INSECT PESTS OF WINE GRAPES Grape Mealybug Grape Leafhopper Grape

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INSECT PESTS OF WINE GRAPES Grape Mealybug Grape Leafhopper Grape Powered By Docstoc
					  INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN                               INSECT PESTS OF WINE
      WESTERN COLORADO                                          GRAPES
          VINEYARDS
                                                                 Grape Mealybug
                                                                Grape Leafhopper
                                                                Grape Berry Moth
By Rick Zimmerman                                               Grape Flea Beetle
Research Entomologist
Western Colorado Research Center – Rogers Mesa                  Sphinx Moth Larvae




                                                  Grape Mealybug
           Grape Mealybug




                                                                          Overwintering Site
                                                                          *note cottony mass containing
                                                                           egg mass
              Over winters as egg or 1st instar
              beneath bark                        Discolored bark from
                                                  honeydew




                                                               Grape Mealybug



                                                                                  Adult
                                                                                   0.2 inches long




                                                  1 generation per year         Females return to old
                                                                                wood in mid-summer to
                                                                                lay eggs (up to 600
                                                                                eggs/female)




                                                                                                          1
                                                                                                        Grape Mealybug Injury




                                                                                                                                    Almost all damage is
                                                                                  Contamination of                                  caused by 1st
                                                                                  fruiting clusters                                 generation of
                                                                                                                                    crawlers from
                                                                                                                                    summer brood



                                                                                 Honeydew causes
                                                                                                                  -Ants on vines
                                                                                 growth of sooty mold
                                                                                                                    good indicator of GMB populations
                                                                                 on berries




                     CONTROL OPTIONS
                                                                                        Grape Mealybug Observations
                       Grape Mealybug


                                                Early Spring, Shoots 6” long
                                                -Provado Solupak .75-1oz/ac
   Dormant Applications
   - Lorsban 4E + Oil
                                                Late Spring, bloom through set
                                                                                   - Sampling started in mid-March
               Effectiveness??
    Phytotoxicity??                               -Guthion 50WSP 1.5-2lb/ac             -observed 1st instar nymphs
                                                  -Malathion 8EC 1-2.5 pt/ac
                                                  -Provado 75WP                             in only one infested vineyard
                                                Summer, July to August
                                                  -Provado 75WP 0.75-1oz/ac
                                                                                   - Collected at least one parasitic wasp species
Applaud (buprofezin)
                                                                                   - No mealybugs observed on foliage as of May 2.
                                                *OSU recommendations
  -Insect growth regulator
     -kills nymphs
     -suppresses oviposition in adults

                                         Mealybug Parasite
                                          Leptomastix dactylopii
                                          Anagrus sp.




                                                                                                                                                           2
              Grape Leafhopper
  E. variabilis                                                                       Grape leafhopper eggs
                                     E. ziczac




                   Nymph




                                                                                                         Grape Leafhoppers
                  Grape Leafhoppers
                        Erythroneura ziczac
                         Erythroneura vulnerata                                                                                    OW as adults


                                                                        Adults observed on rose
                                                                        bushes, columbines and dandelions
                                                                        in early spring

          Adults                                                                                                             GLH populations tended
                                                                                                                             to move from outside
                                                                                                                             rows into middle of vineyard
                                      Over winters as adults                      Adults on yellow
                                       -does not OW in vineyard                   sticky card




                            Grape Leafhoppers
                                                                                                     Grape Leafhopper Control

E. ziczac nymphs feed on underside
of leaf- 1995-1996 survey 85%
of nymphs counted.
                                                                             Late Spring through Berry Maturation            Monitoring:
                                                                              - Carbaryl 4F 2-4 pt/ac                          - Monitor outer rows
                                                  E. vulnerata nymphs         - M-Pede 1.5-2 gal/100 gal water                  of vineyard when grapes
                                                                              - Provado 75WP 0.75-1 oz/ac                       are leafed out
                                                                              - Neem based insecticides                        -Wine grapes tolerate >
                                                                                                                             leafhopper populations than
                                                                                                                             table grapes




                                                                                                                                  Pay attention to PHI




                                                                                                                                                            3
            Grape Leafhopper                                                                  Grape Leafhopper
 Varietal Preference in Western Colorado                                                          Damage




Preferred varieties:

  “Lemberger”
  “Gewurtzaminer”
  “Orange Muscat Blanc”
                                 Non-Preferred Varieties:

                                    “Merlot”
                                    “White Riesling”
                                    “Seyval Blanc”
                                                                  Excess feeding can lead to a
                                                                  decline in photosynthesis and
                                                                  premature leaf drop




                  Grape Leafhoppers                                                          Grape Berry Moth
                   Biological Control                                                        Endopiza viteana




             Ladybug pupae
                               General Predators:
                               Anagros epos- parasitic
                               wasp
                                                                      3/8 inches in length                      2 generations east of Rockies
                               Lacewing larvae
                                                                                                                Colorado ??
                               Spiders




                 Grape Berry Moth
                                                                  Grape berry moth feeding damage




                                      In early spring, larvae
                                      feed on stems, blossoms &
                                      berries
   Feeding Damage




                                                                                                                                                4
                                                                                                                 Grape Berry Moth
                      Grape Berry Moth Larvae




         1/3 inch long




                                           When berries reach 3mm in diameter,              Damaged berries
                                           larvae feed inside of berries




                            Grape Berry Moth                                                              Grape Berry Moth

                                                                                                                                     Monitoring:
                                                                                                                                      Pheromone traps on perimeter
                                                                                                                                       -every 100 feet
                                                                                                                                       -placed out before bloom
                                                                                                                                      Visual inspections




           Pupating grape
            berry moth




                                                                                 Control:
                                                                                 - Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)




                      Flea Beetle                                                                       Flea Beetle
                                                                                                   Populations not widespread

                                                                                                   Typically found east of Rockies




                                                                                                                                Controls:
                                                                                                                                 Broadspectrum insecticides
-OW as Adult
                                                                                                                                    Pyrethroids
-Eggs laid late April – June
                                                                                                                                    Pyrethrums (organic)
           near buds and beneath bark
                                                                                                                                    Diatomaceous earth (organic)
-Dark brown larvae present June- July on
           upper surface of leaves
-Summer Adults Late July – August




                                                                                                                                                                     5
    Grape Flea Beetle




                           Overwinters as pupae in soil      Grape flea beetle




  White-lined Sphinx Moth
 -Occasional pest
 -Larvae of the hawkmoth
 -Defoliators




                                                                 Sphinx moth larvae damage
                                    Control:
                                    Bacillus thuringiensis




                                                                                             Color phases




Sphinx moth larvae damage

                                                             Killed by B.t.




                                                                                                            6
          Hawkmoth pupae                         Grape Leafminer




            Pupate in soil




        Grape leaf miner
                                               Western Grape Skeletonizer Larvae

                             Pupation site




                                                                     Only found on Virginia Creeper
                                                                     Western Colorado




                                             Bumble flower beetle
Western Grape Skeletonizer




                                                                                                      7
       Bumble flower beetle




                                           Eggs

                                                    Katydid




  Erineum mites
                                             Erineum mites

                                  erinea




May cause stress on young vines
-premature drop in leaves




                                           Cutworm damage on buds
Cutworm damage on buds




                                                                    8
   Wasp nests at end of canes?
                                  Chinch bug nymph




Chinch bug eggs




                                 Stink bug nymphs




                                   Thrips
   Stink bug eggs




                                                     9
     Thrips damage



                               Entry hole




Rasping mouthparts
                                         Shot hole borers
                                          -secondary pest




                             Green Lacewing Nymph




                                 Deraeocoris sp.

                       Deraeocoris sp.
  Green lacewing egg




                                                            10
        Minute pirate bug nymph
       Minute Pirate Bug Nymph w/ LH Prey




                                            Preying Mantids

         Lady bug eggs




Butterfly Bush
                                                                              Viburnum




                                                 Plants with shallow corollas
                                                  Best for small parasitic wasps




                                                                                         11
                                       IPM COMBINES KNOWLEDGE OF PEST ECOLOGY,
                                       ECONOMICS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS TO
                                       DEVELOP CROP PRODUCTION AND PEST MANAGEMENT
                                       CHOICES IN ORDER FOR THE GROWER TO MAINTAIN A
                                       SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEM




KEY STEPS TO A SUCCESSFUL IPM                 BUILDING BLOCKS TO MAKING
          PROGRAM                                 INFORMED DECISIONS

                                        • PEST/PLANT/ECOSYSTEM BIOLOGY
 •   PROPER IDENTIFICATION OF PEST
                                                    » LIFE CYCLE
 •   PEST MONITORING PROGRAM
                                                    » BEHAVIOR
 •   ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
                                                    » POPULATION DYNAMICS
 •   DEGREE-DAY MODELS
                                                    » SEASONAL CYCLES
 •   CONTROL ACTION GUIDELINE
 •   TIMING OF PEST CONTROLS TO MOST
     VULNERABLE STAGE OF LIFECYCLE




     PEST MANAGEMENT TACTICS                             TACTICS
     •   BIOLOGICAL CONTROL            • SHORT-TERM                • LONG-TERM
                                        – CHEMICAL                  – CULTURAL
     •   CULTURAL CONTROL               – MECHANICAL DISRUPTION        • HABITAT
                                                                         MODIFICATION
     •   MECHANICAL CONTROLS               • MOWING
                                                                    – BIOLOGICAL
                                           • TRAPS
     •   CHEMICAL CONTROLS                 • PHYSICAL BARRIERS
                                                                       • INOCULATIVE,
                                                                         SELF-
                                        – BIOLOGICAL                     PERPETUATING
                                           • INUNDATIVE RELEASES
                                                                    – SANITATION




                                                                                        12
TREATMENT THRESHOLDS

• DEPENDENT ON PEST
• GROWER TOLERANCE
• PAST PEST PRESSURE
   • GOOD IDEA TO KEEP RECORDS




                                 13
                                                     Primary Grape Diseases
        Grape Disease
           Management                                   Powdery mildew
                                                        Crown gall
                                                        Bunch rot
                                                        Grapevine leafroll virus (GLRV)

                     By: Harold J. Larsen
                  Research Fruit Pathologist
           W. Colo. Research Center – Orchard Mesa




Grape Powdery Mildew                                 Powdery Mildew Fungi

    Native to the eastern U.S.                        Caused by fungus, Uncinula necator
    Spread to Europe in the 1800’s                    Obligate parasites
    Now found in all grape growing                    Unique moisture independence
    areas
                                                      Host specific - vitaceae family for the
    Annual cost of control                            grape powdery mildew fungus
       California   - $20 Million
                                                      Economically important
       France       - $40 Million
       World        - $250 Million




Powdery Mildew Impacts                               Powdery Mildew - Symptoms
 Reduced wine quality (with 3% berry                   Powdery mycelium on shoots, leaves,
 infection)                                            & berries
 Reduced vine growth, yield, quality, +                Russet & stunting of berries
 winter hardiness (if uncontrolled)                    Rusty spots on canes
 Early season infection: berry cracking + 2o           Flagged shoots (in spring, infected
 infections (fruit rotting fungi --                    buds)
 Aspergillus,            Rhizopus,
 Aspergillus, Botrytis, Rhizopus, etc.)
                                                       Cleistothecia in fall on infected tissues
                                                       (leaves, shoots, canes)




                                                                                                   1
Powdery Mildew Symptoms                         Powdery Mildew Symptoms
  Initial infection hard to see (use               - Leaves
  handlens)
  handlens)
          web-
  White web-like mat (mycelium) on green
  tissue
  Short stalks, chains of spores (conidia)
  produced that give a dusty, white
  powdery appearance
  Late season (Aug./Sept.): small, spherical,
                         (cleistothecia)
  black fruiting bodies (cleistothecia)
  Severely infected berries: stunted, poor
  color, low sugar content, scarred, cracked,
  dark gray skin color, off flavors




Powdery Mildew - Colonies                       Powdery Mildew - Conidia




Powdery Mildew - Leaves                         Powdery Mildew
                                                   – Flagged Shoots




                                                                           2
Powdery Mildew – on Fruit               Powdery Mildew - Cleistothecia




Powdery Mildew – Fruit Russet           Powdery Mildew Symptoms
                                           – Canes




Powdery Mildew                          Cultivar Susceptibility
   – Disease Factors
   Cultivar susceptibility                       Carignane,
                                           High: Carignane, Thompson Seedless,
   Availability of newly grown tissue      Ruby Seedless, Cardinal, Chardonnay,
   Temperature                             Cabernet Sauvignon, & Chenin Blanc
   Humidity / rainfall                                            Sirah,
                                           Moderate: White Petite Sirah,
                                           Zinfandel, Semillon, & Riesling
   Inoculum source




                                                                                  3
Tissue Susceptibility                         Temperature

   New shoots / leaves                             Mild weather favors powdery mildew
   New fruit                                       (64o – 84o F, optimum 77o F)
                                                   Spores germinate @ 43o to 91o F
   (All tissues that lack well developed
   cuticle)                                        Extended exposure to temperatures of
                                                   92o F or more kills spores and mildew
                                                   colonies
                                                   12 hrs exposure to UV light +
                                                   temperature of 95o F kills the fungal
                                                   colonies completely




                                              Precipitation, Grand Junction, CO
Humidity / Rainfall
                                              (OM)
                                                       3.5
   Spores can germinate at humidities as                3
   low as 20%, but 40% or more results in              2.5
   better germination
                                                        2
   12 – 15 hrs of continuous leaf wetness     Inches
   is needed at temperatures of 50o – 59o F            1.5
   Dew formation also is adequate for                   1                                          30-yr average
   spore germination if it occurs early                0.5
                                                                                                   1996
   enough in the evening (providing a                                                              1997
   long enough leaf wetness period)                     0
                                                             Jan   Mar   May   July   Sept   Nov




Inoculum Source                               Grape Mildew Disease Cycle

   Infected buds (result in flagged shoots
   in spring)
   Overwintering cleistothecia
   Conidia from infected vines (or other
   hosts) nearby – can include Virginia                                                            Diagram
                                                                                                   from
   creeper, Boston ivy, and monk’s hood                                                            Cornell’s
   vine.                                                                                           Disease Fact
                                                                                                   Sheet no.
                                                                                                   102GFSG-
                                                                                                   D2




                                                                                                                   4
Grape Powdery Mildew
                                               Infection Susceptibility / Timing
Management
   Will always be a major issue for grape         Affects leaves, shoots, buds, berries, the
                                                  rachis
   cultivation
                                                  Early spring through veraison (berry
   Success depends on starting early and          color change)
   maintaining a steady program                   Berry infections:
   There are several tools which can be             0 - 8% sugar, new infections occur
   deployed to meet individual needs.               12 - 15% sugar, established infections
                                                    continue (no new infections)
                                                    at > 15% sugar, existing infections die (+
                                                    immune to new infections)




Current PM Management Tools                     A Standard Fungicide Program
                                                 Best control strategy is Intelligent
  Resistant varieties                            Prevention
  Sulfur products (dust, wettable powders,       Rotation of control chemicals is essential
  flowables,      flowables)
  flowables, dry flowables)
  Chemical fungicides (DMI’s, quinolines,        Control not needed to protect fruit after
                         (DMI’s, quinolines,
  strobilurins, carboximides)
  strobilurins, carboximides)                    veraison
  Alternatives: fatty acids, oils,               Currently recommend a rotation of
  mycoparasites (AQ-10), potassium salts
                  (AQ-                                                DMI’s, strobilurins,
                                                 chemistries (sulfur, DMI’s, strobilurins,
  Emerging options: plant defense elicitors      quinolines, carboximides,
                                                 quinolines, carboximides, oils, potassium
                                                                     biocontrol,
                                                 bicarbonate, AQ10 biocontrol, etc.)




 Post Harvest Control                          Most Common Mgmt Problems
   Expensive -- time and labor
                                                                                   build-
                                                  Unnoticed infections (infection build-up)
   Not needed with well managed vineyards
                                                  Severe overwintering infection
   Severely infected vineyards may benefit
                                                  Long spray intervals (stretching coverage)
   Lime-
   Lime-sulfur in the dormant period can
   destroy overwintering cleistothecia (fall      Poor coverage
   application of AQ 10 can reduce                Wrong fungicide (or not rotating
   overwintering survival of cleistothecia,
                             cleistothecia,       chemistries)
   but AQ 10 no longer available currently)       Tolerant strains (fungicide resistance)




                                                                                                 5
Control Considerations                           Different Control Categories

  Fungus can develop resistance to control
                                                   Nine general categories (+ more??)
  materials, so need to minimize risk of this
                                                   Each category has a different mechanism
  Many categories of control materials are
                                                   of control
  available
                                                   Powdery mildew fungus can develop
  Materials also differ in how long they are
                                                   resistance to these mechanisms (some
  effective after application
                                                   more easily than others)
  Need to rotate chemistries or tank mix
                                                   Important to avoid repeated applications
  different chemistries
                                                   of materials within an option category




Chemical / Control Categories                              Sulfur Materials
  Sulfurs (organic certification programs)        Produce SO2 gas        Products:
                    (DMI’s)
  Sterol inhibitors (DMI’s)                       that kills exposed      – wettable powders
  Strobilurins (new class of fungicides)          mycelium and            – liquid flowables
  Carboximide fungicides (new)                    germinating spores
                                                                          – micronized sulfurs
  Quinolines (new)                                Little risk of            (including Thiolux
                                                  resistance                & Microthiol)
  Oils (some are eradicative)                                                  Microthiol)
                                                  High environmental     Micronized and
  Potassium bicarbonate
                                                  impact (SO2 is air     flowable sulfurs have
  Biological control agents (mildew pathogens)    pollutant)             less phytotoxicity risk
  Plant defense elicitors (new class)             Also control mites




Chemistry Groups - Sulfurs                            Demethylase Inhibitors

                                                  Disrupt mildew           Products:
                       (85–
   Wettable powders (85–95%; @ 5 lb/acre)         membranes                 – Bayleton
   Flowable formulations (6F = 6 lbs / gal.;      Inhibit sterol            – Nova
   @ 7 pts/acre prebloom, 1 gal/acre
                prebloom,                         formation (block          – Procure
   postbloom)
   postbloom)                                     demethylation step
                                                  in synthesis)             – Rubigan
   Micronized formulations (DF, e.g.                                         (+ others not
                                                  Moderate risk of
                    2-
   Thiolux 80DF; @ 2-5 [6] lbs/acre)              resistance                 registered for
   + surfactant                                   Have some reach-           grapes)
                                                              reach-
                                                  back capability




                                                                                                   6
Chemistry Groups –DMI’s                                        Strobilurins

                                                 Disrupt electron           Products:
                         2-
   Bayleton 50DF (@ 2-6 oz/acre)                 transport system (cell       – Flint
                   3-
   Nova 40W (@ 3-5 oz/acre)                      energy production            – Quadris
   Procure 50W (@ 4-8 oz / acre)                 system, inhibit spore
                      4-                                                      – Sovran
                                                 germination, germ tube
                    2-              prebloom,
   Rubigan 1E (@ 2-3 fl. oz./acre prebloom,      elongation, mycelial
           4-5 fl. oz./ acre postbloom,
                             postbloom,          growth, & sporulation
        & 5-6 fl. oz./ acre summer)              Moderate risk of
                                                 resistance
   + surfactant
                                                             reach-
                                                 Have some reach-back




Chemistry Groups - Strobilurins                                Quinolines

                                                 Inhibit the infection        Products:
   Flint 50WDG (@ 2 oz./acre)
                                                 process                       – Quintec
   Abound 2.08F (@ 11.0 – 15.4 fl.               Highly effective in
   oz./acre)                                     developmental trials
                     3.2-
   Sovran 50WDG (@ 3.2-4.8 oz./acre)             High risk of resistance
                                                 New fungicide class
                                                 (still in development)




                    Oils                        Chemistry Groups - Oils
 Smother mycelium            Products:
 and spores                   – Stylet-Oil
                                Stylet-                                sol’n.
                                                   Stylet oil @ 1 - 2% sol’n.
 Low risk of resistance       – Erase (jojoba                 (EcoErase;       sol’n.)
                                                   Jojoba oil (EcoErase; @ 2 % sol’n.)
 Curative (can apply            oil)
 when observe first           – Other plant
 mildew infection;              oils
      reach-
 some reach-back
 potential)
 Low toxicity to people




                                                                                           7
               Bicarbonates                         Chemistry Groups - Bicarbonates

 Burst the mildew fungus          Products:
 cells upon contact                – Kaligreen         Potassium bicarbonate
 Low risk of resistance                                    Kaligreen;
                                                          (Kaligreen; 2.5 – 5 lb / acre)
 Curative (apply when
 mildew infection is first
                  reach-
 observed; some reach-back
 ability)
 Low toxicity to people




       Plant Defense Elicitors                      Chemistry Groups
                                                       - Plant Defense Elicitors
 Systemic Acquired                Products:
 Response (SAR) materials --       – Serenade 10W      Serenade 10W (@ 6 lb / acre)
 Elicit natural plant defenses
 by attaching to infection
 sites and mimicking the
 infection process
 Moderate risk of resistance
 Need lead time for response
 Satisfactory efficacy still to
 be demonstrated




Chemistry Groups - Carboximides                     Biological Controls

   Endura 70WDG (4 oz. / acre)
                                                       Ampellomyces quisquallis (AQ10
                                                       @ 0.5 – 1 oz/acre)
   Pristine 38WDG (8 – 10.5 oz. / acre)
                                                       Mycophagous mites (potential
    – Approx. $20 – $25 / acre / spray                 future option which hasn’t
    – A combination of a strobilurin and a             worked out thus far in western
                              (Endura
      carboximide fungicide (Endura + Sovran
                                                       Colorado vineyards)
      active ingredients).




                                                                                           8
            Biocontrol Fungi                                        Biocontrol Mites

  Parasitize the powdery         Product:                  Control by eating the              Examples:
  mildew fungus (“eat” it from    – AQ10 (strain 10        mildew fungus                       – Tydeid mites
  within the mildew fungal
                                    Ampelomyces            Low risk of resistance
  mycelium)
                                    quisqualis)
                                    quisqualis)            Experimental only so far
  Low risk of resistance
  Susceptible to injury by                                 Susceptible to injury
  sulfur sprays and other                                  from sulfur sprays and
  fungicides (e.g.                                         miticide sprays (caution
  bicarbonates)                                            needed in control
  Need to build up population                              program)
  for effective control




Mildewcide Spray Timing (old)                         Control Strategies
  Spray # 1: If wet spring, start at 1 – 2”           1.     Use predictive models to determine
  shoot growth; if dry spring, at first 0.1”                 need for sprays
  rainfall (within 1 – 2 days after)
                                                      2.     Wait until see first infection, then apply
  Spray # 2: If mildew present in vineyard,
  continue sprays at 10 – 24 day intervals                                           (Stylet
                                                             eradicative materials (Stylet oil, or
  (depends on materials used); if no mildew                                     , strobilurins,
                                                             jojoba oil; DMI’s, strobilurins, &
                                                                          DMI’s
  evident, apply within 1-2 days of next 0.1”
                          1-                                                             reach-
                                                             carboximides have some reach-back)
  rainfall.                                           3.     Start early, keep regular, rotate
  Spray # 1 & ff: as in # 2 above.                           chemistries
  Stop sprays at veraison + 1 – 2 weeks.              4.     Use sulfur on 7 – 10 da intervals (until
                                                             veraison)
                                                             veraison)




   Suggested Mildew Program                           Comparative Mildewcide Costs
                                                       Material                  Rate             Cost / acre
   Spray # 1: Sulfur material
                                                       Thiolux 80DF          2 – 5 lb/acre          $2-4
   Spray # 2: DMI fungicide
                                                       Sulfur 6F             3 – 6 qt/acre          $4-8
   Spray # 3: Strobilurin fungicide
   Spray # 4: Oil                                      Sulfur 90W            5 – 10 lb/acre         $2-4

   Spray # 5: DMI fungicide                            Bayleton              4 – 6 oz/acre         $ 16 - 24
   Spray # 6: Oil                                      Nova                  3 – 5 oz/acre         $ 13 - 22
                                                       Procure               4 – 8 oz/acre         $ 14 - 28
 --- Stop sprays at veraison + 1 – 2 weeks ---         Rubigan              2 – 6 fl oz/acre        $ 5 - 14




                                                                                                                9
Comparative Mildewcide Costs                      Crown Gall
Material             Rate           Cost / acre
Stylet-
Stylet-Oil      1 – 2 gal/100 gal    $ 15 - 30
Erase                  qts/acre
                 1 – 2 qts/acre      $ 23 - 45
Kaligreen 82W   2.5 – 5 lb /acre     $ 15 - 30
Abound          11–
                11–15 fl oz/acre        ???
Flint              2 oz /acre          $ 30
Sovran             4 oz/acre           $ 26
Serenade 10W      4 – 8 lb/acre      $ 33 - 66




Crown Gall                                        Crown Gall

   Caused by a plasmid within the
   bacterial DNA of Agrobacterium
   tumefasciens
   Plasmid genes turn on tumor
   production within the host plant
   By the time symptoms appear, the
   causal bacterium is long gone
   Control via avoiding planting infected
   grapevines (always plant only certified
   disease free vines)




Crown Gall                                        Crown Gall - Field Symptoms




                                                                                10
Crown Gall - Winter-induced   Colorado Incidence in 2004

                                 Block with grow tubes
                                 Vines died back to ground,
                                 grower thought winter drought
                                 injury
                                               re-
                                 When began re-training, found
                                 crown gall at base of trunks




                                                                 11
                                          Bunch Rot




Bunch Rot                                 Bunch Rot – Early Stages


  Caused by Botrytis cinerea + various
  fungi & bacteria
  Control via opening up canopy for air
  circulation




Grapevine Leafroll Virus                  Grape Leafroll Virus Infection

  Caused by a virus (GLRV)
  Transmitted by grape mealybug
  Symptoms are premature purpling and
  rolling of foliage in Cabernet franc
  No cure once infected

                                                        Premature fall leaf reddening, green
                                                         veins, downward curled leaves
                                                         (virus symptoms on susceptible red
                                                         variety).




                                                                                               12
Grapevine Leaf Roll Virus                    Grapevine Leafroll Virus




Grape Mealybug on Cane                       Grape Mealybug




Grape Mealybug Impact &                      Unknown Cause Disorders
Control
                                                Leaf, bark, and fruit problem
   Spread of Grape Leafroll Virus (no cure                         Chambourcin,
                                                (initially seen on Chambourcin, this
   once infected)                               season seen on Foch and other
   Damage to fruit clusters through             varieties)
   feeding (Encourages development of           Shoot dieback (resembles
   sooty mold via honeydew deposits on          Verticillium dieback)
   fruit and foliage)
                                                Possible spray injury on vines
   Control: Timing is critical. Dormant         (Chardonnay and Shiraz)
             Lime-
   spray w/ Lime-sulfur; summer spray
   when nymphs (crawlers) are present &
   before they are half grown.




                                                                                       13
Foliar Spotting (Chambourcin)   Foliar Necrosis & Spotting
                                (Chambourcin)




Foliar Necrotic Spotting        Veinal Necrosis (Chambourcin)
(Chambourcin)




Veinal Necrosis (Chambourcin)   Leaf Symptoms on Foch (2003)




                                                                14
Leaf Symptoms on Foch (2003)   Fruit Rachis Necrosis & Dieback
                               (Chambourcin




Cane Bark Necrosis,            Shoot Dieback
Chambourcin (2003)
                                   Symptoms somewhat similar to
                                   those of Verticillium Wilt (shoots
                                   turn dark bluish black, wilt, and
                                   die).
                                   But no Verticillium found in the
                                   tissues.




Shoot Dieback (Unknown         Shoot Dieback (Unknown
Cause)                         Cause)




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Questions?
       - Thank You!




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