# Lecture 6 Determiners _I_

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```					Lecture 4 Determiners

1. Classification of Determiners
2. Collocations between Determiners
3. Articles
1. What are determiners?
   Words that precede any pre modifying
adjectives in a noun phrase and which
denote such referential meanings as
specific reference, generic reference,
definite quantity or indefinite quantity
are referred to as determiners.
   In terms of function, they break into two major
types: identifiers and quantifiers.

a nice man     wrong: nice a man
2. The choice of determiners is often determined by
Many good people wrong: much good people
word, but determiners identify or quantify it.
Many good books       three English books
Classification:
Determiners, as a class of words, include:
1.  Articles (definite article, indefinite article, zero article)
2.  Possessive determiners: my, your, his, her
3.  Genitive nouns: John’s, my friend’s
4.  Demonstrative determiners: this, that, these
5.  Relative determiners: whose, which
6.  Interrogative determiners: what, which, whose
7.  Indefinite determiners: no, some, each, several
8.  Cardinal and Ordinal numerals:
9.  Multiplicative and Fractional numerals
10. Quantifiers: a lot of, plenty of, a large amount of
Problems

when more than one determiner occurs in the
noun phrase, there is the problem of word order
between determiners.
Collocations between Determiners

There is a problem of word order between
determiners if a noun phrase contains more
than one determiner.

According to their potential position,
determiners fall into three subclasses:
Central Determiners, Pre-determiners
and Post Determiners.
The Order:
all    the     four               teachers
all    these   last few          days
half   his                       lecture
those   last few           months
several hundred   guests
all            other             students
such    a                         misfortune
some    such              alloy
Pre Central        Post
Questions for thought:

   His some friends usually speak highly of him.

   His every action shows that he is a very
determined young man.

   We have got enough time to read such many
novels.
   page63
Exercises:

   (the other, five, all) boys were in the classroom.
   (such, one) dictionary is enough for me.
   They want at least (double, their) salaries.
   He was on leave (few last the) days.
   (such, few) cases have been reported.
   He has been staying home (all last few these) days.
3. Usage of the articles:
   Articles are the most typical of determiners.
   English has two articles: the definite and the
indefinite articles.
   With plural count nouns and noncount nouns,
the absence of an article signals the presence
of another kind of article---- the zero article.
   It is in this sense that we may also say the
English has three articles----- the definite,
the indefinite, and the zero article.
Pronunciation:

   The is pronounced /ðə/ before a consonant
sound and /ði/ before a vowel sound.
   The book the article
   Indefinite article a /ə/ is used before a
consonant sound and an /ən/ before a vowel
sound.
   A book       an article
Functions of articles:
   Generic and Specific Reference
   Generic reference refers to the class in general,
while specific reference refers to identifiable units
and no other.
   When we say the reference is generic, we are
talking about any member representative of a
class of people or things. Specific reference
refers to a particular specimen of the class.
Generic reference:
Galileo claimed that he had invented the
telescope.
An ox is a useful animal.
Carrots are my favorite vegetables.
Knowledge is power.
 Specific reference:
 Old Tom owns a dog and a cat. The dog’s
name is Boris; the cat’s name is Blackie.
(definite)
Here’s a letter for you. (indefinite)
The streets are clean and are shaded with
trees.
   All the three forms of article (the, a (n), and
zero) can be used generically to refer to the
members of a class as a whole.
   Specific reference falls into two kinds: Definite
specific reference and indefinite specific
reference.
Indefinite article

   1. The main function: to classify , to indicate class
membership.
   It can refer to a class as a whole.
   A horse is a useful animal.
   This is a dictionary, not an encyclopedia.
   2. Nouns referring to a job/profession as subject
complement.
   Miss Wang is a teacher.
   His wife is a waitress.
   3. a(n) as a weaker form of one.
   I’d like a cup of coffee.
   I only want one cup of coffee and you ‘ve
given me two.
   The wall will collapse at a blow.
   The wall will collapse at one blow.
   4. in some set collocations or idioms
   In a hurry in a minute
   Have a cold/a sore throat/a cough
   5. not usually used with proper nouns except
referring to the category of countable nouns.
   You’ll never be a Mozart.
   Father bought her a complete Lu Xun.
   6. not usually used with mass nouns except
referring to the category of countable nouns.
(denoting a kind/type of)
He was caught in a heavy rain.
Parents love their children with a devotion for
which they ask for no return.
Definite article

   1. primarily used for specific reference to a
particular example of a class.
   Helen is in the library.
   2. used of a phenomenon conceived of as
“unique”:
   Make hay while the sun shines.
  3. used to denote generic reference:
      The computer is an electronic machine for
storing and processing data.
 4. used before the names of musical
instruments:
 I usually play the violin in my spare time.

5. used before the names of organizations,
offices and institutions, public buildings,
ships , most newspapers and magazines:
the People’s Congress the National Museum
 the Democratic Party the People’s Daily
   6. before personal names in the plural form
referring to the family:
   The Blacks      the Smiths
   7. before the names of seas, rivers, mountains,
straits, deserts, and most of the bays and gulfs:
   The Atlantic the Mississippi the Persian Gulf
   The Sahara The Taiwan Straits the Alps
Zero article
   1. proper nouns mostly take no article:
   2. before plural nouns, used to denote generic reference:
   African elephants have larger ears than Indian elephants.
   Compare:
   *Ruthless poachers hunt an elephant for the valuable
ivory of its tusks. (one example of a class)
   Ruthless poachers hunt the elephant …… (formal)
   Ruthless poachers hunt elephants…of their tusks.
   (both refer to the whole class)
   3. usually before material and abstract nouns:
   It is impossible to live in a world without hope.
   4. before times and seasons:
   At night, in summer
   If winter comes, can spring be far behind?
   5. before names of official posts, titles and
professions:
   Who’s captain of the ship?
   6.before names of sports, meals and transport:
   Play football, have lunch, by bus
   7. before certain singular count nouns,
especially those referring to institutions, such
as bed, church, school, college, court, hospital,
office, prison, etc.
   They go to church every Sunday morning.
   We went to the church to attend a wedding
ceremony.
   Class begins at 8 in the morning.
   There are twenty students in the class.
   She stayed in hospital for three weeks.
   I went to the hospital to see my friend.
Other uses of articles:

   1.zero commonly used before some idioms
composed of two nouns:
   Heart and soul, husband and wife, arm in arm,
face to face.
   2. in some prepositional phrases, things are
different when nouns take zero or the definite.
   Notes are printed at the bottom of the page.
   He is a good man at bottom.
More prepositional phrases:

   In the future & in future
   In charge of & in the charge of
   In possession of & in the possession of
   In case of & in the case of
   In fashion & in the fashion of & in a fashion
   Out of question & out of the question
Error correction:

   A language is unique to humans.
   Film is a form of mass entertainment.
   I wanted to go to the university, but I wanted
to be an actor more.
   Times is a British daily newspaper.
   White House is refusing to comment on the
report.
   The children have taken fancy to their nurses.
Exercise:
1.This is __ first time that the child has seen __
elephant.
2. Can you lend me __ pencil so that I can finish __
test?
3. For many people, __ childhood was a happy time.
4. __ Man has just taken his first steps into __ space.
5. I love __ mountains, but I hate __ sea.
6. If you go by __ train, you can have quite __
comfortable journey, but make sure that you get
__ express, not __ train that stops at all __
stations.
7. He was sent to __ prison for stealing.
8. Children should be taught to behave
themselves at __ table.

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