SLIP 2006 Cruise Plan

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					   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


                 RV MOANA WAVE COMIDA FINALCRUISE PLAN
                     COMIDA 2010: 24 JULY-12 AUGUST 2010

CHIEF SCIENTIST: Jackie Grebmeier (jgrebmei@cbl.umces.edu) ph. 410-326-
7334, fax 410-326-7302, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory (CBL), University of
Maryland Center for Environmental Science (UMCES), Solomons, MD 20688

CRUISE PARTICIPANTS (NAME, AFFILIATION, EMAIL, GENDER)
1. Dr. Jackie Grebmeier, CBL/UMCES, PI, jgrebmei@cbl.umces.edu, F,
2. Dr. Lee Cooper, CBL/UMCES PI, cooper@cbl.umces.edu, M
3. Regan Simpson, CBL/UMCES tech, simpson@cbl.umces.edu, F
4. Marisa Guarinello, CBL/UMCES tech, guarinel@cbl.umces.edu, F
5. Lisa Wilt, CBL/UMCES, graduate student, F, wilt@cbl.umces.edu, F
6. Dr. Kenneth Dunton, The University of Texas at Austin, Marine Science Institute
    (UTMSI) PI, ken.dunton@mail.utexas.edu, M
7. Susan Schonberg, UTMSI tech, susan.schonberg@mail.utexas.edu, F
8. Dr. Afonso Souza, UTMSI postdoc, souza@mail.utexas.edu, M
9. Nathan McTigue, UTMSI student, mctigue@mail.utexas.edu, M
10. Dana Sjostrom, UTMSI, tech, dana.sjostrom@mail.utexas.edu, F
11. Eric Hersch, UTexas Austin, student, ehersh@mail.utexas.edu, M; Harish
    Sangireddy, on at end of Phase I, stays on Phase II and III
12. Dr. Rodger Harvey, CBL/UMCES PI, (harvey@cbl.umces.edu), M
13. Karen Taylor, CBL/UMCES tech, taylor@cbl.umces.edu, F
14. Hanna Fink, CBL/UMCES tech, fink@umces.edu, F
15. Dr. John Trefry, Florida Institute of Technology (FIT) PI, jtrefry@fit.edu, M
16. Robert Trocine, FIT tech, rtrocine@fit.edu, M
17. Austin Fox, FIT student, afox2010@fit.edu, M
18. Emily Hughes, FIT, student, F, ehughes@my.fit.edu, F
19. Dr. Brenda Konar, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), bkonar@guru.uaf.edu, F
20. Martin Schuster, UAF, student, mdschuster@alaska.edu, M
21. Alexandra Ravelo, UAF, student, alexandramravelo@gmail.com, F
22. Dr. Richard Prentki, MMS, Program Manager, <Richard.Prentki@mms.gov>, M
23. Robert Meyer, LGL fisheries, <rmmeyer@att.net> , M (off Phase 1, Ben Williams on
    Phase 2 and 3, M)
24. Justin Priest, LGL fisheries, M
25. Steve Crawford, LGL fisheries, M
26. Heather Ryder, LGL Marine Mammal Observer (MMO), F
27. Paula Van Weller, LGL MMO, F
28. Bob Rodriguez, LGL MMO, M
29. Chad Leady, LGL MMO, M

MOANA WAVE SHIP COMPONENT
  1. John Seville, Captain/Master
  2. Michael Ahearn, Chief Mate
  3. Richard Soderblom, 2nd Mate



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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


   4. David Bean, Chief Engineer
   5. Joshua Jansen, QMED
   6. Jaime Herras, Oiler
   7. David Jordan, AB
   8. Jason Giery, AB
   9. Alvie Little, OS
   10. Peter Shannon, Chief Cook
   11. Kellen Turner, Assistant Cook

MV Moana Wave contact information: Captain John Seville, ph. (206) 701-7450 is the
direct contact for the wheelhouse; email: captalphahelix@stabbertmaritime.com.
        Radio call sign: WDF4078
        IMO Number: 7319008
        Official Number: 1094642
        FleetBroadband 250 phone number: 011-870-773-153-303
        Open port phone number: N/A
        Iridium sailor: 011-870-762-384-812
        Point of Contact: Captain John Seville / Colin Pauley (206) 383-1449

A. CORE PROJECT SUMMARY
A team of scientists from the University of Texas at Austin (main campus and Marine
Science Institute), the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT), the Chesapeake Biological
Laboratory (CBL) University of Maryland Center for Environment Science UMCES), and
the University of Alaska Fairbanks will conduct the work specified in the Minerals
Management Service (MMS) Solicitation Number M08PS00026, “Chukchi Sea Offshore
Monitoring in Drilling Area (COMIDA): Chemical and Benthos (CAB)”. The MMS
sampling plan is designed as a robust, comprehensive effort to characterize the lease
area (#193) biota and chemistry in the Chukchi Sea and will generate data that is
comparable to current and past sampling efforts in the area. Oil companies that leased
blocks in the Chukchi Sea Lease Sale 193 (Shell and Conoco-Phillips) area are
developing monitoring programs to qualify for Federal permits for exploration. For
instance, both Shell Oil and Conoco-Phillips began conducting pre-drilling baseline
benthic environmental studies in summer 2008. These private data collections will serve
as a significant complement to the datasets collected under this MMS project. An
additional Shell supported fisheries component, seabird and Marine Mammal Observers
(MMOs) program under an LGL subcontract to the University of Texas at Austin will be
undertaken. Dr. Richard Prentki of MMS is also providing seabird observations.

1. Objectives
      To establish baseline data set for benthic infauna and epifauna, organic carbon
      and sediment grain size, radioisotopes for down core dating, as well as measure
      trace metals in sediments, biota and suspended particles of the COMIDA study
      area. Baseline data will also establish concentrations of straight chain and
      polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments, selected down core
      sections and selected biota.



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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010



       To determine the sources, cycles and fate of selected trace metals and the
       linkage of trace metals the role of trace metals (along with Rodger's biomarkers
       and Lee's/Ken's isotopes, etc.) on organic carbon dynamics in the coastal
       Chukchi Sea.

We plan collecting the following samples:
      Shared water column hydrography and sediment cores
      Water samples for Total suspended solids (TSS), Particulate organic carbon
      (POC), nutrients, selected trace metals, etc.
      Benthic infaunal samples at new as well as a subset of 2009 stations
      Epibenthic trawls at approximately 25 stations/yr (some stations will be sampled
      in both years to examine annual variation)
      Biota as available for chemical analysis (organic contaminants, metals) as well
      as caloric content
      Fish samples for populations studies (Shell component). Subsets of collections
      using individual fish will be used for toxicological analysis and initiated shipboard
      Marine mammal and seabird observations

B. CRUISE SCHEDULE, MAP, STATION LOCATIONS, AND MOORING SITES

1. The combined COMIDA/Shell cruise schedule:
30 June-1 July COMIDA PIs-mobilize in Seattle, WA; PI meeting COMIDA/Shell
July 13    Depart Sea: Moana Wave heads north
July 22    Scientists arrive Nome
July 23/24 Moana Wave arrive Nome, AK (plus latest personnel arrival date); board
           ship
July 24    Depart Nome to start data collection, Chukchi Sea Phase I (COMIDA/Shell)
Aug 3      Arrive Barrow by 1000 to pick-up Rodger Harvey at the beach
Aug 11     Arrive Barrow at end of Phase I-late evening
Aug 12     Offload personnel at 0800; late am depart Barrow for Phase II
           (COMIDA/Shell Phase II)
Aug 17:    Arrive Barrow by 1600 for offload CBL/UMCES personnel, end Phase II;
           evening departure Phase III
Aug 18:    Transit Phase III to Harrison Bay and Beaufort Sea
Aug 26:    Arrive Barrow for offload Phase III entire science party; Moana Wave
           departs Barrow for transit south
Aug 27:    Backup port call in Nome if weathered out in Barrow
Sept 10    Moana Wave arrive Seattle
Mid-Sept Demobilization in Seattle (Moana Wave departs for San Diego end of Sept)

2. Cruise station locations
We determined station sites via two methods in 2009: 1) a general randomized
tessellation stratified design (GRTS) in the core COMIDA area, and 2) a spatially-
oriented, nearshore-to-offshore, south to north grid overlaying the GRTS design. This
arrangement allowed for putting the core station sites in a spatial grid. Of the 30 GRTS


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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


stations, 10 were chosen as overlap stations to cross-calibrate and provide QA/QC
between the UTMSI and CBL benthic labs. In 2010 we have added sites in the
upstream Bering Strait/SE Chukchi region and to fill out the core grid. We plan to
reoccupy a subset of the 2009 stations as well as add new scientific sampling to expand
the systems approach to understanding the Chukchi Sea ecosystem (Figure 1, Table 1).




Figure 1. Station map for locations to be occupied during the COMIDA 2010 cruise in
the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Note the station numbers are the sequence of stations
planned for the 2010 cruise and the station code relates to the reoccupation of a subset
of 2009 COMIDA stations and new stations in 2010 are identified in yellow.




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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


Table 1. Station listing for COMIDA Phase 1 on the RV Moana Wave in 2010.




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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010




Figure 2. Mooring locations in relation to 2010 COMIDA sampling program.

C. FIELD OPERATIONS AND ORDER OF SAMPLING FOR A GENERIC STATIONS
FOR PHASE 1 (FULL PHASE 2 PLAN IN SEPARATE DOCUMENT)-see Appendices
for individual component details
       Arrive on station
       YSI SONDE 66 deployments (T/S, chl, PAR, turbidity, pH, O2)-midship, starboard
       side, 2 (Dunton/Trefry)
       Parallel pumping systems used water collections for chl, nutrients and POC as
       well as trace metal and organic contaminant collections; has pressure sensor unit
       (Trefry and Harvey)
       Optics hand-deployed (Dunton)
       Benthic camera (Cooper)
       Plankton net collections (zooplankton 305µm net, phytoplankton), (Dunton)
       Benthic collections (single or double van Veen grabs, # depends on PI needs
       (Grebmeier, Cooper and Trefry)
       HAPS benthic coring (Grebmeier)
       Benthic trawling (Konar)
       Transit to next station

Note: Time Estimates Per Station, 18 hr days COMIDA [remaining 6 hrs for
fishing]


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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010



1. Standard station
      YSI Sonde CTD=0.5 hr
      Water collection = 1 hr (use Trefry’s electrically powered peristaltic pump)
      Plankton tows= 0.5 hr
      Sediment/infaunal isotope/caloric content grab (1 vv grab)= 0.5 hr
      Quantitative grab (x 4) = 1 hr
      Single corer=1 hr
       Total time: 4.5 hrs

2. Standard + trawl at select stations
       Standard station (4.5 hr)
       Benthic trawling (2 hr), assuming two trawls/day-3 m beam trawl (7mm mesh)
       Total time: 6.5 hrs

3. LGL-Supported studies (Fisheries, Marine Mammals and Seabirds-further
information in appendices)

a. Fisheries: Midwater and benthic fishery survey
    LGL will conduct benthic sampling for the purpose of identifying and classifying the
    demersal fish community of the northeast Chukchi Sea. LGL will use a modified
    demersal net to reduced impact on the benthic populations. Approximately 30-40
    stations will be sampled as part of a three-week research cruise scheduled for
    summer 2010.

   LGL will conduct a pelagic fish survey using a midwater trawl. Midwater trawls come
   in many shapes, sizes, and designs. Standard trawls are available in which the
   netting is attached to an aluminum front frame to assure positive net opening. Depth
   is controlled by speed, bridle length, distance from float line to surface and distance
   of surface float to boat stern. The size of the trawl and mesh are a function of the
   size of the fish being targeted. The ultimate dimensions of the midwater trawl to be
   used in the COMIDA study will be determined once the size of the fish being
   targeted is identified.

   LGL fully recognizes that the fish survey must, as best as possible, integrate
   seamlessly with the efforts of various other research teams that will be a part of the
   2010 COMIDA study. If requested, LGL will provide biological subsamples to other
   researchers that are a part of the overall COMIDA team (e.g., stomach or tissue
   samples). When possible, LGL personnel will help other researchers with their
   onboard sampling commitments..

b. Shipboard marine mammal and seabird observations
The three-phase sampling survey approach described above for fish will also be used
for the marine mammal surveys. A “moving-vessel protocol” will be used to collect data
on marine mammal abundance and distribution during transit periods between stations
for collection of benthic samples which are part of the overall COMIDA sampling


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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


program. A “stationary vessel” protocol will be used to record observations of marine
mammal while at sampling stations. The marine mammal monitoring methods will be
the same as those used during vessel-based monitoring surveys in the Chukchi and
Beaufort seas in recent years (Funk et al. 2010). Trained marine mammal observers
(MMOs) will conduct observations from the bridge of the survey vessel.

4. Seabird observations-Dr. Dick Prentki, MMS
Observations of pelagic seabirds were made under the protocols of the US Fish and
Wildlife’s North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Observer Program (US Fish and Wildlife
Service, 2008) using the updated software program DLOG3. The protocol provides
quantitative counts of seabirds along a 300-m wide transect during the transit of the
vessel between stations.

5. Ancillary measurements (further information in appendices)
      Wood recovery collections (Prentki). A log grab will be operated from the crane
      on the stern of the ship for log collections. A chain saw will be used to cut up the
      wood for further analyes.
      Surface and bottom samples for acidification study (J. Mathis, UAF)

D. COMIDA METHODOLOGY: SPECIFIC COMPONENTS CRUISE PLAN (individual
details in separate Appendix A)

i. Water column (Dunton, Cooper, Harvey, Trefry)
       Chlorophyll a: Collect seawater at surface, chlorophyll max and near bottom
       depth to calibrate chlorophyll sensor on sondes. Filter water samples onto glass
       fiber filters and process shipboard (Cooper). Two replicates at each depth per
       station.
       Bottom water collection via pumping system for Grebmeier sediment experiments
       (new)
       POM. Collect seawater at chlorophyll max and near bottom using Trefry’s pump
       system (Dunton); also more depths for Harvey using his pump system
       Zooplankton Phase I: Conduct a vertical tow for zooplankton net to collect water
       column fauna. Samples will be sorted, identified, dried and sent to UTMSI for
       natural abundance isotope analyses. One collection per station (Dunton)
       Plankton Phase II: Both a phytoplankton and zooplankton net (333 µm net) will
       be deployed for populations studies (Grebmeier), in addition to sample
       collections for stable isotopes

ii. Sediments
1. Grebmeier/Cooper-Benthic stations
     a. Five 0.1 m2 van Veen grabs will be collected at each of Grebmeier’s stations. A
         sub sample of the first grab will be collected for total organic carbon and grain
         size analyses and a sub sample via a 10 cc syringe for sediment chlorophyll
         determinations using Turner fluorometer. The remaining sediment sample will
         be sieved and dominant animals frozen for determining caloric content.



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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


    b.   The subsequent 4 van Veen samples will be sieved using seawater on a 1 mm
         stainless steel screen to collect macrofauna, which will be packaged and
         preserves with 10% buffered seawater formalin for post-cruise processing at
         CBL
    c.   Haps core collections for sediment oxygen update experiments (new,
         Grebmeier) and contaminant studies (Harvey).
    d.   Benthic camera system for epibenthic survey (Cooper)

2. Dunton/Schonberg-Sediment Biology - Benthic Grab
    a. Benthic infauna at select stations. Sieve sediments with seawater, sort, identify,
        count, and weigh organisms. A subsample of collected organisms will be
        frozen for transport to UTMSI for natural abundance isotope analyses. A
        voucher collection of represented organisms will be made and preserved with
        10% ethanol.
    b. Sediment chlorophyll, ammonium, C:N, stable isotopes: Collect several (5-50
        cc) samples of surface sediments and 50 cc syringe cores from one benthic
        grab at each of 30 stations that are either processed immediately (chl) or frozen
        for subsequent analysis at UTMSI. Collaborate with Lee Cooper on this
        component.
    c. Sediment core collections using a benthic lander (Afonso Souza) for
        determining epibenthic oxygen consumption rates.

3. Trefry: Contaminants
    a. Shared sediment cores and water column
    b. Water samples (again shared) for TSS, POC, nutrients, selected trace metals,
         etc. at selected stations (number to worked out, perhaps not all stations)
    c. Biota as available for chemical analysis (organic contaminants and metals)

4. Harvey: Biomarkers/contaminants
    a. Shared sediments for surface measures and deeper sediment cores where
       needed to fill in 2009 sampling gaps using HAPs corer.
    b. Water column particles for surface, chlorophyll max and near bottom where
       possible.
    c. Biota as available for chemical analysis (Harvey and Trefry)
    d. Fish for toxicological determinations (Harvey).

5. Konar-Epibenthic communities
    a. Epibenthic communities will be sampled using a small single warp plumb staff
       beam trawl that will be deployed from the vessel’s A-frame
    b. Trawls will be relatively short (approximately 3 minutes or less) in an attempt to
       quantify as much of the catch as possible. Vessel towing speed is 1 – 1.5 kt
       speed over ground (SOG). A typical beam trawl tow is 300 – 500 m in distance,
       requiring approximately 60 minutes of wire time. The net will be towed again at
       the site if the first tow is unsuccessful.
    c. Catches will be immediately sorted on the ship’s deck and placed into larger
       taxonomic groups. Species lists will be compiled by station during the cruise so



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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


         that a presence/absence database will result. Voucher specimens also will be
         prepared by station for organisms that cannot be identified in the field by fixing
         them in 10% buffered formalin and shipping them to UAF or UT for further
         taxonomic identification.
    d.   Along with a species list for each station, target organisms from the trawls will
         be selected for a more detailed community examination. Target organisms will
         include species who are trophically important or whose abundance and/or
         biomass is relatively high.
    e.   The community examination will include measures of abundance, biomass, and
         population size structure. All processing of these samples will occur on the
         ship.
    f.   Approximately 25 stations will be surveyed in 2010, including occupy the
         remaining 20 stations in the COMIDA plan not sampled in 2009. If time allows,
         some stations that were sampled in 2009 will be resampled in 2010 to examine
         annual variation. 2009 sites that were of particular interest (for example, sites
         that had high abundances of a patchy organism) will be targeted for this
         resampling.

E. CHEMICAL/GAS REQUIREMENTS SPECIFIC COMPONENTS
   1. Grebmeier: 1, 4-L bottle 37% formaldehyde (on ship), hexamethylenetetramine
      buffer 1-10N sulfuric acid, 0.1 N HCl (all already in Nome), Winkler chemicals
   2. Cooper: Acetone, 2-4L loaded in Seattle
   3. Dunton: Ethanol 100%: (4 L), Acetone (4 L)
   4. Trefry: High purity and reagent grade nitric acid, Nitrogen gas, HPLC water, pH
      buffers, Baking soda, Turbidity standards
   5. Harvey: Liquid nitrogen in dewar; ethanol (1 L)
   6. Konar: 37% formaldehyde (0.1 L)

F. FIELD EQUIPMENT

1. WATER COLUMN
     YSI Sonde CTD (Dunton and Trefry), self-deployed
     Water pumping (Harvey and Trefry)
     phytoplankton and zooplankton nets (Dunton)

2. SEDIMENTS AND FISHERIES (GREBMEIER, COOPER, HARVEY, KONAR,
    TREFRY)
      0.1 m2 van Veen grabs (2) (Grebmeier)
      0.1 m2 double van Veen grab (1) (Trefry)
      1 mm screen sieve boxes/stands (4) (Grebmeier, Dunton)
      3 m plumb staff beam trawl with 4 mm cod-end liner (1 ea) (Konar)
      single HAPS corer (Grebmeier/Cooper)
      multi-HAPS corer (Grebmeier/Cooper)
      benthic video camera system (Cooper)

3. LAB EQUIPMENT (TREFRY)


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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


       2 Laminar flow hoods (2' x 2' x3.5' tall) (one for back up)
       Vacuum filtration systems with oil-free pumps. (sink for pump)
       Peristaltic pumps with 100' of clean Tygon
       Deionized water system
       Toxicology setup for COMET assays onboard
       Possibly benchtop turbidity and or UV-Vis instruments
       Possibly SONDE 6600 with most sensors (incl PAR)

4. LAB EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES (KONAR)
     Jars and buckets for vouchers
     Tubs and sieves for sorting
     Spring scales
     Measuring board and calipers
     Keys and guides
     Data sheets and field note book
     GPS

5. LAB EQUIPMENT (Harvey)
     Vacuum filtration system (need sink for pump).
     Peristaltic pumps with 100' of clean Tygon
     Deionized water system (use Trefrey’s)
     Dissection area for fish condition and histology (scale etc)
     Electrophoresis unit for COMET assays

G. FREEZER NEEDS (CUBIC FT SPACE)
     Grebmeier/Cooper: one large ice chest (4 cu ft)
     Dunton: one larger ice chest (4 cu ft)
     Trefry: three large ice chests (8 cu ft)
     Harvey: one large ice chests (8 cu ft)

H. LAB SPACE REQUIREMENTS (EST. LINEAR FOOT)
      Grebmeier/Cooper: 8 linear ft in main lab, 3 linear ft in wet lab,
      Dunton: 8 linear ft in dry lab, 6 linear ft wet lab
      Trefry: 16 linear ft main lab
      Harvey: 8 linear ft main lab
      Konar: deck use and 5 linear ft in main lab

APPENDICES

A1. Ken Dunton
For the incubations of benthic epifauna and sediment inorganic-N transformation
processes (Ken, research asst Dana Sjostrom, and post doc Afonso Souza): Lab bench
approximately 10' long and with an associated corner of floor space (10x10) to
accommodate two large water baths and chambers. An adjacent area of bench space
for prep work and organization would also be needed (about 12-15' of lab bench, for


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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


example).

Susan: As on the Helix, 8-10' bench space for taxonomy in a non-traffic area near a
sink. Need drawers and cabinet space along bench for vials, whirl packs, taxonomy
books and other often used supplies.

Nathan: As on the Helix, about 12' of bench space for three operations; filtering water,
sorting isotope samples, and fluorometry.

Outdoor lab space needs: Access to a wet lab as on the Helix. Some outdoor but
covered deck space for incubation work.

A2. John Trefry
See main cruise text.

A3. Brenda Konar
See main cruise plan text. The following map and spreadsheet outline the samples
collected in 2009 and ones requested in 2010.




Figure A3. Epibenthic trawl stations occupied during COMIDA 2009




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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


Table A3. Epibenthic trawl stations occupied during COMIDA 2009 and/or ones to be
occupied in 2010. Also highlighted are 2009 stations to be occupied in 2010 (requested,
B. Konar).




C3. Richard Prentki
C3i. Seabird observations-see cruise plan text

C3ii. Driftwood Collection for Dr. Claire Alix (UAF) Our primary interest is wood
collected from northeasternmost stations. Collection should be on an opportunistic,
secondary basis. That is, if we fall behind or use up our weather days, this sampling


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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


could be abandoned. Oceanographically, the driftwood observed in the NE Chukchi
could be from Mackenzie River, Yukon River, or Siberia. Driftwood is a good analog for
floating oil and this effort would tie into contaminant sourcing for COMIDA CAB.
Collected wood would be analyzed by Dr. Alix, a UAF dendrochronlogist. Apart from
wood identification to genera that give first information on the wood and can orient
further inquiry, identifying the origin of a driftwood log is most accurately done through
tree-ring crossdating (dendrochronology).

Methods
1. Opportunistic sampling of driftwood should be approved/denied by Chief Scientist on
   either upon the sighting of driftwood or on approval in advance of transit(s) between
   stations. Ship’s Officers also need to concur in regard to safe operation.

2. Seabird observers will monitor for driftwood during seabird transect surveys.
   Occurrence of driftwood will be recorded in the pelagic seabird database software.
   A driftwood survey sheet will also be started (attached) if driftwood is seen. If
   physical sampling is not going to be attempted, the observer will fill in the survey
   sheet as much as possible and photograph the passing driftwood. The name of the
   sampling location will be the same as seabird transect with a -1, -2, etc. indicating
   the first, second, etc. sighting of driftwood on that transect.

3. If physical sampling is to be done, the processes for bring driftwood logs onboard
   will have to be established with the Captain. Once onboard, a disk at breast height
   (which is 1.37m from the base of the trunk, just above the stump) will be cut from the
   wood with a chain saw (provided by Prentki). The driftwood will be photographed
   before and after the cut. The cut disk should be approximately 3 to 5 cm thick. If the
   driftwood has no obvious base, cut disk from the thicker end and record cut location
   on survey sheet. If the log is partly decayed and threatens to collapse, use the
   Velcro belt or duct tape (tape may not work with wet wood) over the area to be cut
   so that the wood does not disintegrate upon cutting. Tape or retape decayed wood
   once dry. Each wood sample should be stored in its own white plastic kitchen bag
   with Location (Sample) name written in magic marker. Complete survey sheet (the
   length of the log, diameter at breast height, the presence or absence of the root
   system, the type of damage (presence or absence of insect holes and detail of this
   sort), presence or absence of bark either on the trunk or at the root system, etc.).

4. If the wood is decayed, the wood disk should be dried and taped (if Velcro originally
   used) or retaped once dry, then repackaged.

5. Wood samples should be sent to:
   Dr. Claire Alix
   Alaska Quaternary Center
   University of Alaska Fairbanks
   Po Box 755940
   Fairbanks, AK, 99775-5940
   907-474-6387



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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


C3iii. Sampling and Storage Procedures for Acidification samples for Dr. Jeremy
Mathis
1. The bottles have been pre-treated with mercuric chloride so they should not be
    rinsed at all.
2. Use the tubing to fill up the bottles all the way to the top with as little bubble
    entrainment and overflow as possible. Then flick a tiny amount of water out of the
    top to create a 1-2 ml head space (to allow for gas expansion). Then, screw the
    caps back on as tightly as possible and label them with the station number and
    depth.
3. There are enough bottles for 50 stations at two depths (surface and “bottom”).
    Surface water is more important than bottom water.
4. Samples may be stored at room temperature after collection.
5. Samples should be shipped to:
    Jeremy Mathis
    University of Alaska Fairbanks
    School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
    245 O'Neill BLDG
    Fairbanks, AK 99775-7220

If Goldstreak will only get them to the Fairbanks airport, then give them Dr. Mathis’s
phone number 907-474-5926 as my contact number.

C4. LGL LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc. and LGL Ecological Research
Associates, Inc. (LGL collectively) is funded to work on the Chukchi Sea Offshore
Monitoring in Drilling Area (COMIDA) study, which is being conducted under contract to
the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Minerals Management Service (MMS).

C4i. Fish Sampling
Field sampling is planned to be conducted in three phases:
Phase I: 24 July-12 August (19 days): COMIDA (75%) and Shell (25%); Chukchi Sea
Phase II: 13-17 August (5 days); Shell (3 Prospects in Chukchi Sea)
Phase III: 18-26 August (9 days); Shell (3 Prospects in Harrison Bay, Beaufort Sea)

For our analyses we will require oceanographic, navigation and catch and other data
from other investigators, and other investigators will require some of our data and
information. Demersal fishes will be captured using a beam trawl having a 5-m tubular
beam supported by steel beam heads at each end. These beam heads have wide
shoes at the bottom which slide over the seabed. The beam and beam heads form a
rigid framework that provides a constant trawl-mouth opening and supports the net. The
trawl net will have a graduated mesh ranging from 3-in mesh at the mouth, to 2-in mesh
in mid-section, to 0.5-in mesh in the cod end. A small mesh liner will be placed in the
cod end of the net. The beam trawl will be equipped with a bottom-contact device to
measure how long and when the trawl was on the bottom during the tow. Each tow will
consist of 15- to 30-min bottom time at a tow speed of 1 to 1.5 knots over ground. Total
wire time will be on the order of an hour or so per tow.




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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


We have also been requested to collect samples from Harrison Bay for Dr. Konar using
a Plumb-staff beam trawl provided by her. We will conduct this sampling and help sort
the catch which will be taken by other researchers. Our budget includes rental for this
net and we have requested a contingency fee to cover its cost if the gear is lost.

In the pelagic fish study we plan to target the scattering layer which likely consists of
Arctic cod. We recommend sampling pelagic fishes using a 10-m by 8-m opening mid-
water trawl having the same mesh sizes as the proposed beam trawl. The exact
protocols will be developed at sea by Mr. Meyer. The net will be equipped with a flow
meter to determine the volume of water sampled on each tow. This community has
been seldom sampled by any of the historical programs but is likely a critical component
of the Chukchi Sea ecosystem.

When the nets are landed, the catches will be photo-documented and then sorted into
fish and epibenthic categories, the latter of which will be provided to the on-board
benthic sampling team. The total fish catch will be weighed with the catches then sorted
to the lowest practicable taxonomic level. A total weight will be obtained for each taxa.
Within each taxonomic group, each specimen will be measured to the nearest mm and
a representative sample will be retained for aging.

LGL fully recognizes that the fish study must, as best as possible, integrate seamlessly
with the efforts of other researchers that will be a part of the 2010 COMIDA and Shell
Alaska study. If requested, LGL will provide biological subsamples to other onboard
researchers (e.g., stomach or tissue samples). Pending approval by Shell Oil Co., LGL
can also provide subsamples to scientists not aboard the research vessel. When
possible, LGL personnel will help other researchers with their onboard sampling
commitments.

Analysis
The data collected at sea will be entered into an electronic relational database for
analysis. We will (1) analyze patterns of distributions and abundance and age-length
structure for key species, and relate these to environmental and ecosystem attributes
and (2) describe the overall fish community structure and diversity at each site. We will
also, based on the location of the proposed drilling sites, divide the station arrays into
stations most subject to potential impact (impact stations) versus those which are
unlikely to be impacted by future drilling activities (control stations). These data will
provide the “Before” component of a Before-After/Impact-Control or BACI impact
assessment model which will ultimately be used to determine the actual level of impacts
from each of the developments.

As noted, we will also describe baseline species diversity patterns. Species diversity
can be separated into two components, richness (the number of species) and
evenness. Most, if not all, diversity indices combine them in various ways to yield
confounded results. It is not possible to tell whether one site yields a higher diversity
index (e.g., the Shannon-Wiener index) relative to another because its individuals are
more evenly distributed across species or because it possesses more species.



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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


Therefore, we will analyze species richness and evenness separately each as
univariate metrics.

Another way of testing community level effects besides richness and evenness is to
index assemblage structure. Species abundances in each sample will be converted to
proportional abundances (abundance of a species in the sample/total abundance
across all species in the sample). Proportional abundances represent a multivariate
index that can be compared across categorical variables to assess whether subtle
changes in the fish community are occurring.

C4ii. Marine Mammal Surveys (LGL)
The three-phase survey approach described above for fish will also be used for the
marine mammal surveys. A “moving-vessel protocol” will be used to collect data on
marine mammal abundance and distribution during transit periods between stations for
collection of benthic samples which are part of the overall COMIDA sampling program.
A “stationary vessel” protocol will be used to record observations of marine mammal
while at sampling stations. The marine mammal monitoring methods will be the same as
those used during vessel-based monitoring surveys in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas in
recent years (Funk et al. 2010). Trained marine mammal observers (MMOs) will
conduct observations from the bridge of the survey vessel.

a. Data Collection from a Moving Vessel
Three MMOs will be onboard the vessel and at least one MMO will maintain a visual
watch for marine mammals during all daylight hours when the vessel is moving.
Observers will focus their search effort forward and to the sides of the vessel but also
aft of the vessel occasionally while it is underway. Watches will be conducted with the
unaided eye, Fujinon 7 × 50 binoculars and Zeiss 20 × 60 image stabilized binoculars
all of which are equipped with reticles.

Observers will record date, time and environmental variables including Beaufort wind
force, water depth, visibility, and ice conditions every 30 min or whenever environmental
conditions change. When a marine mammal is sighted observers will record the time,
species and number of individuals, initial sighting distance and bearing from the vessel,
movement of the animal relative to the vessel, closest distance of the marine mammal
to the vessel (closest point of approach), behavior, and any observed reaction to the
vessel. MMOs will record observations on sighting form for moving vessels. Vessel
position will be recorded every 1 min on a GPS receiver and time will be used to geo-
reference vessel and marine mammal locations.

b. Data Collection while Stationary
The above outlined protocols are based on the assumption that the vessel is moving
and therefore data can be analyzed and collected under “line-transect” methodology.
Line-transect methodology is inappropriate for stationary vessels so data collection
methodology will need to be altered during prolonged periods (as determined at the
judgment and discretion of the lead MMO) such as during activities at sampling stations
when a vessel is stationary. Instead of calculating sighting rates as “number of



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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


animals/km”, rates will be calculated as “number of animals/hour” and sightings will be
assessed in 30 minute–long blocks called “sampling rounds”. When switching between
methodologies, the observer on watch will enter a final row of observer effort data on
the data sheet for observations from moving vessels. The observer will then record a
new line of data on a datasheet for stationary vessels. A new line of data will be
recorded on the observer effort data sheet every 30 min or when environmental
conditions change as described for moving vessels.

Marine mammal observations will be recorded on a sighting form for stationary vessels.
One form will be used each day, and a new data sheet will be started each day
regardless of whether the form from the previous day was filled completely. Sightings
will each be given a unique ID number starting with 1 and continuing sequentially
throughout the season. At the end of each 30-min sampling round, the observer will look
back over the sightings made during that sampling round. If any animals were re-
sighted, the observer will choose the record that he/she thinks most accurately
represents the number of animals actually within each group or the “best count”. This
situation can result when observers get closer to a specific group or when viewing
conditions improve during subsequent counts.

c. Analysis
In order to present meaningful and comparable data, effort and sightings data will be
categorized by sighting conditions to exclude periods of observation effort when
conditions would have made it unlikely for MMOs to detect marine mammals that were
at the surface. Therefore, effort and sightings occurring under the following conditions
will not be included when making comparisons requiring standardized data or when
calculating densities.
• periods when ship speed was <3.7 km/h (2 kt);
• periods aboard a vessel when one or more vessels were operating within 5 km (3.1
mi) for cetaceans and 1 km (0.6 mi) for pinnipeds and polar bears in the forward 180¡ of
that vessel;
• periods with seriously impaired visibility including:
• all nighttime observations;
• visibility distance <3.5 km (2.2 mi);
• Beaufort wind force (Bf) >5 (Bf >2 for Minke whales, belugas, and porpoises;
• >60¼ of severe glare in the forward 180¡ of the vessel.

Different criteria will be used for pinnipeds and cetaceans in order to account for
assumed differences in their reactions to vessel activities. Pinniped criteria will also be
used for polar bears.

C4iv. Seabird Surveys-LGL
The seabird monitoring program will be led by Robert Rodrigues, a Senior Ecologist
with LGL Alaska, who has approximately 30 years of experience studying birds in
Alaska. The three-phase survey approach described above for fish and marine
mammals will also be used for seabirds. Two seabird observers will be onboard the
vessel although only one observer will be on duty at any given time. The on-watch



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   RV Moana Wave 2010 COMIDA PHASE 1 FINAL CRUISE PLAN-1 August 2010


observer will monitor seabird species and abundance within 300 m from one side of the
vessel (port or starboard) using the bridge as a survey platform. Observers will use the
unaided eye and 7 x 50 binoculars with reticles. A standardized protocol will be used to
enter data directly onto a computer data base.

Two types of data referred to as “effort” and “sightings” data will be collected by seabird
observers. Effort data include environmental variables that affect sighting conditions
such as Beaufort wind force, wind speed, wind direction, ship’s course, and observation
conditions. Sightings data will include information about the seabirds themselves such
as species, number of individuals, sex and age if known, distance from the vessel when
first observed (in 100 m distance-from-vessel bins to 300 m from the vessel), behavior,
flight direction, and relevant comments. Date and time will be recorded for all effort and
sightings; time will be used to geo-reference locations of bird observations.

Two methods will be used to record sightings data: (1) continuous count method, and
(2) Scan method. Continuous count will be the primary method for recording all species
when observed on the water, on ice, birds foraging for food within 300 m of the vessel,
or birds flushed off water ahead of the vessel. Birds in the air will be counted using the
Scan method which is a snapshot of the birds in the air within the transect window at
regular intervals. The frequency of the Scan interval is based on the ship’s speed; a
“snapshot” is recorded for every 300 m block the ship passes while in transit. The ideal
vessel speed for seabird transects in 8-10 kt which would result in a scan interval of ~
one minute.

Data will be recorded in “transects” which are periods of effort during which all
observation conditions are constant. A new line of effort data will be recorded whenever
there is a change in observational conditions, such as observer, ship’s course, sea
conditions, visibility, etc. Transects may be divided into smaller units (e.g., possibly 3-
km lengths) for analysis purposes.

Analysis
Observational data will be entered into a laptop computer with either the “Seebird” data
collection program used by the Southwest Fisheries Sciences Center, NOAA, NMFS, or
the software program dLOG3 used by the USFWS during seabird surveys in the Bering
and Chukchi seas in recent years. Seasonal density estimates will be estimated for
each species when sufficient data are available using the program DISTANCE (Thomas
et al. 2006




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