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Ullmann Fibers

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					Subject Index
Volumes 1–2                                                         A-glass–Antistatic agent             861



Subject Index
A                                                    Alcopol KBW 496
A-glass 261                                          Alcoprint 572
Abaca 353, 362                                       Alcoprint PTF 531
Abifor 562                                           Alcoset 572
Absize 489                                           Alcosize 489
Acelan 195                                           Alcosperse AD 509
Acetate fiber                                         Alcowax 489
   aftertreatment 781                                Alginate fiber
   discharge printing 781                                properties 16
   dyes and printing pastes for 781                  Alginates 762
   fixation 781                                           as textile dyeing dispersants 507
   levelling agents for 516                              as thickener in textile printing 762
   printing on 781                                   Algoflon 573
Acid dyes                                            Alizarin, C.I. 58000
   for protein fiber printing 799                         see also 1,2-Dihydroxyanthraquinone 664
   for textile dyeing 664                            Aljaba carpet printing 744
Acraconz 764                                         Alkylbenzimidazolesulfonates
Acraconz BN 531                                          as levelling agents 512
Acraconz Verdicker 572                               Allied Polyester 191
Acrafix 572                                           All-in (sulfoxylate) printing process
Acrafix MF 531                                            of cellulose textiles 768
Acrafloc 572                                          Almeter 319
Acralen 572                                          Alumina fibers 278
Acramin 572, 663                                         for high-temperature insulation 284
Acramin ALW 531                                          for thermal insulation 253, 284
Acramin BA 531                                           physical and mechanical properties 255
Acramin Concentrate 764                                  production 281
Acramin Weichmacher SI 531                               properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277
Acrilan 230                                          Alumina–boria–silica fibers 276, 277, 281
Acronal 572                                          Aluminum silicate fibers
Acronet 572                                              properties 19
Acrymul 573                                          Aluminum sulfate
Acryron 573                                              as flame retardant 549
Acrysol 573                                          Alviron CNF 514
Actiron ASH 498                                      Alviron PES 516
Actiron GHN 30 510                                   Amilan 163
Actiron PHD 498                                      Aminoacetic acid
Adhesive tape                                            polyamide from 153
   glass fiber-reinforced 266                         Aminoethylethanolamine
Adipon TH 509                                            as fabric softener 542
Aerosil 566                                          7-Aminoheptanoic acid
Aerotex 572                                              production and polymerization 155
Aerotex 96 544                                       11-Aminoundecanoic acid
Afilan 466, 480                                           polycondensation to nylon 11 155
Ago-Gum 762                                          Ammonium rhodanide 781
Airflex 572                                           Ammonium sulfamate
Air jet dyeing machine                                   as flame retardant 549
   HT type 613                                       Ammonium sulfate
Air-jet spinning 420                                     as flame retardant 549
Air-jet texturing 123                                Amoco process 164
Airvol 489                                           Anogal DA 509
Aksa 230                                             Anogal KF 513, 527
Albatex OR 513                                       Anogal NK 513
Albatex PON conc. 513                                Anogal NTH 516
Albegal A 514, 670                                   Anso 163
Albegal B 514, 670                                   Anthraquinone Powder 534
Albegal FFA 506                                      Anthraquinone vat dyes
Albegal NF 669                                           for cellulose fibers 651
Albegal Plus 669                                     Anthrasol 774
Albegal SET 514, 670                                 Anthrasol Blue IBC 664
Albegal SW 670                                       Anticreasing agent
Albegal W 669                                            in textile dyeing 520
Albigen A 513, 527, 536                              Antipunking agent 271
Alcantara 466                                        Antistatic application
Alcen 277, 282                                           of metal fibers 289
Alcofix 524                                           Antistatic agent


Ullmann’s Fibers, Vol. 1–2
 c 2008 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 978-3-527-31772-1
862       Antron–Boiling-off (kier-boiling)                                            Subject Index

   in dyeing of fibers 477                       Bast 360
   in secondary spinning 476                    Bath dyeing 602
Antron 163                                          automatic control of 616
Apomul 573                                          dyeing equilibrium 604
Appretan 467, 572                                   dyeing kinetics 603
Apyeil 831, 835                                     for hanks of yarn 615
Aqua Hue Clear 764                                  horizontal star suspension systems 615
Aqualuft dyeing machine 684                         machines 605
Aquamollin BC 510                                   star-shaped hanging frame 615
Aquazym 493                                     Batik printing
Aramid fibers 830, 841                               bandanna 755
   dyeing of 697                                    tie dyeing 755
   effect of structure on melting point    12   Bayer-Perlon 163
   para-oriented fibers 841                      Baygard 572
   properties 17                                Bayreduct PRN 525
Arbyl ASN 506                                   Baystabil KF 498
Arbyl BF 498                                    Baystal 572
Arbyl FRO 523                                   BBB 831, 837
Arimide 831                                     BDA process 744
Arkofil 489                                      BDA system
Arristan 572                                        in carpet printing 753
Artisil 675, 687                                Beaker dyeing bomb 633
Asahi Bemberg                                   Beam dyeing 609
   properties 16                                Beisol B 260 493
Asahiguard 572                                  Beisol DO 493
Asahi Kasei 185                                 Bekinox
Asota 209                                           properties 19
Astragal M 517                                  Bell steamer 758
Astragal PAN 517                                Bemberg
Astragal TR 517                                     properties 16
Astromel 572                                    Benedict test 326
ATB-Appretur 572                                Beslon 230
Atebin 572                                      Betaine
Aversin 572                                         as levelling agent 512
Avilon 697                                      Bevaloid 489
Avirol AM 466                                   Bicoflex system 621
Avirol KM 466                                   Bicomponent crimping 106
Avistat 480                                     Bicomponent fibers 228
Avolan AV 669                                   Bidim 185
Avolan IL 670                                   Binder ACM 531
Avolan IS 509, 670                              Binders
Avolan IWN 670                                      for textile printing 530
Avolan REN 514, 670                             Binodal curve
Avolan S 669                                        in wet spinning of fibers 99
Avolan SCN 669                                  Biolase TS 493
Avolan UL 75 514, 670                           Birefringence
Avolan W 514                                        use in fiber analysis 173
Axter 185                                       Bis(chloromethyl) ether
Azo dyes                                            see also Dichlorodimethyl ether 541
   for textile printing 773                     1,4-Bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexane
   two-stage printing process 773                   for polyester fibers 187
Aztex 489                                       1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-imidazolidinone
                                                    as cross-linking agent 539
B                                               1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2-(1H)-pyrimidinone
Babcock system 621                                  as cross-linking agent 539
Back gray 746                                   BK-Marken 480
Bactosol TK 493                                 Blankit D 501
Barmag Ringtex texturing system      122        Blankit IAN 501
Basacryl Salz AN 517                            Blankit IN 501
Basacryl Salz MX 517                            Blankolen K 501
Basacryl Salz TR 517                            Blankophor CL 784
BASF Basazol system 648                         Blankophor CLE 784
BASF Combi Test 683                             Blanose 489
Basic dyes                                      Bleaching
   for textile dyeing 664                           auxilaries used in 498
Basilen F 529                                       with hydrogen peroxide 496
Basilen Fixing Agent F-RP 535                       with sodium chlorite 499
Basilen P 776                                       with sodium dithionite 496
Basolan 524                                         with sodium hypochlorite 499
Basolan DC 799                                      with thiourea dioxide 496
Basolan F 667                                   Block printing 744
Basopal NA 672                                  Boiling-off (kier-boiling)
Volumes 1–2                                 Boron carbide fiber–Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)                         863

    auxiliaries 495                                             for thermal insulation 253
    in textile pretreatment 495                                 high-temperature behavior 250, 258
Boron carbide fiber 275                                          SiC-coated, for reinforcement of oxide matrices 258
Boron fibers 255                                                 strength decrease with temperature 250
    boron carbide-coated 278                                    structure 249
    by chemical vapor deposition 249                            surface treatment 256
    for composite materials 257                                 tensile strength as function of fiber diameter 249
    physical and mechanical properties 255                      thermal expansion 252
    production of monofilaments 279                           Carbon fiber
    properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277               properties 19
    silicon carbide-coated 278                               N-Carbonylsulfamidic acid chloride 154
Boron nitride fiber 275                                       Carbopol 572
Borron 573                                                   Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)
Bradfluor 572                                                    as sizing agent 481
Braiding 434                                                 Carolid 250 521
    interlacing techniques 439                               Carpet jet-spray printing 744
    types of and their applications 439                      Carpet printing 752
Bremer honeydew test 326                                     Carpets
Breviol LC 516                                                  backing with polypropylene ribbon 213
Breviol LFP 521                                                 fibers for, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) 178
Breviol PAM 521                                              Cashmilon 230
Breviol SCN 514                                              Catalysts
Bri-Nylon 163                                                   in textile finishing 541
Bristles                                                     Causticaire method 327
    of nylon 163                                             Causticization
Brush printing                                                  auxiliaries used in 500
    in textile printing 754                                  Cecalgum 763
Bulana 230                                                   Cefacoll 573
Buna-Latex 572                                               Celazol [25734-65-0] 836
Bunatex 572                                                  Celazole 831
Bundesmann Test                                              Celidon 2820 498
    water repellency 546                                     Celidon LA 501
Bundle drawing                                               Cellestren dyes 797
    of metal fibers 285                                       Celliton 675, 687
Bunte salts (S-arylthiosulfuric acid salts) 656              Cellosize 762
Buralit N 505                                                Cellulose 335
Bura-Netzer 501                                                 alkalization 365
Burasil 566                                                     production of microcrystalline 383
Burn-out printing                                               production of powdered 383
    auxiliaries for 536                                         properties of microcrystalline 385
Burn-out textiles 797                                           properties of powdered 385
1,4-Butanediol                                                  xanthation 366
    for polyester fibers 186                                  Cellulose acetate
Butanetetracarboxylic acid                                      dyeing of 687
    as cross-linking agent 541                                  properties 16
Butofan 572                                                  Cellulose ester 348
γ-Butyrolactam                                               Cellulose ether 348
    nylon 4 from 154                                         Cellulose fiber
                                                                dyeing 642
C                                                               from regenerated cellulose 363
C 14 514                                                        levelling agents for dyeing 511
C-glass 261                                                     man-made 363
Cabinet dyeing 616                                              natural 353
Cable                                                           resist agents for dyeing 529
   with optical fibers 818                                       stripping of dyed 526
Cable insulation                                             Cellulose textiles
   from glass fibers 266                                         pretreatment and printing 765
Cadon 163                                                       printing with cationic and mordant dyes 767
Calgon T neu 510                                                printing with substantive (direct) and acid dyes 766
Calico 744                                                      printing with vat dyes 768
Candoxyl ST 498                                              Cellulose triacetate
Cantrece 163                                                    dyeing of 688
Caprolactam                                                     properties 16
   polymerization to nylon 6 154                             Cellulose xanthate 350
Caprolan 163                                                 Celon 163
Captiva 163                                                  Centrifugal blowing
Carbocel 489                                                    for production of slag wool 270
Carbolan 573                                                 Cerafil BFA 513
Carbon disulfide                                              Ceramic-matrix composites
   for xanthation of cellulose 367                              with refractory fibers 284
Carbon fiber                                                  Charisma 209
   for composite materials 256                               Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
864      Chisso ES–Dew-print process                                                                 Subject Index

    CVD monofilaments, thermal expansion 252                        structural data 373
    for production of B and SiC fibers 249                      Cotton
    for production of boron fibers with tungsten core 279           determination of impurities 326
    for production of coated high-melting fibers 249                honeydew in, determination 326
    silicon carbide fibers by 255                                   maturity determination 327
Chisso ES 209                                                      properties 16
Chisso Polypro 209                                                 spinning process 409
Chlorofiber 229, 231                                            Cotton fibers 342
Chrome-developing dyes 668                                     Cotton-art process
Chrome dyes                                                        in textile printing 751
    for protein fiber printing 801                              Cotton machine 453
    textile dyeing with 668                                    Cottozon 190 498
Chromolan 669                                                  Courlose 763
Chromotronic 753                                               Courtelle 230
Cibacet 675, 687                                               Cremona 238
Cibacet-Diazo 688                                                 e
                                                               Crˆ pe effect 528, 780
Cibacron P 776                                                 Creslan 230
Cibafast 687                                                   Crilat 572
Cibafluid U 521                                                 Crilenka 230
Cibatex 524                                                    Crimp balance for fibers 324
Cibatex PA 677                                                 Crimped effect 796
Circulating-goods machinery 603                                Crimping of synthetic fibers 104
    system and functions 609                                       for staple fibers 138
Cirrasol 480                                                   Crimp of fibers
Cirrasol PT 548                                                    measurement 324
Citric acid                                                    Crosron 573
    as cross-linking agent 541                                 Cross-linking agent
Cleantex PWC-N 536                                                 in textile finishing 539
Clear 764                                                      Crysel 230
Cleerspan 195                                                  Cumuloft 163
CMC Cellulose Gum 763                                          Cuoxam process 379
Coathylene 562                                                 Cupola furnace
Coir 362                                                           for melting of rock 269
Cold pad batch dyeing 625                                      Cuprammonium rayon 343
    on cellulose fabrics 629                                       properties 16
Collacral 572                                                  Cyanamide
Collasyn 489                                                       as flame retardant 549
Colloisol 656                                                  Cyclanon 524
Colloresin process                                             Cyclanon R 525
    in textile printing 770                                    1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol
Color-discharge printing 786, 790, 802                             for polyester fibers 187
Colorimetry                                                    Cymel 572
    expressing colorimetric results 638
Colourdry dyeing machine 615                                   D
Coltron 185                                                    D-glass 261
Colvinal 489                                                   DA 572
Complexing agents                                              Dacron 191
    for textile dyeing 509                                        properties 17
Composite materials                                            Daiwabo Polypro 209
    ceramic-matrix composites 284                              Danaklon 209
    metal-matrix composites 284                                Danaklon ES 209
    principle of fiber reinforcement 253                        Decrolin 527, 529, 533
    processing of glass fiber-reinforced plastics 264           Decroline 781
    reinforcement with carbon–Kevlar (or glass) fiber mix 256   Deep-dye process 744
    reinforcement with inorganic fibers 251, 253, 256              in carpet printing 753
    reinforcement with refractory fibers 283                    Deflavit ZA 527
    resin-matrix composites 284                                Degal CR 513
    strength 256                                               Degal SBN 505
    with metal fibers for radar camouflage and                   Dekol SN 509, 510
          electromagneticinterference 289                      Delebion 209
Composite materials                                            Delinol FE-NS 496
    fiber–fiber composite 839                                    Delinol NSR 498
Contavan SNF 498                                               Delinol VB 510
Continuous washing units                                       Delion 480
    dye application 630                                        Delustering
Copolyamides 157                                                  of fibers 159
Cordelan 238                                                   Denier 5
Cordura 163                                                    Desizing agents 493
Corfam 467                                                     Desmoderm 572
Cottoblanc EXT 496                                             Desmophen 196
Cottoclarin OW 498                                             Dew-print process
Cotton 352                                                        in textile printing 751
Volumes 1–2                                                          Deyneema–Egasol WFE               865

Deyneema 215                                         Dow-Latex 572
Diadavin 788                                         Dralon 230
Diagum 762                                              properties 18
Dialgin 763                                          Drawing of synthetic fibers 100
Dianix 687                                              of poly(ethylene terephthalate) 167
Dianix SPH 685                                          of tow 135
Dianix UN-SA 682                                     Draw texturing 121
Diatex SL 762                                        Draw warping
Dicguard 572                                            of fibers 116
Dichloroisocyanuric acid 799                         Drew–Pfitzner complexes 669
Dicrylan 572                                         Drimaren P 776
Dic Thickener 572                                    Drum drawing process 263
Dieldrin 552                                         Dry spinning 6, 96, 119
Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether 785                   for staple fibers 133
Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)            DS 70 496
    as boiling-off auxiliary 495                     Dtex 251
4,5-Dihydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone         Dtex 5
    as cross-linking agent 541                       Dupramin NFS 513
Dihydroxyethylene urea                               Dupranin RKM conc. 505
    as cross-linking agent 540                       Durasol 566
Diisocyanates                                        Durifan 566
    for polyurethane fibers 196                       Dur-o-cote 573
Dilatin NAN 521                                      Dur-o-cryl 573
Dimethyldichlorosilane                               Durogan process 467
    silicon carbide fiber from 281                    Duron 209, 480
Dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea                     Dur-o-set 573
    as cross-linking agent 540                       Dyeing accelerants 519
Dimethylolethylenurea                                Dyeing, continuous
    for crease-resistant finishing of cellulose 359      constancy of the dye liquor 622
Dimethylphenylbenzylammonium chloride 772               dye fixation 624
Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)                                intermediate drying 622
    as solvent 219                                      of textiles 620
Dimethylterephthalate (DMT)                             of yarn and fiber 629
    for poly(ethylene terephthalate) 164                pad process 620
Diofan 572                                              pouring process 620
Diolen 191                                              relative drying rate 624
    properties 17                                    Dyeing equipment 603
Dipolit 573                                          Dyeing machine 605
Direct dyes                                          Dyeing techniques
    for cellulose fibers 648                             laboratory 633
Direct printing                                      Dyeing technology 597
    on cellulose fibers 766                              exhaustion dyeing 598
Discharge printing                                      mass and gel dyeing 598
    auxiliaries for 534                                 pigment dyeing 598
    formulations for white discharge pastes 772      Dye printing
    of cellulose textiles 772                           aftertreatment agents and detergents for 536
    on cellulose fibers 766                              fixation auxiliaries 534
Disk-friction false twister 122                         oxidizing agents for 532
Disodium iminobismethanesulfinate 769                    reducing and discharging agents for 532
Dispensing                                              solubilizing and dispersing agents 535
    of chemicals 637                                    thickening agents for 532
    of dye auxiliaries 636                           Dye production
    of dyes 635                                         dispersants in 507
Dispergal B 514                                      Dye protecting agent
Dispergal CN 509                                        composition and trade names 505
Dispergal PS 509                                     Dynapress 572
Dispergal WP 517
Dispersant                                           E
    trade names and producers of 509                 E glass 259
Dispersing agents                                       composition 250
    in dye printing 535                              E-CR glass 259
Dispersogen ASN 509                                  Eastman LB, WD 489
Dispersogen P liq. 509                               Econol 831
Dispersol 675, 687                                      production, and fibers from   849
Dolan 230                                            Edlon 163
    properties 18                                    Edolan A extra 672
Dorix 163                                            Effektan ST 672
Dorlastan 195, 787                                   Eganal GES 670
    properties 17                                    Eganal LUB 521
Dosacid process                                      Eganal PS 516
    in textile dyeing 676                            Eganal SZ 514, 670, 675
Double-belt false twister 123                        Egasol WFE 516
866       E glass fibers–Fibers                                                                   Subject Index

E glass fibers                                               desizing 492
   properties 19                                            easy care finishes for 538
Einweisungsfunktion 667                                     flame retardants for 548
Ekonol 17, 35                                               hand builders for 542
Elasthane 194                                               physical properties of 641
Elastofix 572                                                preparation, made of cellulose fibers 491
Elastomeric fibers                                           pretreatment processes 490, 491
   dyeing of 696                                            softeners for 542
Elaston 195                                                 soil-release finishes for 547
Electromagnetic interference                                soil-repellent and soil-release agents for 546
   metal-matrix composites for 289                          water repellents for 543
Elvace 573                                              Fadex CL 677
Elvanol 489                                             False-twist texturing 120
Emectol PAL 526                                         Fasavin 480
Emegal A 527                                            Fastran process
Emenil DG 518                                               in textile printing 751
Emigen DPR 523                                          Fast Red ITR 662
Emprint CE 763                                          Fast Red TR 662
Emsize 489                                              Fatty alcohol ethoxylates (polyglycol ethers)
Emuldur 572                                                 as levelling agents 512
Emulgator W 532                                         Fatty amine ethoxylates
Emulphor 466                                                as levelling agents 512
Emulsifier                                               Fenilon 831, 835
   in textile printing 531                              Feran 566
Emulsion                                                Fiber FP 277
   thickener in textile printing 761                    Fiber bands 3
Emulsol OS 517                                          Fiber blends
Emultex 572                                                 levelling agents for 517
Encylase HT 493                                             stripping of dyed 527
Endolan PAW 672                                         Fiber diameter 83
Enkalon 163                                             Fibermax 277, 282
Enka-Perlon 163                                         Fiber optics
Enkatherm 831                                               see also Optical fibers 809
Enkatron 163                                            Fibers
Enzymes                                                     auxiliaries for processing of 472
   as desizing agents 493                                   burning test 331
Epoxy resins                                                characterization 4
   reinforcement with glass fibers 256                       chemical identification 325
Erional NW 672                                              commercial forms and terminology 248, 316
Erional NWS 672, 786, 800, 801                              crimp measurement 324
Erional PW 672                                              cross sections of various fiber types 323
Erional RS 672                                              crystallization 7, 9
Erkantol CW 498, 506                                        definition 248
Espa 195                                                    degree of crystallinity, determination 173
Estane 572                                                  delustering 159
Estarfin 573                                                 density measurement 325
Estekoll 562, 573                                           determination of fine structure 173
Estron                                                      determination of impurities 326
   properties 16                                            diameter measurement 321
Ethylene carbonate                                          dyeing tests 331
   solvent for polyacrylonitrile 219                        economic aspects 14
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)                      elastic behavior, measurement 328, 329
   as boiling-off auxiliary 495                             electrostatic charging, measurement 332
Ethylene glycol (ethanediol)                                estimated annual growth of all fibers 193
   for poly(ethylene terephthalate) 164                     fineness measurement 320
Eulan 933 552                                               fineness, unit of 4
Eulan WA 552                                                gas-fading resistance, test method 207
Eulysin WP 518, 677                                         length measurement 317
Euroacryl 230                                               light resistance, test methods 207
European Disposables and Nonwoven Association (EDANA)       melting point, determination 331
         468                                                microscopic investigation 321
Evoral 573                                                  modulus determination 329
Exhaustion dyeing                                           moisture content, determination 330
   for cellulose fibers 645                                  oxidation resistance, test method 207
Exlan 230                                                   physical properties of 640
Expansion joint                                             processing into yarn 409
   from glass fibers 266                                     sizing methods 481
                                                            survey 3
F                                                           tabular survey of properties 15
Fabrics                                                     tensile properties, measurement 328, 329
   aftertreatment of dyed   627                             thickness measurement 319
   bleaching 496                                            water absorption and retention, determination 330
Volumes 1–2                                                     Fibers, man-made–Glass fibers                    867

    world fiber consumption 596                                 of printed 2,5-acetate fibers 781
Fibers, man-made                                               of printed polyamide fibers 785
    world production 363                                       of printed triacetate fibers 782
Fibers, synthetic inorganic 247                                one- and two-phase method 778
    carcinogenicity of thin fibers 251                          thermosol 794
    for reinforcement 251                                      with high-pressure steam 789, 793
    mechanical and physical properties 254                 Fixation accelerator 793
    thermal expansion 252                                  Flame attenuation process 270
Fibers, testing and analysis                               Flame retardant
    methods for inorganic fibers 251                            as textile auxiliary 548
Fibers, man-made 3                                             durable 550
Fibers, synthetic organic                                      nondurable and semidurable 549
    see also High-performance fibers 149                    Flash-aging method
    bicomponent fibers 228                                      in textile printing 770
    crimping 104                                           Flat-screen printing 744
    crimping of staple fibers 138                           Flax 353, 361
    differential thermal analysis 174                          properties 16
    drawing 100                                            Flexbond 572
    dry spinning 96                                        Flixor 163
    from wholly aromatic polymers (aramids) 830, 832       Flock printing
    heat-setting 106                                           in textile printing 754
    high performance fibers 35, 104                         Floranit 4028 501
    hollow fibers 92                                        Fluon 240, 572
    melt spinning 89                                       Foraperle 572
    natural draw ratio 174                                 Formamidinesulfinic aci [1758-73-2] 781
    orientation measurement by optical birefringence 173   Formamidinesulfinic acid
    production technology 81                                   as reducing agent 534
    shrinkable fibers 228                                   Fornax 566
    solution spinning 96                                   Foron RD 682
    stress-strain tests 174                                Fortrel 191
    structure and properties 7                                 properties 17
    test methods for polyacrylonitrile fibers 224           Foryl M 8 liquid 536
    texturing 104                                          FP fibers 277, 281
    thermal measurements 174                               FRGicnal 572
    wet spinning 98                                        FRGicrylan 572
Fibers, testing and analysis 315                           Frosting effect 800
Fibro                                                      Fujibo 195
    properties 16                                          Fume fading 782
Fibrocol 489
Fibrogram 319                                              G
Fibrograph 319, 327                                        Galactomannan
Fibropur 489                                                  as sizing agent 481
Fibrosint 489                                                 as thickener in textile printing 762
FIDAM (fiber image display and measurement) 321             Ganalok 540
Filament yarn 249                                          Gardinol 466
Filaments 3                                                Gaskets
Filament yarn                                                 from glass fibers 266
    manufacture 110                                        Geipolan EB 509
Filapan 480                                                Gelonal W 517
Film yarn                                                  Gemeinschaft umweltfreundlicher Teppichboden (GuT)   471
    from polyolefines 209                                   Geneucol ART 517
Filter                                                     Geneucol MI 517
    from metal fibers 289                                   Geneucol RTM 517
Fine Gum 762                                               Geon 572
Fineness                                                   Gerol 489
    of fibers, definition 83                                 Gevetex
Finishing agents                                              properties 19
    for textiles 537                                       Gisapon 1430 527
Finish MH 573                                              Gisapon 1476 514
Finnfix 489                                                 Glass
Fire blanket                                                  composition of textile glass 259
    from glass fibers 266                                   Glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GRP) 258
Fisisa 230                                                    applications 265
Fissatore 524                                              Glass fibers
Fixamin 573                                                   coating 256
Fixan 566                                                     composition of E-and R-glass 250
Fixation                                                      for composite materials 256
    continuous 789                                            for insulation 267
    hot-steam and hot-air 789                                 for reinforcement 251
    in textile printing 756                                   mechanical and physical properties 255
    of dye, slop-padded 771                                   roving from 265
    of dye, through developing bath 771                       strand mat from 265
868       Glass fibers, textile–Irgasol CO                                                         Subject Index

   strength decrease with temperature 250              Herculon Nouvelle 209
   thermal expansion 253                               High-performance fibers 829
   toxicology 267                                         heat-resistant from aramids 830, 832
   warp beam from 265                                  High-strength and high-modulus fibers
Glass fibers, textile                                      see also HS–HM fibers 839
   filaments, manufacture 261                           Hiralon
   products 263                                           properties 18
   products from, for plastics reinforcement 264       Hispasil 566
   staple fibers 263                                    Horsil 489
   yarns, properties 263                               Hosiery dyeing machine 616
Glass wool see also Glass fibers267                     Hostaflon 562, 572
   binders for 271                                     Hostalen 562
   chemical composition and limiting temperature 268   Hostalit 562
   environmental protection in processing of 272       Hostapal 466
   thermal conductivity 269                            Hostapal SF 498
Glass fibers                                            Hostatherm Verdicker 764
   optical 811                                         Hottenroth index 368
Glocryl 572                                            HS–HM fibers
Glospan 195                                               see also High-strength and high-modulus fibers 839
Gluconic acid                                             melt-spun 848
   as boiling-off auxiliary 495                           solution-spun 841
Glyezin A 536, 781                                     HWM fibers 371
Glyezin BC 785                                         Hybrid composites 255
Gohsenol 489                                           Hycar 572
Golgas process 744                                     Hydran 572
   in textile printing 755                             Hydrocol LFV 521
Gore-Tex 240                                           Hydron Blue (C.I. Vat Blue 43) 656
Gough–Joule effect 107                                 Hydrosulfite conc. 525, 533
Graft copolymerization                                 Hydroxyethyl methyl cellulose (HEMC) 781
   of cellulose 350                                    5-Hydroxy-1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)hexahydro-s-triazin-2-one
Gravure printing 750                                      as cross-linking agent 539
   of textiles 746                                     2-Hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid anilide 773
Greige 490                                             Hypalon 572
Grilene 191
   properties 17                                       I
Griltex 562                                            Iceberg structures 667
Grisuten 191                                           Igepon A 466
  u
Gr¨ nau Pillenwachs 489                                Igepon T 466
Guaranate 762                                          Imhausen process 164
Guttacoll-Klebefolien 562                              Impegal EPR 523
Gymlene 209                                            Impegal SR 513
                                                       Imperonbinder 572
H                                                      Imperon Binder MTB 531
Half-emulsions 777                                     Implants
Hanilon 230                                                from porous titanium fiber structures 289
Hank dyeing machine 608                                Impofix 524
Hank yarn printing 744                                 Impranil 572
Hansa Phob 572                                         Impranil DLN 552
Heat-resistant fibers 832                               Indalca 762
Heat setting                                           Indian hemp 362
   of poly(ethylene terephthalate)   168               Indigo
   of synthetic fibers 106                                  textile dyeing with 654
Helasol 664                                            Indigosol 774
Helio-Klischographs 747                                Indocarbon (C.I. Sulphur Black 11) 656
Helion 163                                             Indosol system 648
Helizarin 663                                          Inex 489
Helizarin Binder 572                                   Infrared optical fibers 812
Helizarin Binder ET 531                                Inochrom 669
Helizarin Binder TW 531                                Insulation, thermal
Helizarin Binder UD 531                                    by porous metal fiber structures 289
Helizarin Fixierer LF 531                                  glass fibers for 258
Helizarin Fixierer S 531                                   inorganic fibers for 253, 283
Hemp 353, 362                                              refractory fibers for high-temperature insulation   283
   properties 16                                       International Silk Organization 401
Henequen 362                                           Intrasol CWN 672
Heptol FEW 510                                         Intratex BD 505
Heptol NWS 510                                         Intrinsic viscosity 158, 337
Hercosett 125 552                                      Invadin MC neu 501
Hercosett-treated wool 801                             Invatex SA 496
Hercules AS4 249                                       Irgapadol FFU 506
Herculon 209                                           Irgapadol MP 523
   properties 18                                       Irgasol CO 509
Volumes 1–2                                                                 Irgasol DAM–Levapon MR        869

Irgasol DAM 509                                                Kodel 191
Isatex 572                                                        properties 17
Isatherm 562                                                   Kofilm 489
ITW process                                                    Kollotex 489
    in textile dyeing 516                                      Koplex 572
IWS-Hercosett process 799                                      Kuralon 238
                                                                  properties 18
J                                                              Kuraray Vinylon 238
Jet-drying chamber    756                                      Kyno [9003-55-8] 838
Jet dyeing machine    611                                      Kynol 549, 831
Jet printing                                                   Kynol
    of carpets 752                                                properties 17
Jig dyeing
    normal (direct)   612                                      L
    pad jig process   614                                      Laboratory dyeing
Jute 353, 361                                                     equipment 633
    properties 16                                                 technology 634
                                                               Lactams
K                                                                 polyamides from 153
Kanebo Acryl 230                                               β-Lactams
Kanekaron 230                                                     polyamides from 154
Kappatex 572                                                   Ladder polymer 837
Kappawet AT 91 496                                             Ladiquest P 97 510
Kappazon B 84 501                                              Ladit 1026 496
Karagum Super 762                                              Ladit N 26 neu 496
Katanol ON                                                     Lamberti Print 762
   tanning agent 767                                           Lamcol 489
Katox process 661                                              Lamefix 680 535
Katzschmann process 164                                        Lamegum 762
Kaurit 572                                                     Lamepon 56 498
Kayacion P 776                                                 Lamepon BN 509
Keltex 763                                                     Lamepon KB 510
Kelzan 763                                                     Lamepon N 509
Keriolan FMK 514                                               Lameprint 762
Kermel 831, 836                                                Lamesal P 526
Kermel                                                         Lamitex 763
   properties 17                                               Lanaryl NA 496
Kevlar                                                         Laser diode (LD)
   see also Poly(p-phenyleneterephthalamide) 256, 831, 839,       as light source for optical fibers 823
         841                                                   Lastabil 1020 498
Kevlar 149 844, 845                                            Latekoll 572
   properties 17                                               Lauryl lactam
Kevlar 29 844, 845                                                polymerization to nylon 12 155
   properties 17                                               Lavan RH 525
Kevlar 49 844, 845                                             Lavotan DSU 100 501
   properties 17                                               Leacril 230
Kevlar 981                                                     Leavil 696
   properties 17                                               Lefasol 573
Kevlar Hp                                                      Leomin 480, 489
   properties 17                                               Leonil 466
Kevlar HT 844                                                  Leonil EB 493
Kieralon B 496                                                 Leonil GA 501
Kieralon CD 496, 498                                           Leophen BN 501
Kieralon DB 536                                                Leophen M 506
Kieralon JET-B konz. 498                                       Leophen MC 501
Kieralon OLB konz. 498                                         Leophen RA 501
Kiwotex TDK 537                                                Leophen RBD 506
KM-21 831, 834, 835                                            Leuco esters of vat dyes
Knit-de-knit process 630                                          for textile dyeing 663
   in carpet printing 754                                         for textile printing 773
Knittex 572                                                    Leuco process
Knitting 440                                                      vat dyeing techniques 653
   classification of stitch-forming machines 447                Leuco sulfur dyes
   structural elements and structures of knitted fabrics 443      textile dyeing with 656
   technology of stitch formation 441                          Leukotrop W 534, 767, 772
Knitting machine                                               Levafix PN 776
   circular 450                                                Levafix Salz PC 518
   flat-bed 447                                                 Levalin ACE 521
   warp 453                                                    Levalin KAM 523
   weft 451                                                    Levalin VKUN 800
Knot test                                                      Levapon AN 782
   for monofilaments 251                                        Levapon MR 786
870       Levapon TH–Metal-matrix composites (MMC)                                      Subject Index

Levapon TH 782, 788                             Lyogen MS 669, 670
Levasint 562                                    Lyogen PN 514
Levegal AN liquid 536                           Lyogen WD 514, 669
Levegal DTE 521                                 Lyoprint 572, 764
Levegal ER liq. 517                             Lyoprint RG 526
Levegal FTS 514
Levegal HTC 516                                 M
Levegal HTN 516, 675                            Magmalaminator 573
Levegal KNS 513                                 Malimo technology 467
Levegal MSF 516                                 Malon 230
Levegal PEW 521                                 Manila 362
Levegal PTN 521                                 Manutex 763
Leveling agents                                 Marix 185
    in textile dyeing 510                       Marquesa Lana 209
    types of 511                                Marvess 209
Levogen 524                                     Masquol A 340 N 509
Light-emitting diode (LED)                      Masquol EL 40 510
    as light source for optical fibers 823       Matexil 524
Lilion 163                                      Matexil BA-PK 505
Limanol 480                                     Matexil CA-MN 521
Limiting oxygen index (LOI) 835                 Matexil DA-N 509
Linters 358                                     Matexil DN-VL 513
Lipolan 572                                     Matexil FA-MIV 523
Liquid crystalline polymers 831, 839            Matexil FA-SN 677
Liquid Reactive Resist Agent 536                Matexil PA-L 505, 532
Loobell 195                                     Matexil PA-S 523
Loop tensile test                               Measuring instruments
    of fibers 329                                  expressing colorimetric results 638
Looptex laboratory equipment 634                Melafix process 799
Loose stock dyeing machine 607                  Melamine
Lorinol R 525                                     as cross-linking agent 539
Lubasin RF 537                                  Melamine resin fiber
Lubasin TP 537                                    properties 18
Lubit LC 521                                    Melana 230
Lubricants                                      Melange printing
    in dyeing of fibers 477                        of sliver 754
    in secondary spinning 476                   Meliopromul 573
Lubrisize 489                                   Melioresin 573
Ludigol 505, 529, 532, 767, 772                 Melt extraction process
Ludigol Granulat 526                              for metal fibers 287
Lufibrol DK 496                                  Melt spinning
Lufibrol DO 493                                    of metal fibers 286
Lufibrol KB 496                                  Melt flow index (MFI) 202
Lufibrol KB process                              Melt spinning 6, 89
    in textile pretreatment 496                   for tow and staple fibers 128
Lumiflou 572                                       of nylons 160
Luprimol CW 531                                 Meraklon 209
Luprimol SIG 531                                Meraklon BCF 209
Luprintan DCA 535                               Meraklon CF 209
Luprintan HDF 535, 782                          Mercerisin OR 501
Luprintan PFD 535, 782                          Mercerization 359
Luprintol MP 532                                Mercerization 500
Luprintol PE New 532                              auxiliaries used in 500
Lurapret 566                                      dry 500
Lutexal 572, 764                                  hot 500
Lutexal HEF 531                                   wet 500
Lutexal P 531                                   Mercerol QW 501
Lutofan 572                                     Mercevic process 500
Lutradur 185                                    Meropan EF 518
LW-Marken 480                                   Meropan SO2 505
Lycra 195, 787                                  Meropan VD 509
    properties 17                               Mersolates 466
Lynel 195                                       Mesitol 524
Lyocell                                           tanning agent 767
    properties 16                               Mesitol HWS 667
Lyocol ACN 509                                  Mesitol HWS liq. 672
Lyocol BC 536                                   Mesitol NBS 677, 786
Lyocol CR 669                                   Mesitol NWS 800
Lyofix 572                                       Mesitol PS 536, 786
Lyogen CW 523                                   Metachrome dyeing process 668
Lyogen E 513                                    Metal fiber 285
Lyogen FN 670                                   Metal-matrix composites (MMC)
Volumes 1–2                                                      Metal-complex dyes–Nylons                  871

   with refractory fibers 284                              production 281
Metal-complex dyes                                     Nextel Z11 277, 283
   dyeing with 669                                     Nextel 312
   for protein fiber printing 800                          properties 19, 27
Methoxyethyl carbamate                                 Nextel 440
   as cross-linking agent 540                             properties 19
Methyl carbamate                                       Nextel 480
   as cross-linking agent 540                             properties 19
Metoxil 572                                            Niax 196
Mewlon 238                                             Nicalon 276
Meypro Gum 762                                            decrease of tensile strength with temperature 250
Mezzera equipment                                      Nicalon
   in textile printing 787                                properties 19
Micronaire tester 322                                  Nikasol 573
Micronaire value 322                                   Nipco rolls 622
Mikethren 664                                          Nitric acid
Milease 572                                               solvent for polyacrylonitrile 219
Milease T 548                                          Nitron 230
Millitron 753                                          NMMO fibers
Mineral wool 267                                          properties 16
   binders for 271                                     N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMA)
   chemical composition and limiting temperature 268      solvent for polyacrylonitrile 219
   environmental protection in processing of 272       N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF)
   thermal conductivity 268                               as solvent 219
Mineral dyes                                           N,N -Bis(hydroxymethyl)urea
   for textile dyeing 665                                 as cross-linking agent 539
Mirox 573                                              N,N -Bis(methoxymethyl)uron
Mobilon 195                                               as cross-linking agent 540
Modacrylic fibers 227                                   Nomex
   properties 18                                          see also Poly(1,3-phenyleneisophthalamide) 831
Modal fibers 371                                           see also Poly(1,3-phenyleneisophthalamide) 549, 832, 835
Molvenin 489                                              properties 17
Monagum W 763                                          Non-Newtonian fluid 85
Monochlorotriazine 776                                 Nonuniformity factor 338
Monofilaments                                           Nonwoven fabrics (nonwovens)
   manufacture 141                                        from cuprammonium fibers 381
Monopolbrillant Oil 509                                Nonwoven fabrics (nonwovens)
Mordant dyes                                              spunbonded from poly(ethylene terephthalate) 184
   dyeing with 664                                     Nopco 480
Mullite fibers 281                                      Norane 16 544
   decrease of tensile strength with temperature 250   Noredux 489
   for thermal insulation 254                          Noregum 489
   inverse 276                                         Noresin 489
Mulron 573                                             Noresol 489
Multifilaments 249                                      Novolak
Multiflex dyeing machine 634                               properties 17
Murata draw-texturing system 122                       Novoloid 832
Mybond 562                                                properties 17
Mydrin 573                                             Novoloid fibers 838
                                                       Noxguard 572
N                                                      Nylofixan P 677
Nafka Kristallgummi 762                                Nylon 1 153
Nailon R 163                                           Nylon 11 155
Nalan GM 544                                           Nylon 12 155
Nalan W 544                                            Nylon 2 153
Naphtol AS dyes                                        Nylon 3 154
   textile dyeing with 661                             Nylon 4 154
Naphtol AS-G 773                                       Nylon 46 156
Naphtol AS-ITR 662                                     Nylon 6 154
Naphtol AS (Naphtol Anilid-S¨ ure) 773
                               a                          properties 16
Naphtol AS-TR 662                                         thin-film evacuation 162
Natron 501                                             Nylon 610 157
Natrosol MR 762                                        Nylon 66 156
Neboplast 573                                             properties 16
Necrylic 572                                           Nylon 7 155
Nekal A 466                                            Nylon 8 155
Neocarmine dyes                                        Nylon copolymer 157
   for identification of fiber types 332                 Nylons
Neolan 669                                                see also Polyamides; Polyamide fibers 151
Newtonian fluid 85                                         aging and light protection 159
Nextel 254                                                delustering with TiO2 159
Nextel 312 and 440 276, 277, 281                          dyeing 159
872       Nyltest–Polyacrylonitrile fibers                                                             Subject Index

   heat-aging protection 159                               Perlavin OSL 526
   melting temperature of nylon 46, nylon 47, etc.   156   Perlon 783
   melt spinning 160                                           properties 16
   structure and properties 10                             Perlon Hoechst 163
Nyltest 783                                                Permafresh 573
                                                           Permafresh Mel 572
O                                                          Permalose T 548
¨
Oko-Tex-Standard 100 472                                   Permatex 562
Ofnapon ASN 509                                            Permel Resin B 544
Oleophobol 572                                             Permutex 573
Olinor 489                                                 Permuthane 573
Opelon 195                                                 Peroxosulfates
Open-end (OE) friction spinning 419                            as desizing agents 493
Open-end (OE) rotor spinning 419                           Perrotines 744, 745
Optical birefringence                                      Persistol 545, 572
   use in fiber analysis 173                                Persoftal L 521
Optical fiber 810                                           Persulfates 493
   for infrared 812                                        Philene
   from plastics 812                                           properties 17
   transmission systems 823                                Phobotex CR 544
Orbis process                                              Phobotex FTC 544
   see also Sark process 750                               Phosphonic acid
Orgaclear 573                                                  as boiling-off auxiliary 495
Orlon 230                                                  Phosphoric acid
Osimol LVP 521                                                 as flame retardant 549
Osimol MA 517                                              Photodiode
Osimol RAC 517                                                 as detectors in optical fiber transmission systems   825
Ostacet 675                                                Phtalogen Blue IBN 775
Overflow dyeing machine 611                                 Phtalogen Brilliant Blue IF3GK 775
Overwax 489                                                Phtalogen Turquoise IFBK 775
Oxidation dyes                                             Phtalotrop B 529
   for textile dyeing 665                                  Phthalocyanine dyes
Oxide fibers                                                    direct printing 774
   thermal expansion 252                                       for textile printing 774
Oxidizing agents                                               printing with complex dyes 775
   in dye printing 532                                     Phthalofix FN 665
   in textile dyeing 525                                   Phthalogen Brilliant Blue IF3GM 665
                                                           Phthalogen process
                                                               for textile dyeing 665
P
                                                           Phthalogen Turquoise IFBK 665
P 84
                                                           PI 2080/P8,4 831
   properties 17
                                                           Pigment printing 530, 803
Package dyeing machine 607
                                                               binders for 530
Paddle dyeing machine 616
                                                               emulsifiers for 531
Pad dyeing process
                                                               fixing agents for 531
   for cellulose fibers 646
                                                               hand modifiers for 531
Pad roll dyeing 625
                                                               thickening agents for 530
Pad rolls 622
                                                           Pigments
Pad steam process 625
                                                               for textile dyeing 663
Palanil 507
                                                           Plasticryl 489
Palatex S 521
                                                           Plastics
Palatinecht 669
                                                               optical fibers from 812
Palegal HT 516
                                                           Plastics, fiber-reinforced
Palegal SFD 516
                                                               glass fiber-reinforced, processing of 264
Panflex 573
                                                           Plastisol 555
Paper
                                                           Platabond 562
   α-cellulose content 351
                                                           Platamid 562
Paper frame method
                                                           Plexene UL 510
   tensile strength test 251
                                                           Plextol 573
Paranol 573
                                                           Pluvion 572
Para Red 662
                                                           Plystran 489
Perapret 572
                                                           Policril 572
Perapret PU 663
                                                           Poliva 573
Perbunan 572
                                                           Polyacrylates
Peregal P 513
                                                               as sizing agents 481, 486
Perenin 4649 506
                                                               as textile dyeing dispersants 507
Perigal 466
                                                           Polyacrylonitrile–cellulose blends
Perigen HTN 516
                                                               dyeing of 704
Perigen HTP 514
                                                           Polyacrylonitrile fibers 215
Periquest AL 510
                                                               aftertreatment 790
Periwet SL 506
                                                               discharges and resists 790
Perkins test 326
                                                               dyes and printing pastes 788
Perlavin A 527
Volumes 1–2                          Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)–Poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers                     873

   fixation 789                                                 production, and fibers from 849
   knitted goods 788                                        Polybenzimidazole
   levelling agents for dyeing 515                             production and fibers from 836
   printed blends of 790                                    Polybinder 573
   printing on 787                                          Polybinder HS 359 531
   properties 18                                            Poly(bisbenzimidazobenzophenanthroline)
   resist agents for dyeing 529                                production and fibers from 837
   test methods 224                                         Poly(butylene terephthalate)
   uses 192                                                    properties 17
   woven goods 787                                          Polycarboxylates
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)                                        as textile dyeing dispersants 507
   effect of comonomers 11                                  Polychlal 238
   intermolecular forces 8                                  Polycord 163
   molecular mass suitable for fiber formation 7             Poly(1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane terephthalate) fibers
   stripping of dyed 527                                       properties 17
   vinylsulfonic or styrenesulfonic acid as comonomer 13    Poly(1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane terephthalate) (PDCT)   187
Polyacrylonitrile–wool blends                               Poly(β,β-dimethyl-β-propiolactam)
   dyeing of 704                                               fibers from 153
Polyalkyleneamines                                          Polyester
   as levelling agents 512                                     printing on blends of 797
Poly(amic acid) 837                                            stripping of dyed 527
Polyamide 6 673                                             Polyester fibers
Polyamide 66 673                                               aftertreatment 794
Polyamide–cellulose blends                                     antielectrostatic finishing 795
   dyeing of 703                                               comparison with other man-made fibers 192
Polyamide fibers                                                cotton-like 137
   aftertreatment 785                                          discharges and resists 795
   discharges and resists 786                                  dyeing 679
   dyeing 673                                                  dyeing accelerants for 520
   dyes and printing pastes 785                                dyes and printing pastes 792
   fastness of dyeings 679                                     fastness 792
   fixation 785                                                 fixation 793
   levelling agents for dyeing 513                             knits 791
   printing on 783                                             levelling agents for dyeing 514
   resist agents for dyeing 529                                printing on 790
Polyamide fibers                                                properties 25
   see also Nylons; Polyamides (PA) 151                        resist agents for dyeing 529
   heat-setting 109                                            spinning plant 128
Polyamidehydrazide 841, 846                                    woven fabrics 791
Poly(amide imide)                                           Polyesters
   properties 17                                               as sizing agent 481
Polyamideimide (PAI)                                           direct printing on 796
   production and fibers from 836                               molecular mass suitable for fiber formation 7
Polyamides (PA)                                             Polyester–wool blends
   stripping of dyed 527                                       dyeing of 701
Polyamides (PA)                                             Polyether diols
   analytical control 158                                      for polyurethane fibers 196
   copolyamides 157                                         Polyetherether ketone (PEEK)
   for synthetic fibers 152                                     fibers from 839
   from 1,6-diaminohexane and adipic acid 152                  properties 17
   from 1,6-diaminohexane and terephthalic acid 152         Polyetherimide P84
   from aminocarboxylic acids and lactams 153                  fibers from 839
   from diamines and dicarboxylic acids 155                    properties 17
   from m-xylylene-α,α -diamine and adipic acid 152         Polyethylene
   from p-xylylene-α,α -diamine and adipic acid 152            intermolecular forces 8
   from p-xylylene-α,α -diamine and terephthalic acid 152      molecular mass suitable for fiber formation 7
   intermolecular forces 8                                  Polyethylene fibers
   molecular mass suitable for fiber formation 7                properties 18
Polyaramide fibers                                           Polyethylene, high-density (HDPE)
   physical and mechanical properties 256                      films and split yarns from 209
Polyarylate fibers                                              tapes 209
   properties 17                                            Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP)
Polyarylates 848                                               see also Polyesters 164
Polyazole                                                      intermolecular forces 8
   PBO 841, 847                                                sulfoisophthalic acid as comonomer 13
   PBT 841, 847                                             Poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers 175
Polyazole fibers                                                blends with cotton, wool etc. 177
   composite 847                                               continuous-filament yarns 179
   HS–HM fibers 847                                             dyeing 170
   wet-spun fibers 836                                          filament yarns 181
Polyazolehydrazide 846                                         flame-retardant 178
Polyazomethine                                                 properties 17
874      Polyfilm–Protein fibers                                                               Subject Index

   staple fibers and yarns from 175                     molecular mass suitable for fiber formation   7
   textured yarns 181                                  properties 200
Polyfilm 489                                            stabilization 205
Polyflon 240, 572                                       structure 9
Polygal 762                                            tapes 209
Polygum 762                                        Polypropylene fiber 192, 201
Polyimide (PI) 841, 848                                dyeing of 696
   production and fibers from 836                       printing on 798
   properties 17                                       properties 18
Polyimide fibers                                    Polysaccharides
   composite 847                                       as textile dyeing dispersants 507
   HS–HM fibers 848                                     thickener in textile printing 761, 762
   wet-spun fibers 836                              Polysol 572, 573
Polylack 573                                       Polysteen 209
Polymeg 196                                        Polystyrene (PS)
Polymer composites 255                                 for optical fibers 812
Polymerconcentrate 475 531                         Polytetrafluoro-ethylene
Polymer dispersion                                     properties 18
   antielectrostatic additives for 567             Poly(tetramethylene terephthalate) 186
   glass transition temperature of 559             Poly-THF 196
   minimum film-forming temperature of 559          Polyurethane (PUR)
   monomers for, used in textiles 554                  production 197
   trade names and companies for 573               Polyurethane elastomers
Polymer powder                                         properties 17
   for textiles 555                                Polyurethane fibers 194
Polymers                                           Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)
   degree of polymerization 337                        as sizing agent 481, 485
   molar mass distribution and determination 338   Poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers 234
Polymers                                               dyeing of 697
   forming liquid-crystalline structures 9             fibers from blends with PVC 237
   melts and solutions, flow properties 85              properties 18
   meta- and para-oriented wholly aromatic 830     Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)
   molar mass distribution and determination 158       postchlorinated, fibers from 233
   plastic-clad optical glass fibers 811            Poly(vinyl chloride) fibers
Polymer solution                                       dyeing of 695
   for textiles 555                                    fibers from blends 230, 231
Polymethacrylates                                      properties 18
   as sizing agents 486                            Poly(vinylidene chloride) fibers 229
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)                   Polyvinylpyrrolidone
   for optical fibers 812                               as levelling agent 512
Polynosics 371                                     Portal printing machine 746
Polyolefin fibers 200                                Postchlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)
   film and split yarns 209                             fibers from 233
   high-modulus yarns 214                          Poval 489
   spinning 129                                    Praelanol 480
Polypeptide fibers                                  Praestabitol V 466
   based on l-glutamic o-ester 154                   a
                                                   Pr¨ wozell 572
Poly(p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) (PBO) 831, 841    Prepreg 264
   production and fibers from 847                   Pressley tester 330
Poly(p-phenylenebenzobisthiazole) (PBT) 831, 841   Prestogen D 498
   production and fibers from 847                   Prestogen SP 498
Poly(m-phenyleneisophthalamide) (PMIA)             Prestogen W fl. 501
   see also Nomex 830                              Pretavyl 572
   fibers from 834                                  Pretolon L 521
   fibers, properties 17                            Primal/Rhoplex 573
   production 832                                  Primasol AMK 523
Poly(p-phenyleneisophthalamide) (PPIA) 830         Primasol NF 506
Poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) 848                        Primasol SD 523
Poly(p-phenylenepyromellitimide) (PPPI) 848        Primax 573
Poly(phenylene sulfide)                             Printoblanc 536
   properties 18                                   Prisulon 762
Poly(p-phenylene sulfide) (PPS)                     Procion M dyes 643
   fibers from 839                                  Procion P 776
Poly(m-phenylene terephthalamide) (PMTA) 830       Prolen 209
Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA)           Propex III 209
   see also Kevlar 830                             Propiofan 572
   fibers, properties 17                            Protein fibers
   production and fibers from 841                       aftertreatment 800
Polyprint 762                                          direct printing 799
Polypropylene (PP)                                     discharge printing 801
   film and split yarns from 209                        fixation 800
   incorporation of comonomers 11                      printing on blends containing 802
Volumes 1–2                                                    Proteins–Rotta-Finish   875

   printing paste for 799                   Remartard T 517
   properties 16                            Remazol 529, 776
Proteins                                    Remazol Salt FD 535
   as thickening agent 761                  Remol HT 521
Prox 573                                    Remol LF 521
PTMG 196                                    Remol U 670
Pulp                                        Repellan 545, 572
   production and cellulose content   351   Repolem 572
   quality testing 351                      RES 573
Pultrusion 264                              Resamyl 489
Pump                                        Reseda luteola 596
   axial 606                                Resin-matrix composites
   radial 606                                   with refractory fibers 284
Pylen 209                                   Resist printing
Pyroset CP 549                                  of cellulose textiles 773
Pyrovatex CP 550                                on cellulose fibers 767
                                            Resolin K 682
Q                                           Resolin P 675
Qiana 157                                   Retamyl 489
Quecodur 573                                Retargal AN 517
Quellax 489                                 Retractyl-Fivravyl 232
Quicksolan 489                              Revacryl 572, 573
Quilon C 544                                Revatol S/SP Powder 505
Quilon M 544                                Revertex-Latex 573
Quilon S 544                                Revetol S 526
                                            Revinex 572
                                            Rewin 524
R
                                            Rewin SW 526
R-glass 261
                                            Rewopol SBD 075 506
   composition 250
                                            Rhenappret 573
Radar camouflage
                                            Rhodopol 763
   metal-matrix composites for 290
                                            Riblene 562
Ramie 353
                                            Rikabond 572
Rapidase fl. 493
                                            Rilsan 562
Rapidazol 774
                                            Ritandin CD 517
Rapidecht 774
                                            Ritornal AL 527
Rapidogen 774
                                            Rock wool process 271
Rapidoprint LM 536
                                            Rohagit 573
Rapidoprint PAN 535
                                            Roica 195
Rapidoprint RE 535
                                            Rolflex 572
Rapidoprint UL 22 532
                                            Roller printing 744
Rapid steamer 757
                                                aftertreatment 747
Raschel machine 453
                                                engraving 747
Ratifix 573
                                                photogravure 747
Ravemul 572
                                                printing rollers 746
Reacticryl 572
                                            Roller printing machine, four-color 746
Reactive dyes
                                            Roller printing machine (Saueressig) 746
   for cellulose fiber dyeing 642
                                            Rongal 5242 652
   for polyamide fibers printing 786
                                            Rongal HT 525, 652
   for protein fiber printing 801
                                            Rongalit 2 PH 771
   for textile printing 775
                                            Rongalit 2 PH-A 533
   printing pastes 777
                                            Rongalit 2 PH-B liquid 533
Reactive resist printing
                                            Rongalit 2 PH-B liquid 533
   auxiliaries for 536
                                            Rongalit C 533, 768
Reax 509
                                            Rongalit DP 529, 533
Redoxarin 525
                                            Rongalit F [8065-69-8] 769
Reducing Agent 13 771
                                            Rongalit FD liquid 533
Reducing agents
                                            Rongalit FD liquid 533
   in dye printing 532
                                            Rongalit–potash process
   in textile dyeing 524
                                                in textile printing 755
Reduktionsmittel F 525, 533
                                            Rongalit ST liquid 533, 769
Reemay 185
                                            Rongalit ST liquid 533
Refractory fibers 274
                                            Rongal PS 525
   for high-temperature insulation 283
                                            Rope dyeing machine 633
   toxicology 285
                                            Rotary process
Regenerate cellulose
                                                for glass wool 271
   properties 16
                                            Rotary dyeing machine 616
             a
Reimanns F¨ rbezeitung 596
                                            Rotary-screen printing 744, 748
Reinforced plastics
                                            Rotor Ring method
   inorganic fibers for 251, 253
                                                for fibers 332
Relief printing 745
                                            Rotta-Coating 573
Relief roller printing 744
                                            Rotta-Finish 573
Remartard AC 517
876      Rottafix–Sizing agents                                                            Subject Index

Rottafix 573                                         Setamol E 509
Rovings 249                                             as textile dyeing dispersants 507
Ruco-Egalisierer IPM 513                            Setamol WS 509
Ruco-Egalisierer PA 514                             Setavin CA 521
Ruco-Egalisierer SBB 516                            Sevalin 2000 496
Rucogen FWK 536                                     Sevofast 566
Rucolin JES 521                                     Sevosoftal U 521
                                                    Sewing yarn
S                                                       from poly(ethylene terephthalate) 183
S-glass 260                                         Seycofilm 489
Saduren 572                                         Shear viscosity 85
Saffil 254, 277, 282                                 Sheet molding compounds (SMC) 264
   properties 19                                    Shirley analyzer 326
Saffil RF and HA 277                                 Sicosize 489
Saffimax                                             Silane
   properties 19                                        for coating of glass fibers 256
Samaron 675                                         Silar SCS9 276
Sandacid V 518, 677                                 Silastol 480
Sandacid VS 518, 677                                Silene 566
Sandofix 524                                         Silene
Sandofix L 667                                           properties 16
Sandofix WE 536                                      Silica wool
Sandofluor 573                                           for thermal insulation 254
Sandogen BM 516                                     Silica–alumina fibers
Sandogen NH 514                                         properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277
Sandopan SF 496                                     Silica–boria–alumina fibers
Sandopur RSK 509                                        properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277
Sando-Space-R process                               Silica glass
   in textile dyeing 528                                for optical fibers 811
Sandotherm ACS liquid 782                           Silica optical fiber 813
Sandozol KB 509                                     Silica–zirconia fibers
Sapakril 573                                            properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277
Sarabid SBF 513                                     Silicic acid
Sarabid UZ 1290 517                                     as thickening agent 761
Sarabid VAT 513                                     Silicon carbide fibers
Saran 229                                               by chemical vapor deposition 249
Sarapol DLU 521                                         for composite materials 257
Sarille                                                 mechanical and physical properties 255
   properties 16                                        production of monofilament, yarn and whiskers 280
Sark process                                            properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277
   in textile printing 750                              thermal expansion 252
Sarpifan 562, 573                                   Silicon carbide whiskers
Savynol 573                                             production 281
Schaettifix 562                                          properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277
Schiebefest 566                                     Silicon nitride fibers 249, 255, 275
Schlichte 3204 489                                      physical and mechanical properties 255
Schlichte CA/CB/CE/S 489                            Silicon nitride whiskers
Schlichte T10 489                                       properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277
Sconatex 572                                        Silicon carbide fibers
Scopacryl 572                                           properties 19
Scopadien 572                                       Silicon–Ti–C–O fibers
Scotchgard 545, 573                                     properties, manufacturer, fiber names 276, 277
Scovinat 572                                        Silk 391
Screen printing 744                                     antipolar–antiparallel (AA) fibroin model 393
   flat-screen printing 748                              bleaching 399
   rotary 748                                           chemical composition 393
   with a fully automatic screen carriage 748           degumming of 398, 799
   with a wheeled stencil carriage 748                  dyeing 400, 666
   with stationary screens mounted in a frame 748       printing 400
SCS2 276                                                properties 16
SCW1 276                                                sericin in 393
Sdyne 572                                               special finishing 401
Securon 540 498                                         texture of thread 392
Selfoc 810                                              weighting 399
Sequabond 573                                           yarns 397
Sequapel 573                                        Silk gum 799
Sequion CM 40 496                                   Sincol 489
Seracant equipment 629                              Sisal 353, 362
Serene                                              Sizing additives
   properties 17                                        viscosity regulators 488
Serisol 687                                         Sizing agents
Serlasol 509                                            areas of use 481
Volumes 1–2                                                 Sizing process, cold–Synthesize                    877

    as textile auxiliary 480                             Split yarns
    from natural raw materials 482                           from polyolefines 209
    synthetic 485                                        Spray printing 744
Sizing process, cold 482                                 Squeegee
Sizing process, single-end 482                               magnetic 748
Skying 770                                                   slit 748
Slag wool 267                                            Stabicol A 498
    chemical composition and limiting temperature 268    Stabiform 572
Sobex 489                                                Stabitex 572
Sobotex 489                                              Stain Master 572
Sodium sulfate                                           Stalwart–pickering system
    from production of viscose 370                           in carpet printing 753
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose                           Staple fibers 3
    as sizing agent 484                                      crimping 106
Sodium dithionite                                            manufacture 128
    as reducing agent 533                                    posttreatment 133
Sodium dithionite, C.I. Reducing Agent 1 533             Starch
Sodium dithionite, C.I. Reducing Agent [7631-94-9] 771       as sizing agent 481, 482
Sodium hydroxymethanesulfinate, C.I. Reducidng Agent          composition and properties of 483
          [149-44-0] 768                                 STAR process
Sodium hydroxymethanesulfinate, C.I. Reducidng Agent 2        in textile printing 751
    as reducing agent 533                                Star steamer 757
Sodium thiocyanate                                       Staudinger index 337
    solutions of, solvent for polyacrylonitrile 219      Steamer
Sol 656                                                      batch 757
Solegal W 532                                                continuous 757
Solidegal GL 513                                             for textile material preparation 491
Solidegal SR 513                                         Stearaminomethylpyridinium chloride
Solidogen 524                                                as water repellent 543
Solidokoll N 523                                         Steel fiber
Solution spinning 96, 118                                    properties 19
Solvent                                                  Stelometer 330
    for polyacrylonitrile 219                            Striebeck curve 477, 478
Solvent Scour 880 496                                    Stripping agents
Solvitose 489, 762                                           in textile dyeing 526
Solvitose C5 763                                         Stuffer box texturing 126
Solvitose H 762                                          Styrofan 572
Solvitose H4 762                                         Subitol MLF 501
Solvron 238                                              Subitol NA 496
    properties 18                                        Subitol SAN Neu 506
Soromin 466, 480                                         Sublistatic process
Space dyeing 744                                             in textile printing 751
Spandaven 195                                            Sulfamic acid
Spandex 194                                                  as flame retardant 549
    properties 17                                        Sulfatoethylsulfone 776
Span length of fibers 317                                 5-Sulfoisophthalic acid
Spectra 215                                                  comonomer of poly(ethylene terephthalate)   171
Spectra 1000                                             Sulfur dyes
    properties 18                                            dyeing with 655
Spin drawing                                                 for textile printing 773
    of fibers 118                                         Sultafon MES 200 501
Spin-draw ratio 83                                       Sultafon TK 501
Spinning methods 416                                     Sumifix 776
Spinning mill                                            Sumikaflex 573
    carded yarn 409                                      Sumikaron RPD 682
    cotton 409                                           Sumilogen Brilliant Blue 665
    semi-worsted yarn 409                                Sumiretz 573
    worsted yarn 409                                     Suncryl 573
Spinning of synthetic fibers 83                           Supramyl 489
    dry-jet process 220                                  Supron 573
    dry spinning 96                                      Sustilan N 505
    melt spinning 89                                     Swimming rolls 621
    melt spinning of nylon 160                           Syntegal V7 669
    melt spinning of poly(ethylene terephthalate) 166    Syntex 480
    polyacrylonitrile fibers 220                          Synthacryl 562
    solution spinning 96                                 Synthamul 573
    spinning of filament yarns 110, 118                   Synthapal BM 516
    spinning of polyurethane fibers 198                   Synthapal HTM 516
    theory and mechanisms 83                             Synthappret BAP 552
    wet spinning 98                                      Syntharesin 566
Spin texturing 127                                       Synthesin 480
Spiral steamer (Krostewitz) 757                          Synthesize 489
878      Synthetic fibers–Textile printing                                                           Subject Index

Synthetic fibers                                              Texaran 573
   printing on 780                                           Texicote 573
Synthomer-Latex 573                                          Texicryl 573
Syrup resins 539                                             Texipol 573
Sytex 566                                                    Texipol 67-5028 531
Szigeti process 747                                          Texogum 3013 537, 762
                                                             Textile dyeing
T                                                               viscose fibers 375
T-472 157                                                    Textile finishing
Tairylan 230                                                    crease-resistant finishing of cellulose 359
Tallopol 480                                                    finish for glass yarns 264
Tanaclear 764                                                Textile auxiliary 463
Tanadel PTN 521                                                 environmental aspects 468
Tanadel TMO 521                                                 in staple fiber production 475
Tanaprint ASD 535                                               in viscose rayon production 474
Tanawat BC 496                                                  wastewater regulations 469
Tanawet PAD 506                                              Textile dyeing
Tanawet PS 498                                                  agents to improve fastness 523
Tannex 15 498                                                   anticreasing agents in 520
Tape, adhesive                                                  antifrosting agents in 522
    glass fiber-reinforced 266                                   antimigration agents in 522
Taylor process 287                                              batchwise dyeing 602
Teban ERP 517                                                   boildown protecting agents 504
Teban WPA 517                                                   chrome dyes for 668
Tebolan MDF liq. 521                                            colorimetry in 638
Teca-Rapid S 501                                                complexing agent for 509
Technora 831, 839, 841, 844, 845                                continuous and semicontinuous 620
Teepol 466                                                      dispensing products used in dyeing 635
Tefaire 239                                                     dispersants and protective colloids 506
Teflon                                                           drying after padding 631
    see also Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 239, 545, 572        dye application 630
Teflon FEP 239                                                   dyeing accelerants 519
Teflon PFA 239                                                   dyeing plants 627
Teflon TFE 239                                                   dye protecting agents 504
Tefzel 239                                                      dye solubilizing and hydrotropic agents 503
TEGEWA 465                                                      levelling agents for 510
Teijinconex 831, 834, 835                                       nylons 159
Teijin-Nylon 163                                                oxidizing agents in 525
Teisan Resin 573                                                polyacrylonitrile fibers 223
Tekmilon 215                                                    poly(ethylene terephthalate) 170, 175
Telon ST process                                                reducing agents in 524
    in textile dyeing 676                                       resist agents for 528
Tenacity                                                        stripping agents in 526
    of fibers 328                                                technology of automation 632
Tencel                                                          washing tests according to ISO 709
    properties 16                                               wastewater contamination 718
Terathane 196                                                   wastewater discharge 716
Terbond-Spun 185                                                wastewater treatment 719
Terephthalic acid (TPA)                                         wetting and deaerating agents 504
    for poly(ethylene terephthalate) 164, 165                   with acid dyes 664
Tergal 191                                                      with basic dyes 664
Terital 191                                                     with indigo 654
Terlenka 191                                                    with leuco esters of vat dyes 663
Terlon 831, 839                                                 with metal-complex dyes 669
Ternary system                                                  with mineral dyes 665
    in wet spinning of fibers 98                                 with mordant dyes 664
Tersuisse 191                                                   with Naphtol AS 661
Terylene 191                                                    with oxidation dyes 665
    properties 17                                               with phthalogen dyes 665
Tescol 489                                                      with pigments 663
Teteron 191                                                     with sulfur dyes 655
Tetrahydro-3,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4H-1,3,5-oxadiazin-4-one   Textile printing 739
    as cross-linking agent 539                                  adhesives 537
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride                    auxiliaries 529
    as flame retardant 550                                       drying prior to fixation 756
Tetrakis(hydroxylmethyl) phosphonium hydroxide                  fastness 779
    as flame retardant 550                                       fixation 778
Tetrakis(hydroxylmethyl) phosphonium sulfate                    fixation by dry heating 756
    as flame retardant 550                                       fixation processes 756
Tetralon A 510                                                  resist agents for 528
Teviron 232                                                     thickeners 758
Tex 5, 83                                                       thickening agents in 758
Volumes 1–2                                   Textile printing technology–Uniperol KM   879

    washing 758, 779                                  posttreatment 133
Textile printing technology 744                   Townflower 230
Textiles                                          Tows 249
    required fiber properties 12                   Toyobo Volans 185
Textiles, technical                               Toyoflon 240
    antifoams for 570                             Transferin UN 517
    antimicrobial agents for 570                  Transfer printing 750
    antistatic agents for 567                         heat 751
    coupling agents for 568                           nontextile substrates 752
    cross-linking agents for 564                      transfer machines 752
    effects of polymer dispersions on 562             transfer papers 751
    fillers for 571                                    wet 750
    flame retardants for 567                       Trevira 191
    light stabilizers for 571                         properties 17
    nonslip agents for 565                        Trevira-spunbond 185
    oleophobic agents for 567                     Trevylen 516
    pigments for 573                              Triacetate fibers
    plasticizers for 568                              aftertreatment 783
    polymers for 554                                  discharges and resists 783
    surfactants for 570                               dyeing accelerants for 520
    thickeners for 568                                dyes and printing pastes 782
    water repellents for 566                          fixation 782
Textile technology 407                                levelling agents for 516
Textilwachs 489                                       printing on 782
Texturing of synthetic fibers                          stripping of dyed 527
    see also Crimping 104                         Tricel
    bistructural texturing 127                        properties 16
    texturing of filament yarns 120                Tricelon 782
Then air jet 684                                  Trilon B 774
Thermachrome process                              Trilon FE 510
    in textile printing 751                       Trilon TA 510
Thermal analysis, differential (DTA)              Trilon TB 510
    of fibers 174                                  Trimethylolmelamine
Thermosol pad steam plant                             as cross-linking agent 539
    for polyester–cotton blends dyeing 628        Tris(aziridinyl) phosphine oxide
Thermosol process                                     as flame retardant 550
    in dyeing PES fibers 682                       Tris(bromoethyl) phosphate
    in textile dyeing 625                             as flame retardant 550
Thermozym 493                                     Tubicoat 566, 572
Thickener                                         Tubigum DK 2 537
    in textile printing 758                       Tubiprint Fixierer R 531
Thickening agents                                 Tubivis 572
    in textile printing 759                       Tubotex PCA fl. 501
Thiodiglycol                                      Tubvinyl 572
    see also Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) sulfide 781       Tumescal PH 796
Thiourea dioxide                                  Turkey Red 662
    reducing agent 652                            Twaron 256
Thorstabilisator BF 498                           Twaron 831, 839, 841, 845
Through flow dyeing equipment 634                  Two-phase printing 755
Tin(II) chloride                                      conversion printing 756
    as reducing agent 534                             of cellulose textiles 770
Tinegal B 517                                     Two-phase steamer 757
Tinegal MR 517                                    Tylac 573
Tinegal PAC 517                                   Tylose 489
Tinegal W 527                                     Tylose C600 763
Tinoclarit G 498                                  Tylose H 762
Tinofix 524                                        Tylose MH 762, 781
Tinosol G 133 % 536                               Tyranno 276, 279, 280
Tippy dyeing 666
Tissalys 489
Titanium dioxide, C.I. 77891                      U
    for delustering fibers 159                     Ucar 573
Titer T of fibers 83                               UD composites 254
Tocryl 573                                        Ukadan 573
Tokomax 276                                       Ultem 831
Torayca                                           Ultrazine 509
    properties 19                                 Umbrella silk 780
Torayca T300 and M40 249                          Uniperol 466
Toraylon 230                                      Uniperol AC 514, 527
Toray-Nylon 163                                   Uniperol EL 509, 675
Tow                                               Uniperol KA 517
    manufacture 128                               Uniperol KM 514
880       Uniperol O–Wool dyeing                                                                         Subject Index

Uniperol O 513, 669                                               Viscose rayon
Uniperol SE 514, 669, 670                                            properties 16
Uniperol W 514, 697                                               Vispan 195
Unisel 185                                                        Vniivlon 831
Unisol WL 670                                                     Voncoat 572
Univadin 3flex 516                                                 Vonnel 230
Univadin DP 675
Univadin PA 514
Upilex 841, 848                                                   W
Urea                                                              Wacker MP-Faser 234
   as cross-linking agent 539                                     Walocel CRT 763
                                                                  Walocel HT 762
                                                                  Warcoset 573
V                                                                 Warp printing 744
Valbond 573                                                          in carpet printing 754
Vapor phase deposition                                            Washing process
   silica fibers by 813                                               in textile printing 758
Variprint KSD II system                                           Wastewater (sewage)
   printing of T-shirts 755                                          in textile dyeing 717
Vat dye                                                           Water-repellents for textiles
   dyeing with 653                                                   fluorochemical 545
Vectran 831                                                          organometallic 544
   production, and fibers from 849                                    reactive quaternary 543
   properties 17                                                     resin-based 544
Vegon                                                                silicone 544
   properties 18                                                     wax-based 544
Vegon 209                                                         Wax batik 744
Velicren 230                                                      Weaving 422
Verdicker 572, 573                                                   fabric construction 426
Verdickungsmittel 572                                                loom technology 429
Verdickung V extra Super 2 763                                       preparation of the warp beam 425
        u
Verein f¨ r verbraucher- und umweltfreundlicher Textilien   471      sizing 426
Verolan GBK 518                                                      twisting 424
Verolan NBI 510                                                      winding 423
Vestamelt 562                                                     Wet spinning 5, 98, 119
Vestolit 572                                                         for tow and staple fibers 133
Vestoplast 562                                                    Wet-steam vat dyeing
Vialon 697                                                           cellulose fabrics 628
Vianarol ST 537                                                   Wetting agent
Vibatex 572                                                          composition and trade name 506
Vibroscope 322                                                       in textile dyeing 504
Vibrotex machine 325                                              Whiskers
Vicol 489                                                            from refractory materials 276
Vigoureux (melange) printing 744                                     metallic 288
Vigoureux process 630                                                silicon carbide whiskers 281
Viking 572                                                        White discharge printing 790
Vilon 238                                                         Winch beck 610
   properties 18                                                  WIRA fiber diagram machine 319
Vinac 572                                                         Wisacet 489
Vinacryl 573                                                      Wisacryl 489
Vinamul 573                                                       Wisester 489
Vinarol 489                                                       Wistel 191
Vinavil 573                                                       Witten process 164
Vinnapas 573                                                      Wofalansalz EM 670
Vinnol 573                                                        Wolpryla 230
Vinofan 572                                                       Wood
Vinyl acetate copolymers                                             cellulose content 350
   as sizing agent 481                                            Wool
Vinyl chloride copolymers                                            bleaching 501
   fibers from 233                                                    carbonizing 501, 552
Vinyon 229                                                           chlorination of 799
Vinyon HH 234                                                        dyeing and printing 666
Viscalex 572                                                         grease content, determination 327
Viscavin S 700 521                                                   milling 551
Viscoelastic fluid 85                                                 mothproofing agents 552
Viscoelasticity 202                                                  properties 16
Viscose fiber 364                                                     scouring 551
   grafted 373                                                       setting 551
Viscose Evlan                                                        shrink-resistant finishes 552
   properties 16                                                     stripping of dyed 527
Viscose Modal                                                     Wool dyeing
   properties 16                                                     levelling agents for 512
Volumes 1–2                                                                Woolen textiles–Zyex             881

Woolen textiles                                      Z
  preparation of    501                              Zahn–Wellens test
                                                        for textile auxiliaries 471
X                                                    Zeftron 163
X-500 and -715 831, 841                              Zepel 545, 572
Xanthan                                              Zetesal UR 525
   as thickener in textile printing 763              Zinc chloride
X-ray diffraction                                       as flame retardant 549
   studying fiber structure by 174                       solutions of, solvent for polyacrylonitrile   219
                                                     Zinc hydroxymethane sulfinate
                                                        as reducing agent 534
Y
                                                     Zinc formaldehydesulfoxylate [24887-06-7]        781
Yarn-printing machine
                                                     Zinc oxide
   in carpet printing 754
                                                        as thickening agent 761
   in textile printing 754
                                                     Zipper monofilaments 186
Yarns
                                                     Zircar 254
   physical properties of 641
                                                     Zirconia fibers 278, 283
Yodosol 572
                                                        for thermal insulation 253, 283
Yttria–zirconia fiber
                                                     Zonyl 572
   properties, manufacturer, fiber names   276, 277
                                                     ZYBF-2 277
                                                     Zyex
                                                        properties 17

				
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