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FLORIDA GEOGRAPHER

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 31

									The
FLORIDA GEOGRAPHER


                    Vol. 13                            No.1



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      Y!lT£ (II Pfl(f()S lTION 2




                     Por<u uo. of 1 ~1 lo t...
                     f l.od., ' ropu ltl00 1.
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                                         • •~
                                         •..0
         :no.   Ft.,,"Z"'ida   ~Nplwr   t s t he oHlch l publi ca tiOl'l of Thr f lor iOa
Soci e ty of Geogr~ptle,.s . and ts 03htrt but e<l without con to _bers of t he
Soci ety . Two n~bers per y e~r w111 be publlslled . pendiflg rece ip t of ~ n
~dequ~te n...ber of . ccep table ....llUscr i pt s .



         ::'lw F:.~,..:d.::. GBogmplwl' is ~ s ta t e -wide jou l"flaI , wi th broad C Oye r~ ge of
              t opic s r e lat i ng to t he state .rId i U severa l r t09 10ns . N
9 eog r~ phic.l                                                                              o
restric tions ar e phcM 0l'I t he .ccetent of .rtic l es . proyidill<j tlla t tlley deal
wit h seee aspec t of t re gO!'og r ~p hy Of Florid e , 1. 0!' •• l oc ~ l s t udi O!'s . t t hi n the
sute . ... t ters of th O!' s te t e gener'lly, or t he re la tion Of Flo rid' t o                o U~r
areas .


        I".iInuscripu er-e soliCited f J"Olll .11 whO f ~ l t lley te ve r es ea r<: h worthy
Of diSSePlIl'I4 t lon. No specific fo"..t reqJir_ ts ~re prese nt ly in force .
,lthough the edi tor would pre f e r ll<l ...... scripU to be t)1lO!'d dO!.l bl O!' - sp~ c ed follooo ­
109 t he gO!'ner,1 f o..... t of the ' rtlc les In t ee pr esen t n.....t>er. Howeye r . 'u tho rs
Should net be dlssll.d.ed r.,. sutJolitt;ng OIIol ......scrlp U bec~ lIse of fo.... t ece ­
s lder' t iOl'ls ; t hO!' e<llto r is wi l l l n9 t o ulldO!'rU .e exteestve - evts tcns . As t hi s
n\llllber dO!"llOns t r. tu . WI!' ~ re ~bl O!' t o rO!'pr(lducO!' 1:lo1 0S . Ch..-tS . and U bles.

         IIO!' would li ke t o publ1s h ,n orlgln,l           p   0l'I   the co yO!'r of   e~ch   nun>er ,
so ~ special requO!'st is ma de to al l who !layO!'         PS Of t hO!' sta te or r tlj lons of
the s ta tO!' wh ic h _ ld be Of in tO!'res t to t hO!' Soc iO!'ty ' s _ ber s hl p.

                                                    Onld l ee
                                                    Edi to r . i1w !'lOM OO c.ogNplwl'
                                                    DepartlllO!'n t of Ge-og r. plly
                                                    Flor ida At lln t lc Uniyersi t y
                                                    Boca RatOl'l , fL 33431




Aoo.. t :'w     C~l' ...



Propo s ition Two of the s tate - wide el ec tions of 19711 would ea ve proh ib ited
diser l. l n. t lon on t ile bash of se~ .ithl n Fl or i d' . ' nd t herefor e ...s du~bed
Fl or ld. ' s -littl e Eqw l Ri9hts Arlenc)ntnt. " The propos i tion fa t1 ~ In a ll but
ttv e ccc et tes (AlIe h..... SZ: ; Broward, Sl: : Da de . 5Z1: P,l. Be,eh . S4t; ~nd
Volus le , SSt ) . This eho roplt t h l1l/I0 of tile vote w clol'lO!' by Robe r t S. !'\aryi n
                                                           as
0l'I the Unh,e 1100 ea-pu t e r us1 nq t ile C-"\AP Pr"09 r' lII.
            TH E           FLOR IDA


                      GEOGRAPHER

Yoh_ 13. '-.-..bel" 1                                                                     J une 1919



                                               CONTENTS

                                                                                               "-
Vo t e on Propos ition 2. Flo ri da's "l.it t le E. R.A. " . . . Rabe n        $.   M:>nri"   Cover

Flo ri da 's Il li ci t Drvg Tra ffic . . . Pat ...;Cic O'Sz,, : U ;.oa.t <Uld R<z>oIcw £UU

Conta in er i u tl on : A St ra tegy t o t ee - eas e Mad t tllle Trade 8e t _
      ( " nVal AlIlo! dc a .Ill! Fl or ida . . . . . . .           . . • a,.~ E• . 4arti
                                                                                 l                 1

                                    1nt
The ttlrke t Pa t t ern of F rl!S~ W er Ve'}eU bl es f nllll
      Flo ri da . . . . . . . .         . ~.~~ .'fc.':D".H " and Rcmc.ld Sc l,u! : .:1            12

                                           u
Seas onal Fl l,I( t\l ations of Art Show Lo t i on al'ld
      F ~ u e llC 1   • . . . . . .                                                               18


Housi ng Values i n Pal. kach Count y : 1910 to 1977                  Jo"" A . Knr,rrici<         24

The Ke l th of Geogr a phy I n Two ·lea r C oll~l! s i n
       .
     t ile Sout heast . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 Patricia E. Ki..»'fiH.."          26
                             FLOR IDA'S I LLICIT DRUG TRAFFIC

                              p.. t r i ck O'Sullivan and Rance Ellis


          The inc re.. sing a tten tion IWid t o t he IC!Olr ..phical incide nce ""d ecolop­
of c ri...' has not bHn ..ccomp"n ied by investigations of the eco~ic geography
of illici t a ctivi ties, );0 ~Iat ion o f Dv.rand 's s tudy of Appal ..c hi an IIOOn­
shining' has ye t e_ rged to aap the do ings o f t he dop<' t r a d e. This Scan t hC"C!<!
wou l d Se~ a serious o"ersight , espe<:ia lly :wong t ho se co nceml!'d wit h Florida.



                In OC tober 1978 a co ngressional co_i ttee r e port e d t hat drul: salJl:l:linl:
was flo rida 's sinl:le bigges t co_ reial ac th'i ty, t urn i ng eve r S7 billion a
ye .. r.' The t ~e l v e t on . a day requi red by the cO million regul .. r users and SO
.i llion occasional users of .....r i j u'l.n .. i n the USA are pro"id"d by s04lrlng c landes­
t i ne impo rts , along .. i th the output of an eHillated I~ mIllion ho'" grOOo'ers
concent rated in Ha.. a ii, Florida , Louisiana, Te~as, 1""'.1, and Geo rgia. It is
e st i .... ted t hat SO peroent of t he aariluana ..nd SO percent of t h e heroin lllel:ally
i=-ported COlIC in over Flo rida 's .035t.           Usinl: custom's sei:u r"s .IS a proxy for
i llpCrt s it is eviden t tha t south Florida Is t h" chief aru of elren i n the nation.
The ~ i ami Region of Cus t""'. ("nc""'l'a •• ,nl: );ort h and South Carol in .. , Georgi .. ,
Florida. Pu" rto Rico, and t he Virgin l . h n d s ) ..ccoun ted for 57 percent of all
coc aine .";:ed and 87 percent of .Ill Llriju..ana sei:ed i n 19'8.' lhlring 19n .. nJ
1978 t he flow of coast .. 1 sllUgglin& incr.... sed IlOSt ra p i d l y in t he Sou theas t .
leaving til." ~" xic"" border t rad" !ar behind. Th" coast of the Sou theast ..ccounts
for ,,: percen t of t he ai rcraf t and vessels sei::ed by Cus to-.s. If the ute of
increa.e in ."i::"re. reflects the increase In tnde. t he n it has gro>on th reefOld
o,er t he l .. , t t ~ Q ye~r~. Figures I "n~ ~ show th" seizures of ... rljuana and
coc .. ine by nation "l customs r"gion •. ~ithin t h" Sou theas t, 84 percen t of th"
coc~ine .Ind S5 percent of the ... r i j ua nol were sei:ed in the scut he rn C"' counue.
of Flo rid... The concentration of t ll i s traffic .... i thin t he relion is given in
Figure 3, sll"",in,i: th" ."i~ures of cocaine ~nd mat'iju"na by senon of the South_
e"S t coast . Th" rapid incre as" in t r "d e is tt..ing acca..od.. ted by l a r ger vessels
which stand outsid" terri tori~1 ~at e rs while their cargo is landed by s... lI, fast
bo.ats. By ai r several hundred flights a day by s ...11 craft brin!: t h" goods in
undHected by F.\..\ Or -.oIl.It.\O radar. E"en la rge f reigh ters a re usl!'d • .\ DC_7
c .. r ry i ll!: een tons of aarijlUn.. fro. Cola.bia wit ll a st r e et ulue of SZZ million
...anS S~ million for t he sllUggI"r. w·hich is sufficien t t o eve eceee a lot of ris1
~v"rsion.


            Once t il" ... t e r i a l has landed the re is no wa y o f tra c1 i n , i ts mav.....nt wit h
any accuracy. However. it SeC!1lS clea t' t llat f!'Oll F lot'ida it IlOnly ukes its .....y
no rth"P 1_9; ..nd I-~S. One l'ro~y aeuure of the drug urht wh i Ch h ecrieceee
On'" r"tuh r basis is t h" n"""r of drug abus .....nt i nn s . The Orug Enfo rc-..nt
..... inis tra tion collO'c ts and publislles t he se da ta (o r each o f tWe'tlt y . nn e 9GAs.
'~ntions" a re cues al'P"a ring in hospital C!lDt'rgency rootIS and clinies.                   UndO'r
the ~u.-ption tllat abu'e caSeS a r" • consunt proportion of users acrou t he                          #


nation, t h i s sllould to.. ~ lnod indea of d.... nd. Fiture a ups then data fo t' 19n .
There is clea rly ... close co rrelation wit h toul popula tion. F!'OII an e xamina tion
of the points of en try in FiiUres I, Z. and 3 and th" dis trib\l tion of d .... nd in
FigurO' a. i t S"C'laS evidC!'Tl t t llat t hese lIilll value per bun p roducts are transported
cOllsid"rabl" distances ,n t"mally, enarin!: t he coun try alnn!: t he IlOst dif f icult
coasts t o llOI.litor and traveIin, ove t'land ~ i t h illpUlli ty t o ... tropo lit an -.a r ke t
cen teno

          Th" flu rry of polic" and cus t . .s ac t i vit y s"el.ing to in tercept this
i 11,,&al trad " has no t pro"en v"ry success f "l. Law C!'Tlforc..-nt has l ost ou t.
pa rtic"larly in tl'l" cn" of the hii:llest val"e per wei &      ht i a . __ he roin.
                                               ~;-<-.~>
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Th~   $1 b i llion callpai~n t o dis rup t a nd. discou rag e J ru g slIlIggli ng int ..rc e pU I n s
t ha n ~O pe rcen t o ! t he t ota l v" l ...... tn de d. Th" l e ga l pena lt i"~ invo lv ..d a r .. no
,,,..on d ..eee r e n t. Th~ '''UI~TS ",,~ o r ten " e ll _ed.uc at ed )'o ung p..opl .. ,e.. ki n g e arly
,,~ tirrwnt a!t ~ r a br ie f a nJ dar ing C a r~"r.      Th"y ar " " i ll i ng t o r i sk li ght
S~ tenc~. Cor l a r,,, pro fi ts an d can a f f o r d "ff.." tiv " l a _y.. r s and bo a ts " h i ch a r "
hs t n a nd b~ t u r equ ipped t ha n t ho se of t h eir pu r s u " ....

              l..:I.rg~ ~unts of *'n..y are b.. ,na: ...,.1.. in t h i s busin~ss .           """o rding t o
Bourn... • t h.. C...... r c .. 0<'f'arl .... nl es ti .... lu I hal I h " ,."rijuana tra ff ic alon .. is
the th ird leadIng bus ,n ..ss i n Ih .. nal ,,,n " , t h an an nua l lurno" .. r of $4 8 bI l lion.
";(C~eded only by (non a nJ ' G m era l :-I<> lor •.
                                        4                        l ;(c""ding """n t ou r i •• in Flor,da,
t h.. dru2 bu.in.... "llr,1CB a good d..,,1 or for.. ,gn r i s ~ capital and ...ch of Ih"
inc r ..:>.s.. in ' 1"'. 1 foreign bon ;' " c CoUn lS f T'Oll SlS .illion in I"-t> 10 $lSO .illion
I" 1 9 ~ 5 IS i n .'o h'e d in finam'ing I h r .... 'J .....n.... nJ """alii         ".1 ....   Th.. f.nal
inc iJenc" of t he ~'e.,l th g.. n...... t ...d b)' lhlS l ra ff i " IS nol n ""•• aril)' to b.. seen
i" Flo rida bUI ~'h .. r e I h.. in\'''~ lo", .huo... 10 -p...n,l or re,n\\'q I h.. ir profits.
Undoub tedly '011<' of Ih,s large'", 'S "","p"d ,nto 1.'g'I, ••11'· fl<>",d",n d.. velo~nU
but th" tn" ......." .-a ...:full, cove",'" anJ unl'."ly 10 b,' ",·"al,"" unle"l'ropo ...d
stale gr.,nJ Jury ,nJ"' I",,,'nl< of hu."n'· ......·n .nvoh'eJ Inn_plrr . •hat ,. visible
and IAOr .. re.,dlly .. l l n b"" , !> l .. 10 ... gl:l,n~ ,n,,,",,, " lh .. r.. fl~<tl<>ns of "rflu..n" ..
in s ... l l . pr..v,ou,ly J,I~p,J"IT'll f"hing \/\11.,\:." ~,,,r,, n,.turn~l ro"d InHl~
hOI incr.. a~~d of lor ..




                 Th" 1","ons of hiq~r~· ..oulJ .u\:g.. s t I lla t prolllh.t1on ..annot preva" in
an ato~l't" soc,ety ~IIi,II pr~fe~, a .ini~ of f~~1 o~ ~oelal '''ntrol. R.gII I
now ~nfor",,-.nt of r"s t~id ion' on I n d .. and po ...... 'on ar .. no t .u,ce...hng. ~
vietor)' such as I he r ...Jun i on o f th.. 'Ic',i"an popp'. 'rop in 19-(> and til" consequen t
J"crea,e of h"roin availabili ly, i. off -r by th.. u.e of Olh .. r product. frOll
oth"r ,our" .. s. Th.. \'01""", of .lll te Ch,n~se hero,n arr,,·,n.: frOll Europe 'ncreased
no tably ,n 197" a"d 1~7l\. Th~ .\d.,nlStut,on IIH cont""",lated legali::>!I"" of
....." i j ....."" and cccame . The Treasury has ~u"in.. d ' he f~a'ibl hty of th .. gov .. tn­
...ntal control "f .ariju~.,.. iorpo rts. ~ith , du t .... b"injl. levied.. n...y eVid"ntly
conSld~red. it pracl1cal.           Ttl .. r .. IS t hus .. d,,"nc t roSl,bll' ly of a rel",,,uon
of r~' IT1" tions.

             In judg,ng the i.plica tions of .ucll a step for th .. g..n.. ul ~· e II-b... ng.
It    c""'"    ~ll t o t h.. ba l anc.. !)., t~een satisfy,ng ..-l1at Itottenberg' called. tile
deooand for euphoria of ...... and t he d.. sir.. t o co"rc .. .. hat o the .. r .. ~ard a. a
no .,oYs hab.t. Fro- tl1~ !).,n.. f i t of euphoria t o ' ho s e ~ h o ,ndulge .us t b.. . ub·
t r a ct e d I he soc,al co.t of clear,ng up the ..... of d.."th anJ illn.... r".ul t,ng
fro- abuse and addiction. On th~ oth~ r hand . against any r ..dlK tion ,n usc t o
n tlSfy t h.. antlpath.. t i , IUjo ri ty .... 51 be , .. t t h" Iligll co. t o f trying to S't a1ap
1t oUI , ,nclud,ng the c ri ... , _yhe., pot ..n lial for co rrurt ion and . .noro ly p~ofi ts
<!11cou raged by l~gal r~stric t ion.           Illegality ,nhibit. the OI3rk..t ...ncou raging
t ru l y cut· t h roat c~.. t it i on and. t ll~ crea t io" (If a r t , fici al . .nopoli .... Small
f ry can"o t tu rn 10 t h... ta te fo r pro le<: tlon f r<>ll t h.. l ..t hal p~Natory aCIS of
t he . .r .. o rgani:ed and ru tlll"... Having ob lained a deg r".. of ...n"poly ove r I II..
dl. t rlbu tion of • prod uc t in ve ry inel as tic demand . :>.ny cos ts of ..v a, ion of
~nforc ......nt ag~"ci.. ~, "stl)' accruing a . inc r .. a s ed. t r an . po rt co, ts, c an b..
pa ..<'4 on 10 t il.. cons.... r.
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               l! drug use were inel as ti c i n deund, as sese e vi dence s u gg es ts , t he n
r e.Qv i n & t he le& al ba rr ie n t o t h e t ra de wi l l no t r e s u lt i n a vas t e umsi on o f
consu.p tion but -o s t l y a r e duct i on i n t he cos t o f eupho ria t o th e ex i st i n& u se r s
a l on g wit h a reduc tion o f d irec t a l'ld. i.nd.irK t law en f orce-c>nt cos ts. TIle c ruci a l
i ss"", i s whet her t he d~d f or drugs is i n e last i c a s p ric e dec rea ses as we ll
as whe n it i nc r e ases . Addi cts d~d i s in e lasti c t o a p r i ce r i se , TIl" ques tion
Is whet her t he p a t h t o a dd ic ti on Is wi d en ed by a redlK t i on in p ri ce and u sy
a vai l ab i li ty . '-i ll t he nu.be r o f user s inc r cas" _ r kedly wi th l owe r pr ices and.
l reater a va ilab i l ity ? M.aTl j ...na IS wi de l y a va i la b l e a t p r esent,       It has been
es t i .... t ed t hat Sto pe re el>t o f a ll hi l:h school s e l'lio rs h av e tri ed i t and. t hat HI
p e r c e n t use i t .b i l y . · Sc hool ch ild r e n, t h e -011 l u s e ep t i blc, a r e t he -os t
e xposed nOW' . They ar.. a lso t he -os t vulnerabl e t o t he a ttrac t i on of f o rb i dden
fru i t , wh i c h wou l d d i.inish wit h t he n:-ova l of l e la I r " st ra i nt. It i s aho cle a r
t ha I .... r i juana and coxai n.. a re no t e xce ss lv lOly danl e.-ous Or "d di c t lv". Fo r
t he s e subs tances a t l ea s t, t h~ c ho i c e bet ween the ove rr a ted joys of t e-po r ary
departure f ro-. r e a l i t y f or so-e a nd the .ls i n fo ~d di sda i n f or d i r t y ha bits o f
o the rs. woul d IIO     st s illply M- r e s o l ved in t he sa.... wa y t hat i t Is fo r al c oh o l and
t o ba c c o u.se i n IIO c ~ i tl es. fo r -o r e dan g erous an d s ddic ti ve na rco t ics ,
                           st
Jep r e ss a./lts, s t i . .Janl s a nd ha ll udll0I:CCIl. , - . - sCCnsCC o f cenee trve rccspon s i bill ty
uy .astain l ela l con t rol when: f a.. i l i a l o r sox ial con t r o i do no t f unn i on e ffec _
ti ve l y .



            Should t he rest ric t,ons on t h" cons Ulllp t ion, sa l" . and t r a d.. I n .... r i j .....na
and cOXain.. M- r,..,v"" i t Is qUH .. p robable t h;> t t he cu rrent vol~ o f t ra f fi c
pa s s i nl t hr ou gh Flo ri d" wou l d dec rea s e . F l o rl ds ' . a d" antage fo r t he Illegal
t r a de " a long coa. tline o f rels t ively inaccelsible Inl e tl and l a nd i ng s close
t o t he CaTlb~Stl and Lalln ·~""'ric.n sou rces. Wh e n t he s<lvanlag es o f 1', ..,1.. poin ts
o f e nt r y :and the caapara tJ\'~ secu r l l y o f overland I ransport a re recaoved. -ajor
sea and a i rpon s c1os.. r 10 Ihe .... jor ... r~e l' shOUld i.in I h e tra f fiC . It Is
no t lurprising t haI oncc sourc .. of oppo.i tion 10                 Hng I he business l ega l is
alOOfle Flo ridi an drug Iradcrs.         In t h.. wurdl o f a         rlj .... na snd cocain e l =rc n .. r
frc. TalOpa: ·· It ' 5 par I o f t he ,\ooerican tax revolt. rOt and co~ e prien h"ve be....
"bout t he 53aC for ye.:lr<. Thou.ands of organ itatio,,' are .... H ng a 1,,·i"l f ro'" i t .
The fed s can' t ItOP it . So ~·h o needs it legal so"o(e ~;>n pay a dope t a~ ~ , ') 1

          Th..re uy be an al terna li"e ou llet f or fuch cn t r"p ren""r< ' 1'1 al rlCultu re.
Flori<\;> is p ru ..n lly s..cond to Il<1w"ii in <I~5tic produc tion of ~s""abls with a
cror of SOD<' $70 _.Ilion ,1'1 \'al u.. . This i s grown surrepti tiously On go'·ernM"n l
or pa""r ~oapany land. The aJop tioll o f t h... sinsenilla.5 hybnd w<th a t l'tra ­
hydroxann;>bul cont ..nt fi'·e t l ...s t ha t of ~~n 'l Clican u ri;""na h as l ed 10 a
boo. in c1and~stin <lome5 tic pro<!uc tion. ,t,s a leg al crop i l wou l d gene nle s
                       ..
considerabl .. re turn.

               Thcc solu tions 10 t he <l r u£ t r ;> f( \ c which are be ing .'rPlied cu r ren tly do
no t ;>"pe a r 10 stand .... h .. hanc .. of lasti ng suc.... es • They a rcc ef fo ns t o rals ..
t h.. cOsts o f opo.:ra tlon 10 an indus try whi c h can .. r i te off t he loss o f s $: .illion
a i rcra ft wi thout flinching . In F lo r i ds , C(we rno r Grah,.. and . .ny l egis lato rs
wi l h t o en ac t le,ubt ion t o i_pos .. u nd.n ory an<l hen'ler sen t""c es sn d ...n c oura, ,,
.... 1.. 5.. Oo,a d ers a nd I"-'s~, ...r s , t he l a bo r ers o f I h.. I rade) 10 l urn Sta te ' I ..v i de nce
aealns t Ihe en t r e p r e ne u rs a nd o r e a n i;e r., TIIi . _ Igh l ..·cc ll serel y ra l scc t hcc illc,al
r .....·a rd f or loys l ty a nd possi b l e pena. lty f or squeal i ng,         .~t the f ederal Icc'· cf, Ihcc
               .
Air ForO' . is provid i ng lra i n i nl and cqu i ....nt f o r be tt e r surveillan ce o f illega l
air f reigh t ing , bul a s ycc t t h... i nt e rna l -0"- . .1 f r Oll a IOll ll i pl i ci l y o f . _ 11
coastal po i nt I o f s e a - bo rn e e ntry is onl y faced wi t h t hcc scsn ty re.ou rc e s o f t he
poo rl y paid Agr icu l t ura l I ns pe c t on t e . All t hat is n~ usary i s 10 tak e s rou t e
a vo id inl In s p e c t i on Sla l ions , Fo r thcc f ore see a b l e f utu r e , thm , Flo rida's Il lic i t
drug t raff i c will conl inue t o flou r i.h .




                                                        s
 1. D. E. Geors:es. ~ ~;,!, ~: ~ a>ld I'wz-ce: A Spatia: ,md Eccl.oJr-=:
I'Wro."..,,: i ..,.., Resou~e Papers ( o r CollO's:e Geos:nphy So. 78_1 (Washinlton . D. C.'
AHociation of .wric:an CeoV-phers. 1978).

:.      l. Durand . Jr., ' ')bmt a l n Moonshin ing in Eas t Tenn.. 55.......      ~ra<>IlWa:           Rem ,,",
~b    ( 19Sb): 165_181.



~ . T. latten ( Produ c e r ). For Your In (o ..... t i on Prollr . . "DrulS 1n ......r ic:....
                                                               ash
bro.adcu t :9 Sov ela1>er 1978 by WETA :b Grea tO'r W i nlto n Educational Telec. .
AsSOCi a tion In<; . ; tra n s c r i p t (S a nt a ",""" CAL: m ' Publica tions 1978 ) . p. I • •

S.    US Cune-s      ~ TVlce.     i
                                 M aal 'it ..,lon. lri_s R.. 1ease. Ib Sov..-be r 1971.

b . P. Ilourne ( fo ..- r "b i t e !buse health a dv i s or ) spea llinl ;II t he annual ...., t inll
o f t h e Southeasu rn Conf.. r..nc .. o n A1c ol\o l l s . and Drul Abuse . quotll'd i n F7.crida
E' 1.=Jx=.. • .. l)e,c:~r 1978, p , ~ .

7.     B. l. Coll ier . ' 'Th e :Ii..... U S . Drull h r ." J'aload. , 11 S<"pt..-b.- r 19 78 . pp , 4_7.

8. S . Rottenberl, " The Cl a nd e s t i ne Din ributlon o f »e roin . In Discovery and
SUpp r .... s i on . " .'O!ll"".a! 0.' ?oH~ica: ~ 7b (J a llU'lr y / f ..b rua ry 19(8 ): 78 -90 .

                                                               l
9 . Un i 'l"e rsi t y of W sconsi n surve y ",port quo ted in E' .orida
                          i                                                          ~
                                                                                ."1..., .i>«D. .   I DK ..... r
1978, p , IS .


In.     Co l lie r. "".. ~ U.S . Drug War. " p .   ~





                                                        ,

                                        CO~TA I~ERI:ATIO';
                 A STR\TEGY TO I'CREASE          ~AR ITI~E TRAD~                  BET ~EE'
                                  CE ~TRAL A~ERICA A ~ D FLORIDA




            (ha n"c s in t ..dUlology can l nJ ....c .. spatial r <"CIrg;r.n i : at i on of transportation
n" t.., r~ •.   Spa tial r"o"2sMa tion i . th.. pro c ..u by whi c h indiviJual loca ti on 5
aJapt tlo... ir f ....nctional r ol .... rdatin' to t lo. " i r connectivi ty o r acceuibil ' ty
within t he e ntire . y. I ..... '                     "
                                           In t he & ne r a l cargo .. I.....nt of IMr,ne transport,
spat i a l re o r~J n' :3t , o n ha. r ... .... lt e J frOll th .. conta ,n.. r rn olut l on, wlticlo. Ca ll..
a bout frOll a n.... J t o au t~ \ .. th.. shll.... nt o f good • • '" co n t a , n.. r .. a " ,·..al>l ...
• d f · c onl.1,n..J """l.,ngular 1>0. th", .•n f unct ion a' a war.. h<>.... ~ .. " nJ a.. y b..
' !ac~e d on lanJ or , n , 1M: ho l J . o f . h , p , . '         Con u , nc r ; : a tlon ha. , in a &('n .. r a l
" ,no .. , soll .. J a .... j01' l o ~ "" ,,,l\ probl ...~ b}' all owi ng ca r go 10 l>e I""J ..J anJ Ji.­
ch a r&e J DOr.. q u icU r , h,n by u.,nl: !I,(' a" Jll , on " l , 1inl:· .• nJ . \>oo..... thoJ.' thu ,
, nc r""' i n!: ,h.. ..ff LC , .. n.·~· o f Jod.- ,.I.. I.,'>o r ,n '; I h.. r .. l"<,n· r"J ,•• ,nl: th.. t u rn ·
a r oun.! ti .... o f = rchan ' \ ..             C::' ' --
                                     ""I"r'C"':''''' C ."=:-,,,,-o:--== -- ======:1
                                                                           ~ '-----0~~1
             (on ' aine,.,:." ,,,n ,n ..
' h... pa ll a l r"" r&~nl- . "l\,n
wh ICh fol la ~"<J        pn In t~ v
hIghly l nJ u :rUl"..d r"~lon
o f : h (' ~ "r l d . Th(' ,,,,n l'IO
po rt J ...... nJ ""'rv b nd ,n
I lu n a con, ..nnon ,l hr..,,,
t>ul\. f a~llily t o I "r.. nJ
:aars!'l al car!:" . •o       c port
ha \ .. e.pand"J . ~'h .. r .. lanJ


                                                                                   ~
 lJJ ~ C " ~ t o e"' 1 , ng port
!'l a< no l ',('('r. 3,"a,hI> 10 . n.."
10. , I i"n, ha, .. i>eo<'n .o,,~ h t
fo r co nu i n"r "p"' r;, t,on<.
                                                                                                             ,
f.ro wth an '; '~""r :.,n .... of
_"n l ainerl.,,, i,,,, h'" . 1<0             I                   , .1                     .....
c!'l. n ~",J t h" "ha ne,.r, I i '"                                                                 '. ,
of t h.. 1)7<' of ,
 :n .... r' "1ll<' tra J
                              1 en g' g .I
                              " " on _
                                                 "'
                                             ~'<0--""""""
I " n.. r'hi~ __ ~ h .. n      hlp __
 I .1""&"..<1 a nJ 'l'('e"lIy on ­
. t ru. led ' 0 ~ar ry only ..on­
ta,n .. ri: N eugo.

              '" ~r "",is,ng f ..a tl, r ..
o f conl .. n.. r t .... hnology i.
t ha I t he v.. ..atil .. "on U, ne r
can r ..du .. .. d ..ad haul IOila&.. . '
"'p<' c,all y on tra J .. roul ..,
wh('r .. flow. ar" h"avy , n
bot h dir..c tion <. "'r ..a s w , ..hlo.                         Fig. I
pre.en tly ltav .. hIgh co n t a , n ­

eri:nion ra tios ar.. w ll ­     'e
d..v('lo!>"' d Indu~ t rial nar'on s wi l h .... t u r e infrntn><: ture •. By con tra      CMUln~r

t e c hno l o gy i. di.proportionaaly I"", In d"v"loping cOUfltri~s ~ h .. r('          riIi ...

n"". a .... h('avy ou t of, but light in to ' he n a tion •. On t h e ~ e r ou I , con \,.. n ·

ersh,ps t ra n. po r t e"P r y conui n" ,.. on r e tu rn t rips f rooo a rea< whe r .. ca rgo ..

unavailabl ...        li ttl " r e ve nue is co llec ted wh" n a .hip ca rries bo x..< ""'Pty of

cargo.

           Oth~r d iffl cult'''5 aff..ct c on ta l nt' r i:at ion pott'ntt al I n d..ve lop,nl a r e u .
I n 1972 . Coup.t'r s t at ~ that c Ofl a i n.. ri:lItion " c an no t a l ...a ys be lntro(hK~ t o th..
                                        t
trad.. of devel opinl coun t ri u due t o t he i na J <'<Iua c y o f s uppo r ti nl infustructur~
.t ports and in h ,ntcrlands .··· ~ h'ithHanJin.l, the unit_load principle offers
Ji s tinc t advanta'''5 t o any fo~ of tr a ns port r~.lardless o f th~ p r~ 5ent develop ­
~n l Sta tu5 of t r a n 5po r ta tt on fadli ti ..s Or even th~ vo l ..... of t ra f fi c .   Contain ­
eriza tion i s a -.oJern tool of inJunria l . a,r iculu.r.1. a nd t r a ns po r tati on J ..v .. l ­
o~nt.       Its adoption d .... nds not only capiUl bu t aho i aa g i na t i on anJ ...illina,­
nu s t o ac cept t he challt'nltt' to Chana,t'. ·

          Thl5 paper i5 cOIK.. rn~ with . . r iti... tradt' bet ..... ~n a J~v .. lopinl reli on
anJ One wh . " h i 5 IDOre devdoped. It addrene5 t he que.tion of a 5tu tt'gy for
inc reasina, tra d.. int .. raction bet...,..n tht' two t ype. of r"lions. Prior inves t 1­
la tions havt' i '"l' l i ~ t ha t . nraagy of containe riza tion aay .... llora te t rad ..
iw.a.lanct's throulh traffic a,~~ration, • Her~ I suUe n a st rategy to co ntain.. r­
ize bee f n port ..d f fOOl Ct'nt r a l .... riea to Flo rida as an i n i t i a l s tep t o CO fT .. et
i-tlalane ..s i n tr.d~ .



               A t h r e e_ fact or . y s t<.. o f ea.pli...ntarlty . int ......•..ning oppo rtuni ty. and
tr.ns f ..rab ili t y .. as post u1at~ by Edward Ull .... t o duu il>e t h.. role o{ tra ns ­
po rtation and t h .. bu i. o{ sp.o. tial interac tion.' The !I ...st objec tiv .. o{ t h i s
study is t o ex ....ine t h.. now . o{ one e.->dity ( { r u h and frozen be ..              n      expo rte<!
f fOOl Ce nt ral AmC'rica t o Flor ida in t h.. "ont.. xt of Ulillan's sys te•. This i nq u i r y
utablish..s t he penoan..""y o{ tI.t' nows s o tha t their poa ntial apphc<lti on t o
t r a n s po r t innovation .ilht be nalua te<! . );~ xt. data survt'y inl the flow s of co n _
tainers bC'tw.... n Flor ida ports and tht' ports o f C..n t ra l ......ri ea a re exaain~ t o
J .. t e ~in e t he relati onShips o{ the unbalanc ..d _vewnt to..t w.... n the two reiions.
Finally . pott'ntill incr..a ses in con t a i ne r i ze<! _v_nt. t o C..ntral Aatrica . r e
adJressed ,



           Th.. ~ .. { ca ttl .. i ndu s try i n Ce n t ra l "-erica hU upandt'd rt'<:en tly bC'caus~
o f t WO t'<:oflOll ic poli c ies . to ine ...e .... ul{.su({iciency i n food production. and
t o d ..velop ne .. e xport s 10 provid.. f orUln uc .....nl.. to balance p.y-..nu fo r
......ntial i_ports . 8t't'{ .. xpcrt s. I>.o.\'e ,n eru.se<! con sid.. r a b l y at t il.. expense o f
J-es t ic con.u-pti on . '''Uu tini t he . t'<:o         nd of t llu t' po licies has dOlli .... t e<!. ' "

          Ulh.an' s cooopli...nta ri ty principle a..erts tha t circulation or intt'r­
a cti on results ffOOl area l diffe ren lia lion ~t w ..en t ..o loca les , ~ it h a dt'lUnd in
on.. anJ a supp ly i n t h ~ o t h.. .. Durinl t he f i rst two years o{ the study p er i od
(l91~ and 1973 ) ea.pli...nta rity accoun t ..d f or an in crea.e in Flo...ida's b.... {
illpOn s f fOll C..n lral "'-rica. 18 percent and 15 pen::en t r espec tive ly . In 1914,
b<oe{ illpOrts dt'<:1int'd 16 pe ecen t bt' cause of polit i cal ra lher than ..conOlli e
r eason s: ins tabil i ty in ~ic.raiua. Guat .... la . and 1I0nduras (Ta b l t' 1 ) .

               ~n up r ee s ~d as • pe rc ..nUle o f t il.. t o ta l o f ...at i-PO rted tel Fl ori da,
Cen tral ...... r i c. n bt'ef i -.po r ts "",,'t' ri s..n s t ead il y , In 19 71 tllt'y ae"ounte<! f or
47 perc en t ; in 1971, 51 p.. reent ; in 19:'3 , 75 pere ..n t; and in 19 74 t lley r ..ache<!
a hi i h of 83 percen t. The vol .... o{ bt'el i-.po rte<! t o Flo rid. has !Iuctuatt'd,
bu t t ile d....nJ o{ t h e Florida . .rle t {o r beef products s hou l d inc feast'. ~
i n t e ..... "ini oppo rtunities (d e ve l oped ... r~ .. t eeonoooi .. s ) e xi. t bC' t " .....n C..nt al
            "
...... ri c• •nd F lor;da, so t he p r esen t pa t t .. rn o { b<oe{ t ...a de .hould e on tinu .

             Seven Flo rida port. discha rieO ...at {fOOl forei ln o riiin., but T.... and
"Ii _ i ,.r ea tly ....-pant'<! t ile Ot hers (T.ble ~ ).  The r i se o f Mi....1 OV ..r Taoopa
a fter 1971 can to.. att ribu tt'd t o M "" s p roxi.'ty t o Cen tral Americ. in tC'~s
                                             i
of ac tual disunce as ~ .. 1t as in M " ; · s connt'<: tions .. i th Latin ~ ...ic.n hankini
                                               i
;n. ti tutiona. This .hift in location illustrates Ull .... n's tra nsf.. ra b i lit y p ri n _
cip le. l ocreast'd d .... nd at Ml &lli has dis loca te<! T"'"!"" s i-.po rtanc~ as . n i"",rt­
Ina, c ..n t ..r . in fa vo r of Mi&lli. because t he diatane .. bet .. .... n .... rh t anJ su pp l y is
d l.i n ishe<l. In each yea r o{ t h i s s tudy at I"ast 90 p.t'n::en t of t ile .... t di.cha rie<!
.t M  ia. ; o rlll.... tt'<! in C..ntral ......rica •


                                                     •

                                                 TABLE I

                    FUSH OIl nO:ElO lEAf TO FLORIDA PORTS FRQl4 CE)I,TRAL AMERICA

                                             1971· 197 4

                                                (In Tons)



                                !lli                 !211                  1973                    ~
ConI. Riel.
EI Sa lvador	
S i e ara p
                               14 , 07 8


                               13,11 3.
                                                    19 ,233
                                                     3 ,6-1.
                                                    :3.855
                                                                          20 ,56 4
                                                                            • • .>88
                                                                          27,OlO
                                                                                                   .....
                                                                                                  25,091


                                                                                                  13 ,5 11
Hond ur a s                    14 , 18 3            13 ,145               a,833                   12,7U
G•• n ..... la                 H ,.U8               19,652                19 , 498                14,378
                                                     1,.01                  1.019                  1,044
Pa ........ •

le le.e                            '"                                     --"-                    - -'-'
roT"-                          67,176               H , 110               9 1. 73 0               76,499

' So t e : TOl\Nlie fn:- the Canal lone            ineluded .

                                             ""'
Sou r<;e: U.S. Dep,an..,...t of C _ rc" , Bur ea u of CeMU$ SM_5<JS_305IT                 0 ,$.   w.:z......

          bo..... ~""l I 'T"l't. :=1 I ~ I .._ i'l"= , z:t Shipooe7l u .




                          FRESIi OR fROZE>; lEAT BY FLORIDA PORT OF Do11IY
                                               1971_1974
                                               ( I n Tons )



'   ....
"liui
                                !!!.!
                               15 ,000
                               H , 999
                                                     !!Zt.
                                                    87. b68
                                                    62, 421
                                                                            un
                                                                          4 4 , 56 9
                                                                           74.397
                                                                                                   1974
                                                                                                  25,795
                                                                                                  63,775
POrt h" rilades
Pal. 8ea<;h
                                8 ,414
                                     as	
                                                      5,007                 3,065
                                                                                                      ."
                                                                                                       as
Jadsonv llie                                              "
                                     "                                                                  "
Fort PI"r<;e
Po rt (&nav" ra l
                                7 , 0 32
                                                        '"                                        ~
                                                                                                   "
roT"                          U 3 , 6J6            155 , 529             122, 0 2 1               92,028
Sour<;e:	 u .s. Depa ra<:n t o f     e-r<;",     Sure.... of C" n$U.S SM 30 S- 30 5tT - V.S. IkIW....
                                                                        -
                 ~ ~I'<:ll    In;>ol"U 4l'ld r.,boI<>ld r.._~t Slri.,.,....ta .




                 Fl"" data of eont dne n lor 1974 'Ioet" een t he two ref ions we n e xtra c ted
f ~ aJI unpub l i sh ed !'bril i H       AdIl1.. i n ra t io~ (MARAIl ) r e po rt .'     keau.se of re ho­
t ively 1010 vo l .....,s , con tai ne r t r artic b e t w""n Ce nt nl "-e ri"" and Fl or i da -.;IV",",
p .-..d.t. i na n<l y 0 & t h.. d .."h of "on. .. "llonal vesse ls rather t han on eonta i ne rships .
Only f ou r o f the Ce n t ra l "-eri e ,." nation s (Co s ta Rica, Gua t _ h , Hondu ras , a nd
Pan _ l eltpe ri e need eonta i n.. r i zed int ..rna t i o.....l t r a de ...i t h t he Uni ted St u u
 (Tabl e 3). The i-;>ortf"xpo rt rat io betwe" Fl orida. a nd Cen tral "-erica was t he
h i ihn l f o r Pa nDa wit h 1>.03 , f o l l_ " by IIonJu ra. (1 . 72 ) ane! Gwlte.a l a ( 1 . 70 ) ,
...h i l" th" rat i o wi t h Costa Rica was in bes1 ba l a nc " ...i t h I. J S. Theae u ti o s

                                                     ,

                                                  TA8LE 3

                                          E               I
                FLOll OF CO'o," ISERS 8EToi ES CE\'1llAL A.lERlCA "-\'1) FLOR ID" PORTS
                                                    197 4

                                             Flor ida. Imporn
                                  s.-... r   0' Con ni .... r s        Cubic
                                                                               ".              Ton s

                                                 '"
                                              I. 74 7                     1. '"
                                                                             174
                                                                                              IS,165
                                                                                              26,162
                                              1 , 465
                                                 zso
                                              4 .396
                                                                            ...
                                                                          1 ,2 73


                                                                          3,ZS5
                                                                                              22 ,121
                                                                                               2 ,S>t
                                                                                              68 ,002


                                             Florida Exports
Count')'                          Ii_ber of      Contain~n             Cubic Ft. *             Tons
Costa Rica                                    l, ZII                        see               19 ,943
Gu.n ..... la                                 2 .%7                       1 .808              4S. 890
Honduus                                       2 ,521                      3 .09Z              30 ,027
Pana.>lll                                    ~                          ~                     16 ,724
                                              S ,US                       :' ,640           1l 8 . S84
-cce rc     Ft. are in t ho usa nd:s
So"rce: C.-pilcd frc., U.s. Oepartllent o f C_re~/!obr i t'lIe "dlIini st ra tion,
        UnpublisMod repo r r , ;914 .1t.o:.'UD ::'C"'~ailWl""".:.. ..d fo.,...i!P" '/'rade Daea, 19:'6.



indic.t~   t ha t in mab<er o f con tainers t h ~ flOt< of t raffic is biaso:d tOt<ard
c_ rc~     orili""t.n, in the Unito:d States, Siailar rat i o s u tili:inl total
c"bic fO'et and t,:>!al tons li ~ewis~ show t h is directional bin ill cOlluille- r
t rad e-. The-re-fOff . t he possib i litiu o f back-haulinl" the- UeC'Ss conuille-t"S
fro- Ce-Mral AIoerica " it h all:r icu ltun l producu sh.ou ld "",uee- transporta tion
cosu per unit of produc t.



           ~venl c~ity flo.. . be t ween Florida and Cen tral O\IIerlca ar~ $tronl
enr:>uth t o T<'quir~ Tezuh r s~Tv ic"s by conven tional vess~1s. Such flows could
e asil,! be contai neri:~d if ce-Tlain p rc T<'quisites ..- ff lle t . Port and inter_
                                                          e
chanll:e fac ilities "st be ada pted to the receivinl a"" 1'I.3""llnl of containers.
c.overnatnnl rezula tions . . .t be favoTable. CaTIDC'S for e spoT t . .st be anuro:d.

               Transporta l ion can perfo .... an inc reasinlly pro-inent role ,n l he- proll:ren
t oward eCOllOlll ic ... t " r it y of t h ~ $tIll d~v~lopinl econoaies. Containeriu tion as
a t r an s port t col has the abili ty t o i",re-ase- inte-netion bet "~e-n Ce-ntn.1 ~rica
a nd Flo rida a nd i t also I'I.3s t he- potential of bahncing trade- bC' he-~n the- hO
r~ lion $ ,       Con taineri:ation could lead to .,re int ...n sive ag r icu l tural develo,-.,n t
by e- ...d itinll: IIOv .......nU t o ~stic a.:>rke t phcu a nd by supp lying ,....fri,eution
        l<p
at t h... poin t of fi .. ld production, This ",ou l d allo>o produce... t o e XtC"nd a nd
i ncre-as... t h .. ir ~stic as we-II as the-ir int ..rnational t:>Tk..t areas. s...... f
exported fro. C...n tral ...... rica is only on ... co-ld i ty "'tl i e h is sui table for the­
t r a n s it i o n fro- conventional to 3Ut-...tC'<! handli nl. Planning and coordina tion.
bo th wit hi n coach nation as we ll as fTc:. t h .. dne-lopcJ t ra d i n g na t ions, wou l d
...n c oura ge t h.. devel~n t of this t ranspo rt innova tion.



                                                        10
1. J . Lo>oe an d S. I4orya das. ::"M         Gtlog:oap~    of   ""'"~~       (Ilos t on : Houllht Ofl
lhHlln. 1975 ). pp . 29 4 . 97.

2 . Il . 0_ Coss. St udi ",,, i ".ow-iev. £CO'II:JI'tic" (Cub ridge: M. LT . Pr e ss . 1968).
p , 154.

3. The sli ng.and.booIo _ t hod ...t i ll:es a s h i p 's g"a r t o ho ist s _l1 quantit i e s
o f ,.o.r iO t o a nd f~ t~ pi er when transferi ng or .,vi n,l ca rgo bet,",etI s hi p and
shore.

a . C. O'Loughlin , t'M Ee¢nOt'r . of
                               ;C                 s.o    ~port         (Oltfo rd: Pe "'i""",n Press . 19i1 ).
pp , 117·18.

S. C. F. IoIo tt . ~rt.a'tion c..,~ (Buon ROUi e : Louisi ..... Sta te Unive rsi t y
Press , 1%6 ), p. 199.

6.   A. D. Couper . :'?w       ~h-:I         of   s.o   Trar.....,rt (Lolldo n : tN teh inson . 19 72).
p . 184.

7 . Unite'd S.. t ions . oeparu.mt o f ECOI'Io-ic and Soda l AHal es , A" £l:arrri~~ion
o f SoM6 A~.. t " 0; t~ L         "'it.Load S"a: - oj" C<v'rJO S"niP"'"'"a : A.pplicat -;e., to
lJfnx1 i.opi""} CQ""'t1"".:.ea (S" w Yor k: Uniu·d Sati- ons. 1969). p . 1$.
s. Uni ted hat ions. ~rt_nt o f ecoecerc and Soc:ial Affairs . C                  =tci...ra.
Pal14:a =d C:;"' ,. .'(,,:Wa o    '"or : iw I>:ta ~ t .'Io-~: oj" Frei-g ht : App U crat ion
to !)aw!.qpi~..g Co",,,:ri,,,, (" ew York : United " a t i o ns. 19 70 ) , p . H.

9 . E. L. UII .... n. ' 'Th .. Ro le o f Tran spo rtation and t h e Bas .. s for Interaction . "
In 1,*," '" .".:It" i" C"'l/Zr.'.n"9 :h" F=4 C.'" the Ear ~ h , "d . W. L. n.o.a s . J r. (Chi cago :
Un ;".....si :y o f ChICago Pr e ss. 1956 ). PI" S62 -l0.

10 . U.S . oepart.ent of Agri , ...l tu r". Fore ign ,,£Ticul tur:l.l S"r,,;';e.                 :n-""    s..:
::.::.:d", J"'IdwJ~"":68 0." C""':ral A/IIarica and 1'a>U"l<' . by J . P. Rourke. F,\S M-l1>8
 (lo'iSh int ton: U.S . CO .P .O. , 19t-9 ) . Data ot .eat f1000 s tailen fro- th" U.S. Ilurl'au
o f t he Ce nsus r e co r d s for the years 1971 -1 9 74 ~· .. re c onsu lt e d. Vi n .....l1yall
e " po rt product ion of ..... t in C.. ntral "-rie.. is "be e f : U.S . Ilureau of t he Cen s us .
V.E. ... Urt>o...... c..""M! I"'f'Crt e <::rG : .. bq.ond : ,,-'l'ram/i t s ;n ...,.",: " (I'ash i nt t o n :
         a                                  -    ,
U.S.G.P.O .. 197 1 . 197~ . 19 7:>. a n<! 1974 ) . The reader i s refene'd also to
,l.. K. lIe-phill . "L i ves t oc k P... spects lb ~e'd in Cen tral .....,r ica-Med eo . .. Fcl'ri.g>l
                                       o
Ap":~"ZtOlN H ( 48) (l 9 7tJ), pp. 2 _~ fo r an analysis of bee f productiOll in C,.."tral
,..., rica .

II . U.S. Depa rt ..,n t o f C_ree . ..,..,...;e.,:,.,., .(d.,i" i~ e,oa : ior:. . : :;14   ."IIJ?A1)    Cor.tci ,.,·
/l,..;ud Fi:i""igJ: ~ Oat<:: (un pub l i s hed repo...t ) .

12 . Th,. pTa cti,.. of bac il.h..ou ling reduces f re igh t ra :C5 alone a rou te by devel­
opini c-.lity flows in t he d i r e<:t i o n o f the Iillht t r a ff i c n .... .
                                                           zt

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       ,   ;~ ,

       h . ,h V. .....b l .
       n """   f ,,,," Flor 'd a ,
       1'l'6O ~ 1'70            re ••
                             I>o9" ,
       t.<1"..,. ...,d T""" ,<>< , o.. l y)
lea't 'quare , rc>j;res'i on to e'liLlle the par ..,..,ten of the .,del • • he equat ion
-uS!    be e xpre '''''d i n l ,ne,," fo T'll. Th " is ..cco<oploshed by taking logarith.rns of
.. II v .. riable, ...hi,·h .v· t<· l d~ th" foll<)Win~ estiaa,ing eqLl.ltion :

          10& VlGT • l og ~ .      +   6 , log   ror •   6.   lo~   1-": • !O, log lD - 6. log DIST

                            S, log UR

Table 2 pre5<'nt. th" rl"Lllts of the regre •• ion,. In ..ddi tion to r"gre"i ng the
,ua of I h.. 'el ..ct<"d v'ege tabl .. s (VEGT) ag"in 'l t h.. indepenJ.. ,>! Hriable5 . each
""g,·t""' e ...... e xa:nined separalely f o r both years.

                                                   Overall. t he lIO<lel reflects t he flo.. of
                                     f re.h, ., i nt H "ege table, fro lO Florida rea.onabl)·
                                        .. e l l . Level, o f e ,planation ranged fr~ ~2 t o 63
                                             percen t in 19....9·bD anJ ' r Oll 50 to 69 perc ..nt ,n
                                                 19b9-70. The popul ..tion of ""ch &:lr ket had
                                                   I he expec ted positive influenc .. On the vol""'"
                                                      of ,·egHablc5 re<oeived i n bo lh ye a r, and
                                                        irs c oe ff ' c i e nt'''I'   uni fo .... ly "at i.­
                                                           ~ically 5ign ificant.           The e ff ec t of
                                                             d i ' t a nc e wa ' negative a , hypothesi:cd.
        , ~
                                                                 Atain. It ....., c o ns i 5t e n tl y , i gn i ­
  •,
   •
                        Flor id a Veqetable.
                                                                     fic,~nt.     Thu • • th.. 1"0 1llO, t bil s ic
                                                                                  "
                                                                        var iilbl < in grav ily -od.. 1
                                                                           fOnllUl31ion' ( po pul a t ion an d
                        Var'ation in Fl ow- S i Te
  ~
  0
                        of f<ark et , 1959 and 1969                          Ji ,~ ~ncel ~ere f ound t o be
                                                                                 import .."t Jet e ", ;nant ,
  a     ec                                                                         of the s pa t i a l pilltern
  ,
  e
  •
                                                                                   of .. int .. r vege tab le
                                                                                   flo.. , fr o. ncrida .

                                                                                        The un...-ploy_
                                                                                    ra te .... . al ...a y.
                                                                                 ~'nt
                                                                           neg"Ii".. l y rdateJ to
                                                                           the volUlll<' of v...ge lable,
                                                                           received H a ""'rk.. t as
                                                                           expected, but i t "" .1 5
                                                                           ,ignificant in only s ix
                                                                           of the nine r e g.......si"n' .
                                                                           ~everth ...lc55 . ... ~y
                                                                                                  e
                                                                           condude that the per _
                                100(» o f                                  fOT'lll:lnce I...v c\ of the
                                                                           l oc a l econozy do.... a f-
                                                                           f ...e t the dema nd for
fresh, .. inter v"I:" 'able s . Thi. conclusion is supported by Ihe reSUl lS f " r the
incOllC variable . Although "nly in one case did ,oco,,", a ~ h l<'ve statistical signi­
f i c an c " . in all bu t on .. reg ...e ssion i t s coefficienl "'..5 posi ti,·ely signe<l ,uggesting
that _rke,. .. i th higher c e d i a n ineo""5 a r c con.",,,,ng additional ...inte ... v"g"tabl'"
I><"yond ,,·ha t t h e i r ra,,· poplllH,on ..nd d,st.lnce (roil Florida ",oLlld predi".

            Th... level of fo",,1 "du"-ation " a s .tatisti,,-"lly significant . But t he
n...gat i ve r e lationship I><" t "'een fresh . ",i n l .. r vege table cons""'Ption and educati""
"'a s u n" xP<"c ted . I n o nler t o ...x plore Ih... ......'0' , for thi s rHers ... r"lationsh.ip
.t re gi on a l cOllp a ri.on o f ...dian .chool years eOflll' IH e d by the aJult popuh t ion
"'a . mad... (Tab le 1). ~ r k " t C..nt .. rs ",.. s t of the ~ is.i •• ippi R; v"r ~ .. r e prac lically
all above t he ... an of lledian school yea rs c""'PI ...t e d in bo th years. ~orthern
Dar ke t educa tion l ..vels varied c losely around t he ..,an .. h"reas _rk .. t c .. nt" rs
in t he ,ou t h t " nd e<! 1 0 be "'e l l 1><"10" av .. rage. B<."cau.e distance is a 5ig nif icant
fact or in e xplai ning t h l' vo l ....... o f veg...uble, r " c ...ive<! H a I113r k" t anJ bec au5 ..
of t he p", xi.i ty or lo...e r <"ducational mar ke" to Florid" and conversely th...
r eDOt e ne s s o f th" .... r ke " wi t h high ...... l evels of <"ducatio n . I h e ncga tive ...e la lion­
ship be t ...e en edu<:a lion and "", r k...t demand _y bc a fu rthe ... r .. flec tion or t h .. dis­
t an c e effec t. Alterna tive ly , t h e tru" relationship aay be t hat the les. edu"-Hed
u s e Klr... fre'h ""getabl .. s in r il y ...als . Pe r t-aI's th.. 1IIOre "duca ted f ..... 1".
be caus .. of ..ork o r o ther c.- i t n" u s.. .,re p repared foods, including vege lables .
           In s _       ry . "" . .y conelude this section by .... -ellphas i%inr: that the
                                                                              h..
. .j o r _ r1< ..t s fo r Fl orida fres h. " i nt er ver: Hables a r .. in % nor t heastern
see tiDJI of t h.. United Stat es and t h a t th.... r~ e ts displayed a s tab i li t y ov e r
t h.. ten y ea r s r:..ne rally r el at i v e to thei r s t ee. An .. :cpand ed r:ravity .adel fol"ll­
ulation fit tl'l.. data fl i rly ..ell ..ith population . dinanc .. . un..-p lor-nt . and
                                                                              .
inca-.. fact ors affeetinr: tl'l.. flow o f f .... sl'l v"C ..ubles in t l'l . "xpec ted -...nne I' .
Education . t>o....v.. r . " as ReCatively related to _ r ke t cons..-p tiDJI eon trary to
o r i CiM I expecut iDJIs.



             Alt houch Flor ida is th....j o r .. inte r v"C ..t ab l e s upp li er to United States
.... rkets . eo.pet lt ,on fl'Oll o th.. r sou r c.. s should affec t the proport i on o f ..ach
. .rk ..t ' s t oul c DJIs..-pt i on sl/pplied by th e s ta t e. Thw. , distanc e f l'Oll ot h e r
I13 jor pro<lucti DJI a Nas as .... II as dinanc.. fl'Oll Fl or ida s hou l d I nfl unlc .. t h..
proport ion o f a . .r~ e t ' s t ota l r ee .. ipt of " i nt e r v"C.. ub l"s t hat c"... f l'Oll
Flor ida. Dis tanc"s fro. Lare<lo, T.. xa s (a s r"p r" s"n ta t i ~ of th.. sout he rn T.. xa s
a nd ","d ca n supply areas ) a nd f .... IIlyth e , Ca li fo rnia ( rq>r "unti nc sou t h.. rn
                                                            h"
Ca li fo rn i a a nd ....r l%ou produc tion ar(>as ) t o % %lIirty · sev..n . .rket s a c ain .... 1'..
~ as uN'<l i n h i Ch..ay . it.. s.   F lorida ve r:etables eece lvea .. t a . .rk et .... re expr.. ssed
u a propo rtion o f all vecHab l es r ee.. i ved a t that .... r ket .

            Th.. hypoth..sis .. as tha t Ine reased proal.l ty o f a . .rk..t to o t h" r supply
a rels ..oul d dec reas.. t h.. propor tion of Florida vecHabl es co ns Ullled in that
. . r~ et. Thi s can b.. r e pre sent ed .. s a t e st o f a distance d" cay -.del of t h"
foll o .. inC fo ",'

          PF\'ECT    8, • 8, lor: DISTC • 8. 101: Dim - 8) 10C DIS Tf

"""1''                                                                          e
      Pf\'EGT • v"C ..tabl es fra Fl orida as .. proporti on o f t oul v,, & tahles
rec"ived a t a _ r ke t du rln& 19 59 ·60 a nd 1969 · 70 and DISTC, Dim, and DISTF are
th" respec tiv" dis tances o f a . . r~ et fro _ Ca li fo rni a . T..,us, and Florida orlr:ins .

            Th" Flo rida distanc" v.. r i ab l " "as "xpe<: ted t o be n,,&at l v e1y r" lated to
t h" ~ rta nc" of Florida ve&"tab I U t o th" ci tl .. s . Tha t Is , t h e p ro port i on o f
Flori da v"C.. ubl"s o f t h.. t ota l ve&" t abl es r " c" i ve<! In .. ci ty would d"c r ..a s ..
(inc nase) as d isUrK" f r c. Florida i ne ....ased (deer..,sed j. ~v"r , r ,,&re ss i on
coe ff ielents on th" California .and Texas dist anc .. va rinl"s "ere .. x~ ted to be
positi ve. Tha t h, as dis tane" f .... th.. s.. c""P" tinr: s upp l y a r "as incr"""ed.
(dec r ..ased ) , th.. p roportion o f Ye&..ubln s upp li ed by flor ida would inc ..... se  a
(dee r ...,,,) .

            Th.. OU tca.e o f t h.. analysi s .. as i n ..ccordane .... H h ch .... xpe c %ed ~tt .. rn
(Tablc 3). Dl su nc.. f .... Fl orida has .. c ons is t en t l y neiu iv.. n lui on sh l p .. i th
t h.. I..... rtanc.. o f Fl orida v"&,,t..b1es .. t Nrkets , ..h"reas there ....r" po sit i v"
rel ati onship s be h~ n th.. iaportanc " o f fl orida v"c.. tabl n and d ls t anc " f ro- t h..
t-..o co-petln C sou rc .. ar..as. Th.. lev.. l o f ~xplanatl on nnced fl"Olll 4 3 t o 53 per ­
cent for t h.. 19 59-60 flows and fro- 50 t o 74 perc ..n t for the 1969 · 70 s..ason .
           Fi &ur.. 3 d..pict s t h e na t ~r" o f t h.. d is t .. ne e decay r .. l a tions hi ps. For
t h.. sa ke o f cl a r ity on ly totO i ndepend en t variabl es (P~ lleach , Fl o rida a nd
Blythe . Ca l ifom i .a as sou rc .. a reas) a re represented ..... lthough pl\y si eal dist a nc e
fra Pooopano lIeac h r ....i ns t he sa_ al onc th .. arc ...a. a de..:reasi nc p roport {on
o f v.. & ab l.., s upplied by P.....no &.ea ch o<; curs ..., one nears po int I . In essenc.. ,
         u
di sunc .. frc. P.-pano &.eaeh i s b~ i n& controlled for (h"ld cOM t all t) wh il " o:Ii s .
tallC.. fl'Oll I lyt he, Cali fo rnia is allowed to vary . This -odifi eation of th..
fr i cti on o f d iH Ulce con c..pt ..1tl'l a Coarpet i n i s upp li er _y be upat>ded to t-..o
o r -.are addit i onal supp ll " rs, how .. v..r , th.. ~aph.ic v isuali%u i on o f the prob l ,..
beceees c!*pln .

              In s. -ry , th" dis U.nc:~ dceay -.d.. 1 " as a sii nl flc a n t predi etor o f
t h.. r"lati v.. I""", r tane e o f Fl orida v~&..tab l .. s t o ind ividual _rkets across the
co~nt ry ""'"n ""eN _ j ar c Olllp'e t i tors also had ecc.. ss t o th"s" . .r ke ts .   w..
conc l ud" t hat fl ori da ' s sicnifieanc.. as a suppli .. r is stronC ly related t o
p ro>; i ai t y o f a ll p rod.ue t ion .. nas to tlI" . .rk ..t s .


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            ,", l ~ ~ t uody "" ~ u ''''''"",J thc pattern of !'rnh .int" r v" g" tabl " " t .. s fro­
       ~.
F lorid.       A .."Jifi<O<l gravity -.xI" l " xp h inN appnl xi ""t"ly half of the "ariatl"n
 in t l>" vol .... o f sal e ' by ... rl<"t , Popu la: ion , dis tance froll fl ori d~ , :t~ t il..        .
"n""l'l o>-", r :t U .. ..... ... "Indlcant explanHorl of th" .patial patt.. rn of . a l .. ..
_~ _ U u", of til.. 1.., ·,, 1 o f f oru l NIK"t ioa a l .... ..a . ,lKfl,cica nt but with tile
 r ...v ene ,i .,. tha n " x;><, n e d. Thi. aay be • furth., r r .. f1 .. e t i on or t il.. "ffo.... of
d ilt anc .. d"" t o t il... J"' rtl< u hr re g l".... 1 ~tt .. rn o f t ile ""''''''ali o n _a ,ur .. o r it
aa r fffl e.:t a gre ater p ro~ n "tr f or U..e ...re h ighly ed...:" teJ t o . ub Hi t ~ te
pr..par"" f""'b f o r f ,,,.1> v" e ..:abl e •.

            The i'"PO r:"n ..... of " he F10r i la "inter , .. g"U.ble inJu. try t o th.. ... rk .. u
" a ' c u._in..J a lso . ,\II npand<'<l di sta nc .. Je,,: a r ~ .. l .. n .. ~ ti .. t ed ..,,;, 1'1 1. i.n
a JJ. " ' on t o J iH .. nc.. ( r .,. Fl onda d ' Hanc .. f rOOl .out h.. rn Cal . fo rn ia an J .ou tll.. m
T"u , . TII ,,:.... :tO a n.. ga i,·.. r .. hti on . h , p b.. tw..... ~ d i st an ..... f~ Flo u d.. and t he
i'"PO r t"n~" of Florida ""g"Ub l .., t o t h " ••lTk ...t " 00 a t ,h(' <a-<> ' i . ... P<u" ""
.... la" o n. h ip bo< t ~~...n ,J H Un~" f r Ola t ~ ... cOII;><' t i"i ,upply . r .."" .nJ t he i'"POrt .. ne ..
o f flo rid.;, re g.. t . H .. , at t h.. '''lrh !.




I. U,S. Dt-part_nt of .\,ri~ul:ure, Alueul tur,,1 "'-'rk.. ll n..-: SeT"i" .. , Fruu .. nd
\'e gc u b l .. Oi"i "on, ' I.:I rk et ~e .. . Bran .:h, ~~.'           '"         ""'2':" • _",,:•• ""GO
;'~~·-,"-~a;". 1;'                                 .... _'~::.'"
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                                                                                      ~i.. .'~:" ~.:,
::'~:~ J~,!'; -::>ta~ ':         - ' . ' " , rh ~in&t<)n, D.C.: U.S. Go""mIO<'n ' Pr in t ii'll O ffie~ ,
l %O J : ~ nJ U,S . [\..pJn .....nt of \ g rIcultu r .. , C<)"~~ T ~"" 'la Th""r; 5<'l"Vlc.. , ~rult
~"J " "r;"' t~ ld e 0"'\"01'1. 'iar.~t " .... , 6r~nell. c"""~ .~,..,,'- ~ (~J":w"" ~"to,::d
       .   ",.       " , ' u fbHIIJn,:on. O.C"             lJ,S. Go~ .. rn:M"n! P"n., na Ofh ",.. , 19 ~O)

      R".,~ l.l   ,\Ol "f ,
                                .,   AoL_s, and Pc tcr ,;auIJ.
                                       .~ (Enll .... OO<l Cliffs , "J.:
                                                                                                    .         ­
                                                                                    " ..:zr. .:.;:::..:>'"t.. . ".11
A "";:;0;'41""                                                                 P r~n ti" .. -Ha     l l. 19 ; 1)
pp.~ :~·l -:;O.




"        In Tabl .. I , "''lGT frQII F10Tld:>" r~f~n ! o t h.. t ot ~ 1 ,· ~g c t;o.bl~ carlo t u,loaJ.
o" ,in, tlni in Flor,J., unloaJl."<l, 1 cille. In,hcatl"J ("lGT c""'.n". ,abb"g.. ,
e.. l ...ry. and t OlO:1t "". for 1959 a"" ..,bl-.•, ... ",.,hry, t-. ,,,,,,. ""'an. , and cue ....b .. ..
for l%~); .. \ FL Unl"".:!. 10 Cit,..." ro fer> t o th .. pc r " c nlag.. o f t il.. t ota l F1oTlJ,
f t ...h " . nt ..r v.. ,~ta~l .. prod""' tton ~ h i c h ~ '" :.II'Ilo"Je-d In ou .. s .n.dic a t ..d ; "\
f ro= FL o f a ll Unlo .,)." rofc .. 10 ,II. .. pore.,n'''le of           ,I." "....
                                                                                   1 Y"II.~ . . bl .. unloa.d.
In OI l ... In,hcatf'd ~ h lC h oTlg,,,,,: c,, '1'1 Florid,,; ."d "11... : Ed." i, r~h ! in
Nuc a ti,": a ~O<tlp a rl'On " ... de to t he U.S. ~ ..dian schoot '· ... 'TS """,ple te.! for
1%0 a nJ 19~O (A' abo,- .. U.S . -.J,,,n , .. hoo1 y<'DU ''''''Ple,ed, 1l'D<:o~, and O *C\l~l
t a 1I.~ . •edi an schoo l y.."n ", ~ lc t ..., J).

5.   In Table :. "VEGT" fo r 19S9_&(l h 'he ~ ... o f CAli, CU. and 11.Jl'ff; f o r 11lb9-'O,
" \~{;r'   IS til.. SUllO o f C"'6, CEL, ll::NT. BlAT , "lid cue. Or h.. r than d istance , til ..
nr i a b l ... fo r T3bl~ : ~ .. r e obt a h <'<l f .... t h.. ~',::. c,.,.....,.. ":' l'opl.!.a:<.c.:: IJt'~ ~
iJJ!) (Sec t .. H f or " " f, n' l' ''''_).




                                                          ,­
                         SE ASO ~A L    FLU CT U A T I O~ S   OF ART SHOW
                                   lOCAT IO~     A~D    FR EQU E~ CY




           Th.. t op i c o f a rt u,,~ lly bri nls t o . i nd .... II kno..-n artists an d l r ..a t
" 5"_5 a nd     lall .. r i n . Ther .. is. how..v.. r. ano th.. r sid .. t o t h .. .. or l d of a rt
involvi nl da y_ to.day .1Ctiv iti .. s o f t h.. t hous and s of journ.. >   -.an . r tis ts who h",·..
not and probably fleH r wi II ·...l .. it b il:. " Th.. vast aajo ri ty of wor klnl a rt is ts
r e _. n as ._11 r e u ll bu. i n.. ss people . sell i nl: t h e ir worl s ...h..n ..v.. r an d " he r e _
e,'e r t he y can. hopin/: t o . .l .. a bill sa le bu t neve r eoun t inl: on i t.

           f o r the past tw o years I have be en .. pa rt - ti ... " rtis t and a fu ll ·t i . e
ge<>gupher. Th.. iaportance o f Ie>c at ion as a _jo r facto r in .... r l .. ll nl: a r t wor l
bcc.ill<' parli~u!a rlr innilU.ng te> ... . and t M r e fo n I dec ided t o . t udy seee of
t he lDCat,on fac tors of ar t sales w. t h t he .nten tion of enhancinl: fu tu re la l .. s
and profHs.

          Th.. -.o.t popular art _ rletl"l: ouliH. are hro:.. l:TOUp .1I0 w.. These
arc oriani:ed by pra.o t .. rs in a vane ty o f Io.:a tions. Th.. "rtist u.u.allr pays
                                 ·
for an al lo tted 'p"ee ,n ...hieh te> d,sp lay it..-s fe>r sal ... .\sso rt ..d artists and
craftllllCn. , n cl uJ i " l painters. p rin t ...l e rs . sculptors. and j ..... el ry _ le r • •
la ther t o display lh.. ,r cre"t.on. a lonl: the cu rb of. elo.ed . tr.... r , ill • city
par. or .hop?in/: . . ll, or at ...ba t",'er si te wi"llaC'd fo r t h at particula r sh"",.
T:,e n..-ber of 3r tlst. part.eipa tini in a iiven shO" va rin wi de l y . \Cost . r t
sho...s "ttract some ~O-I~O artists, but s....... y be as !ar/:e as 1,000 pa r tici­
pants.

           In ..leciding ...hich 5....... t o a rt ..nd. I obs ..nC'd t .... t t h.. q"",nti ty .nd
loc"t ion.,f slw.... in Florida 5<' .....d to v.ry s ..asona ll y . I hypo th.. si:ed t h.\!
ar t shO'" ac tiv. ty ,s elo ... ly r ela t ..d t o se••on of t he y ..a r : wa na sou th .. rly
loca tions "r" sought du ring til.. ..-.nt e r ; cooler l ocati on s i n th.. north nn parts
of th.. sute beca-c d ... i rable as ,prinl: c            , and th.. ~ou th b..c....' too ..." ....
When the entl~ .U I<' becOlOes ho t durinl: t h                   r . an shoo< ac tivi ties -.ove
north...a rd . Support.n~ th .. hypothesis is t he fact that Flor ida is pro- i nent 35
    ·
a ... inter touri. t ar                        ·
                              and t hu s it ...as furt he r an..-ed t hat t h.. fr eq u en c y o f
art .ho~'s in FloriJa auld inc rease in a ut .... t o a u " i _ du rin2 t h .. wi n t ..r .
anJ gradually J ..cr..as.. in t he spri nl: to r ..a c h very low I ..,·e l. in t he s ...... r .

              In ord .. r t o test these "ssUlRpt ,ons . I cons t ruc t ed a . e r i es of _ps on
~'hich     Ia<ations of all ~ "own ar t shows In Flor ida ~' c re p lo tted in tw o - -.ont h
in t .. nah for t he h d vc _-.o nt h pe riod of -o st r ..cen t d a ta (FilS. I_ b).' These
-.:01" appear to support the hypo the.is. The l:enHal tr..nd fo r a r t s how a c t i v it y
t o be conc .... trated progrenively further south du rini t he .u t .... a nd wi nt n ' i'
r e ve " l e J ,n Fil:ure. I_~. Fii:U re 4 illus t u t .. , t h.. i"c rea ... in t he nUl'lber e>f
sho..-s in the cen t ral po r tio" o f t he s ta t .. dur,nl: t he spri ng ...h i l e ac tiv i ty in
t he so uth .. ... po rtion has J.elin ed .I igh t ly. Fil:ur .. s" and b r ..vea l t he 5... 11
n...... r o f Flo rida a rt sho...s du r i nl: t h e ....... r and thei r al-.ost c..-pl ne ab"-",,,c"
froll the populou. southeas t ern coast ...he r .. activi ty ha d b.-.. n -.os t " ..a vily con_
cen tra ted du rinl: the late fall and ..- i nter .

           The re l:oti vc lac k of shOW' in t ile s..-cr r .. duces t h.. oppor tun it ies t o
5.. 11 art products in Flo rida dur,nl: t ha t Season . Ar ti st. r ... iding i " Florida
wi t h one Or -.o n ye ars of sh ow ci rcui t " 1perienc.. uSua I l y abanJon t h.. I rt Sh<>W
circui t dur inl: t h .. s ..... r and u . e t ha t t i ... t o p repa re ..., rch a ndi ... for fall
a nd wi nt .. r sale. It is g..n.. ra l l y agr..ed t hat t ho s .. f .... . _ r shows ...h ich a rc
i n Florida a ~ no t pr<:>f iuble t o " ttend. Out-of -s tate artists who visi t Florida
du ring t h.. cooler _ t hs r .. t urn nort ll du ring t h e Su-..r. Th..... no rthern I r tists
clai. th" t hi l h l y profi tab l .. 5"""'5 occu r in no rt he rn . ta tu du rlnl: t he s ......r a nd
I quest .onC'd if a ,ourn..y no rth in s ....... r wou l d pro fi t -r buSI ness.
                                               ,-- -- .. -     -- .
                                                ,                       '-~-------.',.:-


                                                                                    - .\

         "0. ,                                               , ' 0. '
                                                                                   ~./\
         I

       FLORIOA                                         FLORI DA                     '" 0
                                                                                     ><;        1I
                                                                                       \J

      ART Sl-fOWS                                       ART SHOWS

    SEPl 8 OCt 1977                                Iol AR. e APR 1978


                                       ~   .                                           ,~   .

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                                               . ---
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                                -'.'" .




           <to. ,                                             <to. I

       FLORIDA                                         FLORIDA
     ART SHOWS
                                        ART Sl-fOWS
    NOV 6 DEC 1917
                                              978
                                                   ...AY Ii JUNE 1




': --- -._-~ - ~.
,                   ----­ --- .. ,.:


                                       -. '\
                               It \
           "0 .•
       FLORIDA
      ART Sl-fOWS
    JAN 8 FEll 1978
                                '1. O '
                                       \-;1
                                       .. .
                                                         "0
                                                          .•

                                                       FLORIDA

                                                       ART Sl-IO
                                                   MY 6 AUG 1978
                                                           .
                                                                wS
                                                                                   \j  ,~   .




                                                 ..

           ~ut I hypot hes i: ~ t        t aTt sh ows i n s . . -r ocean ,"" i n Pro, ",ss ive ly
. ,n no rt herl y loc at ion s i n a      ve . lne ~ t t e rn t h rou, h t he southeastern s t a t e s
.n to t h e ~rtheast a nd ~id ...... s t. rea c hil\& t he . ,st nort her l y s ta tes dur inl t he
ho t tes t . ,n ths. I( so. a Flo rida _b a s~ a ni s t could (ol l ow the .. a ve no r t h .
beli nni nl i n ne a rby s OlJ t he rn stat e s i n t he ca dy s . - r . a nd p rogr essinl IIO r t h
t o the no rthern_ .,st s ta t es o ( S.... Enll and and the ~i d.. e H by J u l y and AUlUSt.

              '" se<:ond s e ries of . .ps ..as Il3d e t o t e st t h i s hypo thesi s (fi , s. 7 - 12) .
The..., ...p s loc a te all o f t he known a n s """'s occur rin e i n t he u stern Uni ted
Sta t u fo r t he tw e lve _.",t h pe r i od p r ev i ou . ly ex ...i n ed . The ex pec ted .. a ve - lik e
. ,,·....... t o f a r t . ho .. activ i t y be t "'ee n Fl o r ida an d no r th.. rn s ta us doe . a ppe a r
bu t i s __e"L ,\ rt. s hows i n ~" i ne , Ye rw>nt, upsta t e S                Yo rk. Mi ch i l &n. and
" . nn " s o ta r n c h tt.e ir h l gh"s t fr"'l uen cy duri n, t he               s t .", t hs, but t he
I re" te. t concent ration of a rt s h"", acti v i t y (or t he e a s t ern United States as
a ..hole n.. ve r p rog resses t hat fa r no r th.

           The __' ~ve_li ke prol r esston o f shoo;• •ou th to no rth .. i th s e ason is
ob,cu r ..J beca use ...ny a rt shows a rc held i n en ere s ed s i tes. SIKh as shoppi ng
.aIls or ciVic c ent .. r s ... he ", th.. e f fec ts of i nc l eaent ..ea t he .,. a re r ,""u c ed .
Thus • •nOlo and .ubfr .... :i ng t ..-pe u t u r e s do no t t o ta ll y p ",ven t a rt sho.. . .
al though these £ac tors do d issu.>     de t h.,.. Moreo\e r. larle u rban cen t e rs (pa rti ­
cularly th .. Chicaeo. \ew J .. rsey - :>; ew Yor k City-Connec ticut . and li(a5h in e t on, D.C.
a r ..as) conc...,trate Ht sho»' activity O\'er .... "y .",ths . f\'Oll s pri ne un til lue
"u t.-,. If t he h..avy conc ..ntr a t i on o( ac tivi ti .. s in t h.. ... populous u rban Cen te rs
"cre re.ove<! frOlO th .. "'ps . t he no rth __t h season al p r oe r ..ssion of a r t shO'"
fr"'lu..ncy .. ould b.. . ,rc apparent.

            Oth .. r stat.. s ind.vidually do no t d i s p l a y t h....r led t e nde nc y ..hich
FloTlda has for a north_south fluc tua tion o f art sh "", a " t i v it i e . .. i t hin i ts
boundari .. ~. but ulen "01 le.. t "'c!y . t he r ...... inder of t he eas t .. rn Uni ted St at ..,
J.:e~("rally .. ~periences t he sa.... beha"jor as Floflda by i tself.                "'. sp rinJ.: and
'..--r ~ ...e, :trt sho.. a ctl v i t y I"'n ..t r at e s p rog ....ssively fu rth.. r in to . , re
north.. rly ~t~t .. s . .\,. alJtUlllll arproaches. northern sho..'s beccee fcwe r. ll1l n          e
north.. rn _.. ~ lher r~stric ts ou tdoo r ac tivi ti .... sho... oCcur .. i t h , nc r ea si nl
f r "Gue n c y In ~re souther ly St~ t ..s . parti ..ula rly Florida . For almos t half the
year Flor ida hO.B "", r .. ar t sho»~ t hal'l any o ther s ta t ...

              I t ..ould s ..e. t !lat t he nuab.. r of an shOl's by -.n th in Floflda should
b,' .... 13 l<'d ,n'·.. rsely to the nuab ..r of shows occu r fln/: In t he reaaind .. r o f th ..
eaqern Urnt ..d St .•t e s . This a ssumpt i on "as tested. The r .. sults suppo rt the
a ...aptian . bUI only moder at .. ly (F ;es. 13 and 14. Table I). ,\ oor r e l a ti on p ro_
c ..dur .. applied t o t h.. , .. da ta yielded a valu.. of - .~ 3 . Th.. nega tive ..orrela t.on
""r.f.... t h.. in                                                   o
                               r .. lat i on s h I p l>cbcen t he t w da ta ...r s , but t h .. " a l "", of
oorrela tion indioa t            t hat only .18 of t he va ri anoe o f e ithe r da ta s O't can be
~~pl3in.~ by va ria tions in th.. o ther sct.



                                                        HBLE

                             Sf.ASO\,\ L VARIH IOS             I~   ART SI«lW >.CTIH TY

                                  ~' I o r i da                                          East U.S.

Sept.                         ,
                   :>; UlIlb..r of Sh"",          Pe rcen tage
                                                        a . 16
                                                                          'i_b.. r of Sh""s
                                                                                 !I S
                                                                                                     Pe rc .... t a ge
                                                                                                          IZ.~ 4
<XL                          cs                       1I . 5 ~                   'O S                     1(.57
                                                      18. 06                     no
' ov.
D.....                       "
                             "                          5 .09
                                                        9 . -n
                                                                                  ~ ;:
                                                                                                          10.09
                                                                                                           4. 27
                                                                                                            1.54
Jan .

.....
F..b .                       "
                             "                        16.20                       "
                                                                                  "                       Z.90

Apr .                        "
                             Z6
                                                      15.28
                                                      I Z.04                      "
                                                                                 '"
                                                                                                          4 . 51
                                                                                                          9 . 49

""                            •                         3.70
                                                                                 ,,,
                                                                                 '"                      10 . 61
,~<
J ul y
AUI .
TOUI
                              •
                              S
                              •
                                                        1. 85
                                                       Z. 32
                                                      '.00
                                                    100 . 00
                                                                                 ,.
                                                                                 '"
                                                                                16 85
                                                                                                         10 .62
                                                                                                         10 . 44
                                                                                                         10. 92
                                                                                                        100 . 00
                            '"
                                                                                     .r- .
                                                                                      .. .;?­
                                                                                      ' :,p
                                                                                 • • ". I
                                                                    . . -.r
                                                               •
                    .'           i'                                 . ~, .,
                                                              ..
 .f ,
       •    0




                                             .  .
                                                               _.
                                 r
                                      (~
~                 -'
    EASTERN UNITED STATES                   EASTERN UNITED STATES
                ART SHOWS                         ART SHOWS
I          SEPTEMBER 1971                               NOVE MBER r<'J77




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                                                .
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                                                                        ..
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                                                                   •.        .
                                          ~.~\
                                      ('                                    .~
    - -- ._. - ' ' - - - ---1

    EAST ERN UNIT ED STATES

           ART SHOWS

                                           - - ---             -.
                                            EASTERN UNITEO STAT ES
                                                          AR T SHOWS
                                                                             -,-'-,,­
            JA1«JARY 1978                                 MARCH 1978
                                                                                                       "
                                                            ;4"' ­
                                                      •         lM                    .             ,
                                                                                          .- .:',., ;,..
                                                                                            ,
                                                                                                  ~



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                                                                A"
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                                                                              y
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                                                                                              ~
                                                                                                y


                                                                        :

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                                                                       ._.
                                              ('                                      0


FL -        - --:--:--::-- - . - •

                                                          EASTERN UNITEO STATES

               EASTE RN UNIT ED STATES

                         ART SHOWS
                             ART SHO WS

                                   9
                               MAY 1 1 8
                        JUlY 1978





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 "
                                                  •   , 51:" ""~ rc<_;X S ~!!!- ..... ~. ~           ....
                                                                                                       ~

                                                           ""                             -or.


.... I I.    _    . ... . . , _    .. _ • •                         ,
                                              'I.- " . •......_ .' ._ .-.. .. _ ..
           Al tllo<.lgll florida upe ri~nt~s i n Ili a:!>es t f r .... " .....cy o f a r t s """~ d" rinl
the coo In aon t hs and t h~ I roup o f ot hn sta t es uper i ='~5 I ts pe r i od o f lea st
actiyi tyat t h i s t i ... . t h ~ pa ttern of <hanl~ in fr.... "            y is no t a con ti nlJO~
t\l.TYe upward o r downw ard f or ei t h~ r a na . Ourinr so               -.on t h ~. fr"'l """ c y o f 1 r t
"h.,. a ct ivit y IS hi r ~ Or 1"" r~ spect l vt l y for "" til. ar.. a~ . Flo rida ~xp.. r i~ nc~s
a brief sh arp pe a k lk rinr O<;tol>n and l\ov~ r. wh i l e tile -O ff' no rthe rly s u tn
an s ti ll Ilos tinl a larg .. n" -e r o f 5h O'oj~ . In De-c...bc r. freq urn c y of sllows i n
both ar.. as <!rop~ off sh a rply. a nd in Apr il a rt 511"" a c t iv i ty i n t h.. no r th N S
alr..ad y r .. ached iu H,h .." . . . . . _ 'l r an, e ..hile Plorlda 15 Stili ~ ape ri .... cinl
i ts hilh rat e of "001 s~ason act iV i ty.

              The r esu l ts of this invn tiea tion hav~ br.. n ~e<l a lone .. ith o tl'l..r
in<feprnd.....tly d.. ri ved info ..... t i on on nics and profi t pot<"flthh n a _a... o f
J.,..,nol nlne wh = a nd ..he re, I t """ld be ...st advan taeeOlJ~ t o sell a rt. sa- a r t
shows are no t profitable t o e n t~ r . 50 i t bfo".,...s "~,,e55ary fo r t he a rtist '"
Icca t e in an a r~a .. h~ r~ s~v~ral shows a r~ a"" il abl~. Th~ Chances of ~n t~ ri"g a
gooJ 0 .... ar.. t l'lu s inc re as..d. It b..ca.c. desi rable t o Ioc:n .. in t he Ioc: al~ of
l ru test Shooo fr""'lurnoy. During " " . . -.. t"s. wh ..n florl4a-based a r tn ts . .y
4.. si r .. t o find 51'10"5 .ls.... h.. n . n~a rby . tates (Ge-orli .... Alaballl3.. t he Carolillas .
fo r u"'"Pl~) do not hav~ t h~ high s"""" f requency wh i c h tho~e a rtists r eq u i ....
The prindpal "oncentntion o f a rt sh"'" actlvny during tkis ti ... j..-ps dirK tly
to d is tan t ly r ..-o' ·e 4 :lOr th~rn .. at e s. I.pasinr i!~"" and Qfun prohibi tivt
eapense on t ile Flori~ artis t. ~y Florida a rtis ts. ayself Included . have
detenoined t hat it is no t adeoq""tely profitabl .. to purs~ th~ 3.Tt ShOW ".rc~it
no rth during t h ~ s~r.



l. no~ sourc~s of info ..... t rcn r e gard i n& art show dat~s a r.d loc:ations " e re
peflO<lical pvbllcatiot,s in wh i ch show or&.ni:~ rs advertise to aUTle:t artists.
                                                         .
noe fore...st of t he se public a tions is 5'..,...8l1i,.. . ,(rd,,~. " aon th ly .. ~a~in. based
In Orlando. florida bl-t wi t l'l nation-wide cir"uh tion. Othe r sourcn included
. :. ...,...:c=
          ,(1":''':' ..tl": ."",",6, ;and AI": ~.




                                                        "

                  HOUS I ~G   VA LUES    I~    PALM BEAC H     COU ~~ :    1970 TO 1977

                                              J ohn A. Krayn i <:k


               In a dyn_lc , growing a r ea , t ile s pa t ial p" t a..... of housing val ul>S can
change       significant ly o ve r t i _ . Anal y s i s of the s'ngle-f_i1y hous ing ... r kct
.. i thin    : h.. urb anite<! a rea o f Pa l. Bea ch County revea ls t h.. e~ten t tha t t ile
..,di an     housing v.lu.. chang e<! f~ 19 ;'(1 t o 1917 . o.u ob uin..d f ro. sal .. t rans ­
an ion       r ..cords of t h.. County PTOperty Appr.ls .. r .. .. r .. aggr ..gate<! fo r e ach c...,sus
t ra c t ,   and a ..-dian nl .... .. as ce:-put ..d f o r uch yu r in each tTac t,

             Th.. v. l .... of '.II. ae.ch Coun ty housing
 incrus ..d substantia lly, f~ $18 ,000 in 19 7(1
to $:;(,,900 in 19;'7. Th.. Inc ren.. , h",,'eve r,
.. as not uni fol'1l t hroughou t t h.. coun ty. s....,
e..nsus tracts ..xpe r l ..nc"d -.ore rapid incr..a .
than oth"rs. Bet ..""n 197(1 anJ 19 77 , .. Ight n
census tracts ..xp..rl .. n~ed inc r"ases of (I t o S(I                Fi g .
percent .n th.. ..,dlan value of housing, t ..enty­
 '"ven tracts incr..a ...d b.. t ..eea S(I and 100 per­
c e nt. s"v,,"teen Incr.. as<'d f~ 100 to lS(I per­
                                                                           •••
                                                                           • ••
                                                                          -,.
cen t, and .. Iev"n show..d _dian hou.inl: val ....
 .ncrus.. , o f -or.. th"n 1$(1 perc ..nt. Th..se                            to HIO
                                                                            '"
                                                                          ll.,   to I'll
groupings r .. ve a l subsUMia l d..viat lons ill thc
                                                                          ... Do,",
!,<,r<cntage increas.. in .<'dlan housinl: nlul>S
..-itl'lln t k.. urbani: ..d ar.... of Pa l. Beach County.
A 5peaT1lan's rank o rder co r r .. lation analys's
..a. pcrfo..-ed on th .. t wo da ta s .. ts, yi" ld inll                   .,' ~
valu.. of .54$. Thi. positive correlat ion coc f­
 flcl"nt i.plin t haI tl'lo ... t r a c ts ..hich hold
lIigh ooe<Iian hou$lng valun In 197(1 .. ere 1i\<'ly
10 have hi&h ..,dian housing \"alues In 1977,
and those that w.. re low in 19 70 .cs t li l.. . ly.
had Ie.. val ....s in 1<;177,

             The "'1' of 1970 t o 1977 p<:rcenuge
change in ...dian housing value reveals t ha t the
highe. t increas.. s (ovtr ISO percen t) .... r .. found
i_dlately .... st of t h" fully d..v"lop<:<! a rea
and alonll t h e Int r ae o as t a l _at erw a y In t h..
nortkern pa rt of t he coun ty (Fie. I). The
s.. conJ hlihest increases (100 to ISO pe rcent)
~ tr .. in t hos .. tracts adJaccnt to th .. coast (or
~ .. rt on the In tracoastal ka te rway) and also
etnerally conc ..nt rat <'d In t ile north..rn are a of
                    <'di
t he county. M a n hou.ing value Incr..as ..s of
bet ...... n SO and 100 perc ..nt " .. r .. locat ..d In an
In la"d st rip ru nning no rth_.ou th t h.. leng th of
t he county. Th.. s.... I I .. . t i ncr....ses (Icss than
SO pe rcent) w.. re concen tra led In th.. ccnt ral
city a rea a nd in t ho . e ..·.. st .. rn t racts ..lIich
have IlIIln t a ln..d a s t rong ag ricul tura l base.

            Th.. r .. appea rs to b.. t hree r"la tlve ly d ist inct :one' o f value c!lanee,
coastal, cen tral , and .... st .. rn . Th.. c""s ta l and ..es te rn ton... e~perien c e<! high
percen t Inc r ..as.. s In -.:I'an housing "alues (o~ e r 100 pe r c.. nt). The coasta l
                                                                    u
:one is charaete rl ted by hieh s tab le l and va lues, lu... ry housi ng, and li ttle
     p
.. ... ansion of t he housing . tock . I n this area t h e a ttraction of na t u r a l aaeni·
                                                           a
ties {such as t he ocean or In t racoastal ~' at e ..... y} k.... ps lH'di an va l u.. s hlgll,
The _ st e rn ;e-e. ce-v enely , h an a rea o f rapi d suburban ,rowtll witll accel e r­
a t ing l an d va lues broulllt on by larle inc reases in t ile ~inl stock. In tlli s
; one a ttrac tion t o _n·llade ....... i ties o f new deve l Op-"'t s (e . g . . , olf co u rse s)
coup led " it ll t ile de s ire t o escape declln inl neigllbo rhood s hips f orce .Nian
hou sinl val ue s u!",ard .

           The cen tral ; one l en e ra ll y wi t n ess ed sull i nc reases (les , tllan the
count ywide a verage) In .Ni an hou si nl vat"es. Thi s a rea i s t ypified by an ol de r
ho"s l lll stock , li t tle o r ItO new construc tion, and less stab ility wit h i n ne l lhbor .
hood. . In t he census t I"3.c h " here neilhborbood s a r e declin in l hou5 inl values
5 ""," t hei r su ll e st i nc reas e.

             (II a r eas o f rap i d l rowth, li ke Pal. Be-ach County , ~ I an hou silll val ues
e Il\ i bi t lIi l ll pe rcent ag e increues . Then Increases i n part re f l ec t in creast'<!
d.......d ~ to in -.ilra t i oro o f indiv idual s , e ithe r f Dr pe..-nen t re s iden ces o r
f Dr s econd. ,,-,"5 (whiell e.,.., ri se a _ j o r ca.pon c nt o f tl>e- bou. inl .... r ket in
r e so r t areas) . *<:11 of the 1I0U.in l deaand " it h i n Pal. Ileacll County ..as focused
on a reas .. i t ll inhennt na t ".,...) amenities Dr i n a r e as o f new d e vel o.,-en t cl\.aracte'
i:t'<! by .... n _....de ...... I ties. Conv e n ely , area. d evoi d o f such f eat u r es o r doe.­
in.at ed by land us e' in t ra:ui t ion ,ho.. t'<! on ly su ll percenta le increa.e. in
aedl311 bou5 i nl value.




                                    COSTf< ISUTOll$ TO THIS ISSUE

                                                             n
       Don<zZd !JNmti..,a Is a 9N dua t e studen t at t ile U iv e rs ity of fl or i da .

       He Is a lso a CC'TIfIII! rc ial art is t . The dra .. i n9S on IH-'l'!'s 6 , 23. and 2S

       are txa""les of Ills wo r k, and are pri nt ed ...ith Ills penll1ssion .

       F1Jr_-.J D. ElH. t s a "",ster ' s s tudl'!"lt i n t he Depa rtlnen t Of   Geo9 ra~hy

       at t he florid a SU t e Un iv er s ity where he also rece iv ed Ills

       t>IoChelor ' s deg r~ i n goverr'lll'Ol"fl t.

       Pctr;ci.a IIi.=-:.Hf/t' ts Yice Pres ldl'!"l t of the FSG. She t eac hes

       ~ ra ph1   and ec:o loqy at tile Marth Campus of ~ I ••l -llade COIIIIlUllity

       Coll eqe.


       ~'o"" K1'<I""ic~ree et vee hls rnaster 's eec-ee i n g t'09 ra ~ lIy in 1977.

       At pre se nt he ls ell<W.led In COlllPr ehells 1ve ol a nni ng ..i t h the Area

       Planni ng Board of Pal_ Beach County.


       81"UCC ."'::P'ti .. as fo r ..ny yurs a Ille rcMnt se_ n. C"r rently he
                                                                   niv
       is workin g on his Ph. D. i n the joi nt prQ(j ra. at t he U e rs ity of
       fl or ioa and the Florloa SU t e Un iv e rs i t y.
       Robfl t't S.N:zM.ri1l. rec ent ly r ec:eiv ed his Nche10r' s deg r e-e in
       geography a t fl orl oa Atla ntic University. He in tends to beg in
       9radua te 'oOr k lead ing t o a ca r~r I n pla nning.
                        r ece iv ed her M
       JOJlC'f! Jb,,'......xi ,,,        .A. i n geogr aphy a t Flo ri da At la ntic
       University. Un til rec:~tl y she 'oIo)S a scece planner for tile County
       o f Los Anqeles . Califo rnia.

       PClt>"ick O's..Hi"""" 15 c hal ,..n of the geD9r a phy departnont at the
       Flo rida Sta te Universi ty. f.Ie rece ived hl$ Ph.D. ff'Olll the Londoo
       School of Econo-ics In 1967 .
       Raot<ztd Sc ","Zt " is an as sociate pro fe sso r I n the qeogr .phy d~ rt ·
       lIent at Flor i da Atlant i c Univers ity. lit 1$ l n teres ~ I n the
       appl ication of quanti t a tive IIll!thods to geogra pll1c prob le-s.
                   THE HEALTH Of GEOGRAPHY IS TWO· YEAR COLLEGES

                                 IS THE SOUTHEAST


                                          Pa t r ic ia t . lU _i ll c r


          "The s t a t ...s o f l:""' l:raphy in t he t wo_ye ar coll,..,es in t he Sou the as t,..nl
DivisiOl'. is s"....,ha t i.-proved e ve r the las t f ew yea rs.'"         This s tat.,.,....~ o pened
Harry Sdlal,.....n's 19i 6 re port on t h.. sUt " s o f ' .... , r aphy in t hc h ·o - yc .. r
c<>lleSu in t he nh.. s tates o f t h.. Southeas tcrn Division o f t h.. Assodation <> f
"-<' rican Geol: ra ph.. rs (AAG). The re s ...lts <>f lOY I!H& s" .......y for t hc MG s"gnts ,
On th.. con trary , t hH gt'Oilraph.y i s on t he d«li ne i n this r ..gion.

           The su.....ey consis ted of seven ques tions. Thc fi rst four d.... lt wit !> the
n~r of       I:t'Ol:raphy cou rses UU l:ht at t he lnstitutoon. f requency of t h e offc r­
inllS . and t h .. "",roB_n t p e r coun.. . l n fo~tion w s aho solici trd as t o
                                                            a
..he the r the respontent t a ught only ,eotraphy or oth.. r disciplines as wc l l.
The reuininl: questions ""liel ted C..-ellU concemini the statI.LS of lcoj;raphy
:H their insti tu tion an d t he possible role t h e MG .itht take t o strenl:th..n t ha t
Ha 'us.

          Th.. suroey disclosed t hat 68 percent of t he schools .. ..., responded include
lleographr in thei r eu r ricull.-. The.,st popular COUrseS art=: relliona l seo­
llraphy (tauilht in 4$ pe rcen t of the collellOS). physical I"olraphy (2 4 percen t).
 introduc'ion to lI.e<>j;uphy (~O perc .... t) . , , _ I:col:.;>.phy (lS pl>rcent). cons,..r ­

va t.on 0; natural resource, (5 percen t). and «o_ie ll<'Ograpily (6 percent) •

.~?proxi ... t .. ly 5000 studen ts a year r e l i 't e r for l""lraphy eo ...rses d i st r ib...ted

 as follows: T,..nncsse-e PI pe re ..ntl . flO rida (lO prrcen t) . "'labaJoa (12.5 percen t) .

GC'ortia (9 . 5 pe rccnt), "", r tll Carol in;>. (9 pe-rcC'nt). Mississippi (4 percent).

Sou th Carolin a (Z.I pe rcent). Ar kansu (l.9 pc ...... nt ) . and Loui.i ana (none).


              Of t h .. no..nty scl>ooh t hat respoaded s.tating t hat gcography wa s eo t
 incllldrd in t he i r c~r ricuh.. , eilh tccn uid that t hey had n .. ~er incilldcd 1'""'­
llraphy a nd h.ad n", inten tion o f doins so i n t h e fut. ure , Only lWO scl!ools. bo tl!
 in Tennc's             indica trd t lla t t "c y " c r c iUeres ted in Incl...tina acornp"Y ill t he i,.
cur rlc I             S.. condly. of the .ixty IC'Olr..phcn .. 1>0 r e s po nd ed t o wy s...ney , only
 t hr        cre t e a c h i n l geol raphy f ...l l_ tiae. The r,.....i:linl: fif ty.s ..,·en ..,..re t ,..a c h ·
 inl th.. unge frOCl t wo co ...n .. s a yea r in lcol uphy t o th ree a te.... Thc,e
pa.rt- ti_ gC'Og rapl'l,..rs also teacll history. political science. socioloL". biolol:Y .
ch ...istry. psycholoZY . cn"irOlUl<OnUI sci ....ce . coal aine r,..claaa tion (~). pl'lysical
educa 'ion. aHron_r. g.."I"gy. econolO1cs. a n t hropo l ol Y. phy.ics , calculus , pre­
calculLlS, and [nSIi,h. It eppea s-s tha t a IC'Oenph,..t in t he t>oO-yu r collel:'"
au5t , o f neccssi ty. bc a jack-of_all_t ra<ln. So tlbly, of the thr .... full-li_
IC'Ol:uphcrs . t ..o an cllployed in Tenn .. ssee- two-y,..ar coll,..ges. P,..rllap. Tenn .. ,see
 i. t !>c only 5Iat e ia t he rCili on ..hcre lCOl:raphy is ,roo-ing in pop ...larity. Qui te
;>. f ..... pa rt. ti ... l ....Srzph.. ,.s an aho .......hnl ei tb.. r p41rt-ti_ o r t ... lI-ti ... In
coll"le adaIinistration.

           Of th.. gcog ,aph.. rs who r,..spondC'cl, 77 pe rcent ..cre zen. Th,.. u{o,ity of
til.. - ' I wor lC'd wil h a ... Ie coun terpa rt; wIl,..re t here wa s only one gcol:nphe r
,..-..Ioyed by a co ll .. ~ .. . t h at rcoruphe.. t ....ded 10 b .. a aa". This i . "ot , .... l1y
s... rpri.inl a. ecolraphy s ti l l rcaains a IIafI'S f ie ld. The .... jority of t he t wo­
ycar collell'" in t h.. Sou theuHrn Division ..-ploy or.ly on" I .... guph ..r and in
10 percent o f t h,.. schools .. 1>0 ~sponded t <> t t.e ........."y. this person is no t a f ...tl _
I i ... facu lty --o..r .

            TIle c..... l u nh of lOY ho-y"'ar cOll C3£U"'s r ..-a i n th" u .... Firs l . the ,,..
's a lad of c.,...,.,ica tion aJIOng ilcographers bo th wi t h i n and be t .. een sUte. ,
...h ich leads t o a f,.... l ing of i s o l a t i on . Second is tt." probl.,. of C'ducuinl
adllinist utors , t U c h i n l eo11earues i n ot'ler disciplin,..s. and 11'1.. pllblic at
 h rll'" r",s a N i nl t hO" na t ...r .. and i-rortance of I:C'Ol: raphy. This Can be an
O'Spedaily f nJS trating t uk ..hen one Is t he on ly geog raphe r ...-ploy.-d by a
,ollege. One of ay respondents , !obry Trlpl e tt e , put i t buuti fu lly ..he n s he
.. ro te . "Too aany pe rson s st i li ' ons lde r geoguphy to be .... at they ha d in th e
 f ourt h g rade." She goes on t o say t ha t ~eog raphy is perll"'ps .., re re l ev an t
 t o,b y than aany of t he soci",1 sci ences gen e rally of fe r ed In t h,. cu r r ;cul . . ,
bu t t h"'t t hi s f c t has not b,.,." ...d e d,.a r. Sh.. f ..els , a s do .... ny o the r geo_
gr ...ph..rs, th... t        jor I.....' .. ehanle n...,ds t o tak.. pl ...e... • thi rd , th.. r ,. is a
p robletl in f in,Ji ng suitab l .. tu t booh fo r ..orld r e l i ona l geolraphyat th .. '011_
....it y ,ol lege l e v.. l . Too often t h.. re adlnl l ev e l is t oo h i lh , t h.. p ruen t ...t i on
t oo dry. and bal ance in r .. gi"",,1 elIph His la ck in,. This .... y not p res..nt prob leas
 for t he s t ud ..nt ~· i t h a bad ground in basi' p h c.. l oc a ti on an d a un iv.. rsi ty
re ad i ng 1.. 1'''1. Ilut t h.. IDjo ri ty o f th.. studen ts In th.. t wo-year a nd e-.mo Hr
                                                                            d
colleg..s h al''' no idea ..h.. r .. pl;Ku ar.. loc at ..d and r ..... at t h.. hi gh school
1.......1 o r I ~r .                        •

            thO'S.. c..-p laints ha,· .. be.. n ai T.-d year a f t .. r y.. ar .. ith no v iSible action
fo rt hc Olii n g t o solve t h.... . I WO<Jld li ... t o slliln t : "0 pos. ib l .. solution. t o t h..
pr<>bleoo o( ,..-micuion. First. a divis ion n.....slen.. r should b.....r lH en by
t he t ...o_y..a r co ll ..ge 'oordina tar f ar co ll ..a,ues in t h.. c..-m i ty and t ..- - y..ar
                                                                                                o
,alleges. $e.(:ond , t he division two - ye ar college cooNIna tor should appoi n t
s u a coordina tors t o facIlitat .. c _ n i'atlon ...Ithin th.. Ir . tatn and b.. t ... ...n       .
t he stau·s and t he di-'ision.

           In condu.ion, th.. Sou the a <t ..rn Divi.Ion ha. a n.-b.. ,. of geog raph.. rs In
the two_yu r '01 leg... ..11.0 a r .. vali an tly strugJ:ling to p,...sene geography as pa rt
of t he cu rri,ul. . 1n t he ". ,,,lleges. bu t all of t h IS . t rul:g!lng .. ill be for
na"ght if solu tIon. are no t f ou nd (0,. t h.. p robl .... dls,u.sed aha.·... ". 1
s tatt'd. I f ..el geography Is d..,linl ng in t he t ...o ·year ,olleg... in the SOuth...... t .
                                                                 ·
This I. based on t he c_nts re, .. \Ved f roa the .u....ey respond..n ts as .... 11 a.
t he poor respon.e t o t he ,ur\"e~. """s t of the r es pondents IndiC;ltt'd t h;lt enroll_
..... 1 In geolraphy has d.. cllned I~ t he pas t two yea rs a~d ;1" a r e s u l t the ~ ...oer
of ecco-ses and .ectlon. b. also declined. Th.. poor re ..pon.e to the survey
<;ould be bl ...... d on sev.. T31 possibili ti ..s . I) IC'Ography Is nO long.. r t a ught ;l,t
th.. scl>ool , !) t h.. r .. is a geographer, but he/.hr no longer t ..ache. gcog raphy,
.;) t h.. sc hool no longe r e XiSB, ,."d ~) ;Ip...thy on the: pan of the geog ra ph.. r .. t
t he eo l l",e. The previous suney yielded a !Xl percent response , t h i s one only
3! per,ent. "ppro xl_a tely 100 schools i nc l udt'd geog raphy in the ir curri,uh.
ac,ording t o t h e 1976 su ..... ey . bu t only fi fty- five .ehools did in 1978. There­
fo re. one .... y ,onclude that t he l'aeal th of J:cogl'aphy In th e two - year co lleg.. s
of t he SOUth...... t Is not good.



1. lia r,.,. J. Seh 3 leaan . "C_inion on Geography in th e Two- Yen Coll e ges , AAL .
SOUthea.tern DiVision," Universi t y o f Sou th Florid.a (Unpub lis ht'd Repo r t). 19~6,
p. I.
~    !to,.,.
          Trlp l ..tt .. , Sou thwes t ern Technical Ins ti tute, Sylva , 'io r th Carolina.
persona l c-.fl iea tlon , 1978.



        ' t·····_·_···_·"               , u h _'b h dh"


   IIfIrry J. Se Nl _ n . J r. , who >m;l te "The Sta tus o f (;eooq raptly i n Florida's        cee­
   ..."'ity and Junior Coll*s " i n t he p~v 1ous .....-.er of :-~ . Fturida I;«)gr,zplw"t"
                                                                            .
   '""- s not 1de n t tfl ed alllOn9 the I1s t o f contr 1tlu tors to t ha t Is sue . He is
   associate pr o fena"t" and d1rec tor o f 9f!09 raphy H the St. Petl!rsbu rg Call1PU S
   o f the U",i v.. r s i t y Of South Flor ida . Our apolO<j i es . H.J, r ry .
    g   ~g,I
     ~ <0
----------~ G EO G R A P H E R S --

          The F1 or ld<1 Society of Geo9r.plle rs ..as ct\l r tere-d 1n 1964 4S
  .. non-pl"'Ofit or9.nintlon. for t he purpost of fu rther ing prtlfesslonal is...
  1n geog ra phy through t ile appli c.tion of 9eog ra phi c te<:lIn1 ques 1n , 11
  aren of i!'duclti on. govtn'Jl'ie'nt . and business i n Flor ida . The soci ety
  supports these object ives by p~t inq I cqu. lntance and discus s ion
  UIO" g t rs members a nd . l tll s chola rs alld pra c tit ioners 1n relatl!'d
  f ie lds by s t lr1lUla t ing researCh and f ield l nves t l g.atloll. by enc oura gi ng
  publ 1c. t lon Clf schol , rly s tudi es. a nd by perfol"l'linq serv i ces t o .1d
  t!'le adva ncement of its IIlelT'Ibers .1Id ttlt f i e l d Of qeGClr aptl1 t n Flo rida.

           Pl'nons i nt e res t ed 1n -.bersllip 1n The Florhl, Soci ety of
  r..og rapher s s~ ld contac t :
                                r. obert J. Tata
                               O R
                               Pres iden t . Flol"lda Soci e t y Of   ~ r.phe rs
                               Ooep.Jrtmen t of Geography
                                                  ni
                               Flor ida Atl.ntlc U ver si ty
                             Boca Raton . Fl ))4)1
  Regul, r I'Ie"t>ership 15 54 . 00 for a eal ~lld a r Yl!a r;   s tud~ t   IIlI!IIIb!rs ll1p
  is S2. 00.

								
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