Ch. 7, Sec. 1 China’s First Civilizations Vocabulary Dynasty aristocrat pictograph Ideograph bureaucracy mandate Dao China’s Geography • China has 2 great rivers : (pg. 225) 1. _______________--or Yellow River. Flows for 2,900 miles. River would flood the land, killing people & destroying homes, but also left rich farming soil. 2. _______________--Longer than Huang He, about 3,400 miles across central China. • China has little farm land due to __________ mountains and the ______ desert. • These geographic barriers separated Chinese from other peoples. • Over time, Chinese people united to form one kingdom called the _______________. Shang Dynasty • Archaeologists believe Huang He valley was center of Chinese civilization. – First rulers were probably part of _____ dynasty (little known). • Found huge walls, palaces, & royal tombs—belonging to time of the ________ dynasty. • Ruled from about 1750 B.C. to 1122 B.C. • __________was China’s first capital—built during Shang. • People were divided into groups: Shang Dynasty • Believed in many spirits and _____. • They honored their ancestors & gods w/offerings to keep them happy (food & other goods). • Angry gods might cause bad farming or battle losses. • Shang kings believed they received ________ and _______ from gods, spirits, and ancestors. • Kings asked for gods’ help by having priests scratch questions on animal bones— some of earliest known examples of Chinese writing. • Earliest writing used __________, or characters that stand for objects. • Also used _________, which are two or more pictographs put together to represent an idea . • Shang are best known for their works of _________. Zhou Dynasty • Rule of Shang = big gap between rich & poor. • Lost support of the people. • Aristocrat named ___________ rebelled against Shang dynasty & created ______ dynasty. • Zhou dynasty ruled longer than any other Chinese dynasty (over 800 years). • Kings served at head of govt. – Under him was a large _____________, which are officials who are responsible for different areas of govt. • Zhou copied Shang system by dividing kingdom into smaller territories. • Each territory was led by an aristocrat. When aristocrat died, his son or another relative would take over. Zhou Dynasty • Zhou kings thought to be link between gods & people. • Kings chief duty was to carry out religious rituals—which strengthened link between them & gods. • Because of this power, the kings said they ruled China b/c they had the _____________________________. • Mandate of Heaven was a heavenly law that gave Zhou kings the power to rule. Worked in 2 ways: 1. People expected king to rule the proper way, called the ________. 2. It gave the people rights of their own. • Developed flood-control and __________ systems. • Advances such as the ____ plow allowed for better farming. • Meant more food and population growth. Zhou Dynasty • Trade grew w/farming. Important trade item was _____. • Rulers of Zhou territories became powerful—ended up setting up own states. • Almost 200 yrs. the states battled, called the ―___________________________‖. • Used large armies of foot soldiers. • Fought w/swords, spears, & crossbows. • Chinese invented saddle & stirrup to let soldiers ride horses and fight. Vocabulary • Dynasty—_______________________________________________ ________________________. • Aristocrat—_____________________________________________ ________________________. • Pictograph—_____________________________________________ ________________________. • Ideograph—______________________________________________ ________________________. • Bureaucracy—____________________________________________ ________________________. • Mandate—______________________________________________ ________________________. • Dao—_________________________________________________.
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