TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH MIND MAPPING TECHNIQUE TO THE TENTH

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					                                        CHAPTER 1

                                     INTRODUCTION



1.1 Background

       There are many factors that cause the students’ difficulties in learning. One of them

is the method given by the teacher. Teaching English as a foreign language requires the use

of effective learning method. According to Richards and Rodgers (in Brown:48), ―Method

is an umbrella term for the specification and interrelation of theory and practice.‖

Furthermore they state that virtually all language teaching methods make the oversimplified

assumption that what teachers do in the classroom can be conventionalized into a set of

procedures that fits all contexts. It means that a set of procedures or the techniques in

teaching have an influence to the student’s learning result.

       In learning English, one of the factors is the poor mastery of vocabulary knowledge.

The students are lack of stock of the words. The students who have little knowledge of

vocabulary will face some difficulties to understand the written language and oral language.

Dellar and Hocking (in Thornbury, 2002:13) say, ―If you spend most of your time studying

grammar, your English will not improve very much. You will see most improvement if you

learn more words and expressions. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say

almost anything with word.‖ The students may get some difficulties in learning a language

if they have limited number of vocabularies. Saleh (1997:12) argues, ―The success in

mastering a language is determined by the size of the vocabulary one has learned.‖

Thornbury (2002:23) adds ―The learner needs not only to learn a lot of words, but to

remember them.‖ To master all the language skills, vocabulary knowledge are important



                                              1
that have to known by the students and the teachers of English should have a technique that

makes the students interesting in learning vocabulary. There are many techniques of

making the students interested in what they are learning especially in learning vocabulary.

Brown (1994:48) says, ―Techniques are the specific activities manifested in the classroom

that are consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.‖


       Memory sensory has important value in learning vocabulary. The students need

balancing in usage of the left brain and right brain. Whole brain is needed by the students to

think perfectly. Right brain is for creativity and visualization. Left brain is for logical and

rational. Mind mapping combines both and become whole-brained. It stimulates the brain

by appealing to both the creative and logical side of the brain. According to DePotter and

Hernacki as translated into English (in Abdurrahman, 2008:152), ―Mind mapping uses

visuals reminder and sensory into a pattern from the ideas which are related‖. Mind

mapping allows the students to clarify their thoughts by categorising and grouping into

related ideas (de Bono,http://www.usingmindmaps.com/mind-maps-in-education.html). It

starts with the students’ main topic or the theme as the central idea and allows the main

branches of mind mapping to represent the main points of their thought (right brain) then

combined by the interesting colours and images (left brain) which will stimulate the brain.

Thornbury (2002, 18) says,‖ Acquiring a vocabulary requires not only labelling but

categorizing skills.‖ The writer chooses mind mapping as a technique to help the students

in memorizing the words which are expected in improving their vocabulary proficiency by

memorizing easily.




                                              2
        Rivers (in Thornbury, 2002:144) states that vocabulary cannot be taught, it can be

presented, explained, included in all kind of activities and experienced in all manner of

associations…but it is ultimately it is learned by the individual.‖ Mind mapping is believed

as one of the techniques or activities which can be used in teaching vocabulary which

involve the essential idea and encourages memorizing vocabulary easily.


        See the example of mind mapping (Buzan‟s Principles) below:




        From the brief information above, the writer is interested in wring a thesis entitled

“TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH MIND MAPPING TECHNIQUE TO

THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA NEGERI 15 PALEMBANG”



1.2 Problem

1.2.1   Limitation of the Problem

        In this investigation, the writer limits the problem on ―Parts of Body‖ as the

material in teaching vocabulary to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang



                                              3
and the writer will use the mind map in Tony Buzan principles similar to the „Network

Tree‟ mind mapping as the way to develop the students’ vocabulary. The fifty words that

will be taught in this study are presented below;

1) Head (face, hair, curly, straight, blond, forehead, eye, eyebrow, nose, sharp, flat, ear,

   mouth, lip, upper lip, lower lip, tooth, tongue, chin, cheek).

2) Body (shoulder, chest, neck, stomach, hip, navel).

3) Hand (finger, thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, little finger, arm, upper

   arm, forearm, elbow, nail, hand wrist, palm).

4) Leg (foot, ankle, thigh, knee, calf, heel, toe).



1.2.1   Formulation of the Problem

        The main problem of this research is ―Is it effective to use mind mapping technique

in teaching vocabulary to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang?‖



1.3 Objective of the Research

        Based on the problem above, the objective of this study is to find out whether or not

it is significantly effective to teach vocabulary through mind mapping technique to the

tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang.




                                               4
1.4 Significance of the Research

       There are some significances of this study in teaching vocabulary through mind

mapping technique to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang.

1) By having read this study, the teachers of English are expected to increase their strategy

   in teaching vocabulary and the writer hopes that this study will give a contribution in

   the educational side to the development of language teaching and learning about

   vocabulary through mind mapping.

2) It is expected that this study will overcome the difficulties of students’ in memorizing

   their vocabulary and it can help the students to be interested in learning vocabulary

3) It is expected that this study to be one of the references for other researchers to get

   information about teaching through mind mapping.

4) The writer will indirectly enlarge her knowledge and get experience by doing this study.



1.5 Hypotheses

       Based on the problem and objective of the study, there are two forms of hypotheses

in this study, they are; Null Hypotheses (Ho) and Alternative hypotheses (Ha) as follows:

Ho : It is not effective to use mind mapping technique in teaching vocabulary proficiency.

Ha : It is effective to use mind mapping technique in teaching vocabulary proficiency.



1.6 The Criteria of Testing the Hypotheses

       For testing the hypotheses, the writer will involve 21 pairs of students as the sample

of research, so degree of the freedom (df) is 20 (21-1) and the significance level is 0.05 %

in one-tailed test. The writer will use the critical value of t-table or matched t-test



                                             5
distribution table and the significance level is 0.05 for one-tailed test in the t-table. The null

hypotheses (Ho) will be accepted if the t-obtained is less than t-table as its critical value

(1.725, n = 20). If the t-obtained is equal to or higher than t-table as its critical value (1.725,

n = 20), the null hypotheses will be rejected.




                                                 6
                                      CHAPTER II

                            THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK



               To framework theoretically, there are some relevant topics in this chapter:

(1) the concept of vocabulary, (2) the concept of mind mapping technique, (3) the concept

of teaching, (4) the theoretical procedure of teaching vocabulary through mind mapping,

and (5) related previous study.



2.1 The Concept of Vocabulary

        English has a very large vocabulary consisting of more than a million. Vocabulary

is very important for the students in learning English especially for communication to

construct the meaning and making a language.



2.1.1   Description of Vocabulary

        Vocabulary is a list of words in a language with their meaning (Hornby,

2000:1331). Saleh (1997:60) states that vocabulary items fall into two principle categories,

they are; (1) concrete words and (2) abstract words.

1) Concrete Words

        Saleh (1997:60) states that a concrete word is a word that the meaning can be

perceived through one or more of the five senses. The meaning of concrete word can be

pointed out by means of Audio Visual Aids (AVA), like realia (real things), miniatures,

pictures, and demonstration.




                                             7
2) Abstract Words

        Saleh (1990:60) states that an Abstract word is a word that the meaning of which

cannot generally be grasped by virtue of the five senses. The notion of abstract word are

like thank and enjoy, its can be shown by circumlocution or translation.



2.2 The Concept of Mind Mapping Technique

        Mind mapping is creative note-taking method, which eases us to remember much

information (De Porter, Readon, and Nourie, 1999:175). The best mind mapping is

colourful and used much pictures and symbols; usually like an art.

        Buzan (1993:1) states that mind mapping is a powerful graphic technique, which

provides a universal key to unlock the potential of brain. Mind mapping technique imitates

the thinking process, namely possible us to move from one topic to another topics back and

forth. Recording the information through symbols, pictures, emotional meaning and

colours, exactly the same like our brains process it. A pattern which at least consists of

picture, symbol and color that will not just help the students to understand the vocabulary

knowledge but also makes the students feel good, enjoyable and attract their brain which at

last lead them to have interest in mastery vocabulary knowledge.



2.2.1   Definition of Mind Mapping Technique


        Buzan (http://www.usingmindmaps.com/what-is-a-mind-map.html) states that a

mind mapping is a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to unlock the




                                             8
potential of the brain. It is visual map of ideas, laid out in a radial format around a central

thought and it involves a unique combination of imagery, colour and visual-spatial

arrangement which is proven to significantly improve recall when compared to

conventional methods of note-taking and learning by rote. It needs imagination and

association to activate our brain in remembering something.


        Based on DePotter and Hernacki as translated into English (in Abdurrahman,

2008:153), ―Mind mapping is the use of whole brains technique by using the visualization

and other graphic infrastructure to make an impression‖. Besides, mind mapping is one of

techniques which can make the students more enjoyable and interesting in studying

vocabulary.

        According to Martin as translated into English (in Trianto, 2009:158) mind mapping

is a concrete graphic illustration which indicates how a single concept related to other

concept in the same categories. Mind mapping is a pattern which at least consists of picture,

symbol and colour that will not just help the students to understand the vocabulary

knowledge but also make the students feel good, enjoyable and attract their brain which at

last leads them to have interest in mastery vocabulary knowledge.



2.2.2   The Advantages of Using Mind Mapping Technique

        DePorter and Hernacki (in Abdurrahman, 2008:172) describe that there are some

advantages of using mind mapping technique, they are as follows;




                                              9
1)   Flexible

        Explaining something can be easy without confusing in add the material based on

the mind mapping. We can put the label and category of something based on our own

opinion anywhere in the mind mapping.

2)   Concentrate on the Topic

        Getting the subtopics what we talk about with focus on the main ideas easily. Keep

focus on the keyword can help us to make it simple and it does not waste the time.

3)   Increasing Comprehension

        Using mind mapping can make easy in understanding the material. Mind mapping is

a simple think pattern so it is not make us confuse to understand what we have learned and

easy to remember the material.

4)   Enjoyable

        Imagination and creativity are unlimited in using mind mapping, so it can be funny

to learn. By using pictures and colours, it makes the brain enjoy and excited in thinking

something what we want about the material.



2.2.3   The Classification of Mind Mapping Technique

        Trianto (2009:160) describes that mind mapping can be distinguished into four

kinds, namely; (1) network tree, (2) event chain, (3) cycle concept map, and (4) spider

concept map.




                                             10
1) Network Tree

       The main ideas made in a quadrangle and other words written in the connection

line. It is suitable for visualization (a) a cause and effect relation (b) a hierarchy, (c) branch

procedure, and (d) technical terms which can be used to explain some correlations.
                                    Ecosystem component

                                       Kompone
                            Biotic              n             Abiotic

                        Komp Ekosistem Komp
                        Consist of
            Producer                 Decomposer

             Ko function  onen Komp
                       Based on the
                                                             onen
                        Ekosis
            mpo Consumer onen                               Ekosis
             nen Kom Ekosistem                                tem
                       Based on
        Herbivore                    Omnivore

        Kom Eko        pone Kom
                     type of food
                                       tem
                                                                Example

         Example                      Example
                          n
            siste Carnivore pone
        pone Kom Monkey
                                                                Water,
                                                               sunlight
          Rabbit
            nm Ekosi Ko
          Ko pone
                       Example
                                         n
       Ekosi Tiger     stem Ekosi
          mp            Kon           mpo
2)
        stem Ekosi stem
         one
         Event Chain mp
                                       nen
            n          stem Eko
                        one
         The event chain can be used for giving an accident order, steps in a procedure, or
          Ek                          siste
steps in a process. It is nsuitable for visualization (a) some steps in a process, (b) some steps
          osi                            m
                        Ek an accident order.
in a linier procedure, and (c)
          ste           osi              Ecosystem component
           m            ste              Ecosystem component
                         m
                                       Ecosystem component



                                       Ecosystem component



                                               11
3) Cycle Concept Map

       In this concept map, the accident combination has no final result. It is suitable to

show a correlation how a combination accident is interacting to produce a group of result

repeatedly.




                                                            water
                                    Evapora-
                                      tion




                                                          Condensa-
                                    water                   tion
                                    steam




4) Spider Concept Map

       The spider concept can be used for sharing opinion from a central idea until get

more various big ideas. It is suitable to visualization (a) something which is not based on

hierarchy (b) a category which is not parallel, and (d) the result of sharing opinion.

                                                      Water
  Biology
                                                    Land
    Physic
                                                    Air
    Chemistry
                                                    Sound


                        Pollution
Thinning of ozone
                                               Reforestation
 Hujan asam
                                               Recycle
Global warming




                                               12
        Mind mapping is similar to a road makes study, work and thinking enjoyable, it can

help to solve the lack of stock of students’ vocabulary in memorizing some words which

are related from universal word as a key word.



2.2.4   Parts of Mind Mapping Technique

        There are some parts of mind mapping (Windura, 2008:77-86) namely; (1) central

image, (2) key word, (3) basic ordering ideas, (4) branches, (4) colour and (5) picture.

1) Central Image

        A central image has to describe the main idea of a mind mapping and put it on the

centre of the paper. It is for activate the students’ right brain, strengthen the students’

memory and make the learning activity enjoyable.

2) Key Word

        A key word is a word that can lead a sentence or event. Identifying a familiar word

in one’s own language or another language that sounds like the new word and using only

one key word per line. It is as an urge to remember a lot of words for the students. It is

strong noun or verb that creates image to trigger recall the memory.

3) Basic Ordering Ideas


        Basic ordering ideas are the branches that collect sort information and it connected

to the central topic that radiate out from the centre. Making basic ordering ideas which can

direct our mind to make mind mapping and it need creativity that encourage the students to

understand to the material. It is thick and thinner at the ends. It can be seen as headings for

your topic and spread anywhere but do not become steep.




                                              13
4) Branches


        The branches should be curvy and in the same length as the words or pictures above

it. These branches can be seen as sub headings. It is thinner branches and containing details.


5) Colour

        Colour is a very good memory sign and it involves the right brain in learning for

long term memory. Colours encourage creativity and help in memorization. Adding plenty

of colours via branches, map background and images will add life to your mind map. It

makes easier to comprehend and remember.




6) Picture

        In mind mapping, pictures which can change or strengthen a key word that has been

written before.



2.2.5   The Criteria of Making Mind Mapping Technique

        Based on what Buzan (in Purwoko, 2005:20) states that the mind mapping uses

colors and pictures to help constructing your imagination with your style in making mind

mapping. Words or pictures which are in the curvy lines or branches will help the students’

memory to make associations.

        Furthermore Buzan (in Purwoko, 2005:20) explains the steps below in how to make

mind mapping, they are presented below;




                                             14
   1) Take a piece of white paper and it is in a landscape position.

   2) Start by drawing a coloured image in the centre of the paper and write the key word

       with capital letters.

   3) Choose a color and draw the main themes of the mind mapping on the thick

       branches radiating out from the central image.

   4) Add other main themes branches around the map.

   5) Make thick and colourful branches spanning out from your mind map.

   6) Write basic ideas about the key word and still use the capital letters.

   7) Add an image to all the main branches to represent each key theme and also use

       images to visualise every important key word on your map.

   8) Let your mind mapping be as imaginative as possible.



2.3 The Concept of Teaching

       Teaching and learning cannot be separated because they are bound each other. The

word ―teaching‖ in this study refers to act of giving instruction in order to transfer

knowledge and skill. Teaching is also a guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the

learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning. A teacher functions are as a facilitator,

guide, motivator, and manager. As a facilitator, a teacher provides facilities such as

circumstances, equipment, aids, etc that make the learners are possible to learn easier. As a

guide, a teacher shows or helps the learners to learn how to do something and understand

knowledge. As a motivator, a teacher stimulates the interest of the learners. And as a

manager, a teacher arranges information and environment for students to learn.




                                              15
        According to Saleh (1997:16-21)

                Teaching is a professions conducted by using combination art,
                science, and skill. Teaching is also guiding and facilitating
                learning, enabling the learner to learn and setting the condition for
                learning. Furthermore, teaching is a skill for it demands the
                ability—attained from relevant theories and practice—to assist the
                students expertly in learning so that they are able to gain the
                competence.


2.4 The Theoretical Procedure of Teaching Vocabulary through Mind Mapping

        In teaching mind mapping technique, Buzan (in Purwoko, 2004:56) gives some

direction, it is as follows;

Step 1: Make a central image in the centre of the paper. Colour and add something

          interesting.

Step 2: Draw some basic ordering ideas, spread out from the central image.

Step 3: Thinking of all something interesting as much as possible and funny for you and it

        can be connected with the central image to give you the inspiration.

Step 4: Add some branches to the basic ordering ideas using symbols, pictures, and colours

        as much as possible.

Step 5: Thinking of the details which are interesting and it can encourage your curiousity.

        Add to your mind map.

Step 6 : Continue it until you have adequate information for your mind map.



2.5 Related Previous Study

        The writer took some previous studies. The first thesis is entitled ―THE

EFFECTIVENESS OF MIND MAPPING TECHNIQUE IN INCREASING THE




                                              16
SECOND YEAR STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION AT SLTP NEGERI 43

PALEMBANG‖ which is written by Yusuf Effendi, a student of University of PGRI. The

result of the calculation of the matched t-test formula was 4.19. It indicated that the t-

obtained was higher than the critical value (02.021). The findings of the the study showed

that mind mapping could be significantly effective in teaching reading comprehension to

the subject of SLTP Negeri 43 Palembang.

       The second thesis is entitled ―TEACHING WRITING PARAGRAPHS BY USING

MIND MAPPING TO THE ELEVENTH YEAR STUDENTS OF SMA NEGERI 14

PALEMBANG‖ written by Hermalasari, a student of University of PGRI. The students’

average score in pre-test was 59.68 and the average score of the students’ post-test was

67.85. It indicated that t-obtain was higher than the t-table (1.684).

       There are some differences between those previous theses and the writer’s study,

they are; (1) in Yusuf’s thesis, he took reading comprehension and he used quasi-

experimental method. His study was done in SLTP Negeri 43 Palembang to the second year

students while the writer would take teaching vocabulary and she would use true

experimental method, posttest only control group design. Her study would be done in the

SMA Negeri 15 Palembang to the tenth grade students. (2) In Hermalasari’s thesis, she took

writing paragraphs and she used pre-experimental method, one group pretest-posttest

design. Her study was done in SMA Negeri 14 Palembang.

       The similarity of the previous study with this study is the same independent

variables, mind mapping in Buzan’s Principles.




                                               17
                                        CHAPTER III

                                RESEARCH PROSEDURES



        In this chapter, the writer presents (1) operational definitions, (2) research variables,

(3) method of research, (4) population and sample, (5) technique for collecting data and (7)

technique for analyzing data.



3.1 Method of the Research and Research Variable

3.1.1   Method of the Research

        Method is a way to doing something (Hornby, 2000:734). The researcher uses the

true-experimental method to do this research. The experimental would be in the

randomized post-test only control group design, using matched subjects.

        Fraenkel and Wallen (1990:237-241) state,

               The posttest-only control group design involves two groups, both
               of which are formed by random assignment. One group receives
               the experimental treatment while the other does not, and then both
               groups are posttested on the dependent variable. The choice of
               variables on which to match is based on previous research, theory,
               and/or the experience of the researcher.


        The design is as follows;

                  Experimental group                R     M       X1      O

                  Control group                     R     M       X2      O




                                               18
Where:

         R : Randomization.

         M : Matching process through a pretest.

         X1 : Teaching through mind mapping.

         X2 : Teaching without mind mapping.

         O : Post-test.



         In doing this research, the writer would select students from the school randomly

and then place the chosen students into one of two groups using random assignment. She

would give a pretest to each group to match the groups. One group would receive the

experimental treatment while the other would not receive it. To match the choice of

variables would base on the experience of the writer.

         The writer did some steps to do this research, they are as follows;

1) surveying the literature relating to do the problem;

2) defining the problem;

3) constructing an experimental plan by writing the research design;

4) design the research instrument;

5) doing the instrument try-out;

6) giving the test to match the students from the two groups;

7) teaching with mind mapping technique to the experimental group and without it to the

   control group;

8) collecting the data through the posttest;

9) analyzing the data;



                                               19
10) drawing conclusions;

11) proposing suggestions;

12) writing the report as a thesis.



3.1.2   Research Variable

        This study which is entitled ―Teaching Vocabulary through Mind Mapping to the

Tenth Grade Students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang‖, there are two kinds of variables,

they are; (1) independent variable and (2) dependent variable.

1) Independent Variable

        The independent variable of this study is mind mapping that are presented to the

    students.

2) Dependent Variable

        The dependent variable of this study is the students’ scores in the vocabulary test.



3.2 Operational Definitions

        Based on the title of this study is ―Teaching Vocabulary through Mind Mapping to

the Tenth Grade Students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang‖, there are three important terms

to define operationally in this study: (1) teaching, (2) vocabulary, and (3) mind mapping.

        First, teaching means the process of transferring skill and knowledge to the students.

It means that teaching is the activity to show or helping students to learn about something,

guiding in the study of something, giving instruction, providing with knowledge causing to

know or understand.




                                              20
        Second, vocabulary is list of words with their meaning in a language which are

divided into two kinds, they are; (1) concrete word and (2) abstract word.

        Finally, mind mapping as a technique which is used in teaching in the form of

drawing a mind application with some branches from universal word as a keyword. It is one

of the funny, interesting and motivating techniques to make a visualization of our mind.



3.3 Population and Sample

3.3.1   Population

        Fraenkel and Wallen (1990:68) state, ―Population is the group of interest to

researcher, the group to whom the researcher would like to generalize of the result of the

study.‖ For the population of this study, the writer chose the tenth grade students of SMA

Negeri 15 Palembang in the academic year of 2009-2010. In this case, there are nine

classes. The total number of population was 360 students. The information of total number

of the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang is shown in Table 1.

                                         TABLE 1

                         THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY

                  No          Class               Number of Student

                   1           X. 1                      40

                   2           X.2                       40

                   3           X.3                       40

                   4           X.4                       41

                   5           X.5                       39



                                                        (Continued….)


                                             21
                     (Table 1)

                      6              X.6                    40

                      7              X.7                    40

                      8              X.8                    40

                             Total                         320

                           (Source: Documents of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang)



3.3.2    Sample

         Hornby (2000:1040) states that sample is a number people chosen randomly from a

larger group. Furthermore, sample refers to any group on which information obtained

(Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:67). The writer would take the sample from the population by

two-stage random sampling through the cluster random sampling and the individual

random sampling (See Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:73). Cluster random sampling is the

selection of groups or clusters of subjects rather than individual (Fraenkel and Wallen,

1990:72). In this study, there would be two classes chosen through the cluster random

sampling. One would be treated as the experimental group and the other as the control

group. After getting the two classes, the writer did the individual random sampling by

giving a pretest to the students from the two classes as pretested and then matched based on

their similar scores.

                                               TABLE 2

                                 THE SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

        No   Class        Groups           Number of Student     Number of Matched Pairs

        1    X. 1      Experimental               40

        2    X.2          Control                 40                        21


                                                                            (Continued….)

                                                  22
        (Table 2)

         Total                                80

                         (Source: Documents of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang)



3.4 Techniques for Collecting Data

         In collecting data, the writer used a written test to know the students’ ability in

learning vocabulary. A test is a short examination of knowledge that consists of questions

that must be answered. The writer gave the written test to measure the students’ vocabulary

in using mind mapping technique. The test was in the forms of multiple choice test and

matching test with 40 test items and the students got 45 minutes to do the test.



3.5 Validity and Reliability

3.5.1    Validity

         Validity is the state of being logically or legally acceptable (Hornby, 2000:1319).

Fraenkel and Wallen (1990:127) state that validity refers to the degree to which evidence

supports any inferences a researcher makes based on the collected data using a particular

instrument.

         In order to make the test materials have high validity the writer only used a written

test in multiple choice test and matching test. Before giving the test to the students, the test

materials were checked whether or not they would test about the vocabulary knowledge to

the students.

         The validity of the test material in this study would be checked through the content

validity. It is a form of validity which is based on the degree to which a test adequately and

sufficiently measures the particular skill or behavior is set out to measure.



                                              23
                                                 TABLE 3

                                        TEST SPECIFICATION

No   Objective                   Materials                    Indicators          Test        Test Types

                                                                                  Items

1.   The            The words that involved in theme 1. The students are           40     1) Multiple

     students       ―Parts of Body‖ mind mapping             able            to                choices.

     are able to with the parts of body, such as             complete      the            2) Matching

     use      the head, face, hair, curly, straight,         sentences      by                 test.

     words      in blond, forehead, eye, eyebrow,            using         the

     the theme nose, sharp, flat, ear, mouth, lip,           correct     words

     ―Parts     of upper lip, lower lip, tooth, tongue,      about ―Parts of

     Body‖ by chin, cheek, body, shoulder, chest,            Body‖.

     using          neck, stomach, hip, navel, hand 2. The students are

     mind           ffinger,   thumb,    index    finger,    able to match

     mapping        middle finger, ring finger, little       the       pictures

     technique.     finger, arm, upper arm, forearm,         about ―Parts of

                    elbow, nail, hand wrist, palm, leg,      Body‖ with the

                    foot, ankle, thigh, knee, calf, heel,    suitable words.

                    toe.

              The test was valid because the content could measure the students’ ability in

     vocabulary test.




                                                    24
3.5.2    Reliability

         Reliability refers to the consistency of the scores obtained, how consistent they are

for each individual from one administration of an instrument to another and from one set of

items to another (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:133). In this study, a Kuder-Richardson 21

was used to estimate the internal consistency reliability. Fraenkel and Wallen (1990:136)

write that for research purposes, a useful rule is that reliability should be at least 0.70 and

preferably higher.

         The formula is as follows;

                                          K  M K  M  
                               KR-21 =        1        2 
                                         K 1     K SD 

Where:

KR-21           : Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficient.

K               : Number of Items in the Test.

M               : Mean of the Set of the Test Scores.

SD              : Standard Deviation of the Set of the Test scores.



         The formula of Standard Deviation is as follows;


                                                
                                                              2

                               SD 
                                                    N

In which:

X               : The Students’ Total Score.

N               : The Number of the Students.




                                               25
                                   TABLE 4

      THE STUDENTS' SCORES AND THE REALIBILITY COEFFICIENT

                             OF THE TEST ITEMS



        Number     Number of Students'   Mean
No.                                              (X- X )      (X- X )2
        of Items   Correct Answers (X)   (X )

1         40               21            25.77   -4.77         22.75

2         40               20            25.77   -5.77         33.29

3         40               13            25.77   -12.77       163.07

4         40               17            25.77   -8.77         76.91

5         40               34            25.77    8.23         67.73

6         40               35            25.77    9.23         85.19

7         40               21            25.77   -4.77         22.75

8         40               27            25.77    1.23         1.51

9         40               25            25.77   -0.77         0.59

10        40               16            25.77   -9.77         95.45

11        40               16            25.77   -9.77         95.45

12        40               25            25.77   -0.77         0.59

13        40               23            25.77   -2.77         7.67

14        40               34            25.77    8.23         67.73

15        40               26            25.77    0.23         0.05

16        40               30            25.77    4.23         17.89


                                                           (Continued….)

                                           26
(Table 3)

  17        40   30    25.77   4.23      17.89

  18        40   28    25.77   2.23       4.97

  19        40   24    25.77   -1.77      3.13

  20        40   26    25.77   0.23       0.05

  21        40    8    25.77   -17.77    315.77

  22        40   34    25.77   8.23      67.73

  23        40   31    25.77   5.23      27.35

  24        40   33    25.77   7.23      52.27

  25        40   35    25.77   9.23      85.19

  26        40   19    25.77   -6.77     45.83

  27        40   34    25.77   8.23      67.73

  28        40   28    25.77   2.23       4.97

  29        40   21    25.77   -4.77     22.75

  30        40   25    25.77   -0.77      0.59

  31        40   25    25.77   -0.77      0.59

  32        40   32    25.77   6.23      38.81

  33        40   28    25.77   2.23       4.97

  34        40   26    25.77   0.23       0.05

  35        40   32    25.77   6.23      38.81

            ∑    902                    1558.172




                         27
       X
M =
        N

       902
  =
        35

  = 25.77


         X  X 
                     2

SD =
                 N

       1558 .17
 =
          35

 =      44 .52
 = 6.67

              K  M K  M 
KR21 =            1           
             K 1     K (SD) 2 

             40    25.77 (40  25.77) 
        =         1                  
             39        40 (6.672 )    

             40    25.77 (40  25.77) 
        =         1                  
             39        40 (6.672 )    

                 366 .70 
        = 1.025 1       
                 1779 .2 

        = 1.025 {1 – 0.206}

        = 1.025 {0.794}

        = 0.81



        Based on the result above, it is clear that the test materials are valid and reliable.




                                               28
3.6 Techniques for Analyzing Data

        The data collected were analyzed through three steps; namely: (1) individual scores,

(2) conversion of percentage range and (3) matched t-test.

3.6.1   Individual Scores

        The formula is used to know the individual score;

                   R
               X=     x 100
                   N
Where: X = Result of English Vocabulary Scores

         R = The Total Number of Correct Answers

         N = The Total Number of Items



3.6.2   Conversion of Percentage Ranges

                                         TABLE 5

                     CONVERSION OF PERCENTAGE RANGES

                  Percentage Ranges                     Qualification
                        90-100                               Excellent
                         70-89                                 Good
                         55-69                                Enough
                         40-54                                 Poor
                         0-39                                Very Poor




                                             29
3.6.3    Matched t-test

         In analyzing the data obtained from the test, the writer would do the certain steps

using the matched t-test. Firstly, the score of the test would be tabulated into pre-test and

post-test to differentiate the result before treatment (pre-test) and after treatment (post-test)

and find out the significant difference between pre-test and post-test. The formula of

matched t-test is as follows (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:116)

                                               x1  x 2
                                          t=
                                                 SD

where:

t        : Matched t-test.

x   1
         : The Mean of Experimental Group in the Post-test.


x   2
         : The Mean of Control Group in the Post-test.

SD       : Standard Error of Difference between Two Means.




                                               30
                                                   CHAPTER IV

                              FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS

       In this chapter the writer presents: (1) the findings and (2) the interpretations of the

research.



4.1 Findings

       The findings of this study deal with the result of the study obtained from the written

test, they were: (1) the students’ pretest mean score in the experimental and control groups

( X = 64.3), (2) the students’ post-test scores in the experimental group ( x1 = 90), (3) the

students’ post-test scores in the control group ( x 2 = 81.9) and (4) the calculation of the

matched t-test (tobt= 2.396). Based on these findings, it would be said that the Ho was

rejected and the Ha was accepted. It means it was effective to teach vocabulary through

mind mapping technique.



        100
         90
         80
      S  70
      c  60
      o
         50
      r
         40
      e
         30
      s
         20
         10
          0
                1   2    3   4    5   6    7   8    9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
                                                        Students

               Post-test Scores in Experimental Group
               Post-test Scores in Control Group
               Pre-test Scores in Experimental and Control Groups


              Graph 1. The Students’ Scores in Experimental and Control Groups




                                                         31
4.1.1   The Students‟ Post-test Scores in the Experimental Group

        The test items in the post-test were exactly the same as the ones that were given in

the pre-test. The average post-test score of the students in the experimental group was 90. It

was found out that the lowest score was 60 reached by one student and the highest score

was 100 reached by ten students. The average score which the students got in the post-test

was 90. The data distribution of the students’ post-test scores in the experimental group can

be seen in Table 5 below:

                                         TABLE 6

          THE STUDENTS‟ SCORES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

                                   IN THE POST-TEST

                 No     Students' Scores        Frequencies     Percentage
                              (X)                   (f)            (%)
                  1            60                    1              4.8
                  2            65                    2              9.5
                  3            70                    1              4.8
                  4            80                    2              9.5
                  5            90                    1              4.8
                  6            95                    4               19
                  7           100                   10             47.6
                    ∑X = 18900, X = 90              21              100


4.1.2   The Students‟ Post-test Scores in the Control Group

        In the control group, the average post-test score of the students in the control group

was 81.9. It was found out that the lowest score was 65 reached by one student and the

highest score was 90 reached by six students. The average score which the students got in

the post-test was 81.9. The data distribution of the students’ post-test scores in the control

group can be seen in Table 6 below:




                                             32
                                         TABLE 7

              THE STUDENTS‟ SCORES OF THE CONTROL GROUP

                                   IN THE POST-TEST

                 No     Students' Scores        Frequencies     Percentage
                              (X)                    (f)            (%)
                  1            65                     1              4.8
                  2            70                     2              9.5
                  3            75                     2              9.5
                  4            80                     5             23.8
                  5            85                     5             23.8
                  6            90                     6             28.6
                    ∑X = 1720, X = 81.9              21             100



4.1.3   The Result of the Matched t-test Calculation

        After gaining the result of the post-test in the experimental group and control group,

the writer started to analyze them by using the matched t-test. The writer calculated the

matched t-test to find out whether or not it was effective to use mind mapping in teaching

vocabulary to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang.

        By using the students’ scores that they got in the experimental class and control

class, the writer found out that the result of matched t-test was 2.396. This score was higher

than the critical value that was 1.725. Meanwhile, the significance level with 20 df was 5%.

Table 8 below presents the specific calculation in more detailed.




                                             33
                                             TABLE 8

                  THE RESULT OF MATCHED T-TEST CALCULATION

Pre-test           Post-test in           Number of        Post-test in            D         D2
Scores       Experimental Group (X1)       Students     Control Group (X2)      (X1-X2)    (X1-X2)2
  80                   90                      1                80                 10        100
  80                  100                      2                80                 20        400
  80                   95                      3                85                 10        100
  30                  100                      4                70                 30        900
  60                  100                      5                80                 20        400
  60                  100                      6                90                 10        100
  60                   60                      7                75                -15        225
  60                  100                      8                80                 20        400
  60                   95                      9                85                 10        100
  60                   95                     10                90                  5         25
  90                   95                     11                90                  5         25
  70                   80                     12                90                -10        100
  50                   65                     13                85                -20        400
  60                  100                     14                90                 10        100
  70                   80                     15                85                 -5         25
  90                  100                     16                80                 20        400
  20                   65                     17                65                  0          0
  60                   70                     18                75                 -5         25
  70                  100                     19                10                 10        100
  80                  100                     20                70                 30        900
  60                  100                     21                85                 15        225
∑= 1350             ∑= 1890                                  ∑= 1720            ∑= 170     ∑= 5050
X =64.3              X =90                                   X = 81.9


           Before finding the result of matched t-test calculation, the writer calculated the SD

  (standard deviation) first; standard deviation can be obtained by using the following

  formula:

                               1
                        D 2     D 
                                         2


  SD SD           =            n
                               n 1




                                                 34
                     1
              5050     D
                              2


        =             21 
                     21  1

              5050  0.05 28900 
        =
                       20

              5050  1445
        =
                   20

              3605
        =
               20

        = 180 .25
        = 13.42


            SD
SD      =
              n
            13 .42
        =
              21
            13.42
        =
             4.58
        = 2.93


            x1  x 2
     t =
              SD

            90  81.9
     t =
              2.93
             8.1
        =        = 2.764
            2.93



t-obtained           > t-table

2.764                > 1.725




                                       35
       From the result of the matched t-test calculation, it was found out that the value of

t-obtained was 2.396 and the value of t-table at significance level of 5% was 1.725 with the

degree of freedom (df) = 20. The result of t-obtained (2.396) indicates that H0 is rejected

and consequently the Ha is accepted. In other words, it is effective to teach vocabulary

through mind mapping technique to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang.



4.2 Interpretations

       Based on the finding in this study, the writer interprets that the use of mind mapping

technique was effective in teaching vocabulary to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri

15 Palembang, It was assumed that the students’ ability in learning vocabulary before being

taught through mind mapping technique was in the enough level and after being taught

through mind mapping technique was in the good level. After the treatment, the students’

achievement in vocabulary improved. This condition means that teaching vocabulary

through mind mapping technique could improve their vocabulary mastery.

       Furthermore, the result of the teaching showed that there was a difference

achievement on the experimental and control groups. The mean difference of two groups

was 90 – 81.9 = 8.1. The result of the calculation of the matched t-test formula was 2.396

and it is higher than the t-critical value (1.725). So, the treatment that was given to the

students in the experimental group could influence their ability in vocabulary mastery from

the enough level to the good level.

       Besides, the t-obtained showed that the alternative hypothesis with 95% of

significance level was accepted because the result of the calculation of the matched t-test

formula was 2.396. It means that there was a significant difference between the students



                                            36
who were taught by using mind mapping technique and those who were not. Finally, mind

mapping can be used as one of the means in teaching vocabulary at SMA Negeri 15

Palembang.




                                         37
                                        CHAPTER V

                         CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS



       In this chapter, the writer presents: (1) the conclusions and (2) the suggestions based

on the data distribution, finding and interpretations of the data in the previous chapter.



5.1 Conclusions

       Based on the analysis of the data gathered during this study, it can be concluded that

there was a significant difference between the students’ progress in the experimental group

and the control group. The differences of scores in the experimental and control groups

were verified through the matched t-test.

        The significant difference between the two groups can be seen from the t-obtained

and its critical value. From the data analysis, the result of the calculation of the matched t-

test formula was 2.396 and it was obvious that t-obtained (2.396) was greater than the t-

critical value (1.725). It means that the writer can conclude that the alternative hypothesis

(Ha) with 0.95 or 95% of significance level was accepted and consequently null hypothesis

(Ho) was rejected. Furthermore, in other words, it was effective to teach vocabulary

through mind mapping technique to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri 15 Palembang.



5.2 Suggestions

       Considering the results obtained in this study and discussions in the previous

chapter, there are several suggestions that the writer would like to present.




                                              38
5.2.1   To the Teachers of English

        Teacher of English are expected to do the following things.

1) Teach vocabulary by using media in order to motivate and make students interested in

   learning vocabulary;

2) Use mind mapping technique in the process of teaching and learning of English

   especially in vocabulary;

3) Create more relaxed atmosphere in the process of teaching and learning of vocabulary

   he students get bored and make them interested in studying vocabulary.



5.2.2   To the Students

        The students are suggested to do the following things.

1) Pay attention to the teacher’ explanation about the lesson and participate in the

   knowledge of learning vocabulary through mind mapping technique;

2) Find the extra study actively to support their ability, especially in learning vocabulary;

3) Practice their vocabulary in written and oral communication;

4) Love the English language as one of the important subjects in the school and be active

   students.



5.2.3   To Other Researchers

        Other researchers are hoped to do a similar research with a similar topic by using a

wider scope and larger population, so the result will be more applicable in a tertiary level.




                                              39
                                   REFERENCES



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Buzan, Tony. 2007. Buku Pintar Mind Map untuk Anak : Agar Anak Mudah Menghafal dan
        Berkonsentrasi. Jakarta. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Buzan, Tony. 2007. Buku Pintar Mind Map untuk Anak : Agar Anak Lulus Ujian dengan
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Buzan, Tony. http://www.usingmindmaps.com/ what-is-a-mind-map.html
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De Bono. http://www.usingmindmaps.com/mind-maps-in-education.html
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DePorter, Bobbi and Mike Hernacki. 2008. Quantum Learning : Membiasakan Belajar
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DePorter, Bobbi; Mark Reardon, and sarah-Nourie Singer. 1999. Quantum Teaching :
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Effendi, Yusuf. 2004. ―The Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique in Increasing the
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Fraenkel, Jack R and Norman E Wallen.1990. How to Design and Evaluate Research. New
         York, NY : MC. Gray- Hill. Inc.

Hatch, Evelyn and Hossein Farhady. Research Design and Statistics for Applied
        Linguistics. Cambridge: Newbury House Publiser, Inc.

Hermalasari. 2008. ―Teaching Writing Paragraphs by using Mind Mapping Technique to
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        Undergraduated Thesis. Palembang: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
        University of PGRI Palembang.

Hornby, AS. 2000. Oxford Advance Learners’ dictionary of Current English. New York:
        Oxford University Press.




                                         40
Saleh, Yuslizal. 1997. Methodology of TEFL in the Indonesian Context Book 1.
        Palembang: University of Sriwijaya.

Thornbury, Scott. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. England: Longman.

Trianto, M.Pd. 2009. Mendesain Model Pembelajaran Inovatif: Konsep, Landasan, dan
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Windura, Sutanto. 2008. Mind Map : Langkah Demi Langkah. Jakarta: PT. Elex Media
        Komputindo.




                                         41

				
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