EARLY MIDDLE AGES IN SUMMARY

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					EARLY MIDDLE AGES IN SUMMARY
The fall of the Roman Empire introduces a time of chaos to
Europe.
The Catholic Church organizes, spreads its doctrine with the help
of the Monastic Movement and gets political.
The Merovingians create an empire, become defenders of the
faith, introduce a rocky relationship between them and The
Church which will lead to serious problems in the future.
  “rebirth” in learning i encouraged b th F k
A “ bi th” i l      i is             d by the Franks.
Barbarians, particularly the Vikings, bring instability to a once
stable Carolingian empire.
The loss of th empire d
Th l        f the               d             t     f
                      i demands a new system of governing:    i
Feudalism.
THE FEUDAL MIDDLE AGES
              FEUDALISM
By the Lord before whom this sanctuary is holy, I will to
he be true and faithful, and love all which he loves and
shun all which he shuns, according to the laws of God
and the order of the world. Nor will I ever with will or
action, through word or deed, do anything which is
    l    i to him,          diti th t h      ill hold to
unpleasing t hi on condition that he will h ld t me
as I shall deserve it, and that he will perform everything
as it was in our agreement when I submitted myself to
                    will
him and chose his will.
•                                      protection
    Political and military service and protection.
    • ALL needed the system to survive!!
    The concept of vassalage provided the structure.
          The Contract: During the investiture (ceremony), a formal
          contract would be drawn; legally binding the two parties.
              A fief would be given; service would be given to the lord and
                                                  vassal.
              justice and protection given to the vassal
          The Oath or Fealty: The vassal would pay homage to the
          lord recognizing that he was the lord’s servant.
                                                              year
              He would serve in the army at least 40 days a year.
              Help at court either guarding it or providing counsel.
              He was to pay a “relief” which was the equivalent of one
              y
              year’s income.
              Was responsible for the three duties: ransom, dowry and
              knighting.
FEUDALISM (political) = decentralized government, alliances, mutual protection
between monarchs and nobles.
b t              h     d bl
- Feudalism started because Charles Martel needed $$$ for a cavalry. He gave tracts
of land to warriors so they could have an income to buy weapons and horses. Each
FIEF had peasants.
- Frankish kings extended this concept to counts and officials. They could raise their
own armies. In return, the nobles swore loyalty to the King (vassalage).
-Lords could pass fiefs to their kids.
                                             army.
-Nobles were to provide knights to the royal army
                                 other.
Feudal lords often fought each other
The Church tried to limit the fighting.
  Peace of G d = no fi hti i churches
  P       f God     fighting in h h
  Truce of God = no fighting on Sundays or
  holidays


Eventually, fighting was only legal 80
days/year.
The castle was for defense – at first wood, then 1100’s stone
Chivalry = code of behavior
    Bravery in battle
    Fight fair
    Keep promises
    Defend the Church
    Treat noble women with courtesy

         g knight-
               g
-Becoming a knight-
At age 7 – became a page or assistant to a lord – learning manners
At age 15 – became a squire or assistant to a knight
Once proven in battle, he could be knighted.
                   Manorialism

             y         p         g
Economic system complimenting feudalism
Manors =
   Self-
   Self-sufficiency
      Serfs (land peasants) – lived and work land owned
      by a lord
    “Taxes” high on serfs
      Some peasants were “free” – owned parcels of
                    ,            p              p
      their own land, but often paid a lord for protection

				
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