Ch. 7_ Sec. 1 China's First Civilizations by liuhongmei


									         Ch. 7, Sec. 1
  China’s First Civilizations
Dynasty     aristocrat    pictograph
Ideograph   bureaucracy   mandate
                      China’s Geography
•   China has 2 great rivers : (pg. 225)
        1.   _______________--or Yellow River. Flows for 2,900 miles. River
             would flood the land, killing people & destroying homes, but also left rich
             farming soil.
        2.   _______________--Longer than Huang He, about 3,400 miles across
             central China.
•   China has little farm land due to __________ mountains
    and the ______ desert.
    •   These geographic barriers separated Chinese from other peoples.
•   Over time, Chinese people united to form one kingdom
    called the _______________.
                              Shang Dynasty
• Archaeologists believe Huang He
  valley was center of Chinese
    – First rulers were probably part of
      _____ dynasty (little known).
• Found huge walls, palaces, & royal
  tombs—belonging to time of the
  ________ dynasty.
         • Ruled from about 1750 B.C. to 1122
• __________was China’s first
  capital—built during Shang.
• People were divided into groups:
                          Shang Dynasty
• Believed in many spirits and _____.
      • They honored their ancestors & gods w/offerings to keep them happy (food & other
      • Angry gods might cause bad farming or battle losses.
• Shang kings believed they received ________ and _______ from
  gods, spirits, and ancestors.
      • Kings asked for gods’ help by having priests scratch questions on animal bones—
        some of earliest known examples of Chinese writing.
• Earliest writing used __________, or characters that stand for
• Also used _________, which are two or more pictographs put
  together to represent an idea .
• Shang are best known for their works of _________.
                         Zhou Dynasty
• Rule of Shang = big gap between rich & poor.
       • Lost support of the people.
• Aristocrat named ___________ rebelled against Shang
  dynasty & created ______ dynasty.
       • Zhou dynasty ruled longer than any other Chinese dynasty (over 800 years).
• Kings served at head of govt.
   – Under him was a large _____________, which are officials who
     are responsible for different areas of govt.
• Zhou copied Shang system by dividing kingdom into smaller
       • Each territory was led by an aristocrat. When aristocrat died, his son or
         another relative would take over.
                           Zhou Dynasty
•   Zhou kings thought to be link between gods & people.
      •    Kings chief duty was to carry out religious rituals—which strengthened link
           between them & gods.
      •    Because of this power, the kings said they ruled China b/c they had the
•   Mandate of Heaven was a heavenly law that gave Zhou kings
    the power to rule. Worked in 2 ways:
      1.   People expected king to rule the proper way, called the ________.
      2.   It gave the people rights of their own.
•   Developed flood-control and __________ systems.
•   Advances such as the ____ plow allowed for better farming.
      •    Meant more food and population growth.
                         Zhou Dynasty
• Trade grew w/farming. Important trade item was _____.
• Rulers of Zhou territories became powerful—ended up
  setting up own states.
• Almost 200 yrs. the states battled, called the
      • Used large armies of foot soldiers.
      • Fought w/swords, spears, & crossbows.
      • Chinese invented saddle & stirrup to let soldiers ride horses and fight.
• Dynasty—_______________________________________________
• Aristocrat—_____________________________________________
• Pictograph—_____________________________________________
• Ideograph—______________________________________________
• Bureaucracy—____________________________________________
• Mandate—______________________________________________
• Dao—_________________________________________________.

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