate the average spread of the Mortgage Backed Security or
   CMO tranche to the treasury yield curve. The usual reason for differences in
   evaluations is due to assumptions and modeling efforts for prepayments.

Option models

   • Are evaluation tools to determine the price, the premium, or the volatility for a put,
   call, or complex position or strategy. Sometimes, the list for option models includes:
   convertible securities, mortgage and asset backed securities, and warrants. Option
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   models may be categorized as credit, currency, equity, index, futures, and physical
   or cash oriented. The basic factors for an option model are: the underlying market
   price, the strike or exercise price, the interest rate for discounting purposes, the
   volatility, and the time to expiration. Some models require expected dividends,
   coupons and foreign exchange considerations. Some of these models are: Binomial,
   Black, Black Scholes, Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (CIR), Gastineau-Madansky, Heath,
   Jarrow, and Morton (HJM), Ho and Lee, Hull and White, Jamshidian, Rendleman
   and Bartter, Vasicek, and Whaley. Often these models have modifications. Usually,




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   the modifications are at the practices level in order to expedite calculations.

Pie model of capital structure

   • A model of the debt/equity ratio of the firms, graphically depicted in slices of a pie
   that represent the value of the firm in the capital markets.

Simple linear trend model

   • An extrapolative statistical model that asserts that earnings have a base level and
   grow at a constant amount each period.

Single factor model

   • A model of security returns that acknowledges only one common factor. See: factor
   model.

Single index model

   • Related: market model

   • A model of stock returns that decomposes influences on returns into a systematic
   factor, as measured by the return on the broad market index, and firm specific
   factors.

Stochastic models

   • Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset
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   cash flows are uncertain. Related: Deterministic models.

Two factor model

   • Black's zero-beta version of the capital asset pricing model.

Two state option pricing model

   • An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
   possible (discrete) values in the next time period for each value it can take on in the
   preceding time period. Also called the binomial option pricing model.




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Value at risk model

   • Abbreviated VAR. Procedure for estimating the probability of portfolio losses
   exceeding some specified proportion based on a statistical analysis of historical
   market price trends, correlations, and volatilities.

Variable growth model

   • A dividend valuation approach that allows for a change in the dividend growth rate.

Yield curve option pricing models

   • Models that can incorporate different volatility assumptions along the yield curve,
   such as the Black-Derman-Toy model. Also called arbitrage-free option-pricing
   models.

Zero growth model

   • An approach to dividend valuation that assumes a constant, nongrowing dividend
   stream.

				
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