Reference Valve Technology by mikesanye

VIEWS: 218 PAGES: 66

									                       A + K   Müller




      R r e rv n ce
R e f e eVfael neec Te ec h n o l o g y
Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y



                     Solenoid valves


                     Control equipment


                     Special fittings
                                                                                           A + K   Müller




Reference                                                                            c
                                                                    R eVfael rv ee nT eec h n o l o g y

 Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
 AKM (A + K Müller):
                                                                                         Solenoid valves
 Reference Valve Technology: Solenoid Valves, Control
 Equipment, Special Fittings
 Düsseldorf, 1998
                                                                                         Control equipment
 This publication and all parts thereof are protected by copy-
 right. It may not be used in any manner whatsoever without
 the publisher’s consent, in particular it may not be teproduced,
 translated, micofiched or stored or processed in electronic                             Special fittings
 systems.

 Copyright © 1998
 Author: A + K Müller GmbH + Co. KG,
 Dresdener Str. 162, 40595 Düsseldorf,
 Tel. +49 211 73 91-0, Fax +49 211 73 91-281,
 e-Mail: AuK_Mueller@compuserve.com
 Design and conception: Hellmann & Hunke GmbH, Düsseldorf
 Printing and binding: Körner, Düsseldorf
 Printed on acid-free and non-chlorine bleached paper
 Printed in Germany.
                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n z V e n t i l t e c h n o l o g i e
                                                                                                                                                                  5




                                                               Foreword
                                                      The aim of this work is to convey to the user the
                                                      essential standard and company-specific technical
                                                      terms from the sector of electromagnetic actuators.
                                                      The definitions of the terms and the explanations do
                                                                                                                          Foreword



                                                      not always correspond to the exact and fundamen-
                                                      tal definitions in engineering or natural sciences.
                                                      This work makes no claim to be complete, but is
                                                      intended to assist in a basic understanding of analyti-
                                                      cal physical interactions, the functioning, the mode
                                                      of operation, the product structure, the material
                                                      selection and the profile of requirements dependent
                                                      on each particular application and to promote com-
                                                      munication between business partners with differing
                                                      degrees of knowledge.

                                                      The graphics and pictures are not technical drawings;


       Tabel of
Table of contents                                     they simply outline in a simple and comprehensible
                                                      manner the subject-area addressed in each case. Bi-
                                                      bliographical sources quoted, foreign language voca-


s
s
           contents
    Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
    A + K Müller, The Company . . . . . .6, 7
                                                      bulary, indicated conversion factors for varying
                                                      measuring systems, and the use of trade names as
                                                      examples, constitute a selection made by the edito-
                                                      rial team.
s   Solenoid valves –
    a brief introduction . . . . . . . . .8 - 11      The term „AKM“ used on the following pages is the
s   Manufacturing stages and                          usual abbreviation used by our company for the
    vertical range of manufacturing
    at A + K Müller . . . . . . . . . . .12 -15
                                                      company name „A + K Müller“.
s   Valve Technology from A to Z . .16 - 90
s   Examples of AKM Products . . . .91 - 99           This Compendium is intended to provide the reader
s   Areas of application for                          with an interesting and comprehensible work of re-
    AKM Products . . . . . . . . . .100 - 103
s   Glossary of terms,                                ference. We are always happy to receive ideas, addi-
    English, German, French . . . . .104 - 111        tions and corrections from our readers. We should
s   Table of Dimensions . . . . . . .112 - 115        like to take this opportunity to express our sincere            In October 1997
s   Index      . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 - 121   thanks to all those employees who have contributed              A + K Müller GmbH + Co KG
s   Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 - 125
s   Index of Illustrations . . . . . . .126, 127      to the success of this project.
s   Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . .128 - 130                                                                       Board of Management
    AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                         AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
6                                                                                                                                                                                                                 7

    A + K Müller – The Company



       A + K Müller – The Company               The company, which was initially a manufacturer of
                                                lighting elements, was founded in 1919 in Gablonz
                                                by A. Müller, father of the present-day owner of the
                                                                                                           management, all products are of the highest stan-
                                                                                                           dards. Thus A + K Müller is able to satisfy the most
                                                                                                           sophisticated customer demands for first class pro-
                                                company, K. Müller, Dipl. Ing., as a small family enter-   ducts.
                                                prise. In 1947, the company moved to Urdenbach in
                                                Düsseldorf, where it began producing equipment for         The use of special technologies and the combined
                                                the most wide-ranging technical applications. In 1951,     experience of the currently more than 200 employ-
                                                a much larger production plant was built on the            ees makes it possible to develop optimum and futu-
                                                same spot, where A + K Müller began developing             re-oriented solutions also in international competiti-
                                                and producing solenoid valves.                             on: with the support of its two distributing subsi-
                                                                                                           diaries in the United Kingdom and France, A + K
                                                Patents were granted for numerous inventions in            Müller earns 60 % of its total turnover in its export
                                                the years which followed and valves were mainly            markets.
                                                produced within our own company. Initially the main
                                                areas of application for solenoid valves and special       A survey undertaken by the Düsseldorf Chamber of
                                                fittings to control water and steam were household         Industry and Commerce ranked A + K Müller,
                                                washing machines and major industrial plants. The          alongside other renowned companies in the region,
                                                manufacturers of household appliance on the mar-           as one of Germany’s most innovative companies.
                                                ket at that time used almost exclusively solenoids of
                                                the A + K Müller brand.

                                                In 1996, the company moved to its newly built pre-
                                                mises in the Hellerhof area of Düsseldorf. The sole-
                                                noid valves, fittings and accessories developed and
                                                manufactured here are now manufactured for a
                                                wide range of business areas and distributed all over
                                                the world. These include, for example, “white
                                                goods”, medical technology, plumbing, agriculture,
                                                drinks vending machines, etc. In addition, the com-
                                                pany produces a large number of variants of highly-
                                                sophisticated special valves for different areas of
                                                implementation in varying batch sizes.

                                                Thanks to the latest manufacturing and testing tech-
                                                niques and consistent realisation of total quality
    AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
8                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9


    Solenoid valves –
    Solenoid valves –
               a brief introduction

                 a brief introduction           Valves are used to control the flow of gaseous or         passage with the requirements resulting from the
                                                liquid media which are forced into vessels, pipes         same on material resistances – and determine
                                                or hoses. The plug of the valve seat of such valves       the force which has to be applied to open or close
                                                is actuated either manually, pneumatically, oil hy-       the valve seat.
                                                draulically or electrodynamically. In all cases, howe-
                                                ver, a force is required to activate valve functioning    The characteristics for generation of a mechanical
                                                which enables the valve to open or close the flow         activating force for the valve are derived from and
                                                of media or put it into a throttle or intermediate        illustrated by electrodynamics. In contrast to static
                                                position. In this case, a distinction is made between     charges – to which only Coulomb forces apply –
                                                the following types of valves: directly-controlled val-   moving charges generate, like electrons in a conduc-
                                                ves, servovalves, valves in the normally open posi-       tor, a magnetic field and, therefore, Lorentz forces;
                                                tion (NO valves), valves in the normally closed posi-     thus also the flow of current through a wire wound
                                                tion (NC valves) and valves with a bistable mode of       in the form of a coil. For a solenoid valve, it is not
                                                operation, in the case of which power is only requi-      the outer magnetic field surrounding the coil which
                                                red for the switching operation from the open to          is important, but the magnetic field predominating in
                                                the closed position and vice versa. These may be          the free space around the coil axis. When the coil is
                                                designed in the form of straightway valves, angle val-    energised, this magnetic field acts upon a magneti-
                                                ves and multi-way valves.                                 cally conducting valve positioner (plunger) which
                                                                                                          can move within a guide bushing (plunger pipe) insi-
                                                Solenoid valves belong to the class of electrodyna-       de the body of the coil, and carries out the neces-
                                                mically operated valves which, as the name already        sary lifting operation on the same. This lifting opera-
                                                suggests, are actuated by means of electromagnets -       tion can be used for direct activation of the valve
                                                i.e. coil systems – which actuate the valve positioner    seat (direct-actuating solenoid) or to activate a small
                                                through a lifting operation. This lifting operation       ancillary valve by means of which the pressure app-
                                                interacts directly or indirectly with an elastomer        lied by the fluid can be used to assist in actuating the
                                                sealing element (plunger seal, diaphragm) which cau-      valve seat (servovalves).
                                                ses the valve seat to open or close.
                                                                                                          The electric power input of an energised coil is, ho-
                                                The physical conditions of fluid mechanics and elec-      wever, only partly converted into the power requi-
                                                trodynamics are taken into account when designing         red for mechanical operation of the valve. The
                                                the product as well as for describing the mode of         other portion of the electric power which is input is
                                                operation of solenoid valves. Fluid mechanics also        converted to heat which is generated in the resistor
                                                characterise the part of a solenoid valve for the fluid   of the current-carrying conductor. This released
                                                - e.g. the pressure losses, the flow volume or also       heat leads, during constant energising of the coil, to
                                                Kv values and compressive forces within the flow          a constant flow of heat which can heat up the coil to
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                            AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
10                                                                                                                                                                                                    11




                                                 a high operating temperature. However, a higher              s   duration of operation of the
                                                                                                                                                                        Locknut
                                                 temperature results in a change in the ohmic resi-               energised coil system
                                                 stance of the coil which increases as temperature                                                                      Solenoid
                                                                                                              s   application-dependent valve
                                                 rises. Accordingly, less power is available to the
                                                                                                                  opening and closing times                             Retention gland
                                                 required magnetic field. This condition is also similar
                                                 with higher ambient temperatures. Both effects               s   type of valve operation                               Fixing clip
                                                 must be taken into account when designing and
                                                                                                              s   protection type require-
                                                 developing the specifications for a magnetic system                                                                    Plunger pipe
                                                                                                                  ments
                                                 and also explain why the design point of valves                                                                        PTFE foil
                                                 which are actuated only briefly can be equipped              and, therefore, creates a highly
                                                 with fewer safety margins, consequently leading to           complex design task. All facets                           Spring
                                                 smaller coil systems.                                        of the general theme outlined
                                                                                                                                                                        O-ring
                                                                                                              here will be discussed in more
                                                 Moreover, account must be taken of the fact that             detail in the explanations of the                         Plunger
                                                 two fundamentally different types of supply voltage          individual technical characteri-
                                                                                                                                                                        Seal retainer
                                                 exist for a coil system, DC voltage and AC voltage           stics that follow.
                                                 and, in the case of the latter, with differing frequen-                                                                Diaphragm
                                                 cies. The supply-end voltage fluctuations between
                                                                                                                                                                        Valve body
                                                 overvoltage and undervoltage and the frequency-
                                                 dependent phase displacement between current I                                                                         Connections
                                                 and voltage U and the frequency-dependent induc-
                                                                                                                                                                        Lock mechanism
                                                 tive resistance of a coil make the dimensioning – of
                                                 AC current systems especially – particularly complex.                                                                  Various connections


                                                 Thus it becomes clear that the simple task of perfor-
                                                                                                                                                     Fig. 1: Exploded view of the basic
                                                 ming a lifting operation on a valve plug is dependent                                                       structure of solenoid valves
                                                 in the product design, for safe operation and long-
                                                 term reliability, on many factors such as
                                                 s       working temperature and working pressure areas
                                                         of the flow fluid
                                                 s       ambient temperature of the particular application
                                                 s       type of supply voltage and supply voltage range
                                                 s       physiological and chemical properties of the fluid
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                        AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
12                                                                                                                                                                                                                13

     Manufacturing stages and
     Manufacturing stages and
                   vertical range of manufacturing at A + K Müller
         vertical range of manufacturing at A + K Müller

                                                 For the manufacture of a solenoid valve, after the        The now unfinished coil then passes to the next
                                                 initial product design stage and availability of all      manufacturing stage which is coil coating. This invol-
                                                 product design documents and tool designs, the            ves the application to the unfinished coil of thermo-
                                                 hydraulic part, i.e. the valve body, and the electrical   setting plastics in a press operation. Compared with
                                                 part – the magnetic system, are initially dealt with      thermoplastic material, thermosetting plastics have
                                                 separately.                                               the advantage of being dimensionally stable and fire-
                                                                                                           inhibiting or non-combustible when exposed to
     Fig. 2: Product design                                                                                thermal stress; however, the manufacturing process
                                                                                                           required is more cost-intensive as a result of longer
                                                                                                           cycle times.




                                                 Fig. 3: CAD station          Fig. 4: Injection moulding                                                                                      Fig. 8: Press
                                                                              machine
                                                                                                                                                                                   Fig. 9: Coil coated in
                                                 The magnetic system commences with the manufac-                                                                                   thermosetting plastic
                                                 ture of the coil form on injection moulding machines.

                                                 The next stage involves insertion of the electric ter-
                                                 minal contacts into the coil form for subsequent
     Fig. 5: Coil form
                                                 winding of the coil form with the enamelled copper        After this stage of manufacturing, the semi-finished
                                                 wire required by the design specification and con-        unyoked coil thus produced must be checked for
                                                 necting the wire ends to the terminal contacts in         high-voltage resistance, for the required inductance
                                                 such a way as to be electrically safe during operation    and quality, so that any interturn faults down to the
                                                 (e.g. by welding, soldering or hot caulking).             last single winding are detected.


     Fig. 6: Coil form with                                                                                                                                                               Fig. 10: Electric
     inserted contacts                                                                                                                                                                   high-voltage test




     Fig. 7: Automatic winding                                                                                                                                                 Fig. 11: LCR measuring
     machine                                                                                                                                                                                   bridge
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                       AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
14                                                                                                                                                                                                               15

                                                 The tested coils subsequently undergo the stage of       The valve bodies are put together in our assembly
                                                 completion of the magnetic circuit. This is where        areas with the valve plunger pipes, composed of the
                                                 the materials required for the yoke are mounted          valve plug, plunger and plunger guiding pipe to form
                                                 inside and around the coil in an automatic process       the valve chamber, and are checked for leak tightness
                                                 which ends with an electrical functioning test.          and proper functioning according to the prescribed
                                                                                                          test specifications. The testing procedures are large-
                                                                                                          ly automated and consist of pneumatic and water-
                                                                                                          hydraulic supply assemblies with measuring instru-
     Fig. 12: Cycling line                                                                                ments which run the test routine and the valve
                                                                                                          actuating functions on the specimen by means of an
                                                                                                          individually programmable logic controller (PLC).
                                                 Production of the actual valve (hydraulic part) takes
                                                 place during production of the magnetic system.
                                                 This comprises the valve body with valve seat, the
                                                 valve inlets and outlets, the plug for the valve seat,
                                                 the plunger and the plunger guiding pipe. With
                                                 metal valves, the valve body is produced as a casting                                                                       Fig. 17: Final equipment
     Fig. 13: Hydraulic part of the                                                                                                                                                             testing
     valve                                       or a pressed part with subsequent machining.

                                                                                                          The test benches are also, through direct coupling
                                                                                                          to the PLC, connected to network-capable personal
                                                                                                          computers via a database architecture. This enables
                                                                                                          not only machine data acquisition (MDA) but
                                                 With plastic valves, the valve body and the inlets       also the determination of data material for CAQ
                                                 and outlets are produced in a thermoplastic injec-       systems.
                                                 tion moulding process. CAD design drawings form
     Fig. 14: Milling machine
                                                 the basis for the mould design which create the
                                                 necessary injection moulds using CAM with, inter
                                                 alia, electroerosion.
                                                                                                                                                                                Fig. 18: Detailed view
                                                                                                                                                                                         of test bench




                                                 Fig. 15. Open tool          Fig. 16: Electroerosion
                                                                             machine
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                            AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
16                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17

      1              I AKM                                                                                                                                                      Biomass         I              6

                                                 Abbreviation (used throughout the text) for the            The total mass measured in ml or g of the microbio-
                                                 company “A + K Müller GmbH + Co KG”.                       logical substance in a system or fluid. Biomass can
                                                                                                            cause the operation of valves to be impaired.

      2              I Acoustics                                                                                                                             Bus-connecting valves              I              7
                                                 The science of vibrations and waves in elastic media, in
                                                                                                            Depending on the standard (bus protocol) used,
                                                 a narrower sense, the science of sound, its generation,
                                                                                                            valves of this type can be individually addressed in a
                                                 propagation and reception. Subdomains are physical
                                                                                                            wired network, which enables their remote actua-
                                                 acoustics and electroacoustics. Where valves and, the-
                                                                                                            tion. This means that they have to be equipped with
                                                 refore also solenoid valves, are concerned, noise gene-
                                                                                                            local intelligence in order to be able to exchange
                                                 ration is a relevant and standardised factor required
                                                                                                            data with the network at a branch point (node) via
                                                 within the framework of construction physics (Institut
                                                                                                            an interface. The valves are designed in the low-
                                                 für Bautechnik = Institute of Construction Enginee-
                                                                                                            power version so that they can be operated with
                                                 ring).
                                                                                                            the lowest possible activating power levels.


      3              I Actuating system                                                                                                                                 Capacitance             I              8

                                                 Part of a (closed-loop) control circuit which trans-       The capacitance C indicates how much electric
                                                 forms the output signals of the control elements into      charge Q can be stored per unit of voltage 1V. The
                                                 a positioning command and executes this operation.         unit is farad = C/V = As/V.


                                                                                                                                                                            Capillarity         I              9
      4              I   Balance hole
                                                                                                            In small channels, a fluid medium rises or falls
                                                 Control hole of a servovalve. The dimensioning of
                                                                                                            depending on the balance of forces of cohesion and
                                                 this hole in relation to the discharge hole is decisive
                                                                                                            adhesion by the elevation h according to the formula
                                                 for the control of the dynamic actuating behaviour
                                                 of the valve (see Nozzle).

                                                                                                                             2σ
                                                                                                                          h=ρ·r·g
      5              I Biocide
                                                                                                                          σ = surface tension of the fluid
                                                 Chemical substances which, when added to liquid
                                                                                                                          ρ = fluid density
                                                 media, e.g. drinking water, kill any microbiological                     g = gravitational acceleration
                                                 fauna present and prevent further growth of bacte-                       r = radius of the capillaries
                                                 ria and protists.
A                                                                                                                                                                                                                     B
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                               AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
18                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       19

      10             I Cavitation                                                                                                                                                                          Certification            I          11

                                                 With high flow velocities and, therefore, high dyna-
                                                 mic pressures of a liquid (e.g. at narrow points in                                                                                                                                        11.1
                                                 flow-carrying installations), the resulting static pres-                                                                                                                               CE label
                                                 sure may fall locally to the value of the saturation                          Conformity with EU directives (CE)
                                                 vapour pressure of the fluid. Vapour-filled, locally                                     Components
                                                 limited cavities then form in the flowing liquid at the
                                                 phase transition points. If these vapour-filled cavities
                                                 (“bubbles”) then reach regions of higher pressure,
                                                 they implode with up to 1.4 GPa (corresponding to                      Device
                                                                                                                                                 “open”
                                                                                                                                                                             if possible
                                                                                                                                                 device
                                                 14,000 bar). If this process occurs beside material
                                                 walls, the cavities collapse with a needle-type nozzle
                                                 which can attain a velocity of up to 200 m/s (720
                                                                                                                              System, modular
                                                 km/h) in extreme cases, and severely damage any
                                                 material located in that area.

                                                 From the Bernoulli principle, the critical velocity of
                                                 flow vk at which static pressure becomes zero and                                          Installation
                                                 cavitation begins, is
                                                                                                            Fig. 19: P r o d u c t t y p e s a n d c a p a b i l i t y f o r C E l a b e l l i n g


                                                                                                            CE = Communauté Européenne = European Com-
                                                                               2ptotal                      munity. This is a new certifying symbol of conformity
                                                                 vk =            r                          which certifies, either as the result of the manufac-
                                                                                                            turer’s own certification or by certification issued
                                                                                                            after testing for approval by accredited test institu-
                                                                                                            tes, conformity of active electrical engineering
                                                                                                            goods with the EMC guideline; the bearing of this
                                                                                                            label is compulsory.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             11.2
                                                                                                            Canadian Standard Association. Worldwide                                                                                         CSA
                                                                                                            operating. Canadian testing and approval institute
                                                                                                            with its own regulations which are comparable in
                                                                                                            scope and contents with the German VDE and TÜV
                                                                                                            organisations.


                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fig. 20: T e s t s y m b o l o f t h e C S A

C                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        C
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                        AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
20                                                                                                                                                                                                                21

     11.3                                                                                                                                                                                             11.7
     DIN                                         Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Standards          National Standard Foundation. American testing                                             NSF
                                                 Institute). Symbol of conformity to standards indica-     institute which certifies and awards symbols for the
                                                 ting conformity with the definitions of the relevant      application and suitability of materials for use with
                                                 DIN standard. Used for standardisation of material        food and articles for human consumption.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ®
                                                 objects taking account of the relevant state of the
                                                 art.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Fig. 22: T e s t s y m b o l
                                                                                                                                                                                             of the NSF
                                                 DIN standards promote rationalisation, safety of
                                                 humans and devices, environmental protection and                                                                                                    11.8
                                                 quality assurance.                                        Österreichischer Verein der Elektrotechniker                                              ÖVE
                                                                                                           (Austrian Association of Electronics Engineers). Aus-
                                                                                                           trian testing and approval association with its own
     11.4                                                                                                  regulations which are comparable to the German VDE.
     DVGW                                        Deutscher Verein des Gas- und Wasserfachs (Ger-
                                                                                                                                                                                      11.9
                                                 man Association of Gas and Water Engineering).
                                                                                                           Swedish, Danish and Norwegian testing and appro-               SEMKO / DEMKO /
                                                 Regulatory and approval institute for functional
                                                                                                           val institute, comparable to the German VDE. Apart                      NEMKO
                                                 components and finished products in the field of gas
                                                                                                           from a few national variations, the regulations of
                                                 and water, with its own research centre.
                                                                                                           these Scandinavian institutes have been harmonised.

     Fig. 21: T e s t s y m b o l
     of the DVGW
                                                                                                                                                                                  Fig. 23: T e s t s y m b o l
     11.5                                                                                                                                                                                    of SEMKO
     KTW                                         Kunststoffe Trinkwasser (plastics for drinking
                                                 water). Directive which prescribes the material pro-                                                                                             11.10
                                                 perties of plastics which come into direct contact        Schweizerischer Verein des Gas und Wasserfaches                                       SVGW
                                                 with food or humans. It stipulates toxicity pro-          (Swiss Association of Gas and Water Engineering).
                                                 perties, resistance characteristics and critical con-     Swiss testing and approval institute with its own
                                                 centrations. Moreover, material qualities are evalua-     regulations which are comparable to the German
                                                                                                                                                                                  Fig. 24: T e s t s y m b o l
                                                 ted in respect of their safety from a microbiological     DVGW.                                                                         of the SVGW
                                                 point of view.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     11.11
                                                                                                           Underwriter Laboratories. American testing and                                              UL
     11.6
                                                                                                           certifying institute which operates world-wide with
     LMBG                                        Lebensmittelbedarfsgegenständegesetz (Act concer
                                                                                                           its own regulations which are comparable in scope
                                                 ning utility objects used for food): statutory require-
                                                                                                           and content to the German VDE and TÜV organisa-
                                                 ments for material characteristics and handling of
                                                                                                           tions.
                                                 materials which come into contact with food and                                                                                  Fig. 25: T e s t s y m b o l
                                                 for the storage and packaging of food.                                                                                                        of the UL

C                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
22                                                                                                                                                                                                              23

     11.12
     VDE                                         Verband Deutscher Elektriker (Association of Ger-                                                    Coil connector forms                 I          15
                                                 man Electricians): Testing and certifying institute
                                                 which issues its own specific symbol and with its
                                                                                                         Epoxy resin coated coil with exposed straight flat-pin                                MS 006
                                                 own regulations on assuring the electrical operating
                                                                                                         plugs as per DIN 46244, dimensions 6.3 x 0.8 mm,
                                                 safety and protection of the consumer when opera-
                                                                                                         for terminal sockets as per DIN 46245, 6.3 x 0.8 mm.
     Fig. 26: T e s t s y m b o l                ting or handling electrical engineering components
                                                                                                         The flat-pin plugs can be angled to suit the particular
     of the VDE                                  or apparatus.
                                                                                                         device as per customer specifications.
                                                                                                         Protection type:
                                                                                                         plug IP 00, coil IP 65 DIN VDE 0470.
     11.13
     WRc                                         Water Research Centre (Water Byelaws Scheme).
                                                 British testing and certifying institute with its own
                                                                                                         Epoxy resin coated coil with connector plate for                                      MS 009
                                                 independent laboratories for the evaluation of mate-
                                                                                                         equipment sockets as per DIN 43650.
     Fig. 27: T e s t s y m b o l                rials and complete installations which come into
                                                                                                         Protection type with equipment socket:
     of the WRc                                  contact with drinking water.
                                                                                                         IP 65 DIN VDE 0470. DIN 40050.


      12             I Cleaning spring
                                    Nozzle       Used to clean the very small balance hole of impor-
                                                 tance for operation which can become blocked by
                                                 suspended matter in the fluid and by calcification      Epoxy resin coated coil with connector plate for                                      MS 011
                             Star-shaped         during long-term use; the cleaning effect is achieved   equipment sockets as per DIN 43650.
                               regulating
                                 element         by the lifting motion in which case the balance hole    Protection type with equipment socket:
                        Cleaning spring          is pierced by the cleaning spring each time the valve   IP 65 DIN VDE 0470. DIN 40050.
                                                 is actuated. The cleaning spring can also be designed
     Fig. 28: Nozzle with                        as a cleaning pin.
     cleaning spring



      13             I Closing time                                                                      Epoxy resin coated coil with connector plate for                                      MS 014
                                                                                                         equipment sockets as per DIN 43650.
                                                 Time required by a valve for complete hydraulic clo-
                                                                                                         Protection type with equipment socket:
                                                 sure after loss of auxiliary control.
                                                                                                         IP 65 DIN VDE 0470.


      14             I Coercive field strength
                                                 See Magnetic materials.
C                                                                                                                                                                                                               C
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                        AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
24                                                                                                                                                                                                                25

     MS 022-01                                   Epoxy resin coated coil with two round connectors        Epoxy resin coated coil with exposed straight flat-                                   MS 026
                                                 of 4 mm diameter.                                        pin connectors as per DIN 46244 , dimensions 2 x
                                                 Connector IP 00, coil IP 65 DIN VDE 0470.                6.3 x 0.8 mm, for push-on receptacles as per DIN
                                                                                                          46245, 6.3 x 0.8 mm. The flat-pin connectors are
                                                                                                          angled in different ways to suit the particular deivce.
                                                                                                          Protection type with equipment socket:
                                                                                                          Connector IP 00, Coil UIP 65 DIN 0470.


     MS 023                                      Cable coil with magnetic cap made of steel, nickel-
                                                                                                          Epoxy resin coated connector coil based on MS 026.                                    MS 027
                                                 plated/galvanised. Cable type: PVC; 2 x 0.35 mm2 SIF
                                                 (N) 2 GFAF 1 x 0.25 mm2; special customised cable,
                                                 cable length and cable terminal as customer specifi-
                                                 cations.                                                 Epoxy resin coated cable coil based on MS 026.                                        MS 028
                                                 Protection type: IP 62 DIN VDE 0470.                     Special lengths as per customer specifications. Cable
                                                                                                          connectors as per customer specifications.
                                                                                                          Protection type: IP 65 DIN 0470.

                                                                                                          Cable types:
     MS 024                                      Epoxy resin coated connector coil with connector         H 05 RN - F 2x1 DIN 57282
                                                 plate based on MS 06. Connection for equipment           Special cables as per customer specifications
                                                 socket as per DIN 43650.
                                                 Protection type with equipment socket:
                                                 IP 65 DIN 0470.                                          Epoxy resin coated connector coil with connector                                      MS 029
                                                 Connector certified as per VDE 730.                      plate for equipment sockets.
                                                                                                          Protection type with equipment socket:
                                                                                                          IP 65 DIN 0470.
     MS 025                                      Epoxy resin coated cable coil, cable lengths from
                                                 250 to 2500 mm, special lengths as per customer
                                                 specifications; cable connectors: flexible leads, wire
                                                 end ferrules, flat-pin push-on receptacles as per
                                                 DIN 46245, connectors as per customer specifications.
                                                                                                          Cable coil with magnetic cap made of steel, nickel-plated.                            MS 032
                                                 Protection type: IP 65 DIN VDE 0470.
                                                                                                          Cable type: PVC; 2 x 0,35 mm2, other cable types, cable
                                                 Cable types:                                             lenghths and cable termination as per customer specifications.
                                                 H 05 RN - F 2x1 DIN 57282                                Protection type: IP 62 DIN VDE 0470.
                                                 EVA 0.5 mm2, N4 GAF (VDE)
                                                 SiZ 2 x 0.5 mm2
                                                 PVC; 2 x 0.35 mm2
                                                 SIF (N) 2 GFAF 1 x 0.25 mm2
                                                 Special cables as per customer specifications

C                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  27

     MS 033                                      Cable coil with magnetic cap made of steel. Cable                                                                           Coil pressure spring              I          17
     (Cartridge valve)                           type: PVC; 2 x 0.35 mm2, with sealed cable connector.
                                                                                                                             This spring is assembled between the valve plunger
                                                 Protection type: IP 65 DIN 0470.
                                                                                                                             pipe and the magnetic coil, locked into place, thus
                                                                                                                             holding the coil in a secure position.



                                                                                                                                                                                     Coil resistance           I          18

                                                                                                                             The ohmic coil resistance is normally indicated for a
                                                                                                                             temperature of 20 °C. Resistance is measured using
                                                                                                                             normal commercially available digital multimeters.
      16             I Coil energising and
                     I de-energising operations
                                                 The equivalent circuit diagrams for the energising
                                                 and de-energising operations are as shown.                                                                                            Connections             I          19

                                                                  R                                                                                                                                              19.1
                                                                                                                             The electrical connections to the magnetic system                              Electrical
                                                            U                                    U
                                                                                      L                         R        L   are manufactured in a variety of different electric                          connections
                                                                                                                             protection types. The types available (see also Coil
                                                                      A                                              A       connection forms) are:
                                                                                                                             s   standardised plugs and sockets
                                                                                                                             s   cables
                                                                                                                             s   special connections
                                                                                                                                                                                                Fig. 44: Equipment plug

                                                                                                                                                                                                               19.2
                                                  Fig. 42: Energising operation           Fig. 43: De-energising operation   Hydraulic or pneumatic connections are made in a                              Hydraulic
                                                                                                                             variety of different forms. The models available are:                     or pneumatic
                                                                                                                                                                                                        connections
                                                         dΙ R – U
                                                           + Ι    =0                             dΙ R
                                                                                                   + Ι=0                     s   standardised external or internal threads
                                                         dt L   L                                dt L                        s   common hose nozzles
                                                                                                                             s   flanges
                                                         Solutions:                                                          s   special customised connections
                                                                              R                                R
                                                                                  t
                                                         Ι = U (1 – e L )
                                                                          –
                                                                                                           –     t
                                                                                                 Ι = Ι0e
                                                                                                               L
                                                             R                                                                                                                            Fig. 45: Threaded connector
                                                  Energising operation                    De-energising operation                                                                        (e.g. for hydraulic connection)

C                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   C
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                             AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
28                                                                                                                                                                                                                     29

     19.2.1 Fixed connections                    Fixed part of the valve. Therefore, this type of pro-
                                                 duct is normally available with various types of body
                                                                                                                                                                   Control channel                I          20

                                                 which are listed in all product data sheets in the           Special term used by AKM for the channel guidance
                                                 form of a table.                                             of the balance hole, e.g. in the case of bi-stable val-
                                                                                                              ves or angle valves, to realise a certain geometry
                                                 Example:                                                     (See Servovalves for functioning).
                                                  Valve Body no.      Inlet     Outlet
                                                       1              G 3/8 A   Nozzle 5 mm (hose nozzle)
                                                       2              G 1/2 A   G 3/8 A
     Fig. 46: Valve with fixed
     connections
                                                       3              G 1/2 A   AKM 13 (special connection
                                                                                as per AKM standard no. 13)
                                                                                                                                                                     Coulomb force                I          21

                                                                                                              The force F acts between two resting charges Q
                                                                                                              and Q´ according to the equation.


     19.2.2 Variable connections Elements of the AKM modular structure in the case
                                 of which the valve bodies are equipped with an
                                 AKM special connector which enables different                                                                                 Creepage distances                 I          22
                                 types of connection required to be achieved by                                                                                    and clearances                 I
                                 means of a modular system. All variants are listed in
                                                                                                              (DIN EN 60730-1) standardised distance dimension
                                 the product data sheet and can be combined if the
                                                                                                              from the point of view of electrical safety for
                                 customer wishes.
                                                                                                              distances between energised parts and parts with
                                                                                                              which contact may be made. The dimensions are
     Fig. 47: Snap-on connections                Examples of available connections:
     (variable connections)                                                                                   dependent on voltage, structure and degree of soi-
                                                   Threaded connections: G 1/4 A, G 1/2 A, G 3/4 A, G 1/2     ling.
                                                   Hose nozzles:         5 mm, 10 mm
                                                   Special connections: AKM 13, AKM 15


                                                                                                                                                                     Dezincification              I          23

                                                                                                              The washing out of zinc components from various
     19.2.3 Mechanical                           Several variants are available for mechanical
                                                                                                              types of brass by the effects of chemicals and flow
            connections                          connections. The types available are:
                                                                                                              processes leaving only the copper matrix of the
                                                                                                              alloy and which can, therefore, lead to pitting corro-
                                                 s       snap-on connections
                                                                                                              sion. To prevent this process, types of a-brass are
                                                 s       holes for tapping screws
                                                                                                              used for flow-critical components (with high flow
                                                 s       sockets for nuts
                                                                                                              velocities, e.g. at separating edges) which contain
                                                                                                              stabilisers in the copper-zinc alloy.

C                                                                                                                                                                                                                      C
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
30                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31

      24             I Diaphragm                                                                                                                                          Duty cycle           I          28

                                                 Elastomer sealing element which opens or closes the         Indicated as ED on equipment nameplates. It refers
                                                 valve seat.                                                 to the percentage operating time for the energising
                                                                                                             of the electrical components by reference to the
                                                                                                             complete operating cycle. The duty cycle must
                                                                                                             always be indicated in relation to cycle time. Cycle
                                                                                                             time is the sum of the duty cycle and current-free
     Fig. 48: Diaphragm                                                                                      interval.
     with nozzle


      25             I Diaphragm
                     I pressure spring
                                                 See Pressure spring
                                                                                                                                                                         Elastomers            I          29

                                                                                                             Are all high polymers which acquire rubber-elastic
                                                                                                             properties through crosslinking. Crosslinking, which
                                                                                                             is also referred to as vulcanisation, occurs at the
      26             I Dirt trap                                                                             three-dimensional junctions of chains of molecules
                                                 Mechanical filter for fluid media. The filter can be used   under the effects of externally applied heat. The ori-
                                                 to extract undissolved substances from the medium.          ginal rubber compound in the non-crosslinked state
                                                                                                             is capable of plastic deformation. Crosslinking/vulca-
                                                                                                             nisation can only be done once and is irreversible
                                                                                                             (cf. Thermoplastics).


                                                                                                                                                                                                      29.1
                                                                                                             Ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer is largely                                         EPDM
                                                                                                             resistant to lyes and acids of medium concentration
                                                                                                             and can be used up to a temperature of 130 °C. It is
                                                                                                             not resistant to oils and greases.

                                                                                                                                                                         Fig. 51: Application example:
     Fig. 49: Dirt trap opened                                  Fig. 50: Dirt trap closed                                                                                   diaphragm made of EPDM

                                                                                                                                                                                                        29.2
      27             I Discharge hole                                                                        Vinylidene-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (trade                                           FKM
                                                 In servovalves, hydraulic relief occurs in the space on     name e.g. Viton) from the group of synthetic rubbers
                                                 upper side of the diaphragm through this hole in the        with methyl groups in the rubber module, belongs
                                                 valve opening phase (see Fig. 48: Nozzle).                  to the class of fluororubbers. It has wide resistance,
                                                                                                             also to hot oils, benzene and hydrocarbons.
D                                                                                                                                                                                                                   D
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                       AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
32                                                                                                                                                                                                               33

     29.3                                                                                                                                                               Electric            I          30
     FVSI                                        Fluorosilicone-methyl-vinyl rubber belongs to the                                                      displacement density/               I
                                                 group of synthetic rubbers with silicon and fluorina-
                                                 ted groups in the module and one special property
                                                                                                                                                          electric flux density             I
                                                 it possesses is greater swelling resistance in oils      Electric flux density D is a vector with the sum of
                                                 compared to pure silicone materials.                     the surface density of the charge s and of the direc-
     Fig. 52: Application example.
     diaphragm made of FVSI                                                                               tion of the surface normal (direction from the posi-
                                                                                                          tive to the negative charge).


                                                                                                                                →          →
     29.4
     NBR                                         Acrylonitrile-butadiene-copolymer. Also referred to
                                                                                                                               D = ε0εrE
                                                 as nitrile rubber (trade name e.g. Perbuna N). Is
                                                 used as an elastomer up to approx. 90 °C and has                 ε0 = 8,854 · 1012C2 / (Nm2)
                                                 good resistance to oils, greases and mechanical
                                                 stress.
                                                                                                          With anisotropic properties of the material (e.g.
                                                                                                          with crystals) er is a tensor whereby E and D have
     Fig. 53: Application example:
     diaphragm made of NBR                                                                                different directions. In an electric conductor, the
                                                                                                          charges are freely displaceable. For this reason, the
                                                                                                          inside of the conductor is always field-free.

     29.5
     Silicone
     29.5.1 VMQ                                  Vinyl-methyl-polysiloxane is particularly characteri-                                                 Electric field strength              I          31
                                                 sed by its good resistance to oxygen and ozone,
                                                                                                          A physical variable which is defined by the Coulomb
                                                 high heat resistance and good low-temperature
                                                                                                          force. A body with the charge Q to which a
                                                 flexibility (-60 °C to 200 °C) with high elongation at
                                                                                                          Coloumb force is applied is exposed to the electric
                                                 break. Complex moulded parts can be produced
                                                                                                          field E at this point.
                                                 using both high-temperature vulcanised and two-
     Fig. 54: Application                        component liquefied silicone compounds. Its trans-
     example:
     seal made of silicone                       parency and non-toxicity allows its use in the phar-                         →     →
                                                 maceutical and food sectors.                                                 E=F/Q
     29.5.2 FVMQ                                 Fluorovinyl-methyl-polysiloxane with properties
                                                 similar to VMQ, however, improved resistance to          The unit of electric field strength is indicated in
                                                 mineral and synthetic oils and greases, as well as the   volts per metre = N/C, whereby the voltage is also
                                                 oils and aromatics of roasted coffee. These compo-       defined which indicates the charge-dependent
                                                 unds are also non-toxic.                                 power required to displace a charge within the elec-
                                                                                                          tric field.
E                                                                                                                                                                                                                E
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
34                                                                                                                                                                                                             35

      32             I Electric flux Φ                                                                    For currents and voltages which vary over time,
                                                                                                          the computed total power, referred to as apparent
                                                 The surface integral over an area A which is expo-       power, is made up of the components reactive
                                                 sed to the field E.                                      power and active power.

                                                                           →    →                                                                                                          33.1
                                                                  Φ = ∫∫EdA                               Active power is the actual physical power generated                     Active power
                                                                                                          in the mean time.
                                                 The flux through a closed surface is proportional to
                                                                                                                                                                                         33.2
                                                 the charges enclosed by this surface.
                                                                                                          Describes the time-dependent factors for each                       Reactive power
                                                                                                          frequency of the complex total power, but does not
                                                                    1
                                                                  Φ=—Q                                    constitute any real physical power.
                                                                    ε0
                                                                                                                                                                                       33.3
                                                 The constant of proportionality is the reciprocal        Is the sum of active and reactive power. With a pure              Apparent power
                                                 value of permittivity.                                   direct voltage (DC), apparent power reduces to the
                                                                                                          active power. In the coils like those used in AKM
                                                                                                          magent systems, and capacitors, i.e. inductances or
                                                                                                          capacitances, the alternating current variables
                                                                                                          voltage and current are no longer in phase and,
      33             I Electric power                                                                     therefore, lead to reactive power.
                                                 Product of current and voltage


                                                                  P=U•I                                                                                 Electric resistance               I          34

                                                                                                          Electric resistance R = 1 ohm (W) if a current of
                                                                  P = power
                                                                                                          exactly 1 A flows between two points of a conduc-
                                                                  U = voltage
                                                                                                          tor with a voltage of 1 V. With metal conductors,
                                                                  I = current
                                                                                                          the temperature dependence of resistance is:
                                                 In principle, the above equation applies equally to
                                                 direct (DC) and to alternating (AC) voltage. Since,
                                                 in AC voltages, the voltage and current values chan-
                                                                                                               R(ϑ) = R20[1 + α(ϑ - 20 °C)]
                                                 ge over the time t, this is expressed in small letters
                                                                                                               ϑ = Temperature in °C
                                                 followed in brackets by the variable on which the
                                                                                                               α = Temperature coefficient
                                                 voltage value depends. In this case, on the time t.

                                                                  p(t) = i(t) • u(t)                      The temperature coefficient which refers to 20 °C
                                                                                                          is shown below.
E                                                                                                                                                                                                              E
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                           AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
36                                                                                                                                                                                                                   37

                                                                                                            Equally, a device can transmit electromagnetic fields
                                                     Material         α10-4K-1   Material        α10-4K-1
                                                                                                            or experience interference in its operation by fields
                                                     Aluminium         40,0      Copper           39,0
                                                                                                            of other sources. So that devices can continue to
                                                     Lead              42,2      Nickel silver     7,0
                                                                                                            function without interference, it is necessary to com-
                                                     Transformer steel 45,0      Nickel           55,0
                                                                                                            ply with certain prescribed statutory limit values,
                                                     Iron              65,7      Platinum         38,0
                                                                                                            the manufacturer certifying this fact by means of the
                                                     Gold              39,8      Silver           41,0
                                                                                                            international CE symbol.
                                                     Graphite           -2,0     Tungsten         46,0
                                                     Constantan          0,4

                                                                                                                                                          Equation of continuity                I          37

                                                                                                            With stationary flow of an incompressible fluid, the
      35             I Electrical leakage test                                                              mass flow rate through every cross-section of the
                                                                                                            flow tube is the same.
                                                  With a plastic solenoid valve operated with water,
                                                  the fluid can be regarded as an electrical conductor.
                                                  A flow of current through this conductor is inter-
                                                  rupted only if the valve completely seals off this flow
                                                                                                                            A · v = const
                                                  of water. This fact can be used in order to obtain a
                                                  significant and fast evaluation of the switching state
                                                                                                            This formula must be applied, in particular, for cavi-
                                                  of a valve. This method is very sensitive and is espe-
                                                                                                            tation-free water flows in piping systems.
                                                  cially suitable for the serial manufacturing of soleno-
                                                  id valves. It must be noted that the current source
                                                  supplies AC current. Set value: approx. 400 KOhm.
                                                                                                                                                                 Equipment plug                 I          38
                                                                                                                                                              (as per DIN 43650)                I
                                                                                                            Standardised plug-in electric plug for electric
      36             I Electromagnetic                                                                      engineering components.
                     I compatibility (EMC)
                                                 Similar to a radio transmitter, all electromagnetic
                                                 devices transmit electromagnetic fields which, with
                                                                                                                                                                                 Fig. 55: Equipment plug
                                                 a certain energy density, are capable of impairing
                                                 the operation of other devices. A commercially avai-
                                                 lable PC with a clock frequency of 100 MHz can,
                                                 with defective screening, interfere with vhf recepti-
                                                                                                                                                                      Flameproofing             I          39
                                                 on a radio.                                                Chemical substances added to material compounds
                                                                                                            so as to act in a fire-inhibiting or self-extinguishing
                                                                                                            manner in insulation materials in the event of fire.
E                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                           AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
38                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   39

      40             I Flow characteristic curve                                                                                                                                       Flow velocity            I          42

                                                  XY diagram of the relationship between the static                          In macroscopic diagrams and calculations, generally
                                                  pressure difference and flow volume of a valve.                            the mean flow velocity along the observed flow
                                                  Normally, the pressure difference through the valve                        cross-section A. For example, with a laminar flow
                                                  is indicated with free flow of medium. With a diffe-                       through a pipe with the radius R, a circular symme-
                                                  rential pressure of 1 bar, the flow on the characteri-                     trical velocity profile is produced (Hagen-Poisseuille
                                                  stic curve corresponds to the Kv value (cf. Kv                             equation).
                                                  value).
                                                                     50.000 series “Cartridge valve”
                                                                                                                                               p1 - p2
                                                                                Flow curve
                                                                                                                                        v(r) = ——– (R2 - r2)
                                                                                  Test housing
                                                                                                                                               4lη
                                                                                                                                        p1/2 = Inlet pressure/outlet pressure
                                                                                                                                        l = Length of pipeline
                                                                                                                                        η = Dynamic viscosity
                                                                                                 Cartridge in test housing


                                                                                                                             The flow velocity can also be shown as a quotient of
                                                                                                                             the volumetric flow and of the reference cross-
                                                                                                                             section.
                                                  Fig. 56: Example of a flow characteristic curve with hysteresis
                                                                                                                                                         •
                                                                                                                                                  v=V/A
      41             I Flow regulator
                                                  Is a hydrodynamic built-in component which limits
                                                  the flow rate to a fixed value (e.g. 8 l/min) indepen-                                                                            Flow, basic                 I          43
                                                  dently of the flow pressure applied.                                                                                   hydrodynamic equations                 I
                                                                 Example of a flow characteristic curve                      Newton`s second law of motion also applies in
                                                                                                                             fluids for each part volume and states that the acce-
                                                                                                                             leration of a part volume is equal to the sum of for-
                                                                                                                             ces applied, divided by the mass of the part volume.
     Fig. 57: Flow regulator
                                                                                                                             Volume forces act upon the part volume, such forces
                                                                                                                             being the force of gravity, forces due to the pressu-
                                                                                                                             re gradient, and viscous forces. The mathematical
                                                                                                                             formula is the Navier-Stokes equation (see below)
                                                                                                                             which, neglecting friction, passes into the Euler equa-
     Fig. 58: Example of a flow                                                                                              tion. The integral of the Euler equation along the
     characteristic curve                                                                                                    stream filaments produces the Bernoulli theorem.
F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    F
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
40                                                                                                                                                                                                                        41

                         →
                        dv  →                     1                                                                       π · ∆p
                     ρ· — = M - grad p + η · ∆v + — η grad div v
                                              →                →
                                                                                                                     ·
                        dt                        3                                                                  V = 8 · η · l · R4
                          Mass        Volume forces      Pressure forces                Viscous forces
                            •
                       Acceleration                                                                                  ·
                                                                                                                     V    =   Volumetric flow
                                                                                                                     ∆p   =   Pressure loss or pressure gradient
                                                                                                                     R    =   Pipe radius
                                                                                                                     η    =   Viscosity
                                                                                                                     l    =   Length of pipeline

      44             I Flow, ideal
                                                  No viscous forces act in this type of flow, so that
                                                                                                          For laminar flow, therefore, flow resistance is pro-
                                                  the energy conservation law is reduced to the theo-
                                                                                                          portional to flow velocity.
                                                  rem of Daniel Bernoulli. This relationship is used by
                                                  AKM for pump calculation.


                                                                      1
                                                                                                                                                                     Flow, source-free               I          46
                                                      pst + pdyn = p + ρv2 = ptotal = const                                                                        and incompressible                I
                                                                      2
                                                                                                          The mass-velocity equation
                                                         pst       = Static pressure
                                                                                                                                  →     ·
                                                         p
                                                           dyn
                                                                   = Dynamic pressure                                     ρ · div v = – ρ
                                                         ptotal    = Total pressure
                                                         v         = Flow velocity                                        ρ = fluid density
                                                                                                                          →
                                                                                                                          v = velocity vector field of flow


                                                                                                          is reduced in this case to

                                                                                                                                        →
      45             I Flow, laminar                                                                                               div v = 0
                                                  The behaviour of the flowing fluid is determined
                                                                                                          This type of flow is referred to as divergence-free.
                                                  only by the inner friction of the molecules of the
                                                  fluid (also referred to simply as “flow”). The Hagen-
                                                  Poisseuille law (ohmic law for laminar pipe flow) can
                                                  be formulated as follows for laminar pipe flow.                                                                     Flow, stationary               I          47

                                                                                                          The velocity vector field v ( r ) of a flow is not
                                                                                                          dependent on time and remains constant.
F                                                                                                                                                                                                                         F
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                       AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
42                                                                                                                                                                                                               43

      48             I Flow, tank discharge                                                                                                                  Fluid separation               I          50

                                                 The fluid discharge from a small opening on the base     Separation of the fluid or the fluid passage from the
                                                 of a run-down tank which is subject to hydrostatic       pilot space or plunger space in valves.
                                                 or piston pressure and has the pressure p at the
                                                 base of the tank, leads to an outflow velocity.


                                                                             2p                                                                                      Food grade             I          51
                                                                    v=       ρ                            Quality criterion for materials used for or which
                                                                                                          come into contact with food (including drinking
                                                                                                          water) and beverages according to criteria of requi-
                                                                                                          rements specific to each country. Test centres
                                                                                                          include: KTW, WRc, FDA / NSF and other interna-
                                                                                                          tional agencies.
      49             I Flow, turbulent
                                                 In turbulent flows, vortices arise which lead to a
                                                 force of resistance Fw.
                                                                                                                                                                  Frequency/                I          52
                                                                             ρ                                                                               frequency range                I
                                                                   Fw = cw     Av2
                                                                             2                            The frequency of AC currents is of particular
                                                                                                          importance in the design of solenoid valves. The
                                                                                                          nomenclature for AC current must be regarded as
                                                 This force can be formulated by means of a dimen-
                                                                                                          similar to the nominal voltage/nominal voltage ran-
                                                 sionless coefficient of resistance cw. With straight
                                                                                                          ge. For AKM valves, only the fixed values of 50 and
                                                 pipelines, the flow resistance can also be referred to
                                                                                                          60 Hz are of significance which correspond to the
                                                 as the loss head hv by which the inflow must be rai-
                                                                                                          varying supply grids. At 50 Hz, heating is lower than
                                                 sed to overcome this friction (See also Reynolds
                                                                                                          at 60 Hz, however, current input is lower at 60 Hz
                                                 number for description of the pipe friction coeffi-
                                                                                                          than at 50 Hz.
                                                 cient and coefficient of resistance).


                                                                           lv 2
                                                               hv = λ
                                                                          2dg                                                                                               Heating         I          53

                                                               λ = Pipe friction coefficient
                                                               l = Length of pipeline
                                                                                                                                                                                    53.1
                                                               d = Pipe diameter                          Highest admissible temperature for an electroma           Limiting temperature
                                                               v = Flow velocity                          gnetic device at which declared function is not
                                                                                                          impaired.
F                                                                                                                                                                                                                F
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
44                                                                                                                                                                                                                  45

     53.2                                                                                                  series connection of two resistors
     Limiting excess                             Highest admissible temperature rise of an energised
     temperature                                 coil with defined parameters like voltage, fluid tem-
                                                 perature and ambient temperature, etc. and descri-
                                                                                                                   P1               P2                    P3
                                                 bed in VDE 0580 Oct. 1994.                                                  F1                 F2

                                                                                                                                    F1F2
                                                                                                                  dV / dt =                          p1 - p3
      54             I   Hydrodynamic                                                                                               2
                                                                                                                                  F1 + F2   2


                     I   chamber model

                                                 Hydrodynamic calculations of turbulent flows are
                                                                                                           and
                                                 very easily performed with the aid of discrete cham-
                                                 bers in which the pressure decrease is not constant
                                                                                                           parallel connection of two resistors
                                                 if there is no need to maintain constant pressure
                                                 along all physical coordinates. For a turbulent flow
                                                 of an incompressible fluid, the volumetric flow dV/dt
                                                 is always proportional to the square root of the sta-
                                                                                                                                     F1
                                                                                                                        P1                           P2
                                                 tic pressure decrease ∆p=p1- p2
                                                                                                                                     F2
                                                              dV / dt = F p1 - p2
                                                                                                                   dV / dt = (F1 + F2)               p1 - p 2
                                                 The constant of proportionality is referred to as the
                                                 flow resistance value F which is constant with
                                                 unchanging flow cross-sections. This allows indicati-
                                                 on of the volumetric flow through a pipe using the
                                                 static inlet pressure and outlet pressure and redu-
                                                 ces the pipe of the length 1 to one chamber in
                                                                                                                                                                          Hydrolysis           I          55

                                                 which the pressure decreases non-constantly as in         Chemical reaction in which the material molecules
                                                 the case of an orifice. Using this method, it is possi-   are split by the effects of water. Destructive effects
                                                 ble to trace a hydrodynamic flow resistance net-          may occur if unsuitable materials are used.
                                                 work back to the base elements listed below and it
                                                 becomes available for a simple analytic or iterative
                                                 calculation.



H                                                                                                                                                                                                                   H
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
46                                                                                                                                                                                                              47

      56             I Inductance                                                                                                                                       Induction          I          57

                                                 Refers to the behaviour of coils. The following cal-   Electromagnetic induction is a phenomenon first
                                                 culations apply to air coils:                          observed by M. Faraday in 1831, which is based on
                                                                                                        the relationship between electric and magnetic pro-
                                                 Ring coil, very long cylindrical coil                  cesses as they change over time. The law of induc-
                                                                                                        tion states that when the magnetic flux is changed
                                                                    µAnN2                               by an area surrounding an electric conductor, a vol-
                                                                L = ———                                 tage is generated in the conductor which causes a
                                                                      l                                 current to flow when the circuit is closed although a
                                                                                                        voltage source is absent. This kind of voltage gene-
                                                                µ = Permeability                        ration occurs when
                                                                An = Coil area
                                                                N = Number of turns                     a) the conductor is moved within a magnetic field in
                                                                l = Mean coil circumference                such a way that it intersects the lines of the
                                                                     or coil length                        magnetic field,
                                                                                                        b) the conductor is held and the solenoid is moved,
                                                  Short coil, one-layer
                                                                                                        c) the conductor is bent,
                                                                    µAnN2                               d) the conductor and solenoid are held but the
                                                                L=f ———                                    magnetic field is changed,
                                                                      l
                                                                                                        e) the conductor and solenoid are at rest and, with
                                                                                     1
                                                                f = Form factor = ————                     a fixed magnetic field, a substance with a different
                                                                                  1 + d / 2l               relative permeability is brought into the magnetic
                                                                d = Coil diameter                          field.
                                                                l = Coil length
                                                                                                        In all 5 cases, voltage is generated by a change in the
                                                  Short coil, multi-layer                               magnetic flux.

                                                                   21µN2R  R
                                                                L= ———– (——)n
                                                                     4π   l+h

                                                                R = Coil radius                                                                               Insulation class             I          58
                                                                h = Height of coil winding
                                                                                                        The insulation class categorises insulation materials
                                                                                R
                                                                n = 0,75 if (——– ≤ 1)                   according to their maximum temperature resi-
                                                                              l+h                       stance. VDE 0580 Oct. 1994 specifies nine different
                                                                                   R
                                                                n = 0,5 if [1 ≤ (——–) ≤ 3 ]             limiting temperatures (reference temperature for
                                                                                  l+h
                                                                                                        the calculation is 35 °C).
I                                                                                                                                                                                                                I
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                            AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
48                                                                                                                                                                                                                    49

                                                   Insulation   Limiting tempe-      Limiting excess       and, therefore, it must be taken into account in the
                                                      class       ratures in °C    temperature in °C       protective measures. In protection class I, the fluid
                                                          Y            90                    50            must be earthed. In protective class II, the fluid is
                                                          A           105                    65            normally separated from the voltage-carrying parts
                                                          E           120                    80            by double insulation. These types of insulation must
                                                          B           130                    90            be capable of being checked separately. Double
                                                          F           155                   115            insulation is achieved here through the basic safety
                                                          H           180                   140            insulation (coil body 1 mm) and the valve dome
                                                         200          200                   160            (1 mm insulation thickness). Reinforced insulation
                                                         220          220                   180            means that the voltage-carrying parts have to be
                                                         250          250                   210            completely embedded in insulation of a thickness of
                                                                                                           2 mm. This is a special AKM version with the best
                                                 Class F is the normal design criteria at AKM for          electrical values since the air gaps in the magnetic
                                                 coils or complete magnetic systems. This means            circuit are kept low.
                                                 that the coil may not become warmer than 155 °C
                                                 in the energised state and with the maximum fluid
                                                 and ambient temperature. The so-called over tem-
                                                 perature, the temperature rise above the ambient
                                                                                                                                                                                Kv value         I          60

                                                 temperature may not exceed 115 K.                         The Kv characteristic value is used to obtain a basis
                                                                                                           for comparison of flow indications in flow processes
                                                 VDE 0580 Oct. 1994 also specifies a so-called hot         in relation to geometries, operating principles and
                                                 spot temperature rise of 5 K. This is an empirical        nominal widths for hydrodynamic components like
                                                 value by which the limiting temperature is reduced        fittings and valves and is defined as follows:
                                                 so that a limiting temperature of 150 °C is produced
                                                 for insulation class F. As a result of an inconsistency
                                                 in the standard, the temperature set for continuous                                             p
                                                                                                                     Kv = (dV / dt)
                                                 use for insulation class F is 140 °C. The tempera-                                              ∆p
                                                 ture is normally derived from the rise in resistance
                                                 in the coil winding and produces a mean value over
                                                                                                                     dV/dt = volumetric flow (l/min)
                                                 the whole coil. As some parts of the coil, by reason                p     = actual differential pressure (bar)
                                                 of their design, can become hotter than others (hot                 ∆p = pressure difference of 1 bar
                                                 spots), this is taken into account by deducting the                         measured through the valve
                                                 aforementioned 5 K hot point difference.

                                                                                                           The Kv value is a figure for comparison which,
                                                                                                           unless otherwise indicated, is always defined in
      59             I Insulation, double/                                                                 [m3/h]. The unit [l/min] has proved useful for valves
                     I reinforced                                                                          of small nominal diameters. The value always applies
                                                 With a solenoid valve for water, the fluid is regar-      to the fully-opened valve and serves as the basis for
                                                 ded as a conductor with which contact may occur           calculation of volumetric flows within a system.
I                                                                                                                                                                                                                     K
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
50                                                                                                                                                                                                                  51

      61             I Load change                                                                                                                    Magnetic circuit, valves                 I          64

                                                 Defines the time span and the complete cycle of val-      The components coil, coil yoke, plunger guiding pipe
                                                 ve operation from the opening to the closing of the       and plunger make up the actual magnetic circuit. In
                                                 valve. The detailed description of the load change in     this case, the magnetic field generated by the energi-
                                                 a specific application formulates the requirements        sed coil acts on the plunger. The magnetic field in
                                                 for capability for long-term durability of a valve.       the axial direction inside the coil is of particular
                                                                                                           importance. The analytic description of the magne-
                                                                                                           tic circuit follows the condition “div B = 0” and the
                                                                                                           energy equation “H = B/(µ(µ0))”. The first condition
      62             I Lorentz force                                                                       states that the magnetic flux which exits a coil must
                                                                                                           re-enter the same and the second condition states
                                                 In a magnetic field B, electric charges Q moving at
                                                                                                           that when a material with correspondingly high per-
                                                 the velocity v experience a force F, the Lorentz force.
                                                                                                           meability (µ) is used inside a coil, the field strength
                                                                                                           H in the plunger is smaller than in the air gap. It
                                                                  →    →         →                         automatically follows that operating air gaps should
                                                                  F = Qv         B                         generally be minimised when designing magnetic
                                                                                                           circuits.


      63             I Magnetic circuit                                                                                                                             Magnetic field             I          65

                                                                                                           Refers to a region of space in which each point is
                                                 Describes a closed arrangement for further guiding
                                                                                                           assigned a magnetic field strength. Magnetic fields
                                                 and bundling of magnetic flux with the aim of achie-
                                                                                                           are conditional on the existence of a moving electric
                                                 ving a high magnetic flux density. The magnetic cir-
                                                                                                           charge or fast-changing electric fields. Magnetic
                                                 cuit is made up of substances of high permeability
                                                                                                           fields occur in the space surrounding current-carry-
                                                 and can, if required, contain one or more narrow
                                                                                                           ing conductors and permanent magnets. The magne-
                                                 air gaps. If there is good bundling of the flux, then
                                                                                                           tic field of the permanent magnets is ultimately cau-
                                                 the flux outside the magnetic circuit, the stray flux,
                                                                                                           sed by the internal currents of the atoms of moving
                                                 can normally be ignored, so that constant flux
                                                                                                           electrons. These currents correspond to the ampe-
                                                 through the magnetic circuit can be assumed.
                                                                                                           ric circulating currents. The strength and the direc-
                                                                                                           tion of the magnetic field is characterised by the
                                                 The magnetic circuit is of particular significance in
                                                                                                           vector of magnetic field strength.
                                                 electromagnets to generate high magnetic fields in
                                                 the air gap between the pole contours. In order to
                                                 keep the magnetising current low, the magnetic cir-
                                                 cuit consists mainly of ferromagnetic material. An
                                                                                                                                                       Magnetic field strength                 I          66

                                                 exception is the air gap in electromagnetic actuating
                                                                                                                                                        (magnetic excitation)                  I
                                                 devices in the case of which the magnetic circuit         Moving charges, i.e. electric currents, generate a
                                                 contains a stationary and a moving design part.           magnetic field H which surrounds them. This is
L                                                                                                                                                                                                                   M
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                        AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
52                                                                                                                                                                                                                53

                                                 expressed by the 1st Maxwell equation, which is
                                                 also referred to as Ampere's law. In words, Ampe-
                                                                                                                                                           Magnetic induction                I          68

                                                 re's law states that the integral of the magnetic field   Magnetic induction B indicates how great the force
                                                 strength along an area bounded by a loop is equal to      F is, which is applied to a conductor of the length 1
                                                 the total current I flowing through this area, which      through which the current I flows, which stands
                                                 is the magnetomotive force.                               perpendicular to the lines of flux (see also Lorentz
                                                                                                           force).
                                                 Derived from this are the field strengths of varying
                                                 conductor arrangements.

                                                                                                                                                            Magnetic material                I          69

                                                    Circular conductor
                                                                                          I
                                                                                      H = 2r
                                                                                                                                                           behavioural modes                 I
                                                    with radius r                                          Mode of behaviour of a material when placed in a
                                                                                            I              magnetic field. A distinction is made between the
                                                    Long straight conductor           H = 2πr              classes of paramagnetism, diamagnetism, ferroma-
                                                    at a distance of r0                       0
                                                                                                           gnetism, antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism.
                                                                                           NI              The latter classes occur with a change in the materi-
                                                    Ring coil with ring radius R,     H = 2πR
                                                    number of turns N                                      al property at defined transitional temperatures
                                                                                                           such as the Curie point or Néel temperature.

                                                    Cylindrical coil with length 1,         IN
                                                    diameter d,                       H=                                                                                        69.1
                                                    on the axis within the coil           I + d2
                                                                                            2
                                                                                                           Magnetisation of a material in the direction of the Paramagnetism (µ > 1)
                                                                                               IN          outer magnetic field. There may be no interactions
                                                    at the central point of the       H=                   present between the magnetic moments of the
                                                    end surfaces                         2 I + d2
                                                                                             2
                                                                                                           atoms or molecules which are already strong
                                                                                                           enough to orient the moments in a particular direc-
                                                                                                           tion without an outer field. Paramagnetic materials
                                                                                                           include e.g. platinum.

      67             I Magnetic flux                                                                                                                                                  69.2
                     I (magnetic induction flux)                                                           Basic characteristic of all materials which is, howe-      Diamagnetism (µ < 1)
                                                 Flux of the magnetic induction B which permeates          ver, frequently masked by stronger material proper-
                                                 the area A. The unit of magnetic flux is the “weber”      ties, e.g. paramagnetism. When placed in a magnetic
                                                 (Wb). 1 Wb = 1 V/sec.                                     field, diamagnetic materials experience a force in the
                                                                                                           direction of weakening field strength and have, the-
                                                                                    → →
                                                                                                           refore, lower permeability than a vacuum or even
                                                                         Φ = ∫∫ BdA                        air (µ<1). Diamagnetic materials include nitrogen,
                                                                                                           bismuth and water under normal conditions.
M                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                           AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
54                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   55

     69.3                                                                                                                                                            hard magnetic
     Ferromagnetism                              Magnetic order in substances which is characterised           Remanence                                                Remanence
     (µ >> 1)                                    by the parallel alignment of the atomic magnetic         It is left behind in iron                                It is left behind in iron
                                                                                                               when the outer                                           when the outer
                                                 moments and spontaneous magnetisation. Neces-           magnetic field strength H                                magnetic field strength H
                                                                                                                  disappears.                                              disappears.
                                                 sary, but not sufficient for ferromagnetism, is the
                                                 existence of unfilled inner electron shells in the
                                                 atoms of the crystalline materials. Ferromagnetic
                                                                                                                                                Coercive field                                                   Coercive field
                                                 materials include iron, nickel, cobalt, gadolinium,                                              strength                                                         strength
                                                                                                                                               must be applied                                                   must be applied
                                                 numerous binary and higher alloys, also some com-                                             to make the flux                                                  to make the flux
                                                                                                             hard magnetic                      density B zero.      soft magnetic                                density B zero
                                                 posed of non-ferromagnetic elements. Such materi-
                                                 als adopt a high degree of magnetism in the B field
                                                 which runs in the same direction as the B field when                                                                                            Fig. 59: Induction curves
                                                 temperatures are not too high.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                70.1
                                                                                                           Magnetic field strength H at which induction, after                                         Coercive field
                                                                                                           prior modulation until saturation, attains the value 0                                          strength
                                                                                                           in the reverse field. It is derived from the intersecting
      70             I Magnetic materials                                                                  point of the hysteresis loop and field strength axis.
                                                                                                           Coercive force is a characteristic material parameter
                                                 An important group of special materials for electri-
                                                                                                           and can attain values from 0.005 to over 5,000 A/cm.
                                                 cal engineering, electronics and device construction.
                                                 The wide-ranging demands on nonlinearity, losses,
                                                 permeability, energy density, microwave response
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 70.2
                                                 down to mechanical properties led to the develop-
                                                                                                           Residual induction B at field strength value H=0                                                Remanence
                                                 ment of numerous magnetic materials.
                                                                                                           prior modulation until saturation, attains the value 0
                                                                                                           in the reverse field. It is derived from the intersecting
                                                 Materials with a coercive field strength < 10 A/cm
                                                                                                           point of the hysteresis loop and field strength axis.
                                                 are referred to as magnetically soft materials and
                                                                                                           Coercive force is a characteristic material parameter
                                                 those with a coercive field strength > 10 A/cm as
                                                                                                           and can attain values from 0.005 to over 5,000 A/cm.
                                                 magnetically hard materials. The conditions for
                                                 obtaining soft magnetic characteristics are a homo-
                                                 geneous, unstressed microstructure with a high
                                                                                                                                                                                                            70.3
                                                                                                                                                                                           Dielectric constant ε
                                                 degree of purity, a final heat treatment with tempe-
                                                                                                           Material property of the dielectric as the rela-
                                                 ratures up to 1,200 °C for cleaning and remedying
                                                                                                           tionship of the capacitance of a capacitor with diel-
                                                 of defects. Conditions for achieving hard magnetic
                                                                                                           ectric to its capacitance in a vacuum.
                                                 properties are a heterogeneous constitution of
                                                 microstructure as a result of separations, transfor-
                                                 mations or order processes. The magnetic effect
                                                 depends on the distribution, quantity and size of the                                εr = C / Cvacuum
                                                 heterogeneous phase.
M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    M
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                       AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
56                                                                                                                                                                                                                               57

                                                 The dielectric constant in the vacuum is described
                                                 as ε0 and is calculated from
                                                                                                                                                                            Manual operation                I          71

                                                                                                          Device e.g. on or inside valves which means that the
                                                                                                          valve function can only be triggered by mechanical
                                                                   1
                                                                µ0 · c2   [   A·s
                                                                              V·m     ]                   intervention without energising of the solenoid. This
                                                                                                          may be useful for servicing or testing purposes.



                                                 In this case, c = the velocity of light.
                                                 The material-dependent component is referred to                                                                        Maxwell’s equations                 I          72
                                                 as εr and is dimensionless.
                                                                                                          Maxwell's equations are a system of differential
                                                 (cf. Flux density/Displacement density)
                                                                                                          equations which comprise the basic characteristics
                                                                                                          of electric and magnetic fields, their link to electric
                                                                                                          charges and currents and their mutual linking in the
     70.4
                                                                                                          event of time-varying electric and magnetic fields.
     Permeability                                Characterises the magnetic material properties of
                                                                                                          Using these equations, it is possible to calculate the
     constant µ                                  the magnetic flux density of a material in relation to
                                                                                                          effects of force on electric charges in variable
                                                 its magnetic flux density in a vacuum.
                                                                                                          magnetic fields. All laws of electrostatics, magne-
                                                                                                          tostatics, and electrodynamics in the narrower sen-
                                                                                                          se, can then be derived from the same, and all pro-
                                                                µr = B / Bvacuum                          blems in this area can be solved using the same.


                                                 Magnetic field constant in a vacuum is referred to as
                                                 µ0. It is equal to
                                                                                                                   ·
                                                                                                          rot H = D + j ,     ∫
                                                                                                                              º   K
                                                                                                                                               d
                                                                                                                                      H • ds = dt      ∫
                                                                                                                                                       A
                                                                                                                                                           D       •   dA + I

                                                             4 · π · 10 -7    [   V·s
                                                                                  A·m     ]                         ·
                                                                                                                              ∫E                  d
                                                                                                                                           ds = - dt   ∫B
                                                                                                          rot E = - B,        ºK
                                                                                                                                       •
                                                                                                                                                       A
                                                                                                                                                               •       dA

                                                 The material-dependent component is referred to a
                                                 µr and is dimensionless.                                  div D = ρ,         ∫D
                                                                                                                              ºA
                                                                                                                                       •   dA = Q


                                                                                                           div B = 0,         ∫B
                                                                                                                              ºA
                                                                                                                                       •   dA = 0 .


M                                                                                                                  f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
58                                                                                                                                                                                                                              59

                                                                                                              Since pipe fixings, wall characteristics and other
                                                         ρ   = specific resistance                            hydraulic sound emissions may differ considerably in
                                                         H   = magnetic field                                 practice from such a standardised structure, no
                                                         B   = magnetic induction                             absolute statement can be made for any individual
                                                         E   = electric field
                                                         D   = electric flux density (displacement density)
                                                                                                              case. Moreover, noise sensitivity is highly subjective.
                                                         j   = current density


                                                                                                                                                                      Curve E1, as per ISO 49 Three-way valve
                                                                                                                                                                From the                                           Free
                                                                                                                 Measuring              Connection of fitting   measuring                                          discharge
                                                                                                                   wall                                           wall
                                                                                                                                            Fixing points                                                       Installation
                                                                                                                                                                Pipe bracket                                    noise normal
      73             I NO diaphragm                                                                                Measuring
                                                                                                                   chamber
                                                                                                                                                                    Three-way valve             Free
                                                                                                                                                                                                discharge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                inspection

                                                                                                                                             Measuring line
                                                 Diaphragm vulcanised in such a way that its basic
                                                 shape corresponds to the opened valve state. When
                                                                                                                                       from the water              Connection for fittings or installation noise normal
                                                 the solenoid is energised, the diaphragm is pushed                                    supply system
                                                 onto the valve seat. (AKM patent for this system).

                                                                                                              Fig. 60: Test arrangement for noise characte-     Fig. 61: Measuring arrangement
                                                                                                              ristic as per DIN 52218

      74             I Noise characteristic
                                                 The test of the noise characteristic of valves and fit-
                                                 tings is described in DIN 52218 (ISO 3822). The                                                                Nominal diameter DN                         I          75
                                                 test requires great measuring effort. The measuring
                                                                                                              Numerical size indication of the nominal free dia-
                                                 arrangement is selected to simulate the situation in
                                                                                                              meter (diameter nominal) of components for the
                                                 practice by connecting the fitting for testing to a
                                                                                                              flow of fluid; is also used to define the connector or
                                                 pipeline which is in turn connected to the “measu-
                                                                                                              outlet diameters or the thread dimensions of valves
                                                 ring wall” by means of pipe clamps. This arrange-
                                                                                                              and fittings.
                                                 ment reflects the situation in rented flats where the
                                                 bathroom of one flat adjoins the bedroom of the
                                                 next flat. The sound projected from this wall is mea-
                                                 sured in a measuring chamber whereby use is made
                                                 of the A-noise level L 10 in db(A) which refers to an
                                                                                                                                                                            Nominal voltage                 I          76

                                                 equivalent sound-absorption surface of A0=10 m2.             Voltage for which the valve is designed. A fluctuati-
                                                 The noise level depends on the type of measuring             on range from -15 % +6 % of nominal voltage is
                                                 wall and the fine details of the pipe fixing. The speci-     assumed for normal operation. As reference point
                                                 men measurement refers to a standardised noise               for the coil heating, the upper voltage limit is taken
                                                 source, the installation noise normal (IGN) which            and the lower voltage limit must be used as refe-
                                                 represents a water outlet from a pipe system.                rence point for the proper functioning of the valve.
N                                                                                                                                                                                                                               N
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                            AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
60                                                                                                                                                                                                                    61

      77             I Nominal voltage range                                                                                                                  Operation cycles                   I          81

                                                 Range between minimum and maximum nominal                Number of operating cycles evenly distributed
                                                 voltage, e.g. 200-240 volt. The undervoltage and         throughout a period during which the device
                                                 overvoltage of -15 to +6 % of nominal voltage are        remains operable, e.g. 300 operations / h. The num-
                                                 each applied to the limits of the nominal voltage        ber of operation cycles may be limited by the design
                                                 range. The valve must operate perfectly with any         of the valve.
                                                 voltage between the two nominal values in the fully-
                                                 heated state.

                                                                                                                                                                  Paramagnetism                  I          82

                                                                                                          See Magnetic material behavioural modes.
      78             I   Nozzle

      Central discharge hole                     Accommodates the valve closing element which
                                                 comprises the discharge hole, the balance hole and                                                                     Permeability             I          83
                                                 the star-shaped regulating element. Even under nor-
                                                                                                          See Magnetic materials.
                                                 mal conditions, the nozzle is exposed to high load
                                                 changes. The material used here must be particular-
                                                 ly resistant to temperature, chlorine and pressure.
                                                 In most cases, the diaphragm is pressed onto – and
      Balance hole                               the cleaning spring inserted into – the nozzle.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Plastics      I          84
     Fig. 62: Nozzle
                                                                                                                                                                                                          84.1
                                                                                                          Glass-fibre reinforced plastics contain a glass fibre                                           GRP
                                                                                                          portion of between 5 and 40 %.
      79             I Opening time
                                                 Time required by a valve to open fully hydraulically                                                                                                      84.2
                                                 after auxiliary control.                                 Polyamide (trade names: Duritan, Trogamit, Ultramit                                               PA
                                                                                                          and Vestamit) from the group of thermoplastic poly-
                                                                                                          condensates. A high-strength, hard and very tough
                                                                                                          plastic for technical components which is extremely
                                                                                                          abrasion-resistant, but not resistant to chlorine.
      80             I Operating air gap
                                                                                                          It has become widely known in the fibre products
                                                 Ancillary variable which indicates the efficiency of a
                                                                                                          Nylon (PA 6/6) and Perlon (PA 6). It has a crystal-
                                                 magnetic system. When designing a magnetic
                                                                                                          type structure and, therefore, a defined melting                               Fig. 63: Valve body
                                                 system, the operating air gap is indicated by a lift-                                                                                                 in PA
                                                                                                          point of 250 or 220°C. Strength can be considerably
                                                 force characteristic curve.
N                                                                                                                                                                                                                     O
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                         AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
62                                                                                                                                                                                                                 63

                                                 increased by stretching (up to 800 N/mm2). Water                                                                                                     84.6
                                                 absorption is relatively high and influences particu-    Polyetheretherketone or also polyacrylether ketone                                         PEEK
                                                 larly toughness and dimensional stability. Polyamide     (trade names: Victrex). Belongs to the group of
                                                 is insensitive to the majority of organic solvents and   thermoplastic polycondensates and has the special
                                                 is easily moulded in injection moulding (used for        characteristics of very high strength, high notched
                                                 bearing bushes, gear wheels, valves and fittings).       impact strength, dimensional stability and is very
                                                                                                          heat-resistant.

     84.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                        84.7
     PBT                                         Polybutylenterephthalat (trade names: Arnite,
                                                                                                          Polyether imide (trade name: Ultem) belongs to                                                PEI
                                                 Hostadur, Rünite, Ultradur or Vestordur).
                                                                                                          the class of thermoplastic polycondensates. Is a very
                                                 Belongs to the group of thermoplastic polyconden-
                                                                                                          strong, rigid and hard material, which keeps its sha-
                                                 sates. Is a hard, tough and high-strength plastic
                                                                                                          pe and is weather-resistant, has high temperature
                                                 which is also used with flameproofing under the tra-
                                                                                                          resistance, is an amorphous, amber-coloured mate-
                                                 de name Crastin for coil forms, with particularly
                                                                                                          rial. Especially suitable for injection-moulded precisi-                    Fig. 65: Valve body
                                                 high stability of shape and dimension and very low
                                                                                                          on parts and permitted for use with food.                                                 in PEI
     Fig. 64: Coil form                          moisture absorption.
     in PBT

                                                                                                                                                                                                      84.8
                                                                                                          Polyoxymethylene or also polyacetal, (trade names:                                         POM
     84.4
                                                                                                          Delrin and Dynal and also Hostaform and Ultraform)
     PC                                          Polycarbonate (trade names: Lexan, Macrolon, Mer-
                                                                                                          from the polymers group, in this case polyacetals. A
                                                 lon, Orgalan) has high mechanical strength, good
                                                                                                          hard, very tough and chemical-resistant plastic for
                                                 heat resistance (melting point 220 – 260 °C), high
                                                                                                          temperatures <90 °C. Various types are permitted
                                                 impact resistance (even at low temperatures), good
                                                                                                          for use with food. It is dimensionally stable, but not
                                                 electrical properties, low water absorption, low
                                                                                                          resistant to hydrolysis as per VDE 730. It is character-
                                                 combustibility and good transparency. Polycarbona-
                                                                                                          ised by a high surface hardness and the corresponding
                                                 te is resistant to greases, oils and diluted mineral
                                                                                                          good wear characteristics. Used for bearing con-                    Fig. 66: Non-return valve
                                                 acids, however, not against aromatic hydrocarbons.
                                                                                                          struction elements and injection moulded parts.                                      in POM
                                                 Constant contact with hot water (over 60 °C) cau-
                                                 ses damage to the material (used for pipes, valves,
                                                 bottles, automotive parts, protective helmets).
                                                                                                                                                                                                       84.9
                                                                                                          Polyphenylene oxid (trade names: Luranyl, Noryl,                                            PPO
                                                                                                          Xyron) from the group of thermoplastic polycon-
     84.5
                                                                                                          densates. Is a very strong, rigid, dimensionally stable
     PE                                          Polyethylene (trade names: Baylon, Hostalen, Lupu-
                                                                                                          material which is resistant to acid and alkali soluti-
                                                 len, Trolen or Vestolen) belongs to the class of
                                                                                                          ons, and used, inter alia, for breaker chambers and
                                                 polymers, especially polyolefins. Is a soft elastic to
                                                                                                          coil forms.
                                                 tough plastic which is used for chemical-resistant                                                                                   Fig. 67: Valve body
                                                 packagings.                                                                                                                                       in PPO

P                                                                                                                                                                                                                  P
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
64                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65

     84.10
     PSU                                         Polysulphone (trade name: Radel, Udel) belongs to
                                                                                                                                                                      Plunger pipe             I          86

                                                 the class of thermoplastic polycondensates. Is a very     Plunger guiding pipe in which the plunger is moved
                                                 strong and rigid, hard and heat resistant material        by the influence of the magnetic coil field strength.
                                                 which is clear as glass, amorphous, can withstand         The coil is pushed onto the plunger pipe and surro-
                                                 high stresses and which is permitted to be used for       unds the same.
                                                 food. It is used for equipment components because
                                                 it is resistant to boiling water and hot air.                                                                               Fig. 71: Deep-drawn valve
     Fig. 68: Valve body                                                                                                                                                                  plunger pipe
     in PSU

     84.11
                                                                                                                                                      Plunger pressure spring                  I          87

     PTFE                                        Polytetrafluoroethylene (trade name: Hostaflon and        See Pressure spring.
                                                 Teflon) from the polymers group, in this case: fluoro-
                                                 polymers. With the characteristics non-stick, very
                                                 tough, very good surface slip, extremely high durabi-
                                                 lity and high-temperature resistance. However, in
                                                                                                                                                               Plunger reaction                I          88

                                                 spite of its good properties, PTFE permits cold defor-    If the magnetic system of a valve is electrically exci-
                                                 mation. Has exceptionally good heat resistance up         ted, the magnetic field generated in the coil exerts a
                                                 to approx. 300 °C and does not undergo any major          force on the plunger which leads to movement of                Current
     Fig. 69: Bellows
     in PTFE
                                                 change in its mechanical properties up to a tempera-      the plunger (Maxwell's equations). The movement
                                                 ture of around 250 °C. Since it cannot be injection       of the plunger reacts on the flow of current in the
                                                 moulded, it is moulded cold or in a slightly warm         coil (cf. Fig. 19). Current falls while the plunger
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Time
                                                 state into parts and sintered above 350 °C. It is resi-   moves from one end position to the other. Only
                                                 stant to almost all chemicals and organic solvents,       after the plunger has completed its movement does                     Fig. 72: Starting current
                                                 except for molten alkalis. Polytetrafluoroethylene        current rise to its final value.                                                          curve
                                                 does not absorb moisture and is practically non-
                                                 inflammable. It combines good electrical properties
                                                 with low coefficients of friction (used in the con-
                                                 struction of chemical apparatus, electronics, vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                       Plunger seal            I          89

                                                 construction).                                            A seal (elastomer or metal, etc.) applied to the front
                                                                                                           face of the plunger. The valve is opened or closed
                                                                                                           by means of the plunger (See Fig. Plunger).

      85             I Plunger
                                                 Plunger describes the part of a solenoid valve which
                                                 closes the magnetic flux circuit with low resistance
                                                                                                                                                                          Pole shape           I          90

                                                 through the influence of the energised coil. The plun-    The magnetic lift-force characteristic curve is influ-
                                                 ger is normally made of corrosion-resistant, specially    enced by the shape of the plunger. The optimum
     Fig. 70: Plunger                            treated, however, magnetically conducting steel.          shape must be determined for each lift size.
P                                                                                                                                                                                                                   P
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                        AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
66                                                                                                                                                                                                                67

      91             I Pressure                                                                                                                              Pressure reducer                I          94

                                                 Physical quantity in the units torr, bar, pascal, m      A hydrodynamic straight valve with the task of sup-
                                                 H2O, mm Hg, N/m2, psi etc. as the relation of force      plying, independent of valve inlet pressure, an adju-
                                                 applied per unit area which, as internal state varia-    stable and constant secondary pressure indepen-
                                                 ble, is used to describe the static and dynamic beha-    dent of the volumetric flow.
                                                 viour of fluids. The total pressure within a fluid is
                                                 made up of the dynamic and static pressure. The
                                                 analytical interaction is described, depending on the
                                                 form of flow, by Bernoulli's theorem which exhibits
                                                 a linear pattern of the velocity of flow for laminar
                                                 flows and a quadratic pattern for turbulent flows.
                                                 Unfortunately, in some engineering disciplines, static
                                                 pressure is also referred to as flow pressure.


                                                                                                          Fig. 73: Pressure reducer
      92             I Pressure (hydrostatic)/
                     I gravitational pressure
                                                 Describes the pressure exerted by a column of fluid
                                                 on the basic area A
                                                                                                                                                              Pressure spikes /              I          95
                                                                                                                                                               pressure surge                I
                                                                                                                                                                characteristic               I
                                                         p = F/A = g · ρ · h                              The very fast change in the flow of a fluid, e.g.
                                                                                                          through a valve, leads to damped vibration of the
                                                         F   =   force on the reference area A            static pressure at the measuring point, the maxi-
                                                         A   =   cross-sectional area                     mum amplitude of which is referred to as pressure
                                                         ρ   =   fluid density                            surge or pressure spikes. The height of the amplitu-
                                                         g   =   gravitational acceleration               de and the decay behaviour depend on the flow pas-
                                                         h   =   height of the fluid above the area A     sages, the time span of the change in the media flow
                                                                                                          and the reflecting areas existing as a result of fitted
                                                                                                          parts and deflectors. With fast-closing valves and
                                                                                                          small flow cross-sections, it is possible to attain
                                                                                                          amplitudes which can cause mechanical damage or
      93             I Pressure difference                                                                destruction of components (* EN 60 730-2-8
                                                                                                          2.3.117 Pressure surge).
                                                 Difference in static pressure in the direction of flow
                                                 between two measuring points. In the case of valves,
                                                 this normally refers to the difference in static pres-
                                                 sure between the inlet and outlet.
P                                                                                                                                                                                                                 P
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                              AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
68                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      69

                                                                                                                                                                                     Pressure spring               I          96

                                                                                                                                Technical design element with energy-storing pro-
                                          Proportional
                                                                                                                                perties made from metal (e.g. spring steel, stainless
                                        pressure reducer                                                                        steel, bronze, etc.).
                                          0 - 10 V/bar

                                  Level recording
                                                                                                                                                                                                                96.1
                                                                                                                                This spring acts on the seal of the plunger to allow                Plunger pressure
                                                                                                                                the valve to be used independently of position. The                           spring
                                                                                                                                spring force must, therefore, compensate for the
     1. Tank of required size filled with water                      Mpa and > 200 Hz natural frequency
     2. Pump with at least 100 l/min at 1 Mpa                        9. Steel or copper pipe with a wall thickness of 1 to 2    weight of the plunger and must be applied additio-
     3. Bypass valve: this is not necessary if the pump can          mm and a length of approx. 9 metres and an inner dia-      nally by the magnet system.
     be regulated                                                    meter corresponding to the velocity of flow with a
     4. Return valve 1 1/4"                                          open test valve of no more than 2 metres/sec. and a
     5. Pressurised tank for at least 350 litres                     static infeed pressure of 0.6 Mpa.
     6. Pressure gauge                                               9.1 Pipe 3/8", 15 x 1 mm, 9.2 1/2", 18 x 1 mm, 9.3 3/4",
     7. Self-relieving pressure reducer 5/8                          22 x 1 mm, 9.4 1", 28 x 1.5 mm, 9.5 1 1/4", 35 x 1.5 mm,                                                                                  96.2
     8. Pressure transducer with a pressure range of 1.6             9.6 Pipe 1 1/2",42 x 1.5 mm, 9.7 2", 54 x 2 mm             Additional element of servo-assisted solenoid valves.           Diaphragm/plunger
                                                                                         Fig. 74: Test arrangement for          This is where a pressure spring facilitates the closing             pressure spring
                                                                                         measuring pressure spikes as           behaviour of diaphragm or plunger valves. Dia-
                                                                                         per EN 60730-2-8                       phragm/plunger pressure springs also assist sealing
                                                                                                                                operations as soon as a closed and sealed NC posi-
                                                                                                                                tion is achieved with a pressure difference Dp=0.



                                                                                         Fig. 75: Measured
                                                                                         pressure spikes                                                                            Protection class               I          97
                                                                                                                                Includes statements on measures used to achieve
                                                                                                                                safety of electric operating equipment.
                                 Pressure spike
          Delayed closing after de-
           energising the solenoid
        Independent of type of val-                                                                                                                                                                                       97.1
              ve 0.2 to 2 sec.                             Static pressure in front
          Dynamic pressure in                                   of closed valve                                                 Protection in the event of a fault is provided by the                                   Class I
          front of opened valve                                                                                                 fact that conducting parts or the yoke are connec-
                                                                                                                                ted to the protective conductor (PE). If the basic
                                                                                                                                insulation fails, no inadmissibly high contact voltages
                                                                                                                                arise as result. The connections and the connecting
                                                                                                                                space must be dimensioned in such a way as to
                                                                                         Fig. 76: Nomenclature of               allow expert connection of conductors with cross-                                  Fig. 77:
                                                                                         pressure spike measurement             sections corresponding to the lowest current carry-            Symbol for protection class I

P                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       P
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                            AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
70                                                                                                                                                                                                                    71

                                                 ing capacity for maximum continuous current rating      tive voltage spikes, or thermostats against dange-
                                                 as per DIN VDE 0298 Part 4. (For strain relief, see     rous temperatures.
                                                 DIN VDE 0100 Part 520).

                                                                                                              Type of         Circuit      Path of                       Remarks
                                                                                                              wiring          diagram   load current
     97.2                                                                                                                                and voltage
     Class II                                    No protective conductor (PE) connection may be          Free-wheeling                                 Advantages:    Dimensioning non-crucial
                                                 provided in this case. The protection measure is        diode                                                        Lowest possible induced voltage
                                                 realised through doubled or reinforced insulation.                                                                   Very simple and reliable
                                                                                                                                                       Disadvantages: High OFF delay
                                                 Protection against dangerous currents passing
                                                 through the body does not depend on the installati-
                                                 on conditions.                                          Varistor RC                                   Advantages:    RF damping through energy storage
     Fig. 78:                                                                                            combination                                                  High damping.
     Symbol for protection class II                                                                                                                                   Slight OFF delay
                                                                                                                                                       Disadvantages: Precise dimensioning required
                                                                                                                                                                      Limited service life
     97.3
     Class III                                   No protective conductor (PE) connection may be          Z-diode                                       Advantages:    Limits active and negative voltages
                                                 provided in this case. Protection against dangerous     combination                                                  For DC and AC voltages
                                                                                                                                                                      Dimensioning non-crucial
                                                 currents flowing through the body is given by provi-                                                  Disadvantages: No damping below Uzd
                                                 ding the device with safety extra-low voltages. Hig-
                                                 her voltages than the safety extra-low voltages may
                                                 not take effect.                                        Varistor                                      Advantages:    Dimensioning non-crucial
                                                                                                                                                                      High energy absorption
     Fig. 79:
                                                                                                                                                                      Very simple structure
     Symbol for protection class III
                                                                                                                                                       Disadvantages: No damping below UVDR
                                                                                                                                                                      Limited service life

      98             I Protection type                                                                   RC combination                                Advantages:    RF damping through energy storage
                                                 Standard which defines the scope of protection of                                                                    Immediate cut-off limit
                                                                                                                                                                      Very well suited to AC voltages
                                                 the electromagnetic device against direct contact,                                                    Disadvantages: Precise dimensioning required
                                                 against penetration of foreign solids and/or against                                                                 Limited service life
                                                 the entry of water. Protection type is indicated as
                                                 per DIN VDE 0470 Part 1 according to the IP code.
                                                                                                         Fig. 80: Protection wiring



      99             I Protection wiring
                                                 Safety devices which give protection against inad-
                                                 missible operating conditions, e.g. varistors against
                                                 overvoltage or free-wheeling diodes against induc-      Fig. 81: Diode                                Fig. 82: Varistor

P                                                                                                                                                                                                                     P
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                               AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
72                                                                                                                                                                                                                       73

      100            I Pumps and pump                                                                                                                                Retention gland                I        103
                     I characteristic curves                                                             This refers to a component used by AKM as assem-
                                                 Machines for the transport of fluid media from a        bly aid for the hydraulic part of a complete valve.
                                                 low energy level he to a higher level ha. The charac-   The valve body is joined to the valve plunger pipe
                                                 teristic curves relevant to pumps show the delivery     using the valve retention gland.
                                                 head HA in terms of the delivery rate dV/dt.


                                                                                                                                                                                     Fig. 83: Retention gland
                          pa - pe (dV / dt)2 / Aa2 - (dV / dt)2 / Ae2
         HA = (ha - he) + ρg +                        2g              + hV
                                                                                                                                                                    Reynolds number                 I        104
                 HA     = Delivery head                                                                  A quantity from similtude theory which describes
           ha he hV     = Discharge head, intake head, loss head                                         the flow process.
             Aa , Ae    = Discharge area, intake area
            dV / dt     = Delivery rate
              va , ve   = Discharge velocity, intake velocity                                                  Re = ρ · v · l / η
                   ρ    = Density of medium delivered
                    g   = Gravitational acceleration
                                                                                                               ρ   =   Fluid density
                                                                                                               η   =   Fluid viscosity
                                                                                                               v   =   Flow velocity
                                                                                                               l   =   Characteristic dimension, e.g. pipe radius

      101            I Remanence                                                                         For values Re > 2300, a flow is clearly turbulent, for
                                                 See Magnetic materials.                                 values Re << 2300 clearly laminar. However, a tran-
                                                                                                         sitional area exists in which there is no such clarity.
                                                                                                         It can be formulated as follows


                                                                                                              laminare Rohrströmung:
      102            I Remanence disk                                                                                                   λ = 64 / Re
                                                 Dielectric inlay disk inserted between the plunger
                                                 pole area and opposite space in the plunger guiding          hydraulisch glatte Rohrströmung:
                                                                                                                                              0,3164
                                                 pipe to generate an air gap which counteracts rema-                                    λ=     4
                                                 nence and simultaneously suppresses adhesion at                                                   Re
                                                 this point. Correct term is antiremanence disk or                          (nach Blasius)

                                                                                                                                             2l ( Re λ )
                                                 anti-adhesion disk.                                                                1
P                                                                                                                                                                                                                        R
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
74                                                                                                                                                                                                              75

                                                              (according to Blasius)
                                                                         1         Re λ
                                                                                                                                                         Sensor technology                 I        106
                                                                           = 2lg (       )
                                                                         λ          2,3l                 Part of control circuit which records and prepro-
                                                              (according to Prandtl / Karman)            cesses status data (measured values) and transmits
                                                                                                         the same for further processing.
                                                   hydraulically rough pipe flow:
                                                                         1
                                                                           = 2lg ( D ) + 1,14
                                                                         λ         k
                                                              (according to Nikuradse)
                                                                                                                                                              Shore hardness               I        107

                                                                                                         Hardness according to Shore is the resistance of the
                                                   laminar-turbulent transitional area:
                                                                                                         tested material to the penetration of a body of a
                                                                         1           2,5l       k        certain shape (needle) under a defined spring force.
                                                                           = –2lg (       +0,27   )
                                                                         λ          Re λ        D        The Shore hardness testing method is used only for
                                                              (according to Colebrook)
                                                                                                         elastomer materials in the house of AKM.
                                                   k = Pipewall roughness
                                                   λ = Pipe friction coefficient
                                                   D = Pipe Diameter
                                                                                                                                                       Short circuiting ring               I        108

                                                                                                         Highly conductive ring which is fitted into the pole
                                                                                                         surface of a solenoid valve with stops. This ring has
      105            I Rolling diaphragm                                                                 the task of generating a “hum-free” holding force in
                                                                                                         an AC solenoid. The zero-phase passages of the
                                                 Used inside a valve to separate areas with different
                                                                                                         energising AC current are overlaid with phase shift
                                                 pressures or media. The rolling diaphragm also exe-
                                                                                                         through the induced currents in the short circuiting            Fig. 85: Plunger with short
                                                 cutes a movement in the axial direction. In order to
                                                                                                         ring and generate a resulting force on the plunger.                          circuiting ring
                                                 keep the movement smooth, the diaphragm rolls
                                                 along a thin loop.

                                                 The diaphragm loop is rigidly supported mechanical-
                                                 ly at both ends so that only a small area is exposed
                                                                                                                                                    Star-shaped regulating                 I        109

                                                 to the full pressure difference. The behaviour of the
                                                                                                                                                                  element                  I
                                                 diaphragm can be influenced by the specific dimen-      This structural/geometric shape takes care of the
                                                 sioning of the diaphragm loop in relation to the sea-   axial guidance of the valve closing element and pre-
                                                 ling area. When the specified pressure is applied,      vents asymmetrical vortex formation in the area of
                                                 the diaphragm can react with either upwards or          the seat. In the closing phase, the star-shaped regu-
     Fig. 84: Rolling diaphragm                  downwards forces or even completely neutral.            lating element should slow down the fluid at a con-
                                                                                                         stant rate, thereby minimising dynamic pressures
                                                                                                         (see Fig. 28).



R                                                                                                                                                                                                               S
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                         AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
76                                                                                                                                                                                                                 77

                                                                                                           which, in the case of crystalline-type materials, can
      110            I Steel (stainless)                                                                   be very close to the melting point (e.g. polyamide).
                                                 The steels used for solenoid valves must be high-         Some types can acquire a rubber-type state at appli-
                                                 alloy steels with ferritic microstructures, i.e. with     cation temperature using softeners and can be used
                                                 magnetic properties, which are simultaneously cor-        to make foils and to coat woven fabrics (imitation
                                                 rosion-resistant and acid-resistant. These steels are     leather).
                                                 used in solenoid valves where parts like plungers or
                                                 yoke inserts come into contact with the fluid and
                                                 also have to be magnetically conducting. The steels
                                                 are clearly marked by a material number which pro-
                                                 vides information about the alloy components, e.g.
                                                                                                                                                       Thermosetting plastics                 I        113

                                                 carbon, chromium, silicone etc. The steels used are:      Thermosetting plastics = plastic cured once (com-
                                                                                                           posed of at least two components) which no longer
                                                 1.4105 Steel used as automatic steel for machining.
                                                                                                           become plastic when exposed to heat (are only still
                                                 1.4113 Steel of greater corrosion-resistance which        combustible). Thermosetting plastics are used by
                                                 is mainly used for cores and yoke inserts.                AKM for the coating of wound coils.

                                                                                                           Epoxy resin (EP) is similar in behaviour and pro-
                                                                                                           cessing to unsaturated polyester resin. It has very
      111            I Striking magnetic system                                                            slight shrinkage, good dielectric properties and a
                                                                                                           higher than average adhesive force. Depending on
                                                 Plunger/plunger pipe combination where the plun-
                                                                                                           the choice of hardener, resins may be hot or cold
                                                 ger with its upper pole surface (front face) literally
                                                                                                           cured formulations (optimum properties during hot
                                                 does strike a corresponding area of the plunger pipe
                                                                                                           curing). Silicone release agents are recommended to
                                                 when the magnetic system (coil) is energised. In
                                                                                                           improve demoulding (applications for moulds, glass-
                                                 contrast, non-striking systems are designed to move
                                                                                                           fibre parts, bonding of metals, aviation and electrical
                                                 the plunger against a spring until the magnetic force
                                                                                                           industry). It can also be processed as a moulding
                                                 equals the spring force and holds the plunger vir-
                                                                                                           compound with fillers (glass fibres).
                                                 tually suspended in the plunger pipe without striking
                                                 the plunger pipe.
                                                                                                           Polyester resin, unsaturated (UP). These
                                                                                                           resins are normally able to be stored for a long time
                                                                                                           after adding a reaction-delaying agent. Polymerisati-
                                                                                                           on does not occur until the addition of a hardener.
      112            I Thermoplastics                                                                      These resins require little or no pressure to harden.
                                                 Are thermally liquefiable plastics. Thermoplastic         The exothermic reaction releases heat which may
                                                 polymers can be rendered deformable once again by         have an undesirable accelerating effect during the
                                                 reheating. Many materials of this kind initially pass     course of the reaction in the case of thick cross-
                                                 into a rubber-elastic state which allows elastic defor-   sections. The naturally brittle resin acquires good
                                                 mation with subsequent “freezing”. If the tempe-          mechanical properties with the use of glass fibres
                                                 rature is raised higher, the flowing state is reached     (GF-UP), in particular a high tensile strength. Poly-
S                                                                                                                                                                                                                  T
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
78                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79

                                                 ester resin is practically insoluble, unaffected by       s   three inductive flowmeters, pneumatically
                                                 water and heat-resistant up to approx. 80 – 140 °C.           cascadable
                                                 Electric values are very good (corrugated glass,
                                                                                                           s   a filtering unit for the separation of particles and
                                                 boats, automotive body sections, pipes, profiles,
                                                                                                               microorganisms by means of fractionated mem-
                                                 vessels).
                                                                                                               brane filtration
                                                 Phenolics, aminoplastics. Cured plastics of this          s   a PLC-controlled AC power pack
                                                 type can no longer become plastic as a result of
                                                                                                           s   a PLC-controlled DC power pack
                                                 reheating. The most important group are phenolics
                                                 with a phenol/formaldehyde resin base (more rarely        s   conductivity meter for the leakage test
                                                 cresol resin) with inorganic (mineral powder, mica)
                                                                                                           s   an RS232 interface for connection to a personal
                                                 or organic fillers (e.g. wood flour, as well as fibres,
                                                                                                               computer
                                                 chips or webs of paper and fabric). Owing to the
                                                 yellowy-brown colour of the resin, only darker            s   plug-in connector sockets for the supply of
                                                 colour shades can be produced. The mechanical                 current and voltage to electrically operated test
                                                 properties greatly depend on the type of filler, pro-         specimens
                                                 cessing characteristics and resin content (approx.
                                                 50 %). White and lighter shades can be obtained
                                                 using urea resin and melamine resin moulding com-         This universal test bench is used to establish the
                                                 pounds (good tracking resistance). Ammonia-free           flow-characterising internal state variables for the
                                                 types are used to make food grade crockery and            testing of valves and other water flow devices. For
                                                 household appliances.                                     test specimens operated by purely mechanical
                                                                                                           means, the relevant flow characteristic curves for
                                                                                                           the corresponding pressure range and hysteresis
                                                                                                           characteristic can be determined using menu control.
                                                                                                           For electrically driven test specimens, in particular
      114            I Universal test bench                                                                bistable and monostable solenoid valves, supply vol-
                                                                                                           tages are available in the DC range and, with varying
                                                 The test bench of upright panel design is mounted
                                                                                                           frequency, in the AC range with selectable amplitu-
                                                 on a supporting framework of aluminium sections                                                                         Fig. 86: U n i v e r s a l t e s t b e n c h
                                                                                                           de and which can be operated in such a way in cur-
                                                 and comprises:
                                                                                                           rent limiting mode that the change in ohmic resi-
                                                 s       a variable-speed booster pump                     stance is adjusted to suit the operating temperature
                                                                                                           without having to run the system at actual tempera-
                                                 s       a storage tank to receive water batches
                                                                                                           ture. A PC/interface combination is available for
                                                 s       a draining and collecting basin with bayonet-     those test functions which go beyond the scope of
                                                         type connection for the test specimen             operation of the laboratory test bench for the speci-
                                                                                                           fic addressing of bistable and monostable solenoid
                                                 s       a programmable logic controller (PLC)
                                                                                                           valves with selectable and cycled pulse widths and
                                                 s       a touch panel for menu control                    for multichannel connection to an oscilloscope.


U                                                                                                                                                                                                                       U
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                         AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
80                                                                                                                                                                                                                   81

      115            I Upwards force                                                                                                                            Valve types /                  I         117
                                                 Refers to upwards force in the direction of the sur-
                                                                                                                                                          modes of operation/                  I
                                                 face which acts on a body immersed in a fluid. This
                                                 allows the body to float or be suspended.                                                                                                    117.1
                                                                                                          Valves of this type have two stable end positions –                       Bistable valves
                                                                                                          the opened and the closed positions. Switching the
                                                            FA = g · ρ · V                                valves from one end position to the other requires
                                                                                                          merely a brief polarised pulse.
                                                            FA   =    upwards force
                                                            ρ    =    fluid density
                                                            g    =    gravitational acceleration
                                                            V    =    displaced volume of fluid                                                                                             117.2
                                                                                                          Pilot-operated monostable or bistable valves of very                   Cartridge valves
                                                                                                          small structure with a hydrodynamic optimisation of
                                                 This physics principle is used in the valve design for   all valve elements such as coil, pilot valve, main valve
                                                 specification. The design of the valve determines        seat, valve diaphragm, filter and flow regulator and
                                                 whether the sealing element generates a down-            which is used in the form of a screw-in cartridge.
                                                 wards or upwards force on the valve seat when            The name is based on a language convention in valve
                                                 pressure is applied. With some types of valve            construction in which the functional elements are
                                                 design, these forces cancel each other out and the       used and can be replaced inside an independent car-
                                                 valve is pressure-neutral.                               tridge enclosure. In the area of sanitary engineering
                                                                                                          especially, one speaks of single mixing cartridges and
                                                                                                          thermostat cartridges.
                                                                                                                                                                              Fig. 88: C a r t r i d g e v a l v e

      116            I Valve body                                                                                                                                                              117.3
                                                 Part of a solenoid valve, made of plastic or metal,      These valves are used, inter alia, for balancing the                       Dialysis valves
                                                 which comprises the inlet and outlet passages for        flow of media in dialysis machines and are regarded
                                                 the fluid media to be controlled. The valve body         as ”critical components”. The requirements on the
                                                 generally comprises the main valve seat which is clo-    design and material of these valves are very high, as
                                                 sed and opened via the elastomer diaphragm and           functioning must be guaranteed over a wide pressu-
                                                 which releases the flow of the medium.                   re and temperature range, and devices used in the
     Fig. 87: Valve body
                                                                                                          sector of medicine have to be subjected to special
                                                                                                          cleaning and sterilising operations. The type of
                                                                                                          structure corresponds to that of a medium-separa-
                                                                                                          ting valve. PTFE bellows are used to separate the
                                                                                                          medium from the magnetic circuit.
                                                                                                                                                                                Fig. 89: D i a l y s i s v a l v e

S                                                                                                                                                                                                                    S
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
82                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              83

     117.4                                                                                                                                                                                                     117.6
     Direct-actuating                            With this type of valve, the valve seat is relieved only                               Valves used for the hygienic supply of drinking water. Drinking water valves
     valves                                      with the aid of the solenoid. Accordingly, valve ope-
                                                 ning and closing operations can be performed from
                                                 zero bar pressure onwards. In view of the non-                                                                                                                             117.7
                                                 delayed reaction of the valve, only small nominal                                      Servovalves, mechanically actuated via a lever arm                           Float valves,
                                                 diameters may by used in the water supply system                                       with floats used for refilling water supply or drinking                      proportional
                                                 in order to keep the inevitable pressure surge wit-                                    water systems. To protect the quality of drinking
                                                 hin limits. A typical field of application is the control                              water, the outlet of a float valve must be arranged
                                                 of gaseous and liquid media.                                                           at a height of >20 mm above the maximum water
                                                                                                                                        level in the tank in order to comply with the requi-
                                                                                                                                        rements of DIN 1988. This design of these valves
                                                                                                                                        permits a compact structure with large nominal
                                                                                                                                        widths.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Fig. 93: F l o a t v a l v e


                                                                                                                                                                                                                          117.8
                                                                                                                                        Valves with the plunger connected to the diaphragm.                     Force-actuated
                                                                                                                                        When the valve is actuated, the discharge hole is first                          valves
                                                                                                                                        exposed and then the diaphragm is forcibly lifted.
                                                 Fig. 90: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f d i r e c t - a c t i n g 3 / 2 - w a y   These valves require no pressure differences for
                                                 valves.
                                                                                                                                        closing and opening operations and can be used with
     117.5                                                                                                                              a pressure down to zero bar. In the method paten-
     Dispense valves                             Valves used in drinks vending machines for dispen-                                     ted by AKM, an NO diaphragm is maintained in the
                                                 sing of cold or hot drinks. These valves are designed                                  closed position by the plunger pressure spring with-
                                                 as medium-separated valves.                                                            out physical connection. In the energised state, the
                                                                                                                                        diaphragm opens by its internal stress. The electric
                                                                                                                                        power of force-actuated valves is higher than that of
                                                                                                                                        servovalves.




                                                 Fig. 92: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f a 2/2-way solenoid valve for                                                                           Fig. 94: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m
     Fig. 91: D i s p e n s e v a l v e          drinks vending machines                                                                                                                               of a force-actuated valve

V                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               V
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                                     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
84                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             85

     117.9                                                                                                                                                                                                                         117.10
     Low power valves                            Energy-saving valves of different nominal diameters                        With these valves, the solenoid is permanently                                               Monostable valves
                                                 and designs. In principle, with DC valves, the actua-                      energised for execution of the plunger lifting and
                                                 ting power can be reduced as soon as lift-up has                           maintenance of plunger position.
                                                 occurred. The reduction in power can be achieved
                                                 by reducing the infeed voltage. The usual method is
                                                 to connect a series resistor after the lift-up phase.                                     2/2-way solenoid valve, type 39.010.000
                                                 A common DC solenoid requires power of approx.                                              monostable design position-independent
                                                                                                                                                coil resistance approx. 205 ohm
                                                 8.5 watt. Following the reduction in voltage, this
                                                 power can be reduced to 1.5 watt. A more effective
                                                 method is that of cycling the supply voltage after lift-
                                                 up has occurred. In the event of cycling, the voltage
                                                 reduction is not converted to heat as in the first
                                                 case; instead coil inductance is used to feed the coil
                                                 energy back during the current interval. With pilot                                        closed                                 opened
                                                 servovalves, holding power can be reduced to the
                                                 mW range.


                                                                                                                            Fig. 96: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f a m o n o s t a b l e v a l v e




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          117.11
                                                                                                                            NC = normally closed. Such valves are closed in                                                             NC valves
                                                         opened                                                             the currentless state (monostable).
                                                                                                  closed


                                                                          holding current

                                                         starting pulse     actuating time


                                                 Fig. 95: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f a l o w p o w e r v a l v e




                                                                                                                            Fig. 97: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f a n N C v a l v e

V                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              V
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                   AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
86                                                                                                                                                                                                                           87

     117.12                                                                                                                                                                                             117.14
     NO valves                                   NO = normally open. Such valves are open in the                      Direct-actuating valves, the plunger of which is                             Pinch valves
                                                 currentless state (monostable).                                      designed to pinch elastic hoses in order to shut off
                                                                                                                      the flow of the medium. Used for: laboratory and
                                                                                                                      medical equipment areas.



                                                                                                                                                                                                 117.15
                                                                                                                      Valves which can change their actuating variable by            Proportional valves
                                                                                                                      means of an electrical reference input variable. The
                                                                                                                      latter can be specified by an electronic device by so-
                                                                                                                      called standardised signals like 0 to 10 volts or 0 to
                                                                                                                      20 mA or 4 to 20 mA (live zero). Depending upon
                                                                                                                      the value of the reference input variable, the actua-
                                                 Fig. 98: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f a n N O v a l v e
                                                                                                                      ting variable changes accordingly. Possible actuating
                                                                                                                      variables are the following:
                                                                                                                      s   Degree of opening
     117.13
                                                                                                                      s   Pressure of medium
     Pilot valves                                Are servovalves with a special structure in the case
                                                 of which a separately arranged direct-acting valve                   s   Flow rate
                                                 undertakes pressure relief of the diaphragm.
                                                                                                                      s   Flow rate, independent of inlet pressure
                                                 This type of construction is especially suitable for
                                                 bistable, low-energy operated solenoid valves.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        117.16
                                                                                                                      With this type of valve, the medium to be controlled                         Servovalves
                                                                                                                      undertakes the major part of hydraulic opening and
                                                                                                                      closing operations. The pilot valve initiates these
                                                                                                                      operations by opening or closing a discharge hole.
                                                                                                                      Prerequisite for the proper functioning of these val-
                                                                                                                      ves is a certain minimum pressure difference. The
                                                                     opened                                closed     discharge hole always ends in the valve outlet.



                                                 Fig. 99: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f a p i l o t v a l v e                                                                                   117.17
                                                                                                                      These valves are made from red brass, grey cast iron                       Steam valves
                                                                                                                      or cast steel and are externally controlled via a 3/2-
                                                                                                                      way valve by means of compressed air or water.
V                                                                                                                                                                                                                            V
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                       AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
88                                                                                                                                                                                                                               89

     117.18
     Vacuum valves                               Valves used to control or regulate the flow of media
                                                                                                                                                                    Water (drinking water)                  I        119

                                                 in the low-pressure range, e.g. in milking systems,                     Water is vital for life and an indispensable food. For
                                                 thus ensuring constant control of the process vacu-                     water to qualify as drinking water, certain characte-
                                                 um in these systems.                                                    ristics must be present. Drinking water is obtained

                                                                                                                         in the form of untreated water by various methods
                                                                                                                         and normally undergoes treatment. Water quality
                                                                                                                         guidelines are laid down by DIN 2000. The German
                                                                                                                         drinking water regulation (TrinkwV) of December
                                                                                                                         1990 stipulates, inter alia, the maximum admissible
                                                                                                                         content of foreign matter.

                                                                                                                         Drinking water contains in dissolved form, inter alia,
                                                                                                                         calcium (CA), sodium (NA), magnesium (Mg), sul-
                                                                                                                         phates (SO4), chloride (CI), nitrates (NO3), silica
                                                                                                                         (SiO2). These substances influence e.g. the taste of
                                                                                                                         the water and the way in which water behaves in
                                                                                                                         technical applications like pipes and fittings. A high
                                                                                                                         ”carbonate hardness” in water causes the separati-
                                                                                                                         on of insoluble scale when water is heated.

                                                 Fig. 100: S c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m o f a v a c u u m v a l v e   The level of dissolved salts, as well as the oxygen
                                                                                                                         content of the water, can cause chemical or electro-
                                                                                                                         chemical corrosion in many metal materials. In fer-
                                                                                                                         rous metals, so-called ‘pitting’ is a specially feared
                                                                                                                         phenomenon, as it can develop relatively quickly.
                                                                                                                         But plastics can also be affected by corrosion,
      118            I Ventilation                                                                                       depending on the properties and temperature of
                                                 In the case of valves for the metered delivery of                       the water. For example, the use of chlorinated drin-
                                                 water, the outlet hose must be ventilated to permit                     king water (a high degree of chlorination is found in
                                                 complete drainage of the water column behind the                        the USA) means that only certain plastics can be
                                                 valve seat. Ventilation prevents, inter alia, the drip-                 used (e.g. PEI, PPO, PP, etc.). Furthermore, other
                                                 ping of the fluid, but causes additional metering fluc-                 national and international regulations specific to
                                                 tuations. In order to bypass this disadvantage, AKM                     toxicity, microbiology, hygiene and material have to
                                                 has developed and patented a type of controlled                         be complied with when designing fittings, valves and
                                                 ventilation. This type of ventilation is only effective                 pipes for drinking water (inter alia, DVGW W270,
                                                 when the valve is closed.                                               BGVV, KTW, FDA, NSF).



V                                                                                                                                                                                                                                W
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                    AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
90                                                                                                                                                            91

      120            I Water hardness
                                                 The ”hardness” of water depends on the quantity
                                                 of substances dissolved in it and is classified by
                                                 ”German degrees of hardness (°dH) = 5,6 mmol/l”
                                                 (0 to >30°dH).

                                                 The ”total hardness” of water is the sum of all calci-
                                                 um and magnesium salts. If 100 litres of water con-
                                                 tain 1 gram of these dissolved salts, this corre-
                                                 sponds to 1°dH.

                                                 Carbonate hardness only defines the proportion of
                                                 calcium and magnesium compounds which occur in
                                                 form of hydrogen carbonates.




      121            I Yoke
                                                 Every solenoid must be fitted with a magnetic yoke.
                                                 In such a yoke, the lines of magnetic flux of the coil
                                                 are bundled and guided through the plunger and ins-
                                                 ert. The material of the yoke must be magnetically
                                                 conducting and should exhibit low core losses. Soft
                                                 iron or siliconised transformer steels are especially
                                                 suitable but are not always used for reasons relating
                                                 to metalworking and corrosion.




W                                                                                                                                                             W
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
92                                                                                                             93

     Examples of AKM products
          Examples of
               AKM products
      1              I Servo-controlled
                     I water intake valves




                                                          Servo-controlled                I             2
                                                         water intake valves              I
                                                                                               multiple
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y   AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
94                                                                                                           95

      3              I Servo-controlled                   Dispense valves               I           5
                     I water intake valves                                                        plain
     with 2in-line connected chambers




      4              I Servo-controlled
                     I water intake valves
     Special valves



                                                          Dispense valves         6     I
                                                                   modular structure
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
96                                                                                                             97

      7              I Relief valves                              3/2 way                 I             9
                                                         medium-separated                 I
                                                              change valve                I




      8              I Direct-actuating,
                     I medium-separating valves
                                                                 Proportional             I          10
                                                                  Float valves            I
     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y              AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
98                                                                                                                      99

      11             I
                 Special valves                                         Special valves        12   I
     Servovalves                                                           Direct-actuating valves




                                                                      Special fittings             I          13




                                                         Strainer                                   Vane pump
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                   AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
100                                                                                                                                                                                                           101

      Areas of application for AKM products                                                                                           40.008.1./40.012.1. (Polysulphone) PTFE seat
         Areas of application for                                                                                                     41.008.000          (Vane pump)
                           AKM products                                                               Industrial equipment/           Inlet valves
                                                                                                      temperature control             01.007…             (Plastic)
      Manufacturer                                  Proposed valve series                             equipment                       01.010…             (Plastic)
      Washing machines                              Inlet valves:                                                                     01.010.1            (Brass)
      for domestic/                                 01.010… (Plastic) / 01.010.500 (Brass)                                            92.000…             (Brass)
      industrial use                                01.013… (Plastic) / 01.013.500 (Brass)
      e.g. for: clothes, metal                      01.017… (Plastic) / 01.017.500 (Brass)            Agriculture / Milking           See section on washing machines for domestic/
      parts, etc.                                   01.021… (Plastic) / 01.021.500 (Brass)            systems                         industrial use, also:
                                                                                                                                      04.040.114            (3/2-way relief valve)
                                                    Relief valves:                                                                    25.010.000            (Pulsator)
                                                    04.040… (Noryl) closed/open without current                                       23.020.100            (Vacuum regulator)
                                                    04.050… (Noryl) open without current
                                                                                                      High-pressure                   21.010.126          (Float valve – Plastic)
      Dishwashers for                               See valves listed above                           cleaner                         21.013.126          (Float valve – Plastic)
      domestic/industrial                                                                                                             21.017.126          (Float valve – Plastic)
      use
      e.g. for: crockery, test                                                                        Steam cooking                   Inlet valves
      tubes, etc.                                                                                     equipment                       01.010…             (Plastic)
                                                                                                                                      24.000…             (Plastic)
      Drinks vending                                Inlet valves:                                                                     90.000 - 93.000…    (Brass)
      machines                                      01.007…                (Plastic)
                                                    01.010…                (Plastic)                                                  Relief valves
                                                    29.007.215             (Plastic)                                                  01.014…             (Polysulphone)
                                                    29.010.225/226         (Plastic)                                                  40.012…             (Polysulphone)
                                                    29.010.326             (Plastic)                                                  04.040…             (Noryl) closed/open
                                                    24.000…                (Plastic)                                                                      without current
                                                    43.000…                (Plastic)
                                                    90.000-93.000…         (Brass)                    Photo developing                Inlet valves
                                                    90.000-93.000…         (Acryl)                    machines                        01.007…             (Plastic)
                                                                                                                                      01.010…             (Plastic)
                                                    Dispense valves        (Boiler valves):                                           01.013…             (Plastic)
                                                    01.008…                (Polysulphone) standard
                                                    01.008.1.              (Polysulphone) PTFE seat   Sanitary systems                01.010.126          (Plastic)
                                                    01.012…/ 01.014…       (Polysulphone) standard    e.g.: electric water taps,      01.010.500          (Brass)
                                                    01.012.1./ 01.014.1.   (Polysulphone) PTFE seat   electric urinal installations   01.013.126          (Plastic)
                                                    40.008… /40.012…       (Polysulphone) standard    electric shower installations   01.013.500          (Brass)
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                            AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
102                                                                                                                                                                                    103

                                                    19.000.000        (Bi-stable magnetic system)           When using the above water intake valves, it is
                                                    39.007.126        (Plastic)                             recommended that dirt traps be fitted upstream in
                                                    39.010.500        (Brass) bi-stable                     order to protect the valves and other downstream
                                                    39.013.126        (Plastic) bi-stable                   components (see below):
                                                    39.013.127        (Brass) bi-stable
                                                    50.007.100        (Cartridge valve)                     12.010.300 (Plastic)        NW 10 non-shutoff
                                                                                                            12.010.500 (Plastic)        NW 10 with automatic
      Systems for the                               01.010…         (Plastic)                                                           shutoff facility
      textile industry                              01.013…         (Plastic)                               12.017.300 (Plastic)        NW 17 non-shutoff
                                                    01.010.216      (Plastic) 2 inlets                      12.017.500 (Plastic)        NW 17 with automatic
                                                    90.000 - 93.000…(Brass)                                                             shutoff facility
      Irrigation systems                            01.010…             (Plastic) / 01.010.500 (Brass)
                                                    01.013…             (Plastic) / 01.013.500 (Brass)
                                                    01.017…             (Plastic) / 01.017.500 (Brass)      AKM developed the pressure reducer 42.010.000 in
                                                    01.021…             (Plastic) / 01.021.500 (Brass)      order to satisfy increasing demand for an exact flow
                                                    all valves bi-stable, see section on sanitary systems   volume for the above applications.

      Medical technology                            1.007…            (Plastic)
      e. g.: Dialysis equipment                     1.010…            (Plastic)
                                                    19.000…           (Ultem) 3/2-way valves
                                                    43.000…           (Ultem) 2/2-way NC
                                                    92.600…           (Ultem) 2/2-way valves
                                                    92.900…           (Ultem) 2/2-way valves NO
      Automatic welding
      machinery/welding                             01.007.126      (Plastic) water inlet
      equipment                                     01.010…         (Plastic) water inlet
                                                    90.000 - 93.000…(Brass) inert gases
                                                    43.000…         (Plastic) inert gases
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
104                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              105


          Glossary
      Glossary of terms



      ENGLISH
             of terms                                GERMAN                                  FRENCH                      ENGLISH                                  GERMAN                                 FRENCH


      active power . . . . .                 .   .   .Wirkleistung . . . . . .           .   .puissance efficace         clamping bolt . . . .        .   .   .   .Halteschraube . .     .   .   .   .   .vis de blocage
A     air filter . . . . . . . .
      ambient temperature
                                             .
                                             .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                     .Luftfilter . . . . . . . .
                                                     .Umgebungstemperatur
                                                                                         .
                                                                                         .
                                                                                             .filtre à air
                                                                                             .temperature ambiante
                                                                                                                         clamping nut . . . .
                                                                                                                         clamping ring . . . .
                                                                                                                                                      .
                                                                                                                                                      .
                                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                                                  .Überwurfmutter .
                                                                                                                                                                  .Spannring . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .écrou déblocage
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .anneau de serrage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C
      angled . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .abgewinkelt . . . . . .            .   .coudé                      clamping screw . . .         .   .   .   .Gegenmutter . . .     .   .   .   .   .vise de serrage
      angle valve . . . . . .                .   .   .Eckventil . . . . . . . .          .   .vanne équerre              cleaning pin . . . . .       .   .   .   .Reinigungsfeder .     .   .   .   .   .ressort de nettoyage
      any . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .beliebig . . . . . . . . .         .   .n’importe                  closing time . . . .         .   .   .   .Schließzeit . . . .   .   .   .   .   .temps de fermeture
      apparent power . . .                   .   .   .Scheinleistung . . . . .           .   .puissance apparente        coil connections . .         .   .   .   .Spulenanschlüsse .    .   .   .   .   .connections bobine
      application conditions                 .   .   .Einsatzbedingungen . .             .   .conditions díutilisation   coil heating . . . . .       .   .   .   .Spulenerwärmung       .   .   .   .   .échauffement bobine
                                                                                                                         coil pressure spring         .   .   .   .Spulendruckfeder      .   .   .   .   .ressort de pression
                                                                                                                                                                                                          pour bobine

B     bacteria . . . . . . . .
      balance hole . . . . .
      basic safety insulation
                                             .
                                             .
                                             .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                     .Bakterien . . . . .
                                                     .Ausgleichsbohrung
                                                     .Betriebsisolierung
                                                                             .
                                                                             .
                                                                             .
                                                                                 .
                                                                                 .
                                                                                 .
                                                                                     .
                                                                                     .
                                                                                     .
                                                                                         .
                                                                                         .
                                                                                         .
                                                                                             .bacteries
                                                                                             .trou pour differenciel
                                                                                             .isolation
                                                                                                                         coil resistance . . . . . . .Spulenwiderstand . . . .
                                                                                                                         connection variants . . . .Anschlußvarianten . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .resistance ohmique
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .variantes de
                                                                                                                                                                                                          raccordements
      basket . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .Korb . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .étrier                     controlling air filter .         .   .   .Steuerluftfilter . . . . . .          .filtre à air
      bellows . . . . . . . .                .   .   .Faltenbalg . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .soufflée d’inter-          controlling bore . . .           .   .   .Steuerbohrung . . . . . .             .trou pour differenciel
                                                                                              circulation                controlling part . . .           .   .   .Steuerteil . . . . . . . . .          .piéce de control
      Bernoulli`s theorem                .   .   .   .Bernoulli Gleichung        .   .   .   .théorème de Bernoulli      coupler plug . . . . .           .   .   .Gerätestecker . . . . . .             .plot de connection
      bi-stable valve . . .              .   .   .   .Bistabiles Ventil . .      .   .   .   .vanne bi stable            creep and air distance           .   .   .Kriech- and Luftstrecken              .diélectrique
      biomass . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .Biomasse . . . . . .       .   .   .   .quantité bio
      brewer valve . . . .               .   .   .   .Brühventil . . . . .       .   .   .   .ev boisson chaude
      bus valve . . . . . .              .   .   .   .Bus-Ventil . . . . .       .   .   .   .vanne modulable


      cap . . . . . . . . . . . . .Deckel . . . . . . . . . . .capot
                                                                                                                         dezincification .
                                                                                                                         dialysis valve . .
                                                                                                                         diaphragm . . .
                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                                  .
                                                                                                                                                  .
                                                                                                                                                  .
                                                                                                                                                      .
                                                                                                                                                      .
                                                                                                                                                      .
                                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                                                  .Entzinkung . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                  .Dialyseventil . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                  .Membrane . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .dezingage
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .vanne de dialyse
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .membrane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 D
C     cap screw . . . . . . . . . .Hutmutter . . . . . . . . .écrou borgne
                                                                de serrage
      (grey) cast iron . . . . . . .Grauguß . . . . . . . . . .fonte
                                                                                                                         direct acting/ . .
                                                                                                                         operating valve
                                                                                                                         Dirt trap/strainer
                                                                                                                                              .   .

                                                                                                                                                  .
                                                                                                                                                      .

                                                                                                                                                      .
                                                                                                                                                          .

                                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                                                                                                              .

                                                                                                                                                              .
                                                                                                                                                                  .Direktwirkende Ventile

                                                                                                                                                                  .Schmutzfänger . . .       .   .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .

                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .commande directe

                                                                                                                                                                                                         .filtre
      cast steel . . . . . . . . . .Stahlguß . . . . . . . . . .fonte acier                                              discharge hole .     .   .   .   .   .   .Entlastungsbohrung        .   .   .   .trou de décharge
      cavitation . . . . . . . . . .Kavitation . . . . . . . . .cavitation                                               disk . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .Scheibe . . . . . . .     .   .   .   .rondelle
      CE indication . . . . . . . .CE-Kennzeichnung . . . .indiquation CE                                                dispenser valve .    .   .   .   .   .   .Getränkeventil . . .      .   .   .   .vanne de d.a.
      CE symbol . . . . . . . . .CE-Zeichen . . . . . . . .symbol                                                        dosage valve . .     .   .   .   .   .   .Dosierventil . . . .      .   .   .   .vanne de dosage
      certification . . . . . . . .Zertifizierung . . . . . . .certificat                                                drinking water .     .   .   .   .   .   .Trinkwasser . . . .       .   .   .   .eau potable
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
106                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              107

      ENGLISH                                           GERMAN                                FRENCH                      ENGLISH                                GERMAN                                  FRENCH




D     duty cycle . . . . . . . . . .Einschaltdauer . . . . . . .ED durée de mise en
                                                                circuitelectrical leakage
                                                                                                                          inlet nozzle . . . .
                                                                                                                          insulation . . . . .
                                                                                                                          insulation class . .
                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                                 .Einlauftülle . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                 .Isolierung . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                 .Isolationsklasse .
                                                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .entrée
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .isolation
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .classe d`isolation                       I
                                                                                                                          insulation material    .   .   .   .   .Isolationsmaterial     .   .   .   .   .matériaux d`isolation
      test                      Elektrische              contrôle électrique                                              integral valve . . .   .   .   .   .   .Integralventil . . .   .   .   .   .   .vanne intégrale
E                               Dichtheitsprüfung        d’étanchéité
      equipment socket . . . . .Gerätesteckdose . . . . .connecteur
                                                                                                                          kv value . . . . . . . . . . .Kv-Wert . . . . . . . . . .valeur kv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 K
F     filter . . . . . . . . . . .
      fire protection class . .
      fitted position . . . . .
                                                    .
                                                    .
                                                    .
                                                        .Sieb . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                        .Brandschutzklasse . . .
                                                        .Einbaulage . . . . . . .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                              .filtre
                                                                                              .classe anti feu
                                                                                              .montage
                                                                                                                          lateral channel . . .
                                                                                                                                              . . . .Seitenkanal . . . . . . . . .passage lateral
                                                                                                                          lifting . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                              . . . .Hub . . . . . . . . . . . . .course
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 L
      fitting . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .Armaturen . . . . . . .          .   .robinetterie                                   . . . .Grenzübertemperatur . . .temperature limite
                                                                                                                          limiting excess . . .
      fixing clip . . . . . . . .                   .   .Halteklemme . . . . . .          .   .clip d`assemblage          temperature                                             extreme
      flameproofing . . . . .                       .   .Brandschutzausrüstung            .   .equipment anti feu         limiting temperature  . . .Grenztemperatur . . . . .temperature limite
      float valve . . . . . . . .                   .   .Schwimmerventile . . .           .   .vanne à flotteur                               . . . .Lastwechsel . . . . . . . .temps de reponse
                                                                                                                          load change . . . . .
      flow characteristic curve                         .Durchflußkennlinie . .           .   .courbe caracteristique                         . . . .Sicherungsmutter . . . . .ecrou de blocage
                                                                                                                          lock nut . . . . . . .
                                                                                               de débit                   long-term durability. . . .Dauergebrauchs- . . . . .enclenchement
      flow limiter . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .Durchflußbegrenzer . .           .   .limiteur de débit                                     tauglichkeit                 permanent
      flow pressure             .   .   .   .   .   .   .Fließdruck . . . . . . .         .   .pression pour débit        low-head screw . . . . . .Flachkopfschraube . . . . .vis à tête plat
      flow rate . . .           .   .   .   .   .   .   .Durchflußleistung . . .          .   .débit                      low power valve . . . . . .Schwachmotor-Ventil . . .vanne basse puissance
      flow regulator            .   .   .   .   .   .   .Mengenregler . . . . .           .   .régulateur de débit
      food grade . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .Lebensmitteltauglichkeit         .   .utilisation alimentaire
      force-actuation
      frequency . . .
      function . . . .
                                .
                                .
                                .
                                    .
                                    .
                                    .
                                        .
                                        .
                                        .
                                            .
                                            .
                                            .
                                                .
                                                .
                                                .
                                                    .
                                                    .
                                                    .
                                                        .Zwangssteuerung . . .
                                                        .Frequenz . . . . . . . .
                                                        .Funktion . . . . . . . .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                              .commande directe
                                                                                              .frequence
                                                                                              .fonction
                                                                                                                          magnetic circuit . . .
                                                                                                                          magnetic circulation .
                                                                                                                          manual operation . .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                                 .Magnetkreis . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                 .magnetische Durchflutung
                                                                                                                                                                 .Hand-/Hilfsbetätigung . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .circuit magnétique
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .sens magnétique
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .commande manuelle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M
                                                                                                                          material . . . . . . . .       .   .   .Werkstoff . . . . . . . .              .matèriaux
                                                                                                                          Maxwell`s equations .          .   .   .Maxwellsche Gleichungen                .equations Maxwell

G     gas valve . . . . . .
      glass fibre reinforced
      gliding foil . . . . . .
                                            . .
                                              .
                                            . .
                                                    .
                                                    .
                                                    .
                                                        .Gasventil . . . . .
                                                        .glasfaserverstärkt
                                                        .Gleitfolie . . . . .
                                                                                .
                                                                                .
                                                                                .
                                                                                  .
                                                                                  .
                                                                                  .
                                                                                      .
                                                                                      .
                                                                                      .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                              .vanne gaz
                                                                                              .renforcé fibre de verre
                                                                                              .feuille teflon
                                                                                                                          medium temperature
                                                                                                                          metals . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                          mode of operation . .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                                 .Medientemperatur . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                 .Metalle . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                 .Wirkungsweise . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .temperature du fluide
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .métal
                                                                                                                                                                                                         .performance
      heating . . . . . . .                 . .     .   .Erwärmung . . . .      . .   .   .   .temperature                modular method . . .           .   .   .Modulbauweise . . . . .                .construction modulaire
      hexagonal nut . . .                   . .     .   .Sechskantmutter .      . .   .   .   .écrou hexagonale           of construction
      hot dispense valve .                  . .     .   .Heißgetränkeventil       .   .   .   .vanne eau chaude de d.a.   module . . . . . . . .         . . .Baugruppe . . . . . . . . .pré-assemblage
      hydrolysis . . . . . .                . .     .   .Hydrolyse . . . .      . .   .   .   .hydrolyse                  monostable valve . .           . . .Monostabliles Ventil . . . .vanne monostable
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                 AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
108                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         109

      ENGLISH                                        GERMAN                               FRENCH                     ENGLISH                                 GERMAN                                 FRENCH




N     NBR . . . . . . . . .
      network . . . . . . .
      noise characteristic .
                                             .
                                             .
                                             .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                     .NBR . . . . . . . .
                                                     .Netzwerk . . . . .
                                                     .Geräuschverhalten
                                                                              .
                                                                              .
                                                                              .
                                                                                  .
                                                                                  .
                                                                                  .
                                                                                      .
                                                                                      .
                                                                                      .
                                                                                          .NBR
                                                                                          .réseau
                                                                                          .bruit de fonctionnement
                                                                                                                     plunger reaction .
                                                                                                                     pole shape . . . .
                                                                                                                     pole surface . . .
                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                             .
                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                .Ankerrückwirkung
                                                                                                                                                .Polkontur . . . .
                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                .Polfläche . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                                                    .réaction du noyau
                                                                                                                                                                                                    .forme masse polaire
                                                                                                                                                                                                    .surface masse polaire
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             P
      nominal diameter . .                   .   .   .Nennweite . . . . .     .   .   .   .diametre nominal          polysulphone . . .      .  .Polysulfon . . . .
                                                                                                                                                 .   .   .                          .   .   .   .   .polysulfon
      nominal power . . .                    .   .   .Nennleistung . . . .    .   .   .   .puissance                 power . . . . . .       .  .Leistung . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                 .   .   .                          .   .   .   .   .puissance
      nominal voltage . . .                  .   .   .Nennspannung . . .      .   .   .   .tension nominale          pressure . . . . .      .  .Druck . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                 .   .   .                          .   .   .   .   .pression
      non-return value . . .                 .   .   .Rückflußverhinderer     .   .   .   .clapet de non retour      pressure decrease       .  .Druckentlastung .
                                                                                                                                                 .   .   .                          .   .   .   .   .décroissance de pression
      normally closed valve                  .   .   .NC-Ventil . . . . .     .   .   .   .vanne NF                  pressure difference         .
                                                                                                                                                .Differenzdruck, .
                                                                                                                                                     .   .                          .   .   .   .   .pression differencielle,
      normally open valve .                  .   .   .NO-Ventil . . . . .     .   .   .   .vanne NO                                              Druckdifferenz                                      différence de pression
      noryl . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .Noryl . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .noryl                     pressure drop loss . . . . .Druckverlust . . .                 . . . .         .perte de pression
      nozzle . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .Düse . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .buse                      pressure increase . . . . .Druckanstieg . . .                  . . . .         .accroissement de
                                                                                                                                                                                                     pression
                                                                                                                     pressure spring . . . .         .   .   .Druckfeder . . . . .      .   .   .   .ressort de pression

O     O-ring . . . . . . . . . . .O-Ring . . . . . . . . . . .o-ring
      opening time . . . . . . . .Öffnungszeit . . . . . . . .temps d`ouverture
      operating air gap . . . . . .Arbeitsluftspalt . . . . . . .course de
                                                                                                                     pressure surge . . . .
                                                                                                                     product data sheets .
                                                                                                                     proportional valve . .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                     .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                             .Druckstoß . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                             .Produktdatenblätter
                                                                                                                                                             .Proportionalventil .
                                                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                                                    .coup de bélier
                                                                                                                                                                                                    .fiche téchnique
                                                                                                                                                                                                    .vanne proportionelle
                                                                 fonctionnement                                      protection cap . . . .          .   .   .Schutzkappe . . . .       .   .   .   .protection du capot
      operation cycles . . . . . .Schalthäufigkeit . . . . . .nombre de cycle                                        protection class . . .          .   .   .Schutzklasse . . . .      .   .   .   .classe de protection
      outlet . . . . . . . . . . . .Ausgang . . . . . . . . . .sortie                                                Protection type . . .           .   .   .Schutzart . . . . . .     .   .   .   .mode de protection
      outlet barb/nozzle/socket .Auslauftülle . . . . . . . . .embout de sortie                                      protection wiring . .           .   .   .Schutzbeschaltung .       .   .   .   .protection de bobinage
      outlet pressure . . . . . . .Ausgangsdruck . . . . . . .pression de sortie                                     protective conductor            .   .   .Schutzleiter . . . .      .   .   .   .protection conductrice
      over temperature . . . . .Übertemperatur . . . . . .temperature excessive                                      pulse valve . . . . . .         .   .   .Impulsventil . . . .      .   .   .   .vanne à impulsion




P
      pilot nozzle . . . . .
      pilot space . . . . .
      pilot valve . . . . .
                                         .
                                         .
                                         .
                                             .
                                             .
                                             .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                     .Vorsteuerdüse . . . . . .
                                                     .Vorsteuerraum . . . . .
                                                     .vorgesteuertes Ventil . .
                                                                                          .buse de pilotage
                                                                                          .surface de pilotage
                                                                                          .vanne piloté
                                                                                                                     reactive power .
                                                                                                                     regulating screw
                                                                                                                     relief valve, spud,
                                                                                                                                           . . . . . .Blindleistung . . . . . . . .puissance apparente
                                                                                                                                           . . . . . .Regelschraube . . . . . . .vis de réglage
                                                                                                                                             . . . . .Ablaufventil . . . . . . . .vanne décharge/vidange
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            R
      pinch valve . . . . .              .   .   .   .Schlauchquetschventil . .           .vanne à pincement         waste valve
      pipe . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .Rohr . . . . . . . . . . .          .tube                      remanence . . .       . . . .       .   .Remanenz . . . .      .   .   .   .   .rémanence
      plastics . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .Kunststoffe . . . . . . . .         .plastique                 remanence disk        . . . .       .   .Remanenzscheibe       .   .   .   .   .rondelle rémanente
      plate membrane . .                 .   .   .   .Tellermembrane . . . . .            .membrane plate            retention gland       . . . .       .   .Haltebrille . . . .   .   .   .   .   .bride d’assemblage
      plate spring . . . . .             .   .   .   .Tellerfeder . . . . . . . .         .ressort plat              rolling diaphragm       . . .       .   .Rollmembrane . .      .   .   .   .   .membrane à déroulement
      plug . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .Stecker, Verschlußstopfen            connecteur, bouchon
      plunger . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .Anker, Kern, Kolben . .             .noyau, piston
      plunger guiding pipe
      plunger movement .
      plunger pipe . . . .
                                         .
                                         .
                                         .
                                             .
                                             .
                                             .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                 .
                                                     .Ankerführungsrohr . . .
                                                     .Kernbewegung . . . . . .
                                                     .Oberteil . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                          .tube
                                                                                          .mouvement de noyau
                                                                                          .tube
                                                                                                                     screw-fitting . . . . . . . .Verschraubung . . . . . . .vissage
                                                                                                                     screw-in cartridge . . . . .Einschraubkartusche . . . .cartouche à visser
                                                                                                                     seal . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dichtung . . . . . . . . . .joint
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             S
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
110                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        111

      ENGLISH                                       GERMAN                                 FRENCH                      ENGLISH                                  GERMAN                          FRENCH




S     sealing disk . . . . . . . .
      self-tapping screw . . . .
      separating fluid separation
                                                    .Dichtungsscheibe . . .
                                                    .Blechschraube . . . . .
                                                    .Medientrennung . . . .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                           .joint plat
                                                                                           .vis taraudeuse
                                                                                           .fluide separé
                                                                                                                       ultem . . . . . . . . . . . .Ultem . . . . . . . . . . . .ultem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           U
      shape of flow . . . . . . .                   .Strömungsform . . . .             .   .type de fluide             vacuum regulator         .   .   .   .   .Vakuum Regel-Ventil . .       .regulateur de vide
      Shore hardness . . . . . .
      short circuiting ring . . .
      silicone fluoride . . . . .
                                                    .Shore-Härte . . . . . .
                                                    .Kurzschlußring . . . . .
                                                    .Fluorsilikon . . . . . . .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                           .dureté shore
                                                                                           .bague de déphasage
                                                                                           .silicone fluoré
                                                                                                                       vacuum valve . .
                                                                                                                       valve body . . .
                                                                                                                       valve types . . .
                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                                    .
                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                .Vakuumventil . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                .Ventilgehäuse . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                .Ventilarten . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                               .vanne de vide
                                                                                                                                                                                               .corps
                                                                                                                                                                                               .types des vannes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           V
      solenoid . . . . . . . . .                    .Magnetspule . . . . . .           .   .bobine                     velocity of flow .   .   .   .   .   .   .Strömungsgeschwindigkeit       vitesse de fluide
      sound . . . . . . . . . . .                   .Schall . . . . . . . . . .        .   .bruit                      ventilation tube     .   .   .   .   .   .Belüftungsschlauch . . . .    .tube d’aeration
      sound absorption surface                      .Schallabsorptionsfläche           .   .surface d’absorption       volumetric flow      .   .   .   .   .   .Volumenstrom . . . . . .      .débit
                                                                                            de bruit
      sound level . . . . . . .                 .   .Schallpegel . . . .   .   .   .   .   .niveau de bruit
      spacer (tube) . . . . . .
      spacer / distance ring .
      special design . . . . . .
                                                .
                                                .
                                                .
                                                    .Distanzrohr . . .
                                                    .Distanzring . . . .
                                                    .Sonderausführung
                                                                           .
                                                                           .
                                                                           .
                                                                               .
                                                                               .
                                                                               .
                                                                                   .
                                                                                   .
                                                                                   .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                           .tube de raccordement
                                                                                           .entretoise
                                                                                           .version speciale
                                                                                                                       water hardness . . . . . . .Wasserhärte . . . . . . . .dureté de l’eau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    W
      spring ring . . . . . . .                 .   .Federring . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .rondelle élastique
      star-shaped regulating                    .   .Regelstern . . . .    .   .   .   .   .étoile de guidage
      element
      steam valve . . . . . . .                 . .Dampfventile . . . . . . . .vanne vapeur
      straight- /through . . .                  . .Durchgangsventil . . . . .vanne en ligne
      way valve
      strainer . . . . . . . . . . .Schmutzfänger .                     . . . . . .filtre
      strain relief . . . . . . .. .Zugentlastung .                     . . . . . .diminution de la traction
      striking magnetic system     .anschlagendes .                     . . . . . .contact du noyau
                                    Magnetsystem
      switch off . . . . . . . . . .Ausschalten . .                     . . . . . .arrêt




T     T-head bolt . . . . . .
      temperature . . . . .
      temperature increase
                                            .
                                            .
                                            .
                                                .
                                                .
                                                .
                                                    .Hammerschraube .
                                                    .Temperatur . . . .
                                                    .Temperaturanstieg
                                                                               .
                                                                               .
                                                                               .
                                                                                   .
                                                                                   .
                                                                                   .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                       .
                                                                                           .boulon
                                                                                           .temperature
                                                                                           .hausse temperature
      thermoplast . . . . .                 .   .   .Thermoplaste . . .        .   .   .   .thermoplastique
      thermosetting plastics                .   .   .Duroplaste . . . . .      .   .   .   .résine thermodurcissable
      turbulent flow . . . .                .   .   .turbulente Strömung           .   .   .turbulence de fluide
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                   AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
112                                                                                                                                                                                           113

             Table of
      Table of Dimensions                                                                       Viscosity, dynamic   1 P (Poise)   0.1Pa s
                                                                                                                                   0.1 kg/ms
               Dimensions                                                                       Viscosity,           1 St (Stokes) 10-4 m2/s
                                                                                                kinematic
      Length                                        1m     39.3701 in
                                                           3.2808 ft                            Pressure             1 Pa          1 N/m2
                                                           1.0936 yd                                                               1.0197•10-5 at
                                                           0.62137•10-3 mile                                                       9.87•10-6 atm
                                                           0.53996•10-3 n mile                                                     10-5 bar
                                                           1.057023•10-16 Lj (light years)                                         75•10-4 torr
                                                           0.198839 rod (=pole=perch)                                              0.102 mm H2O
                                                           1•1010 ≈ (Angström)                                                     14.5037•10-5 lbf/in2 (psi)
                                                           0.0497097 chain (1 chain=22 yd)                                         2088.6•10-5 lbf/ft2
                                                                                                                                   4.015•10-3 in H2O

      Area                                          1 m2   10.764 ft2
                                                           1550 in2                             Force                1N            0.102 kp
                                                           1.196 yd2                                                               105 dyn
                                                           2.47105•10-4 acre                                                       0.224809 lbf (pound force)


      Volume                                        1 m3   61023.6 in3                          Energy               1J            0.102 kpm
                                                           35.315 ft3                                                              2.778•10-7 kWh
                                                           1.30795 yd3                                                             2.39•10-4 kcal
                                                           219.969 gal (UK)                                                        107 erg
                                                           264.172 gal (US)                                                        6.24•1018 eV
                                                           0.35311 RT (register ton)                                               947.8•10-6 Btu (British Thermal Unit)
                                                           35198.874 fl oz (fluid ounce) (UK)                                      0.73756 ft•lbf
                                                           33813.485 fl oz (US)                                                    0.1019716 kgm
                                                           27.4959 bu (bushel UK)                                                  0.999835 Volt Coulomb
                                                           28.3777 bu (bushel US)
                                                                                                Power                1W            0.102 kpm/s
                                                                                                                                   1.36•10-3 PS
      Mass                                          1 kg   2.2046 lb                                                               0.239 cal/s
                                                           35.274 oz                                                               0.86 kcal/h
                                                                                                                                   3.412 Btu/h
                                                                                                                                   0.284•10-3 TR (tons of refr.)
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
114                                                                                                                                                                                        115

      Temperature                                   °C          (5/9)•(°F - 32)             Magnetic flux            1 Wb         1Vs
                                                                K+273.15                                             (Weber)      108 M (Maxwell)
                                                                                                                                  1 kgm2/s2A

      Electric current                              1A          1 Coulombs/sec
                                                                1.03592•10-5 Faradays/sec   Magnetic flux            1T           1 Vs/m2
                                                                                                                     (Tesla)      104 Gauß
                                                                                                                                  1 Ns/(Cm)
      Voltage                                       1V          1 W/A                                                             1 Wb/m2
                                                                1 kgm2/s3A


      Electric charge                               1C          1 As


      Inductance                                    1H          1 Vs/A
                                                    (Henry)     1 Wb/A
                                                                1 kgm2/s2A2


                                                                                                                   Multipliers         Prefix                    Symbol
      Capacitance                                   1F          1 C/V
                                                                                             1018    1,000,000,000,000,000,000         exa                       E
                                                    (Farad)     1 As/V
                                                                                             1015        1,000,000,000,000,000         peta                      P
                                                                1 s4A2/kgm2
                                                                                             1012            1,000,000,000,000         tera                      T
                                                                                             109                 1,000,000,000         giga                      G
                                                                                             106                     1,000,000         mega                      M
      Resistance                                    1Ω          1 V/A
                                                                                             103                         1,000         kilo                      k
                                                    (Ohm)       1 kgm2/s3A2
                                                                                             102                           100         hecto                     h
                                                                                             101                            10         deca/deka                 da
                                                                                             10-1                           0.1        deci                      d
      Conductance                                   1S          1 A/V
                                                                                             10-2                         0.01         centi                     c
                                                    (Siemens)   1 s3A2/kgm2
                                                                                             10-3                        0.001         milli                     m
                                                                                             10-6                    0.000 001         micro                     µ
                                                                                             10-9                0.000 000 001         nano                      n
                                                                                             10-12           0.000 000 000 001         pico                      p
      Electric field strength                                   1 V/m
                                                                                             10-15       0.000 000 000 000 001         femto                     f
                                                                                             10-18   0.000 000 000 000 000 001         atto                      a
      Magnetic field strength                       1 Oe        103/(4(π) A/m
                                                    (Oersted)
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                                                          AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
116                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       117

         Index
      Index



                                                                                       Coil connector forms . . . . . . . . . . . . .23       Discharge hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30                      Flow regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .38
       A                                                                               Coil energising and de-energising operations 26        Dishwashers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100                        Flow velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .39
      A + K Müller . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5; 6; 7; 16                              Coil pressure spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27     Dispense valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82; 95                       Flow, basic hydrodynamic equations .              .   .   .   .39
      Acoustic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16                               Coil resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27    Divergence-free . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41                       Flow, ideal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .40
      Active power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35                               Collecting basin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78     Drinking water valves . . . . . . . . . . . . .83                       Flow, laminar . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .40
      Actuating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16                               Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27; 28      Duritan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61                     Flow, source-free and incompressible              .   .   .   .41
      AC voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8                              Constructions physics . . . . . . . . . . . . .16      Duty cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31                      Flow, stationary . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .41
      Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27                              Control channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29      DVGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20                        Flow, tank discharge . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .42
      AKM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16                                Coulomb force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29      Dynal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63                     Flow, turbulent . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .42
      Aminoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78                                Crastin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62                                                                            Fluid separation . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .43
      Antiferromagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53                                 Creepage distances and clearances . . . . . .29                                                                                Food grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .43
      Apparent power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35                                 CSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19                                                                            Force-actuates valves . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .83
      Arnite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62                             Curie point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53    E                                                                       Free-wheeling diode . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .71
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .43
                                                                                                                                              Elastomers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Frequency range . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .43
                                                                                                                                              Electrical connections . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      FVMQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .32
                                                                                                                                              Electric displacement density . . . . . . . . .33
       B                                                                               D                                                                                                                              FVSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .32
                                                                                                                                              Electric field strength . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
      Balance hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16                               DC voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8    Electric flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
      Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16                             Delrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63   Electric flux density . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
      Basic safety insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .49                              DEMKO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21        Electric leakage test . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
      Baylon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62                               Dezincification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29    Electric power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      G
      Bernoulli theorem . . . . . . . . . . .18; 39; 66                                Dialysis equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102      Electric resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35                     Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
      Biocide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16                              Dialysis valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81    Electroacoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16                      Gravitational pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
      Biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17                              Diamagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53       Electrodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . .8; 9; 57                       GRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
      Bistable valves . . . . . . . . . . . . .79; 81; 86                              Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30      Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
      Boiler valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100                               Diaphragm/plunger pressure spring . . . . .69          Electromagnetic compatability (EMC) . . . .36
      Bus-connecting valves . . . . . . . . . . . . .17                                Diaphragm pressure spring . . . . . . . . . .30        EPDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
                                                                                       Dielectric constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55    Epoxy resin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77                     H
                                                                                       DIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20    Equation of continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hagen-Poisseuille law . . . . . . . .         .   .   .39; 40
                                                                                       DIN 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53     Equipment plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   . . .43
       C                                                                               DIN 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89     Euler equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      High-pressure cleaners . . . . . . .          .   .   . . .10
                                                                                       DIN 43650 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23; 37
      CAD . . . . . . . . . .         .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .12                                                                                                                                   Hostadur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   . . .62
                                                                                       DIN 46244 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 25
      Capacitance . . . . . .         .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .17                                                                                                                                   Hostalen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   . . .62
                                                                                       DIN 46245 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23; 24; 25
      Capillarity . . . . . . . .     .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .17                                                                                                                                   Hostaform . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   . . .63
                                                                                       DIN 52218 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58; 59      F                                                                       Hostaflon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .   . . .64
      Cartridge valve . . . . .       .    .    .    .    .   .    .    .26; 38; 81    DIN 57282 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24; 25
      Cavitation . . . . . . .        .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .18                                                           Ferrimagnetism . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .53   Hot spot temperature rise . . . . .           .   .   . . .48
                                                                                       DIN EN 60730-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
      CE label . . . . . . . . .      .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .19                                                           Ferromagnetism . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .54   Hydraulic or pneumatic connections            .   .   . . .27
                                                                                       DIN VDE 0100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
      Certification . . . . . .       .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .19                                                           Fixed connections . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .28   Hydrodynamic chamber model . . .              .   .   . . .44
                                                                                       DIN VDE 0298 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
      Cleaning spring . . . . .       .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .22                                                           FKM . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .31   Hydrolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   . . .45
                                                                                       DIN VDE 0470 . . . . . . . . . .23 ; 24; 25; 26
      Closing time . . . . . .        .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .22                                                           Flameproofng . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .37
                                                                                       Direct-actuating valves . . . . . . . . . . . .82
      Coefficient of friction .       .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . . . .64                                                           Float valves, proportional    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .83; 97
                                                                                       Direct-actuating, medium-separating valves .96
      Coefficient of resistance        .    .    .    .   .    .    .    . . . . .42                                                          Flow characteristic curve     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .38
                                                                                       Dirt trap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
      Coercive field strength         .    .    .    .    .   .    .    . . .22; 55                                                           Flow meter . . . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .78
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                                                                  AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
118                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     119

                                                                                                                                                                       Plunger seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65   Similtude theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
      I                                                                            N
                                                                                                                                                                       Pole shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65     Solenoid valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8; 79
      Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46                           Navier-Stokes equation . . . . .                      .   .   .   .   .   .   .39   Polyester resin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77    Special fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
      Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47                          NBR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .32   POM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63      Special valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98; 99
      Industrial equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . .101                            NC valves . . . . . . . . . . . .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .85   PPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Star-shaped regulating element . . . . . . . .75
      Insulation class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47                         Néel temperature . . . . . . . .                      .   .   .   .   .   .   .53   Pressure . . . . . . . . . .8; 66 ; 67; 78; 79; 80
      Insulation, double/reinforced . . . . . . . . .48                            NEMKO . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .21   Pressure (hydrostatic) . . . . . . . . . . . . .66     Steam cooking equipment . . . . . . . . . .101
      Irrigation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102                          Newton’s second law of motion                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .39   Pressure difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66      Steam valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
                                                                                   NO diaphragm . . . . . . . . . .                      .   .   .   .   .   .   .58   Pressure loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8; 40     Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
                                                                                   NO valves . . . . . . . . . . . .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .86   Pressure reducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67       Striking magnetic system . . . . . . . . . . .76
                                                                                   Noise characteristic . . . . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .58   Pressure spikes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67    SVGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
      K                                                                            Nominal diameter DN . . . . .                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .59   Pressure spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69, 70
                                                                                   Nominal voltage . . . . . . . . .                     .   .   .   .   .   .   .59   Pressure surge characteristic . . . . . . . . .67
      KTW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
                                                                                   Nominal voltage range . . . . .                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .60   Proportional valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
      Kv value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
                                                                                   Noryl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .63   Protection class . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69, 70     T
                                                                                   Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .60   Protection type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
                                                                                   NSF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .21                                                          Teflon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        . . . . . . .64
                                                                                                                                                                       Protection wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70      Temperature control equipment                                . . . . . .101
      L                                                                                                                                                                PSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64    Thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . .                          . . . . . . .76
      Lexan . . . . . . . . . . . .        . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .62                                                                                       PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64     Thermosetting plastics . . . . .                            . . . . . . .77
      Limiting excess temperature            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .44   O                                                                                   Pumps and pump characteristic curves . . . .72         Trogamit . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          . . . . . . .61
      Limiting temperature . . .           . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .43                                                                                                                                              Trolen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          . . . . . . .62
                                                                                   Opening time . .    . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .60
      LMBG . . . . . . . . . . . .         . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .20
                                                                                   Operating air gap     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .60
      Load change . . . . . . . .          . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .50
                                                                                   Operation cycles    . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .61
      Lorentz force . . . . . . .          . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .50
                                                                                   Orgalan . . . . .   . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .62   R
      Loss head . . . . . . . . . .        . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .42
                                                                                   ÖVE . . . . . . .   . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .21   Radel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64    U
      Low power valves . . . . .           . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .84
      Lupulen . . . . . . . . . . .        . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .62                                                                                       Reactive power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35       Udel . . . . . . . . .    .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .64
      Luranyl . . . . . . . . . . .        . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .63                                                                                       Relief valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96; 100   UL . . . . . . . . . .    .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .21
                                                                                                                                                                       Remanence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55; 72      Ultradur . . . . . .      .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .62
                                                                                   P                                                                                   Remanence disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72       Ultramit . . . . . .      .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .61
                                                                                   PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                                           . . .61
                                                                                                                                                 .   .                 Retention gland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
      M                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ultem . . . . . . . .     .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .63
                                                                                   Paramagnetism . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                                           .53; 61
                                                                                                                                                 .   .                 Reynolds number . . . . . . . . . . . . .42; 73
                                                                                   PBT . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   . . . .62
                                                                                                                                             .   .   .                                                                        Ultraform . . . . . .     .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .63
      Magnetic circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50                                                                                                               Rolling diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74      Universal test bench      .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .78
      Magnetic circuit,valves . . . . . . . . . . . . .51                          PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                                           . . .62
                                                                                                                                                 .   .                 Rünite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
                                                                                   PE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .  . . .62
                                                                                                                                             .   .   .                                                                        Upwards force . . .       .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .80
      Magnetic excitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
      Magnetic field . . . . . . . .8; 47; 50; 51; 53:55;                          PEEK . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                                            . . .63
                                                                                                                                                 .   .
       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56; 57; 65                         PEI . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                                            . . .63
                                                                                                                                                 .   .
      Magnetic field strength . . . . . . . . . . . .51                            Perbunan . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                                            . . .32
                                                                                                                                                 .   .
                                                                                   Permeability . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .  . . .61
                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                             .       .                 S                                                      V
      Magnetic flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
      Magnetic induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53                           Permeability constant . . .               .   .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                                            . . .56
                                                                                                                                                 .   .                 Sanitary systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101      Vacuum valves . . .       .    .    .    .    .    .    .    . . . . . . .88
      Magnetic induction flux . . . . . . . . . . . .52                            Phenolics . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                                            . . .78
                                                                                                                                                 .   .                 SEMKO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
                                                                                   Photo developing machines                  . . . . . . . . .101                                                                            Valve body . . . . .      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    . . . . . . .80
      Magnetic material behavioural modes . . . .53                                                                                                                    Sensor technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75      Valve series . . . .     .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .100, 102, 103
      Magnetic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54                           Pilot valves . . . . . . . . .            . . . . . . . . . .86
                                                                                   Pinch valves . . . . . . . . .            . . . . . . . . . .87                     Servo-controlled water                                 Valve types . . . . .     .    .    .    .    .    .    .    . . . . . . .81
      Manual operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57                                                                                                                 intake valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92; 93; 94
      Maxwell’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57                            Plastics . . . . . . . . . . .            . . . . . . . . . .61                                                                            Variable connections           .    .    .    .    .    .    . . . . . . .28
                                                                                   Plunger . . . . . . . . . . .             . . . . . . . . . .64                     Servovalves . . . . . . . . . .87; 92; 93; 94; 98      Varistor . . . . . . .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    . . . . . . .71
      Mechanical connections . . . . . . . . . . . .28
      Merlon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62                           Plunger pipe . . . . . . . .              . . . . . . . . . .65                     Shore hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75     VDE . . . . . . . . .     .    .    .    .    .    .    .    . . . . . . .22
      Milking systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101                           Plunger pressure spring . .               . . . . . . . .65; 69                     Short circuiting ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75    Velocity vector flow      .    .    .    .    .    .    .    . . . . . . .41
      Monostable valves . . . . . . . . . . .8; 81; 85                             Plunger reaction . . . . . .              . . . . . . . . . .65                     Silicone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32   Ventilation . . . . .     .    .    .    .    .    .    .    . . . . . . .88
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                         AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
120                                                                                                                                                 121

      Vestamit      . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .61
      Vestordur       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .62
      Vestolen      . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .62
      Victrex .     . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .63
      Viton . .     . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . .37
      VMQ . .       . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .32; 88



       W
      Washing machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
      Water (drinking water) . . . . . . . . . . . .89
      Water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
      Welding equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
      WRc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22



       X
      Xyron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63




       Y
      Yoke      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                               AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
122                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       123


        Glossary
      Glossary


      1  AKM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .16   25   Diaphragm pressure spring . . . . .         .   .30   56 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .46         84.7     PEI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .63
      2  Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .16   26   Dirt trap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .30   57 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .47         84.8     POM . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .63
      3  Actuating system . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .16   27   Discharge hole . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .30   58 Insulation class . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .47         84.9     PPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .63
      4  Balance hole . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .16   28   Duty cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .31   59 Insulation, double/reinforced . . . .      .   .48         84.10 PSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .64
      5  Biocide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .16   29   Elastomers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .31   60 Kv value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .49         84.11 PTFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .64
      6  Biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .17        29.1 EPDM . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .31   61 Load change . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .50   85    Plunger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .64
      7  Bus-connecting valves . . . . . . .              .   .   .17        29.2 FKM . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .31   62 Lorentz force . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .50   86    Plunger pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .65
      8  Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .17        29.3 FVSI . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .32   63 Magnetic circuit . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .50   87    Plunger pressure spring . . . . . . . .           .65
      9  Capillarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .17        29.4 NBR . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .32   64 Magnetic circuit, valves . . . . . . .     .   .51   88    Plunger reaction . . . . . . . . . . . .          .65
      10 Cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .18        29.5 Silicone . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .32   65 Magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .51   89    Plunger seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .65
      11 Certification . . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .19        29.5.1 VMQ . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .32   66 Magnetic field strength                              90    Pole shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .65
         11.1 CE label . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .19        29.5.2 FVMQ . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .32      (magnetic excitation) . . . . . . . .      . .51     91    Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .66
         11.2 CSA . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .19   30   Electric displacement density/                        67 Magnetic flux                                        92    Pressure (hydrostatic)/
         11.3 DIN . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .20        electric flux density . . . . . . . . .     .   .33      (magnetic induction flux) . . . . . .      . .52           gravitational pressure . . . . . . . . .          .66
         11.4 DVGW . . . . . . . . . .                    .   .   .20   31   Electric field strength . . . . . . . .     .   .33   68 Magnetic induction . . . . . . . . . .     . .53     93    Pressure difference . . . . . . . . . .           .66
         11.5 KTW . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .20   32   Electric flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .34   69 Magnetic material behavioural modes          .53     94    Pressure reducer . . . . . . . . . . . .          .67
         11.6 LMBG . . . . . . . . . . .                  .   .   .20   33   Electric power . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .34      69.1     Paramagnetism (µ > 1) . . .       . .53     95    Pressure spikes/
         11.7 NSF . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .21        33.1 Active power . . . . . . . .           .   .35      69.2     Diamagnetism (µ < 1) . . .        . .53           pressure surge characteristic . . . . .           .67
         11.8 ÖVE . . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .21        33.2 Reactive power . . . . . . .           .   .35      69.3     Ferromagnetism (µ >> 1) .         . .54     96    Pressure spring . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .69
         11.9 SEMKO/DEMKO/NEMKO                           .   .   .21        33.3 Apparent power . . . . . .             .   .35   70 Magnetic materials . . . . . . . . . .     . .54           96.1 Plunger pressure spring . . . .              .69
         11.10 SVGW . . . . . . . . . . .                 .   .   .21   34   Electric resistance . . . . . . . . . .     .   .35      70.1     Coercive field strength . . .     . .55           96.2 Diaphragm/
         11.11 UL . . . . . . . . . . . . .               .   .   .21   35   Electrical leakage test . . . . . . . .     .   .36      70.2     Remanence . . . . . . . . .       . .55                    plunger pressure spring . . . .          .69
         11.12 VDE . . . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .22   36   Electromagnetic compatability (EMC)             .36      70.3     Dielectric constant ε . . . .     . .55     97    Protection class . . . . . . . . . . . .          .69
         11.13 WRc . . . . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .22   37   Equation of continuity . . . . . . . .      .   .37      70.4     Permeability constant µ . .       . .56           97.1 Class I . . . . . . . . . . . . .            .69
      12 Cleaning spring . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .22   38   Equipment plug (as per DIN 43650)           .   .37   71 Manual operation . . . . . . . . . .       . .57           97.2 Class II . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .70
      13 Closing time . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .22   39   Flameproofing . . . . . . . . . . . .       .   .37   72 Maxwell’s equations . . . . . . . . .      . .57           97.3 Class III . . . . . . . . . . . .            .70
      14 Coercive field strength . . . . . .              .   .   .22   40   Flow characteristic curve . . . . . .       .   .38   73 NO diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . .       . .58     98    Protection type . . . . . . . . . . . .           .70
      15 Coil connector forms . . . . . . .               .   .   .23   41   Flow regulator . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .38   74 Noise characteristic . . . . . . . . .     . .58     99    Protection wiring . . . . . . . . . . .           .70
      16 Coil energising and                                            42   Flow velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .39   75 Nominal diameter DN . . . . . . . .        . .59     100   Pumps and pump characteristic curves              .72
         de-energising operations . . . . .               . . .26       43   Flow, basic hydrodynamic equations          .   .39   76 Nominal voltage . . . . . . . . . . .      . .59     101   Remanence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .72
      17 Coil pressure spring . . . . . . . .             . . .27       44   Flow, ideal . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .40   77 Nominal voltage range . . . . . . . .      . .60     102   Remanence disk . . . . . . . . . . . .            .72
      18 Coil resistance . . . . . . . . . . .            . . .27       45   Flow, laminar . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .40   78 Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . .60     103   Retention gland . . . . . . . . . . . .           .73
      19 Connections . . . . . . . . . . . .              .27; 28       46   Flow source-free and incompressible         .   .41   79 Opening time . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . .60     104   Reynolds number . . . . . . . . . . .             .73
         19.1 Electrical connections . . .                . . .27       47   Flow, stationary . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .41   80 Operating air gap . . . . . . . . . .      . .60     105   Rolling diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . .           .74
         19.2 Hydraulic or                                              48   Flow, tank discharge . . . . . . . . .      .   .42   81 Operation cycles . . . . . . . . . . .     . .61     106   Sensor technology . . . . . . . . . . .           .75
                  pneumatic connections . .               .   .   .20   49   Flow, turbulent . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .42   82 Paramagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . .      . .61     107   Shore hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .75
         19.2.1 Fixed connections . . . . .               .   .   .28   50   Fluid separation . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .43   83 Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . .61     108   Short circuiting ring . . . . . . . . . .         .75
         19.2.2 Variable connections . . .                .   .   .28   51   Food grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .43   84 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . .61     109   Star-shaped regulating element . . . .            .75
         19.2.3 Mechanical connections .                  .   .   .28   52   Frequency/frequency range . . . . .         .   .43      84.1     GRP . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . .61     110   Steel (stainless) . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .76
      20 Control channel . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .29   53   Heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   .43      84.2     PA . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . .61     111   Striking magnetic system . . . . . . .            .76
      21 Coulomb force . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .29        53.1 Limiting temperature . . . .           .   .43      84.3     PBT . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . .62     112   Thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .76
      22 Creepage distances and clearances                .   .   .29        53.2 Limiting excess temperature            .   .44      84.4     PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . .62     113   Thermosetting plastics . . . . . . . . .          .77
      23 Dezincification . . . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .29   54   Hydrodynamic chamber model . . .            .   .44      84.5     PE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . .62     114   Universal test bench . . . . . . . . . .          .78
      24 Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .30   55   Hydrolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .   .45      84.6     PEEK . . . . . . . . . . . .      . .63     115   Upwards force . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .80
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                     AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
124                                                                                                                             125




      116 Valve body . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .80
      117 Valve types/modes of operation                  .   .   .   .81
          117.1 Bistable valves . . . . . .               .   .   .   .81
          117.2 Cartridge valves . . . . .                .   .   .   .81
          117.3 Dialysis valves . . . . . .               .   .   .   .81
          117.4 Direct-actuating valves .                 .   .   .   .82
          117.5 Dispense valves . . . . .                 .   .   .   .82
          117.6 Drinking water valves . .                 .   .   .   .83
          117.7 Float valves, proportional                .   .   .   .83
          117.8 Force-actuated valves . .                 .   .   .   .83
          117.9 Low power valves . . . .                  .   .   .   .84
          117.10 Monostable valves . . . .                .   .   .   .85
          117.11 NC valves . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .85
          117.12 NO valves . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .86
          117.13 Pilot valves . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .86
          117.14 Pinch valves . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .87
          117.15 Proportional valves . . .                .   .   .   .87
          117.16 Servovalves . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .87
          117.17 Steam valves . . . . . . .               .   .   .   .87
          117.18 Vacuum valves . . . . . .                .   .   .   .88
      118 Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . .             .   .   .   .88
      119 Water (drinking water) . . . . .                .   .   .   .89
      120 Water hardness . . . . . . . . .                .   .   .   .90
      121 Yoke      . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   .   .   .90
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                                 AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
126                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         127

           aIndex of
      Index of Illustrations

               Illustrations
      Fig. 1      Exploded view: basic structure of             Fig. 43   De-energising operation . . . .      .   .26   Fig. 82  Varistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71    Fig. 125
                  solenoid valves . . . . . . . . . .     .11   Fig. 44   Equipment plug . . . . . . . . .     .   .27   Fig. 83  Retention gland . . . . . . . . . . .73     to
      Fig. 2      Product design . . . . . . . . . .      .12   Fig. 45   Threaded connector . . . . . .       .   .27   Fig. 84  Rolling diaphragm . . . . . . . . . .74     Fig. 129 Special valves . . . . . . . . . .98, 99
      Fig. 3      CAD station . . . . . . . . . . .       .12   Fig. 46   Valve with fixed connections .       .   .28   Fig. 85  Plunger with short                          Fig. 130
      Fig. 4      Injection moulding machine . . .        .12   Fig. 47   Snap-on connections . . . . . .      .   .28            circuiting ring . . . . . . . . . . . .75   to
      Fig. 5      Coil form . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .12   Fig. 48   Diaphragm with nozzle . . . . .      .   .30   Fig. 86 Universal test bench . . . . . . . .79       Fig. 131 Dirt strainers . . . . . . . . . . . .99
      Fig. 6      Coil form with inserted contacts        .12   Fig. 49   Dirt trap opened . . . . . . . .     .   .30   Fig. 87 Valve body . . . . . . . . . . . . .80       Fig. 132 Vane pump . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
      Fig. 7      Automatic winding machine . . .         .12   Fig. 50   Dirt trap closed . . . . . . . . .   .   .30   Fig. 88 Cartridge Valve . . . . . . . . . . .80
      Fig. 8      Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .13   Fig. 51   Diaphragm made of EPDM . . .         .   .31   Fig. 89 Dialysis valve . . . . . . . . . . . .81
      Fig. 9      Coil coated in                                Fig. 52   Diaphragm made of FVSI . . . .       .   .32   Fig. 90 Schematic diagram of
                  thermosetting plastic . . . . . . .     .13   Fig. 53   Diaphragm made of NBR . . .          .   .32            direct-acting 3/2-way valves . . . .82
      Fig. 10     Electric high-voltage test . . . . .    .13   Fig. 54   Seal made of silicone . . . . . .    .   .32   Fig. 91 Dispense valve . . . . . . . . . . .82
      Fig. 11     LCR measuring bridge . . . . . .        .13   Fig. 55   Equipment plug . . . . . . . . .     .   .37   Fig. 92 2/2-way solenoid valve for
      Fig. 12     Cycling line . . . . . . . . . . . .    .14   Fig. 56   Flow characteristic curve with                          drinks vending machines . . . . . .82
      Fig. 13     Hydraulic part of the valve . . . .     .14             hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .38   Fig. 93 Float valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
      Fig. 14     Milling machine . . . . . . . . . .     .14   Fig. 57   Flow regulator . . . . . . . . .     .   .38   Fig. 94 Schematic diagram of
      Fig. 15     Open tool . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .14   Fig. 58   Flow characteristic curve . . .      .   .38            a force-actuated valve . . . . . . .83
      Fig. 16     Electroerosion machine . . . . .        .14   Fig. 59   Induction curves . . . . . . . .     .   .55   Fig. 95 Schematic diagram of
      Fig. 17     Final equipment testing . . . . . .     .15   Fig. 60   Test arrangement for noise                              a low power valve . . . . . . . . .84
      Fig. 18     Detailed view of test bench . . .       .15             characteristic as per DIN 52218      .   .59   Fig. 96 Schematic diagram of
      Fig. 19     Capability for CE labelling . . . .     .19   Fig. 61   Measuring arrangement . . . .        .   .59            a monostable valve . . . . . . . . .85
      Fig. 20     Test symbol of the CSA . . . . .        .19   Fig. 62   Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .60   Fig. 97 Schematic diagram of
      Fig. 21     Test symbol of the DVGW . . .           .20   Fig. 63   Valve body in PA . . . . . . . .     .   .61            an NC valve . . . . . . . . . . . .85
      Fig. 22     Test symbol of the NSF . . . . .        .21   Fig. 64   Coil form in PBT . . . . . . . .     .   .62   Fig. 98 Schematic diagram of
      Fig. 23     Test symbol of SEMKO . . . . .          .21   Fig. 65   Valve body in PEI . . . . . . . .    .   .63            an NO valve . . . . . . . . . . . .86
      Fig. 24     Test symbol of the SVGW . . . .         .21   Fig. 66   Non-return valve in POM . . .        .   .63   Fig. 99 Schematic diagram of
      Fig. 25     Test symbol of the UL . . . . . .       .21   Fig. 67   Valve body in PPO . . . . . . .      .   .63            a pilot valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
      Fig. 26     Test symbol of the VDE . . . . .        .22   Fig. 68   Valve body in PSU . . . . . . .      .   .64   Fig. 100 Schematic diagram of
      Fig. 27     Test symbol of the WRc . . . . .        .22   Fig. 69   Bellows in PTFE . . . . . . . . .    .   .64            a vacuum valve . . . . . . . . . . .88
      Fig. 28     Nozzle with cleaning spring . . .       .22   Fig. 70   Plunger . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .64   Fig. 101
      Fig. 29     Coil Connector MS 006 . . . . .         .23   Fig. 71   Deep-drawn valve plunger pipe        .   .65   to
      Fig. 30     Coil Connector MS 009 . . . . .         .23   Fig. 72   Starting current curve . . . . .     .   .65   Fig. 115 Servo-controlled water intake
      Fig. 31     Coil Connector MS 011 . . . . .         .23   Fig. 73   Pressure reducer . . . . . . . .     .   .67            valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 - 94
      Fig. 32     Coil Connector MS 014 . . . . .         .23   Fig. 74   Test arrangement for                           Fig. 116
      Fig. 33     Coil Connector MS 022 - 01 . .          .24             measuring pressure spikes as                   to
      Fig. 34     Coil Connector MS 023 . . . . .         .24             per EN 607 30-2-8 . . . . . . .      . .68     Fig. 119 Dispense valves . . . . . . . . . . .95
      Fig. 35     Coil Connector MS 024 . . . . .         .24   Fig. 75   Nomenclature of pressure                       Fig. 120 Relief valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
      Fig. 36     Coil Connector MS 025 . . . . .         .24             spike measurement . . . . . . .      .   .68   Fig. 121
      Fig. 37     Coil Connector MS 026 . . . . .         .25   Fig. 76   Measured pressure spikes . . .       .   .68   to
      Fig. 38     Coil Connector MS 028 . . . . .         .25   Fig. 77   Symbol for protection class I .      .   .69   Fig. 122 Direct actuating,
      Fig. 39     Coil Connector MS 029 . . . . .         .25   Fig. 78   Symbol for protection class II .     .   .70            medium-separating valves . . . . .96
      Fig. 40     Coil Connector MS 032 . . . . .         .25   Fig. 79   Symbol for protection class III .    .   .70   Fig. 123 3/2-way medium separated
      Fig. 41     Coil Connector MS 033 . . . . .         .26   Fig. 80   Protection wiring . . . . . . . .    .   .71            change valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
      Fig. 42     Energising operation . . . . . . .      .26   Fig. 81   Diode . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .71   Fig. 124 Proportional float valve . . . . . .97
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y                                                                                                                           AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
128                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   129

           Bibliography
      Bibliography



      1     Ventiltechnologie             . . . . . . . . .Ralph Kroupa, ISBN 3-527-28612-8                          14. DIN 40050, Part 10, Feb. 1975        .Schutzarten, Berührungs-, Fremdkörper- und Wasser-
            im Anlagenbau                                                                                                                                      schutz, Kleintransformatoren bis 16 kVA (cf. IEC 144,
                                                                                                                                                               1963)
      2     DIN VDE 0580 Okt 1994 . . . . .Elektromagnetische Geräte, allgemeine Bestimmungen
      3     DIN VDE 0470 Nov 1992 . . . . .Schutzarten durch Gehäuse                                                 15. DIN 40050, Part 9, Mai 1993 . . .Straßenfahrzeuge ; IP-Schutzarten, Schutz gegen Fremd-
                                           (IP-Code; cf. IEC 529 1989)                                                                                    körper, Wasser und Berührungen, elektrische
                                                                                                                                                          Ausrüstung (cf. IEC 529, 1989)
      4     DIN 1944 Okt 1968               . . . . . . . .Abnahmeversuche an Kreiselpumpen
                                                           (cf. ISO 2548 u. ISO 3555)                                16. DIN 46244, Part 1, April 1980 . .Flachstecker am Gerät für Steckhülsen

      5     DIN EN 60730-2-8 Teil 2 . . . . .Automatische elektrische Regel- und Steuergeräte                        17. DIN 46244, Part 2, Dez. 1987 . .Flachstecker am Gerät, geschlitzte Ausführung
            Draft                            für den Hausgebrauch und ähnliche Anwendungen:                          18. DIN 46245, Part 1 – 3 . . . . . . .Steckhülsen mit Isolierhülse für Steckerbreiten 2,8; 4,8
                                             Besondere Anforderungen an elektrische Wasserventile,                                                          und 6,3
                                             einschließlich mechanischer Anforderungen
                                             (cf. IEC 730-2-8:1992, modified)                                        19. DIN VDE 0282 . . . . . . . . . . .Gummi-isolierte Starkstromanleitungen

      6     DIN 52 219          . . . . . . . . . . . . .Messung von Geräuschen der Wasserinstallation               20. DIN 7728, Part 1, Jan. 1988      . . .Kunststoffe, Kennbuchstabe und Kurzzeichen für Poly-
      7     DIN 52 218 Part 1 . . . . . . . . .Prüfung des Geräuschverhaltens von Armaturen und                                                                mere und ihre besonderen Eigenschaften
                                               Geräten der Wasserinstallation im Laboratorium.                                                                 (cf. ISO 1043-3-1988)
                                               Meßverfahren (cf. ISO 3822/1 1983)                                    21. DIN 1988, Dez. 1988, Teil 1 – 8 .Technische Regeln für Trinkwasserinstallationen (TRWI),
      8     DIN 52 218 Part 3 . . . . . . . . .Prüfung des Geräuschverhaltens von Armaturen und                                                           technische Regel des DVGWs (Betrieb, Korrosions-
                                               Geräten der Wasserinstallation im Laboratorium.                                                            schutz, Wasserversorgung, Druckregler)
                                               Anschluß- und Betriebsbedingungen für Durchgangs-                     22. DIN 2000, Nov. 1973       . . . . . . .Zentrale Trinkwasserversorgung, Leitätze für Anfor-
                                               armaturen (cf. ISO 3822/3 1984)                                                                                  derungen an Trinkwasser, Planung, Bau und Betrieb der
      9     DIN 52 218 Part 3 . . . . . . . . .Prüfung des Geräuschverhaltens von Armaturen und                                                                 Anlagen
                                               Geräten der Wasserinstallation im Laboratorium.                       23. DVGW Arbeitsblatt W 270 . . .Vermehrung von Mikroorganismen auf Materialien für
                                               Anschluß- und Betriebsbedingungen für Sonderarmaturen                                                  den Trinkwasserbereich – Prüfung und Bewertung –
                                               (cf. ISO 3822/4 1985)
                                                                                                                     24. DIN VDE 0298 . . . . . . . . . . .Verwendung von Kabeln und isolierten Leitungen für
      10 DIN EN 55104 Dez 1995 . . . . .Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit, Störfestigkeits-                                                               Starkstromanlagen
         VDE 0875 Part 14-2             anforderungen für Haushaltsgeräte, Werkzeuge und ähn-
                                        liche Geräte, Produktfamilien-Norm                                           25. DIN VDE 0100 . . . . . . . . . . .Bestimmungen für das Errichten von Starkstromanlagen
                                                                                                                                                           bis 1000 V
      11 DIN EN 55014 Dez 1993 . . . . .Funk-Entstörung von elektrischen Betriebsmitteln und
         VDE 0875 Part 14               Anlagen. Grenzwerte und Meßverfahren für Funk-                               26. DIN VDE 0730 . . . . . . . . . . .Bestimmungen für Geräte mit elektromotorischem
                                        störungen von Geräten mit elektromotorischem Antrieb                                                               Antrieb für den Hausgebrauch und ähnliche Zwecke
                                        und Elektrowärmegeräten für den Hausgebrauch und
                                                                                                                     27 Single European market . . . . .ZVEI
                                        ähnliche Zwecke
                                                                                                                        CE Indication 1994              Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektroindustrie e.V
      12 DIN EN 60555 April 1993                     . . . .Rückwirkungen in Stromversorgungsnetzen, die durch
                                                                                                                     28 Die EG-Informationsverfahren .CE-label, certification, technical specifications, conformity
         VDE 0838 Part 3 A 1                                Haushaltsgeräte und ähnliche elektrische Einrichtungen
                                                                                                                        auf dem Gebiet der Normen     evaluation, product liability, product safety, work safety
                                                            verursacht werden. (cf. IEC 555-3 A 1)
                                                                                                                        und technischen Vorschriften  and health protection. Composition of the most impor-
      13. DIN 43650, Part I, Jul. 1983 . . .Steckverbinder, viereckige Bauformen, Bauformen, Maße,                                                    tant EU legal acts including supplementary parameters.
                                            Bezeichnungssystem (cf. ISO 4400, 1985; ISO 6952, 1989)                                                   Law stated as of: April 1994
      AKM R e f e r e n c e Va l v e Te c h n o l o g y
130




      29 CEI IEC 50(161) 1990 . . . . . . .International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
      30 Handbook of Fluid . . . . . . . .by Ing. C.J.Benard, The Trade & Technical Press Ltd,
         Flowmetering 1st Edition         Crown House, Morden Surrey, SM4 5EW, England.
                                          ISBN 85461-120-7
      31 Physik für Ingenieure . . . . . . .Hering-Martin-Stohrer, VDI-Verlag GmbH Düsseldorf;
                                            5th Edition ISBN 3-18-401398-7
      32 Vereinfachte Anordnung . . . . .Prof. K. Gösele und C.A.Voigtsberger, Stuttgart
         zur Prüfung des                 (Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Institut für Bauphysik,
         Geräuschverhaltens              Stuttgart) Sonderdruck aus “Sanitär-Heizungstechnik”
         von Armaturen                   3 / 1979
      33 Taschenbuch für . . . . . . . . . .Dubbel, W. Beitz und K.-H. Küttner, 15th Edition,
         den Maschinenbau                   Springer Verlag, ISBN 3-540-12418-7
      34 Gerthsen Physik . . . . . . . . . .Helmut Vogel, 18th Edition, Springer Verlag,
                                            ISBN 3-540-59278-4
      35 Christiani Datenbank . . . . . . .Roland Christiani, 8th Edition, Techn. Lehrinstitut
                                           und Verlag P. Christiani
      36 Handbook of . . . . . . . . . . . .CRC Press, ISBN 0 8493 0458 x
         chemistry and physics
      37 Das Kammermodell als . . . . . .H. Kiendl, R. Wibbeke
         Instrument zur Analyse der      Chair of electrical Control and Regulation,
         Regelbarkeit von Mischwasser- University of Dortmund
         bereitungseinrichtungen
      38 Zentrale Warmwasser- . . . . . .H.-D. Eichholz, H.-J. Ludewig,
         bereitung mit Zentral-          IKZ Haustechnik 1986, Part 1-3
         thermostat und Zirkula-
         tionsleitung, Part 1-3

								
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