Slave Systems and Slave Trade by pptfiles

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									                         Slave Systems and Slave Trade
                                   Answer Key
1. What was one of the primary differences between the social organization of the West and Russia in
   the17th and 18th centuries? (415)
          The politics of the Russian nobility were expressed through service in the tsarist state and the
          preeminent power they wielded over the peasant serfs.

2. When did Russian serfdom become hereditary? (415)
         1649

3. The development of coercive labor systems in eastern Europe was indicative of (415)
          Eastern Europe’s growing economic subordination to the West.


4. What was the labor obligation of Russian peasants to lords or the state called? (415)
         ubrok


5. What colony became the first major plantation zone, organized to produce a tropical crop in demand in
   Europe? (437)
         Brazil

6. The first landfall in the colony of Brazil took place in 1500 under the leadership of (437)
           Pedro Alvares Cabral

7. Between 1532 and 1549, colonization in Brazil was in the hands of minor Portuguese nobles granted
   strips of land called (437)
           captaincies

8. By 1700, slaves comprised approximately what proportion of the Brazilian population? (438)
         One half

9. The Brazilian model of a plantation colony was later followed in the 18th century by other European
   nations in (439)
          The Carribean


10. What was the primary difference between the Spanish and Portuguese empires? (438)
          Unlike the Spanish empire that was almost exclusively American, The Portuguese empire
          included colonies after the middle of the 16th century.

11. What conditions undercut the position of the Brazilian sugar plantation economy? (439)
          Competition from English, French, and Dutch plantation colonies in the Caribbean led to
          rising prices for slaves and falling prices for sugar.

12. In what region was gold discovered in Brazil? (439)
           Minas Gerais
13. What port was associated with the discovery of gold in Brazil and subsequently became the capital of
    the colony? (439)
            Rio de Janeiro

14. What was the negative impact of the discovery of gold on Portugal? (439)
          Portugal failed to develop internal industries because the supply of gold allowed the
          Portuguese to purchase manufactured goods from other European countries.

15. What was the African contribution to the “Columbian Exchange”? (477)
          Slaves

16. List the factors in the development of large kingdoms in Africa. (478)
        a. Population expansion that followed the diffusion of iron tools and improved agriculture.
        b. European demand for slaves
        c. Use of firearms
        d. Indian Ocean trade

17. What European nation first established direct contact with black Africa? (478)
          Portugal

18. Where was the most important early Portuguese trade fort located? (478)
          El Mina


19. Which of the African kingdoms was most successfully converted to Christianity by Portuguese
    missionaries? (479)
           Kongo

20. South of their trade forts along the Gold Coast, the Portuguese established Luanda, which became the
    basis for the Portuguese colony of (480)
            Angola


21. Following the model established by the Portuguese, list the principal patterns of European contact with
    Africa. (480)
        a. A system of fortified trading stations
        b. The combination of force and diplomacy including alliances with local leaders
        c. The predominance of commercial relations
        d. Fair trade with native peoples for free-access goods

22. Slavery had died out in the Middle Ages in most of Europe except along the military frontier between
    Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean. (480)


23. The first slaves brought directly to Portugal from Africa arrived in what year? (480)
            1441

24. In what manner did the Portuguese seize most of the slaves that were transported from Africa? (480)
           The traded for them with African rulers.
25. What development led to an intensification of the Portuguese involvement in the African slave trade?
    (480)
          Development of sugar plantations on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries


26. What is the best estimate of the number of Africans shipped across the Atlantic between 1450 and 1850?
    (481) 12 million

27. In what century did the Atlantic slave trade reach its zenith (height) in terms of numbers of Africans
    exported? (481)       18th century

28. The high volume of slave trade to the American colonies was a necessity because (481)
           Slave mortality was high and fertility was low leading to a loss of slave population.


29. What region in the Americas received more slaves than any other between 1550 and 1850? (481)
           Brazil


30. In what way did the trans-Saharan slave trade differ from that of the Atlantic slave trade? (482)
           The trans-Saharan slave trade concentrated on women, but the Atlantic concentrated on yount
           men.

31. What was the demographic impact of the slave trade on Africa? (482)
          The slave trade had the impact of skewing the population of central Africa in favor a
          disproportional number of women.


32. How did the British organize the shipment of slaves to the Americas? (482)
          In Britain, the chartered Royal African Company was granted a monopoly over the shipment
          of slaves to colonies in the Americas.

33. The Spanish term for a healthy adult male slave was (483)
          Indies piece


34. What was the average profitability of the English slave trade in the late 18th century? (484)
          5-10 percent

35. How did the profitability of the slave trade compare to that of other contemporary business ventures?
    (484) The slave trade was a little more profitable than most business activities of the age and was
    not a major source for the industrial revolution of Europe.


36. What was the triangular trade? (484)
          The term utilized for the commercial arrangement by which African slaves were shipped to
          the Americas, sugar and tobacco were carried to Europe, and European manufactured
          goods were transported to Africa.
37. What was the political impact of the presence of Europeans on the African coast? (485-486)
          West and centralized African kingdoms jut inland from the forts began to redirect their trade
          and expand their influence.


38. In what way did the European slave trade enable centralizing states to expand more rapidly? (486)
           Slaves were traded for firearms that allowed expanding stated to overpower their neighbors,
           resulting in more slaves.

39. Which of the following was a large African state that developed in western Africa during the period of
    the Atlantic slave trade? (486) Asante

40. What was the average mortality for slaves shipped to the Americas in the Atlantic slave trade? (494)
          18-20 percent

41. The slave voyage to the Americas was referred to as the (494)
           “Middle Passage”

42. Why were Africans sought for plantation labor in the Americas? (494-495)
         West Africans were already familiar with metallurgy, herding, and intensive agriculture
         whereas Indians were not.


43. How were the British colonies of the southern Atlantic coast of North America different from the Latin
    American colonies? (497-498)
          The British colonies depended less on imported Africans because of the positive rate of growth
          among the slaves.


44. List the African religions transported to the Americas. (499)
        a. obeah
        b. Vodun
        c. Candomble
        d. aja


45. Who was a British opponent of the slave trade? (500)
         William Wilberforce

								
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