Lecture 6 Determiners _I_

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Lecture 6 Determiners _I_ Powered By Docstoc
					Lecture 4 Determiners

1. Classification of Determiners
2. Collocations between Determiners
3. Articles
1. What are determiners?
   Words that precede any pre modifying
     adjectives in a noun phrase and which
     denote such referential meanings as
     specific reference, generic reference,
     definite quantity or indefinite quantity
    are referred to as determiners.
   In terms of function, they break into two major
    types: identifiers and quantifiers.
Differences between determiners and adjectives


1. Determiners usually precede adjectives
 a nice man     wrong: nice a man
2. The choice of determiners is often determined by
  the head word but not adjectives.
Many good people wrong: much good people
3. Adjectives show the characteristics of the head
  word, but determiners identify or quantify it.
Many good books       three English books
Classification:
Determiners, as a class of words, include:
1.  Articles (definite article, indefinite article, zero article)
2.  Possessive determiners: my, your, his, her
3.  Genitive nouns: John’s, my friend’s
4.  Demonstrative determiners: this, that, these
5.  Relative determiners: whose, which
6.  Interrogative determiners: what, which, whose
7.  Indefinite determiners: no, some, each, several
8.  Cardinal and Ordinal numerals:
9.  Multiplicative and Fractional numerals
10. Quantifiers: a lot of, plenty of, a large amount of
Problems


when more than one determiner occurs in the
noun phrase, there is the problem of word order
between determiners.
Collocations between Determiners


 There is a problem of word order between
 determiners if a noun phrase contains more
 than one determiner.

 According to their potential position,
 determiners fall into three subclasses:
 Central Determiners, Pre-determiners
 and Post Determiners.
The Order:
 all    the     four               teachers
 all    your    three              books
 all    these   last few          days
 half   his                       lecture
        those   last few           months
                several hundred   guests
 all            other             students
such    a                         misfortune
        some    such              alloy
Pre Central        Post
Questions for thought:

   His some friends usually speak highly of him.

   His every action shows that he is a very
    determined young man.

   We have got enough time to read such many
    novels.
   page63
    Exercises:

   (the other, five, all) boys were in the classroom.
   (such, one) dictionary is enough for me.
   They want at least (double, their) salaries.
   He was on leave (few last the) days.
   (such, few) cases have been reported.
   He has been staying home (all last few these) days.
3. Usage of the articles:
   Articles are the most typical of determiners.
   English has two articles: the definite and the
    indefinite articles.
   With plural count nouns and noncount nouns,
    the absence of an article signals the presence
    of another kind of article---- the zero article.
   It is in this sense that we may also say the
    English has three articles----- the definite,
    the indefinite, and the zero article.
Pronunciation:

   The is pronounced /ðə/ before a consonant
    sound and /ði/ before a vowel sound.
   The book the article
   Indefinite article a /ə/ is used before a
    consonant sound and an /ən/ before a vowel
    sound.
   A book       an article
    Functions of articles:
   Generic and Specific Reference
   Generic reference refers to the class in general,
    while specific reference refers to identifiable units
    and no other.
   When we say the reference is generic, we are
    talking about any member representative of a
    class of people or things. Specific reference
    refers to a particular specimen of the class.
Generic reference:
 Galileo claimed that he had invented the
 telescope.
 An ox is a useful animal.
 Carrots are my favorite vegetables.
 Knowledge is power.
 Specific reference:
 Old Tom owns a dog and a cat. The dog’s
  name is Boris; the cat’s name is Blackie.
  (definite)
  Here’s a letter for you. (indefinite)
 The streets are clean and are shaded with
  trees.
   All the three forms of article (the, a (n), and
    zero) can be used generically to refer to the
    members of a class as a whole.
   Specific reference falls into two kinds: Definite
    specific reference and indefinite specific
    reference.
Indefinite article

   1. The main function: to classify , to indicate class
    membership.
   It can refer to a class as a whole.
   A horse is a useful animal.
   This is a dictionary, not an encyclopedia.
   2. Nouns referring to a job/profession as subject
    complement.
   Miss Wang is a teacher.
   His wife is a waitress.
   3. a(n) as a weaker form of one.
   I’d like a cup of coffee.
   I only want one cup of coffee and you ‘ve
    given me two.
   The wall will collapse at a blow.
   The wall will collapse at one blow.
   4. in some set collocations or idioms
   In a hurry in a minute
   Have a cold/a sore throat/a cough
   5. not usually used with proper nouns except
    referring to the category of countable nouns.
   You’ll never be a Mozart.
   Father bought her a complete Lu Xun.
   6. not usually used with mass nouns except
    referring to the category of countable nouns.
    (denoting a kind/type of)
    He was caught in a heavy rain.
    Parents love their children with a devotion for
    which they ask for no return.
Definite article

   1. primarily used for specific reference to a
    particular example of a class.
   Helen is in the library.
   2. used of a phenomenon conceived of as
    “unique”:
   Make hay while the sun shines.
  3. used to denote generic reference:
      The computer is an electronic machine for
   storing and processing data.
 4. used before the names of musical
   instruments:
 I usually play the violin in my spare time.

5. used before the names of organizations,
   offices and institutions, public buildings,
   ships , most newspapers and magazines:
  the People’s Congress the National Museum
 the Democratic Party the People’s Daily
   6. before personal names in the plural form
    referring to the family:
   The Blacks      the Smiths
   7. before the names of seas, rivers, mountains,
    straits, deserts, and most of the bays and gulfs:
   The Atlantic the Mississippi the Persian Gulf
   The Sahara The Taiwan Straits the Alps
    Zero article
   1. proper nouns mostly take no article:
   2. before plural nouns, used to denote generic reference:
   African elephants have larger ears than Indian elephants.
   Compare:
   *Ruthless poachers hunt an elephant for the valuable
    ivory of its tusks. (one example of a class)
   Ruthless poachers hunt the elephant …… (formal)
   Ruthless poachers hunt elephants…of their tusks.
   (both refer to the whole class)
   3. usually before material and abstract nouns:
   It is impossible to live in a world without hope.
   4. before times and seasons:
   At night, in summer
   If winter comes, can spring be far behind?
   5. before names of official posts, titles and
    professions:
   Who’s captain of the ship?
   6.before names of sports, meals and transport:
   Play football, have lunch, by bus
   7. before certain singular count nouns,
    especially those referring to institutions, such
    as bed, church, school, college, court, hospital,
    office, prison, etc.
   They go to church every Sunday morning.
   We went to the church to attend a wedding
    ceremony.
   Class begins at 8 in the morning.
   There are twenty students in the class.
   She stayed in hospital for three weeks.
   I went to the hospital to see my friend.
Other uses of articles:

   1.zero commonly used before some idioms
    composed of two nouns:
   Heart and soul, husband and wife, arm in arm,
    face to face.
   2. in some prepositional phrases, things are
    different when nouns take zero or the definite.
   Notes are printed at the bottom of the page.
   He is a good man at bottom.
More prepositional phrases:

   In the future & in future
   In charge of & in the charge of
   In possession of & in the possession of
   In case of & in the case of
   In fashion & in the fashion of & in a fashion
   Out of question & out of the question
Error correction:

   A language is unique to humans.
   Film is a form of mass entertainment.
   I wanted to go to the university, but I wanted
    to be an actor more.
   Times is a British daily newspaper.
   White House is refusing to comment on the
    report.
   The children have taken fancy to their nurses.
  Exercise:
1.This is __ first time that the child has seen __
  elephant.
2. Can you lend me __ pencil so that I can finish __
  test?
3. For many people, __ childhood was a happy time.
4. __ Man has just taken his first steps into __ space.
5. I love __ mountains, but I hate __ sea.
6. If you go by __ train, you can have quite __
  comfortable journey, but make sure that you get
  __ express, not __ train that stops at all __
  stations.
7. He was sent to __ prison for stealing.
8. Children should be taught to behave
  themselves at __ table.

				
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