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					Learning about the Vietnam War from a Textbook and Videos in an
            Eleventh Grade American History Class


                                 by
                          Courtney B. Sklut




                      A MASTER’S PROJECT
                             For
                           ED 7999



             Submitted to the Office for Graduate Studies
             Graduate Division of Wayne State University,
                                Detroit, MI
               In partial fulfillment of the requirements
                            For the degree of




                     MASTER OF EDUCATION
                           Fall 2005




                  MAJOR: Social Studies Education




                                          Approved by:


                                _________________________________________
                             Bob Pettapiece                      Date


                                                                     i
                                  Table of Contents
                                                                       Page

Chapter One: Introduction
Introduction                                                             1
The Situation                                                            1
The Need                                                                 1
Purpose of the Study                                                     2
Significance of the Study                                                2


Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
Introduction                                                             3
Theory                                                                   3
Research                                                                 5
Solutions                                                                6
Summary                                                                  6

Chapter Three: Methodology of the Study
Introduction                                                             7
Hypotheses                                                               7
Population                                                               7
Population Sample                                                        8
Methodology                                                              8
Description of Unit                                                      8
Data Collection                                                          9
Summary                                                                  10

Chapter Four: Research Findings
Introduction                                                             11
Hypothesis 1                                                             12
Hypothesis 2                                                             13
Summary                                                                  14

Chapter Five: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Personal Reflections
Introduction                                                             15
Conclusions                                                              15
Recommendations                                                          15
Personal Reflections                                                     16
References                                                               18
Appendix A – G                                                           20-35




                                                                                 ii
                                          Chapter One

                                     Introduction of Project


Introduction

       High school students often dislike American history! They drudgingly lug their large

history textbook to class and moan when they have to read it. Student complaints range from

this is so boring to this never makes sense! They are completely detached and bored with the

history that is presented to them. This project examines a controversial era of our nation’s

history, the Vietnam War. Students learned about the war as presented by their textbook then as

presented in movies.

Situation

       American history textbooks tend to romanticize our nation’s past. They have a tendency

to idealize our country’s past by celebrating our courageous victories while simplifying or

ignoring our mistakes. American history textbooks have become bodies of knowledge that

promote proud American citizenship but the students are not buying it. Students are leery; they

want more intriguing details and less matter of fact endings. Students want more than one

perspective; they are ready to confront our history.

Need

       There is a need to acknowledge both our nation’s achievements and mistakes.

Acknowledging more than one side of a story will promote higher thinking when students are

confronted with weighing the costs and benefits of certain decisions. Students will become

actively engaged and interested if given an opportunity to evaluate our government’s choices.

Learning our nation’s history should evolve to meaningful discussions of weighing choices and

consequences so shameful events are not repeated in the future. Students want to point out the



                                                                                                  1
mistakes to learn from them. They need a new American history experience that engages their

senses and sensibilities.

Purpose of the Study

       This project’s goal is to analyze a period of history so American history students’

attitudes will improve. Students learn about the Vietnam War from the viewpoint of their

textbook and movies. Movies have the ability to emotionally connect with the viewer while

providing both an oral and visual experience. When presented with varying perspectives on a

significant event in history, students may become enthusiastic about learning about their nation’s

history. Students may become more apt to question decisions made when analyzing cause and

effect so history is no longer boring and confusing; they may feel more connected with history.

Significance of the Study

       This project may provide teachers with valuable insights on how to engage students in an

American history class. The significance of this project is for teachers and students to question

the idealized version of our nation’s history as presented in textbooks and to seek creative,

alternative methods that connect with learners when presenting alternative perspectives.




                                                                                                    2
                                           Chapter Two

                                        Literature Review


Introduction

       This project assesses students’ attitudes of learning about the Vietnam War from the

perspective of movies and their high school textbook. It was revealed that 78% of teachers

utilize their classroom textbooks in the classroom (National Education Association [NEA],

2002). Ninety-one percent of the teachers use the textbook as a means to planning their lessons

with 95% using the textbook as a reference tool for classroom student use (NEA, 2002). Yet

students are not reading after school; they are recreationally consuming eight hours and thirty-

three minutes of media a day (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). Films may have an advantage

over textbook teaching.

Theory

       With teachers dependant on their textbook to teach American history, one would assume

textbooks are superior in their delivery of history but education experts indicate otherwise, often

citing content censorship as the main criticism (Loewen, 1995). Gilbert Sewall blames the

revenue-driven multinational corporations for catering to pressure groups who are more

interested in self-promotion rather than present historical fact. Sewall also testified that history

textbooks distort and present biased interpretations of political judgments made by our

government (Sewall, 2003). Sewall is not alone in this thought. James Loewen (1995), found

that textbook authors portray the United States’ government as a team player that responds

generously to other nations’ social and economic woes. Historian Howard Zinn (2005) asserts

that history curriculum never tells the side of the story from the viewpoint of the oppressed.

Zinn supports this by stating how students never learn of the violent acts committed by our GIs

                                                                                                       3
in Vietnam against innocent women and children because teachers, politicians and journalists

ignore crimes that are committed in the name of freedom and democracy (Zinn and Macedo,

2005). David Kennedy, claims that the ramifications of the Vietnam war are still being sorted

out so it's too difficult for textbook writers to come to grips with Vietnam thus why there is

inadequate textbook coverage (Sanoff, 1987). Frances Haley believes Vietnam is ignored in

textbooks because it lacks advocates unlike the Holocaust and the importance of the war is

ignored on advanced placement United States history exams (Sanoff, 1987). Diane Ratvich

(2004), asserts that history textbook writers and editors have:

       …mastered the art of compression, reducing complex controversies to a few lines or a

       page, smoothing out the rough edges of reality, eliminating the confusion and rancor that

       invariably accompanied major crises. Historical debates disappear or shrink to a few

       leaden sentences. Historical conflicts lose their drama, and the ideas of passionate

       individuals shrivel to simple platitudes. (pp. 134-135)

With all the information in the textbooks so simplified, it squeezes the life out of it, guaranteeing

not to inspire students to learn about American history (Ravitch, 2004).

       One can motivate students with the historical content presented in motion pictures as a

means to engage students to learn history (Marcus, 2005). Arthur Fuller credits historical motion

pictures for correctly depicting the meager living conditions of the past and showing the brutality

of war (Bowles, 2002). Toplin and Eudy (2002) stress that historical motion pictures account for

only a small percentage of Hollywood releases yet receive critical acclaim. Within the fifteen-

year period of 1986 to 2001, eleven history-oriented movies have won Oscars for Best Picture.

In 1998, all five nominations for best picture dealt with history (Toplin and Eudy, 2002).




                                                                                                    4
Research

       Epstein (1989), surveyed his U.S. history students regarding their U.S. history textbook

and the majority found their textbook to have a pro-government stance that lacked explanations

of causes or consequences. For example, McGraw-Hill’s History of a Free Nation for U.S.

history high school students devotes one sentence to the 1973 Supreme Court case, Roe v. Wade

that legalizes abortion while never mentioning Malcolm X (Mathews, 1998).      In the high school

textbook, The Americans, all the information students will receive regarding the raping and

murder of innocent women and children by U.S. soldiers during the Vietnam War is:

       It became more and more difficult to sustain support for a long, bloody war that was

       entering American living rooms on the nightly news. Newspapers and magazines carried

       reports of such incidents as the American massacre of the Vietnamese civilians in the

       Valley of My Lai. (Jordan, Greenblatt, & Bowes, 1996, p. 861)

       So what are American students learning about our nation’s longest war? A 1999 survey

asked 500 students, aged 12 – 17, about their Vietnam War education to find 66% never learned

about the war in school (Edwards, 2002). Sam Wineburg (2001) whointerviewed 150 students,

teachers and parents, found the movie Forrest Gump was their common reference to the Vietnam

War. Are students learning their history from film? Research finds high school students are

viewing historical films recreationally (Marcus, 2003). Seventy-five percent or more of the 94

students surveyed saw the following films: Forrest Gump (86%), Apollo 13 (80%) and Saving

Private Ryan (75%) and more than half the students viewed Pearl Harbor (61%) and Glory

(55%) (Marcus, 2003).




                                                                                                  5
Solutions

       It is no longer a question of students learning history from motion pictures but how to

best use films as a historical study in the classroom (Doherty, 2002). Wineburg suggests:

       Let's teach kids how they're being seduced, manipulated and bamboozled by a celluloid

       version of the past …. We'll need new kinds of resources to supplement this approach.

       Not our current one-stop, Plato-to-NATO textbooks, but shorter, more focused texts,

       filled with original documents and carefully assembled to confront, challenge and

       complicate the reigning Gumpian histories. We won't be able to touch on every fact of

       American history in this new curriculum, but what we do teach we'll be able to teach in

       greater depth. (Wineburg, 2002, para. 11)

Briley (2002) suggests examining the historical and cultural context of the film rather than the

historical detail. Briley suggests using the 1988 film Mississippi Burning as an example of how

to initiate discourse on today’s attitudes of race. Use the film to examine how the film chose to

focus on the help of the FBI instead of the grassroots organization and efforts of the blacks for

the fight for equality and justice in the South (2002).

Summary

       Regardless of what media is used to depict history, teachers need to expose students to

more than their textbook’s viewpoint of history. No one is advocating only using films to

engage students in history, but to supplement instruction with an additional perspectives.

Today’s learners recreationally choose to view historical movies, why not include them in the

classroom to present additional perspectives of American history.




                                                                                                    6
                                          Chapter Three

                                    Methodology of the Study


Introduction

       This chapter describes the methods used for this project. It examines the hypotheses, the

population of the students, and the setting. It explains the methods used in the classroom with a

description on how the research data was collected.


Hypotheses


       1. By comparing the information on the Vietnam War as presented in videos versus the

           information presented in their textbooks, U.S. History students’ knowledge of the war

           as measured by a pre-test and posttest will increase.


       2. By evaluating information on the Vietnam War in both textbooks and videos, eleventh

       grade U.S. history students will trust the information presented in videos more than

       textbooks.




Population

       This study was conducted in an affluent suburban public high school. The high school

has approximately 1600 students, in grades nine through twelve. There are approximately 87%

white students with 12% either being Arab, Hispanic, or black with one percent either Asian or

Native American. Ninety-eight percent of the students will graduate high school with 90%

continuing their education to either a two or four year college.




                                                                                                    7
Population Sample

       There were 54 U.S. History students from two classes that participated in this project.

The class is required for graduation and is typically taken in eleventh grade. There were four

seniors in class and two were repeating the class due to failure the previous year. The majority of

students surveyed were white with one Italian exchange student, one Asian American, one

Hispanic and six black students in class. The gender composition of the two sampled U.S.

History classes included 21 males and 33 females.

Methodology

       The study was conducted over four weeks from May to June of 2005. Students were

administered the content assessment and the attitude survey (Appendix A) on the first day of the

unit. The unit started with textbook instruction of Houghton Mifflin’s The Americans: a history

(1996) then progressed to documentaries and motion pictures. At the end of unit, students read

selected passages from James Loewen’s Lies My Teacher Told Me (1995) that critiqued textbook

instruction of the Vietnam War in high school textbooks. The unit content assessment and

attitude survey was completed a second time at the conclusion of the unit.

Description of the Unit

       On the first day, students were administered the attitude survey (Appendix A) and the

textbook content assessment with a blank political and physical map of Vietnam to be completed

as homework. For the next five days in the class, the students were assigned various activities to

assist in reading the textbook chapter on the Vietnam War. For the first section of the chapter,

the students were randomly assigned to work in groups to read and answer guided questions

(Appendix B). Groups then presented their findings to the class. Sections two and three required

individual reading. Students then received two opposing random roles in the war and were



                                                                                                   8
required to respond in journal form based on what they read in the chapter (Appendix C). For the

last section of the chapter, students received a very detailed reading guide with an open note quiz

at the conclusion (Appendix D).

       The second half of the unit catered to the visual learners. The first day, students watched

Vietnam: The Television Documentary that focused on the causes of the war. The second day,

students watched National Geographic’s Vietnam's Unseen War: Pictures from the Other Side.

Students then viewed selected scenes from the following motion pictures: Platoon, The Deer

Hunter, Forrest Gump, Good Morning Vietnam and Full Metal Jacket. At the conclusion,

students viewed Discovery Networks’ The Fall of Saigon and scenes from the motion picture,

The Killing Fields.

       The unit ended with students reading individual packets highlighting Loewen’s feelings

on the Vietnam War as presented in high school textbooks. Students were then presented with

questionnaires (Appendix G) addressing whether or not they agreed with Loewen’s observations

and were given the opportunity to share their personal hypotheses. The unit concluded with the

posttest and the attitude survey being administered for a second time.

Data Collection

       To determine if students increased their knowledge of the Vietnam War, a pre-test and

posttest were administered. Students completed twenty multiple-choice questions accompanied

by two essays. All test questions were created by McDougal Littell’s The Americans test bank.

The essays were graded by a rubric (Appendix E) to evaluate student responses.

       To evaluate students’ attitudes of learning from their U.S. History textbook and videos,

an attitude survey was conducted before and after the unit (Appendix A). Students answered six

questions evaluating their personal experiences on a five-point scale. All questions were stated



                                                                                                   9
positively so if the question was answered with a three-point ranking it meant the student usually

had a positive experience. If the answer received zero points, the student could never agree with

the statement with four points indicating an always positive experience.

Summary

       Chapter three provides an overview of the methodology used in the study. The

hypotheses are stated and the population of the students tested are described. The chapter

provides a brief description of the unit including the methods of data collection.




                                                                                               10
                                         Chapter Four

                                       Research Findings



Introduction

       This chapter includes the results of Hypothesis 1, examining the students’ content

assessment on the Vietnam War. It then investigates Hypothesis 2, the students’ attitudes

towards videos and their U.S. history textbook from their attitude survey.




                                                                                            11
Hypothesis #1

By comparing the information on the Vietnam War as presented in videos versus the information

presented in their textbooks, U.S. History students’ knowledge of the war as measured by a pre-

test and posttest will increase.



                                             Table 1

                         Multiple-Choice      Essay Answers            Average of Both Parts

                            Answers

  Number of Students           54                   54                          54

        Pre-test              66%                  0%                          33%

        Posttest              80%                  76%                         78%

        Change               + 14%                + 76%                        + 45%



       Table 1 reflects the average score for students on the multiple choice and essay question

test that was administered prior to and after the unit. There was a 14 % increase in the multiple-

choice scores. Students on average scored a 66% on the pre-test and an 80% on the posttest.

Overall, students increased their scores 45%, thus supporting Hypothesis #1.




                                                                                                12
Hypothesis #2

By evaluating information on the Vietnam War in both textbooks and videos, eleventh grade U.S.

history students will trust the information presented in videos more than textbooks.



                                               Table 2

                         Number of         Students’ view of    Students’ view of       Difference

                     Surveyed Students        Textbooks              Videos

                                               (Q. 1 - 3)           (Q. 4 - 6)

Survey results               54                   1.46                 2.24               + 0.78

before the unit

Survey results               54                   1.57                 2.27               + 0.70

after the unit

Change                        0                  +0 .11               + 0.03              + 0.08



        Table 2 reflects the average score of all the student responses to the initial attitude survey

(Appendix B) that was conducted prior to the unit and after. Students were asked six questions

based on a five-point value scale of 0 (never) to a positive value of 4 (always). Students

answered three questions referring to their textbooks and three on videos. Students preferred

videos over their textbook both before the unit and after. The results of Table 2 support the

hypothesis that students trust the information presented in videos rather than from their textbook.



Note: Students trusted their textbook more at the conclusion of the unit.




                                                                                                     13
Summary


       The students’ knowledge of the Vietnam War greatly increased. This supports the

hypothesis that learning about the war from different perspectives will increase student

achievement in U.S. History. Students appreciate learning from videos compared to their

textbook both before the unit and after thus supporting my hypothesis. Interestingly, at the

conclusion of the project, students valued their textbooks more than previously surveyed.


                                                    1




                                                                                               14
                                              Chapter Five


                      Conclusions, Recommendations and Personal Reflections


Introduction

        The purpose of the project was to determine whether or not students could evaluate the

presentation of the Vietnam War as presented in their textbook versus the information portrayed

by documentaries and motion pictures. In the process of critiquing the information, students

were to increase their knowledge of the Vietnam War thus achieve better test scores after the

unit.

Conclusions

        According to the data:

              Student knowledge of the Vietnam War increased.

              Student value the information in videos over their textbook for learning.

              At the conclusion of the project, students trusted both their textbook and videos

               more than previously surveyed.


Recommendations

              Teachers should use exciting, accurate movie clips to reach both the visual and

               auditory learners.

              Teachers should not incorporate lengthy, dated documentaries that feature

               numerous interviews.

              Students should read critiques about American history textbooks before reading

               their text so they can form their own opinions as the school year progresses.

              Students need to be encouraged to question the portrayal of history in all sources.

                                                                                                   15
              Teachers must take an active role in providing adequate coverage of a topic so

               students can examine both sides of an issue and form their own opinion.

              The attitude surveys should have differentiated between motion pictures and

               documentaries rather than group them together as videos.

Personal Reflections

       In terms of my research, there are limitations. First of all, these findings only represent

students’ attitudes towards one specific U.S. history textbook. Secondly, the students were

shown documentaries and motion pictures and the attitude survey referred to these visual

depictions as videos. The survey should have differentiated between the two. I also believe

students should have read Loewen’s critiques before reading the textbook chapter so they could

have actively analyzed their textbook’s strengths and weaknesses.

       Overall, I was very pleased with the outcome of this project. Student achievement

greatly increased and all were able to recognize the negative impact of censored history

textbooks when given open-ended survey questions (Appendix G). When students were

questioned as to why their textbook didn’t show more controversial photos of the Vietnam

conflict, all the surveyed students were able to articulate, meaningful responses. Furthermore,

each student was able to give one or more negative consequence(s) if textbooks fail to give cause

and affect relationships in history. The students enjoyed viewing Hollywood’s depiction of the

Vietnam War with students voluntarily bringing in their personal favorites. Students were eager

to come to class and stayed after the bell rang to watch more! There were a few instances when

outraged female students were outright questioning the actions of our soldiers during these

viewings. In disbelief, there were four particular female students that stayed after-class one day

to ask if the movies were accurate.


                                                                                                     16
        Personally, this was the most intimidating experience thus far in my teaching career

since I did not have prior knowledge on the war. It was not covered in my Advanced Placement

U.S. history class and was not mentioned in my university history course The World Since 1945

or in my American history survey course on Reconstruction to present-day. Guidance was

lacking in my own social studies department when only one of the five U.S. history teachers

made it to the 1960’s in the curriculum this year.

       At the end of the school year, my surveyed U.S. history students attended the school’s

Quiz Bowl tournament that challenged the teachers as an extra credit assignment. Ironically,

there were three Vietnam War questions featured. Many of my students beamed with excitement

exclaiming, I know the answer, while the regional champions and the teachers sat there stumped!

It was an incredible way to end the school year, we all felt superior!




                                                                                                17
                                               References


Bowles, S. (2002, November 28). Hollywood goes to epic proportions. USA Today. Retrieved

       August 10, 2005, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/acovfri.htm

Briley, R. (2002). Teaching film and history. Magazine of History 16 (4), 3.

Edwards, T. (2002, Winter). The Vietnam War: history, learning, and leadership [Electronic

       Version]. Organization of American Historians, 16. Retrieved June 10, 2005, from

       http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/publichistory/edwards.html

Epstein, T. (1994). America revised revisited: adolescents’ attitudes towards a United States

       history textbook. Social Education, 58 (1), 43.

Loewen, J. (1995). Lies My Teacher Told Me. (1st ed.). New York: Touchstone, 229.

Jordan, W., Greenblatt, M., & Bowes, J. (1996). The Americans: A History. Evanston, Illinois:

       McDougal Littell / Houghton Mifflin, 861.

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2005, March 9). “Media multi-tasking”: changing the amount and

       nature of young people’s media use. Retrieved August 10, 2005 from

       http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905nr.cfm

Marcus, A. (2003). Celluloid blackboard: Teacher practices with film and students’ historical

       understanding. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational

       Research Association, Chicago. April 10.

Marcus, A. (2005). “It Is as It Was”: feature film in the history classroom. The Social Studies

       96 (2), 61.

Mathews, J. (1998, March 20). More Classes Giving Textbooks A Recess. The Washington

       Post, Section A, pg. 1.




                                                                                                  18
National Education Association. (2002). 2002 Instructional Materials Survey, 11-12. Retrieved

       August 10, 2005 from

       http://www.publishers.org/school/pdf/2002%20Instructional%20Materials%20report.pdf

Ravitch, D. (2004). Language Police: How Pressure Groups Restrict What Students Learn.

       Westminster, MD: Knopf Publishing Group, 134-135.

Romanowski, M. H. (1996). Problems of Bias in History Textbooks. Social Education 60 (3),

       170.

Sanoff, A. (1987, February 2). Vietnam Comes of Age: from Romanticism to Realism – in Films

       and Textbooks. U.S. News and World Report. 58.

Sewall, G. (2003). Senate Testimony. The American Textbook Council. Retrieved July 29,

       2005 from http://www.historytextbooks.org/senate.htm

Toplin, R.B. and Eudy, J. (2002) The Historian Encounters Film: A Historiography. Magazine

       of History 16 (4), 8.

Weinstein, P. (2001). Movies as the gateway to history. The history and film project. History

       Teacher 35 (I), 27.

Wineburg, S. (2001). Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts. Philadelphia: Temple

       University Press.

Wineburg, S. (2002, May 31). History Teaching: Still Crazy After All These Years.

       History NewsService. Retrieved September 10, 2005, from

       http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~hns/articles/2002/053102a.html

Zinn, H. and Macedo, D. (2005). Howard Zinn on Democratic Education. Boulder, Colorado:

       Paradigm Publishers, 18-19.




                                                                                                19
  APPENDIX A

ATTITUDE SURVEY




                  20
U.S. History Survey on Textbook & Videos
1. I believe my U.S. history textbook to be true and unbiased.
NEVER                 SOMETIMES                  OFTEN                    USUALLY                ALWAYS
   0                       1                         2                       3                        4



2. My U.S. history textbook is well organized so the sequence of events and consequences are clear.
NEVER                SOMETIMES                   OFTEN                    USUALLY                ALWAYS
   0                     1                           2                         3                      4



3. My U.S. textbook gives all sides of an issue or an event equally and fairly.
NEVER               SOMETIMES                     OFTEN                      USUALLY             ALWAYS
   0                      1                           2                         3                     4



4. Videos present all sides of an issue or event equally and fairly without bias.
NEVER                 SOMETIMES                   OFTEN                      USUALLY             ALWAYS
   0                       1                           2                          3                   4



5. Information presented in videos are interesting because they use primary resources like interviews, video
clips, and images.
NEVER               SOMETIMES                    OFTEN                   USUALLY                  ALWAYS
    0                    1                          2                         3                           4



6. Historical videos are well organized so the sequence of events and consequences are clear.
NEVER                 SOMETIMES                   OFTEN                    USUALLY               ALWAYS
   0                       1                         2                         3                      4




                                                                                                           21
           APPENDIX B

SECTION 1 GUIDED READING QUESTIONS




                                     22
1. Highlight the cultural and political Chinese influence in Vietnam
(classify each influence as negative or positive to the region) and
examine dates of rule. Then highlight the cultural and political
influence of the French in Vietnam (classify each influence as
negative or positive to the region) and be sure to include key
dates.
(You are summarizing the first 6 paragraphs 854-855.)



2. (You are summarizing the first 5 paragraphs of "The End of French Rule," on page
855.) When did the Japanese control Vietnam? How does the U.S.
support the Japanese defeat of Vietnam? Who are the Vietminh?
Highlight all the major developments of '46, '49, and our
commitment to Bao Dai.


3. Why does Eisenhower support the French? What is our
commitment? What is his theory? Explain significance of Dien
Bien Phu. When is the Geneva Accords, who is present and what is
the outcome? (This starts on page 855 at the start of, "When Dwight Eisenhower
was inaugurated…" Stop at the following sentence, "Laos and Cambodia received their
independence.")



4. Go to page 856, start at the following paragraph, "Because the North was now
Communist, a two-way population shift….". Highlight how the communist north
is being ruled by Ho Chi Minh? How is South Vietnam begin ruled
by Diem? What happens in 1956? Who are the Vietcong? How
does Eisenhower respond?


5. "Kennedy is Committed to Containment" - page 857 Vietnam is divided by the 17th
parallel. South Vietnam is controlled by the corrupt, U.S. supported Diem government.
The underground group, the Vietcong is challenging Diem's control. Discuss this
conflict, U.S. involvement and the escalation of conflict. Stop
summarizing at, "Congress Passes the Tonkin Gulf Resolution."



6. Go to page 858, Gulf Tonkin Resolution: Provide a brief timeline of
events then examine the U.S. response. End your summary with
the new power given to Johnson and how it is received by others.


                                                                                        23
          APPENDIX C

SECTION 2 & 3 JOURNAL QUESTIONS




                                  24
U.S. History, Chapter 33's Section 2 on page 860
On a separate sheet address the two following situations:

You are an American soldier fighting in Vietnam. Write home describing the different
operations / combat conditions. In your answer, insert your opinion as to the success of
each mission.


You and your family have lived in northern Vietnam for centuries. Describe the
devastation brought on by the troops in your daily journal.



**Be sure to mention the following: Operation Rolling Thunder, search-and-
destroy mission, defoliants, Tet Offensive?**




===================================================================================



U.S. History, Chapter 33's Section 2 on page 860
On a separate sheet address the two following situations:

You are Johnson's political advisor. It is your responsibility to keep the President
abreast of all the missions and their effectiveness. Maintain a detailed account of
the facts:


As a college dove, you are writing a letter to the editor expressing your disgust of the
war, suggest ways to protest while critiquing the hawks. Gather your information from
page 861.



**Have you mentioned: The bombing from Operation Rolling Thunder, the search-and-
destroy missions, the defoliants being used and the Tet Offensive?**




                                                                                           25
U.S. History, Chapter 33's Section 2 on page 860
On a separate sheet address the two following situations:

Your son is over in Vietnam fighting for our country putting his life on the line.
You are writing a letter to him detailing the opinions of the American people
about our nation's commitment to the war. Gather your information from page
861.

As Johnson's political advisor, he needs daily updates of the American opinion on
the war. Johnson needs political backing and public support to ensure reelection.
How do Americans feel about the war?
Gather your facts on how America is divided from page 861.

**Have you mentioned: The bombing from Operation Rolling Thunder, the search-and-
destroy missions, the defoliants being used and the Tet Offensive?**




                                                                                     26
      APPENDIX D

SECTION 4 READING GUIDE




                          27
THE HEALING PROCESS TAKES TIME
Contrast the differences of returning home from fighting in WWII v. Vietnam:




What happens to those that resisted the draft?




In your opinion, what should the U.S. government have done with the conscientious
objectors that were drafted and dodged it?




What are the political and constitutional questions that are raised as a result of the war?




                                                                                          28
Was the Vietnam War constitutional?




3 Major Waves of Vietnamese Refugees Arrive to the United States
Timeframe   Numbers     Who Are They? (Status)          How are they accepted in our
                                                        country?




Vets Speak Out. List five objections that are voiced regarding our government's
handling of this controversial war:




When looking at the above objections, what do you think the government did wrong? A
three sentence reflection is necessary to prove your point:




                                                                                       29
            APPENDIX E

GRADING RUBRIC FOR ESSAY RESPONSES




                                     30
  Name ___________________________________________                                                 _____/21 points
VIETNAM WRITING RESPONSE TO ESSAY QUESTION ONE

                       3 - Above                                           1- Approaching
      CATEGORY         Standards                 2 - Meets Standards       Standards                 0 - Below Standards
Position Statement     The position              The position              A position statement      There is no position
                       statement provides a      statement provides a      is present, but does      statement.
                       clear, strong             clear statement of        not make the author's
                       statement of the          the author's position     position clear.
                       author's position on      on the topic
                       the topic
Essay Addresses all    Writer addresses all      Writer addresses all      All questions answered    All questions are
required sub-          the sub-questions         sub-questions but         but information is        answered but one is
questions              thoroughly and            lacks detail in           weak.                     missed or is incorrect.
                       accurately.               explanation in one
                                                 area.
Evidence and           Evidence and examples     Most of the evidence      Some of the evidence      Evidence / examples
Examples               are specific, relevant    and examples are          is questionable or is     are lacking from half
                       and explanations are      specific, relevant with   not relevant in           of the sub-questions.
                       given that show how       explanations for all      addressing questions.
                       each piece of evidence    sub-questions.
                       supports the author's
                       position.
Proper Spelling, Use   Transitional              Use of transitions,       Author makes 3-4          Numerous grammar
of Transitions and     paragraphs with one to    three or more             errors in grammar &       and spelling mistakes
Correct Grammar        two grammar or            grammar or spelling       spelling and/ or          and/no use of
                       spelling mistakes that    errors that distract      transitions are not       transitions.
                       do not distract the       the reader from the       used for every
                       reader from the           content.                  sentence.
                       content.




Optional Essay: CIRCLE OPTION CHOSEN ---- A                                  or B
     CATEGORY           3                        2                         1                         0
ESSAY FOCUS             Topic/subject is         Topic/subject is          Topic/subject may be      Topic/subject is
                        clearly stated.          generally clear though    vague.                    unclear or confusing.
                                                 it may not be
                                                 explicitly stated.

USE OF FACTS /          Support information      Support information       Support information       An attempt has been
EXAMPLES TO             is related to and        has minor weaknesses      has major weaknesses      made to add support
SUPPORT                 supportive of the        in relatedness to         in relatedness to         information, but it
                        topic/subject.           and/or support of the     and/or support of the     was unrelated or
                                                 topic/subject.            topic/subject.            confusing.
ELABORATION             Elaboration consists     Elaboration consists      Elaboration consists      Elaboration is sparse;
                        of specific, developed   of some specific          of general and/or         almost no details
                        details.                 details.                  undeveloped details,
                                                                           which may be
                                                                           presented in a list-
                                                                           like fashion.




                                                                                                                        31
      APPENDIX F

ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS




                          32
     NEVER                SOMETIMES                   OFTEN                   USUALLY            ALWAYS

          0                     1                        2                       3                  4




ATTITUDE SURVEY QUESTIONS                                                            PRE-UNIT    POST-UNIT

                                                                                     RESPONSES   RESPONSES

I believe my U.S. history textbook to be true and unbiased.                             1.57        1.79

My U.S. history textbook is well organized so the sequence of evens and                 1.42        1.43

consequences are clear.

My U.S. history textbook gives all sides of an issue or an event equally or             1.40        1.50

fairly.

Videos present all sides of an issue or event equally and fairly without bias.          1.86        1.90



Information presented in videos are interesting because they use primary                2.46        2.58

resources like interviews, video clips, and images.

Historical videos are well organized so the sequence of events and                      2.42        2.33

consequences are clear.




                                                                                                   33
                      APPENDIX G

QUESTIONAIRE COMPARING LOEWEN TO U.S. HISTORY TEXTBOOK




                                                         34
While reading James Loewen's book, Lies My Teacher Told Me, do you agree with his
arguments as it pertains to our textbook, The Americas published by McDougal Littell.
 Check here if you give permission to use your answer(s) or part of an answer in my master's
paper, your name will not be used.

*Answer the following questions honestly and in complete sentences. Please support
your reasons with examples / facts to prove your point.*

Your textbook only featured Quang Duc protesting the war. In your opinion, why do you think your
textbook didn't include more "controversial" photos?




Do you believe our text avoided "controversial" photos and dissenting opinions because it may
exaggerate the war or because they don't want to look "un-American"?




Page 248 analyzes why did the United States involved itself in the Vietnam War. Which theory do
you believe is the true reason our country committed itself to this fight? Why.




Did your textbook address the different possible explanations for involvement? Yes or No

If your history textbooks edit information and fail to offer sufficient cause and effect
relationships, what happens to the learner in the process - this is your opinion.




When skimming page 307 as to why educated people are more hawkish do you agree with Loewen's
allegiance and socialization theory? Please explain why in three to four sentences.



                                                                                                35
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