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Polyalkylene Polyethylene Glycols Polyalkylene Polyethylene

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                          Division Functional Chemicals


         Polyalkylene /
         Polyethylene
            Glycols




                           Product Information
    Table of contents                                                                                                                                   Introduction
                                                                                                                                                                             The chemical structure of polyglycols is readily understood in


    3     Introduction                                                                 36        Applications
                                                                                                                                                                             terms of the general principle of their synthesis.
                                                                                                                                                                             The various polyglycol types are obtainable by means of anio-
                                                                                                                                                                             nic polymerization of oxirans using an alcohol or alcoholate as
                                                                                       Technical ceramics / Powder metallurgy                      36                        an initiator.
                                                                                       Production of rubber and elastomers                                                   As shown in Fig. 1, a wide variety of products for many applica-
                                                                                       – polyglycols as lubricant and mould release agents                                   tions are made beginning with different initiating alcohols


    4     Overview of products
                                                                                       and as vulcanization activators
                                                                                       Plasticizers, modifiers, processing aids
                                                                                       in plastic manufacturing
                                                                                                                                                   36


                                                                                                                                                   36
                                                                                                                                                                             (ROH) by varying both the ratio of the epoxide building blocks
                                                                                                                                                                             (n : m) and the molecular weight (n + m). Essential properties
                                                                                                                                                                             such as water solubility or hydrophilia are determined by the
                                                                                       Paper industry, wood and cellophane processing              37                        mixing ratio of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. The viscosity
                                                                                       Additives in the building materials industry                37                        and hydroxyl value of a polyglycol series is influenced by the
                                                                                       Binding agents for detergent tablets (cleaning agents for                             number of polymerized epoxide building blocks. Reactivity of


    6     Technical data
                                                                                       clothes, dishes, denture cleaners)
                                                                                       Additives in fibre, textile and leather processing
                                                                                       Anticaking treatment / Spray-coating of fertilizers
                                                                                                                                                   37
                                                                                                                                                   37
                                                                                                                                                                             the various polyglycols with a wide variety of reagents is influ-
                                                                                                                                                                             enced by the initiating alcohols used and their reactive groups
                                                                                                                                                                             that persist after polyglycol synthesis as well as by the free
    Polyethylene glycols                                                     6         and enzymes                                                 37                        hydroxyl groups.
    M-type polyglycols                                                      12         Pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations                    38
    M-type polyglycol methacrylates                                         12         Modifiers in viscose production                             38
    A and R-type polyglycols                                                14         Solvents and additives in paints, inks, coatings                                      Figure 1
    PR-type polyglycols                                                     16         and adhesives                                               38
                                                                                                                                                                             ROH + n H2C-CH2 + m H2C-CHCH3 È RO(CH2CH2O)n(CH2CHCH3O)mH
    B11-type polyglycols                                                    18         Reactions with polyglycols                                  38
                                                                                                                                                                                             O            O
    D21-type polyglycols                                                    18         Esterifications                                             38
    P41-type polyglycols                                                    20         Reactions with isocyanates                                  39
    B01 / T01-type polyglycols                                              22         Reactions with epoxides                                     39
                                                                                       Reactions with functionalized polyglycols                                             The different product series are generally identified more spe-
                                                                                       – allyl polyglycols                                         39                        cifically by a letter code indicating the start molecule or the ter-
                                                                                       Reactions with functionalized polyglycols                                             minal groups. For example, “M” refers to methanol, “B” buta-


    24           Properties
                                                                                       – vinyl polyglycols
                                                                                       Components for lubricants
                                                                                        Fire resistant hydraulic fluids
                                                                                                                                                   39
                                                                                                                                                   40
                                                                                                                                                   40
                                                                                                                                                                             nol, “A” allyl and “P” pentaerythritol. The numbers that follow
                                                                                                                                                                             indicate the ratio of ethylene oxide to propylene oxide and the
                                                                                                                                                                             molecular weight.
    Viscosity / Melting point                                               24          Gear lubricants for extreme temperatures                   40
    Hygroscopicity                                                          24          Lubricants for gas and refrigeration compressor            40
    Volatility and thermal stability                                        28          Lubricant greases                                          41
    Solubility                                                              28          Quenching bath additives                                   41
    Molar mass distribution / Hydroxyl value                                31          Metalworking/plastics processing                           41
    Particle size distribution / Powder density                             32
    Physiological behaviour /
    Pharmaceutical and food approvals                                       32
                                                                                       42        Shipping and storage



2   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                   P O LYA L K Y L E N E     G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   3
    Overview of products
                                                                                          Polyethylene glycols (PEGs)                                          A- and R-type polyglycols                                                   P41-type polyglycols

                                                                                       Polyethylene glycols are linear homopolymers of ethylene oxi-        In general, A- and R-type polyglycols have properties similar to            The physico-chemical properties of the polyglycols of the P-41
                                                                                       de. They are available in a molecular weight range of 200 to         those of pure polyethylene glycols and M-PEGs. However, with                series are determined by the four free hydroxyl groups and the
                                                                                       35,000. The physico-chemical properties of polyethylene glycol       their additional allyl or vinyl group they possess the structural           ethylene oxide : propylene oxide ratio of 4:1. Due to their low
                                                                                       are essentially determined by the two free hydroxyl groups and       basis for numerous chemical reactions that make the introduc-               comonomeric proportion of propylene oxide groups, P41-type
                                                                                       the ether oxygen atoms.                                              tion of the highly hydrophilic polyalkylene oxide group possible,           polyglycols have melting points / pour points of 0 to -10°C inde-
                                                                                       The available product forms for PEG types 3,000 to 20,000 inclu-     resulting in hydrophilization and improved dispersability of the            pendent of molar mass, are very readily water-soluble and have
                                                                                       de flakes (S) and powder (P); types 3,000–8,000 are also availa-     final products in water. (See section: Reactions with polyglycols).         cloud points at approximately 80 to 90°C. At room temperature
                                                                                       ble as fine powder (PF). Types 1,500–8,000 are also supplied to                                                                                  they are light, highly viscous liquids. P41-type polyglycols are
                                                                                       large-volume customers in heated tank lorries in the form of                                                                                     insoluble in pure hydrocarbons. As is the case with the other
                                                                                       melts (FL).                                                             PR-type polyglycols                                                      polyglycols, they show practically no tendency to evaporate,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        even at >100°C.
                                                                                                                                                            The chemical structure of PR-type polyglycols is nearly the same
                                                                                          M-type polyglycols (M-PEGs)                                       as that of pure polyethylene glycols with the same molar mass.
                                                                                                                                                            Their chemical properties and applications are comparable                      B01 / T01-type polyglycols
                                                                                       M-series polyglycols are linear, monofunctional polyethylene         accordingly. The essential difference seen in these products is
                                                                                       glycol monomethyl ethers that are completely soluble in water        a central branching. Due to this, their melting point / pour point          B01 / T01-type polyglycols are built up exclusively of propylene
                                                                                       and are available with molecular weights between 250 and             is 20 to 30°C lower than that of pure polyethylene glycols with             oxide units in contrast to the ethylene oxide / propylene oxide
                                                                                       5,000. M-type polyglycols are used mainly in chemical reactions      the same molar mass. As with all polyglycols, they show prac-               copolymers discussed in the previous chapters. This means
                                                                                       requiring integration of a monofunctional polyethylene glycol        tically no tendency to evaporate, even at temperatures >100°C.              that the B01 / T01 types have very low melting points / pour
                                                                                       chain (see section: Reactions with polyglycols). The decisive                                                                                    points independent of molar mass of -40 to -50°C. They are much
                                                                                       factor in the quality of M-PEGs is a low content of dihydroxy-                                                                                   more hydrophobic than ethylene oxide polymers and ethylene
                                                                                       functional contaminants. The physical properties of M-type po-          B11- and D21-type polyglycols                                            oxide / propylene oxide copolymers. They are insoluble in
                                                                                       lyglycols are comparable to those of pure polyethylene glycols.                                                                                  water, but soluble in pure hydrocarbons. As is the case with the
                                                                                       The M-types have also been approved for pharmaceutical ap-           In contrast to the pure ethylene oxide polymers like PEG’s and              other polyglycols, they show practically no evaporation tendency,
                                                                                       plications in the US.                                                M-PEG’s, B11- and D21-type polyglycols are statistical copoly-              even at >100°C.
                                                                                                                                                            mers consisting of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. Due to
                                                                                                                                                            this, their melting point / pour point is -40 to -50°C, independent
                                                                                          Genagen M-MA                                                      of molar mass in contrast to the pure polyethylene glycols. Due                Special products
                                                                                                                                                            to the butanol (B11-type) / diethylene glycol (D21-type) group
                                                                                       The Genagen M-MA-types are methacrylic acid esters based             and an ethylene oxide : propylene oxide ratio of 1:1 to 2:1, B11-           Our development department is well-equipped to develop on
                                                                                       on the corresponding Polyglykol M-types. These hydrophilic           and D21-type polyglycols are still readily soluble in water and             the basis of a number of initiators and epoxide components
                                                                                       macromonomers can be used as comonomers in radical poly-             many polar organic solvents at room temperature. However, their             special customized products in addition to those shown in the
                                                                                       merizations and will have a significant influence on the solubili-   less-pronounced hydrophilia is reflected in a cloud point that is           tables on the next pages.
                                                                                       ty and dispersion characteristics of the resulting polymers.         approximately 50°C (B11-types) and 70-95°C (D21-types) in water.
                                                                                       Genagen M-MA-types based on Polylglykol M 750 and Polyl-             B11- and D21-type polyglycols are insoluble in pure hydrocar-
                                                                                       glycol M 1100 are available. Further types can be synthesized        bons. As is the case with all polyglycols, they show practically
                                                                                       on demand by our development department.                             no tendency to evaporate, even at temperatures >100°C.



4   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                              P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   5
    Technical data on polyethylene glycols
    Polyethylene glycols H(OCH2CH2)nOH                                          CAS-No.: 25322-68-3

    Type         Product Molar                      Functionality Hydroxyl              Solidi-       Viscosity        Density       pH            Water         Refractive     Residual   Residual   Maximum solu-     Vapour     Oxide         INCI      Application
                 form    mass                                     value                 fication      at 20°C          at 20°C       at 5%         content       index nD20     EO         Dioxan     bility in water   pressure   ash           desig-    characteristics
                         g / mol                                  (DIN 53240)           point         (50% aqueous     (DIN 51757)   (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)    GC         GC         %m / m            at 20°C    (DIN 51575)   nation
                                                                  mg KOH / g            EP III °C     solution) mPas   g / cm3                     % (m / m)     (± 0.002)      mg / kg    mg / kg    at 20°C           hPa        %m / m
    200          Liquid       190–210               Dihydroxy-    534–591               approx. -50   60–67            1.124         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.460 (20°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0,1      max. 0.05     PEG-4     Solvent / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                      (undiluted)
    200 G        Liquid       190 –210              Dihydroxy-          534–591         approx. -50   60–67            1.124         4.5–6.0       max. 0.5      1.460 (20°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0,1      max. 0.01               Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                                                                                                      (undiluted)                                                                                                                                          and polyurethane applications
    300          Liquid       285–315               Dihydroxy-          356–394         -15–-10       88–96            1.125         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.464 (20°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0,1      max. 0.05     PEG-6     Solvent / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                      (undiluted)
    300 G        Liquid       285–315               Dihydroxy-          356–394         -15–-10       88–96            1.125         4.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.464 (20°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0,1      max. 0.01               Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                                                                                                      (undiluted)                                                                                                                                          and polyurethane applications
    400          Liquid       380–420               Dihydroxy-          267–295         4–8           112–124          1.126         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.467 (20°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-8     Solvent / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                      (undiluted)
    400 G        Liquid       380–420               Dihydroxy-          267–295         4–8           110–125          1.126         4.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.467 (20°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.01               Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                                                                                                      (undiluted)                                                                                                                                          and polyurethane applications
    600          Wax          570–630               Dihydroxy-          178–197         17–22         17–18            1.26          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.452 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-12    Solvent / chemical synthesis

    600 A        Wax          570–630               Dihydroxy-          178–197         17–22         16–19            1.26          5.0–7,2       max. 0,1      1.452 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.01               Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and polyurethane applications
    600 PU       Wax          570–630               Dihydroxy-          178–197         17–22         16–19            1.26          3.0–5.0       max. 0,1      1.452 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.01               Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and polyurethane applications
    800          Wax /        760–840               Dihydroxy-          134–148         25–30         21–23            1.126         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.452 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     80                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-16    Chemical synthesis / aqueous solutions
                 melt                                                                                                  (melt)
    1000         Wax /        950–1,050             Dihydroxy-          107–118         35–40         24–29            1.126         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.453 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     75                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-20    Chemical synthesis / aqueous solutions
                 melt                                                                                                  (melt)
    1000WA       Wax /        950–1,050             Dihydroxy-          107–118         35–40         24–29            1.126         5.0–7.0       max. 0,15     1.453 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     75                < 0.01     max. 0.05               Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                 melt                                                                                                  (melt)                                                                                                                              and polyurethane applications
    1500 S       Flakes       1,400–1,600           Dihydroxy-          70–80           44–48         36–42            1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.454 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     62                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-32    Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                       (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
    1500 FL      Melt         1,400–1,600           Dihydroxy-          70–80           44–48         36–42            1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0,1      1.454 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     62                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-32    Product form with reduced water content
                                                                                                                       (melt)                                                                                                                              for chemical syntheses
    1500 PS      Spray        1,400–1,600           Dihydroxy-          70–80           44–48         36–42            1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.454 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     62                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-32    Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                 powder                                                                                                (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
    2000 S       Flakes       1,800–2,200           Dihydroxy-          51–62           48–52         50–58            1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.454 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     58                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-40    Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                       (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
    2000 FL      Melt         1,800–2,200           Dihydroxy-          51–62           48–52         50–56            1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0,1      1.454 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     58                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-40    Product form with reduced water content
                                                                                                                       (melt)                                                                                                                              for chemical syntheses
    3000 S       Flakes       2,700–3,300           Dihydroxy-          34–42           52–56         75–95            1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     56                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-60    Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                       (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions




6   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E    G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                                      P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   7
    Technical data on polyethylene glycols
    Type         Product Molar                      Functionality Hydroxyl              Solidi-     Viscosity        Density       pH            Water         Refractive     Residual   Residual   Maximum solu-     Vapour     Oxide         INCI      Application
                 form    mass                                     value                 fication    at 20°C          at 20°C       at 5%         content       index nD20     EO         Dioxan     bility in water   pressure   ash           desig-    characteristics
                         g / mol                                  (DIN 53240)           point       (50% aqueous     (DIN 51757)   (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)    GC         GC         %m / m            at 20°C    (DIN 51575)   nation
                                                                  mg KOH / g            EP III °C   solution) mPas   g / cm3                     % (m / m)     (± 0.002)      mg / kg    mg / kg    at 20°C           hPa        %m / m
    3000 P       Powder       2,700–3,300           Dihydroxy-    34–42                 52–56       75–95            1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     56                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-75    Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
    3000 FL      Melt         2,700–3,300           Dihydroxy-          34–42           52–56       75–95            1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0,1      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     56                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-75    Product form with reduced water content
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              for chemical syntheses
    3350 S       Flakes       3,050–3,700           Dihydroxy-          30–37           53–57       85–105           1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     56                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-75    Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
    3350 P       Powder       3,050–3,700           Dihydroxy-          30–37           53–57       85–105           1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     56                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-75    Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
    3350 FL      Melt         3,050–3,700           Dihydroxy-          30–37           53–57       85–105           1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0,1      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     56                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-75    Product form with reduced water content
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              for chemical syntheses
    3350 PS      Spray        3,050–3,700           Dihydroxy-          30–37           53–57       85–105           1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     56                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-75    Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                 powder                                                                                              (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
    3350 PF      Fine         3,050–3,700           Dihydroxy-          30–37           53–57       85–105           1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     56                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-75    Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                 powder                                                                                              (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 10–200 µm
    4000 S       Flakes       3,700–4,400           Dihydroxy-          25–30           53–58       114–142          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.45 (70°C)    max. 1     max. 1     55                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-90    Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
    4000 P       Powder       3,700–4,400           Dihydroxy-          25–30           53–58       114–142          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     55                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-90    Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
    4000 FL      Melt         3,700–4,400           Dihydroxy-          25–30           53–58       114–142          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0,1      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     55                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-90    Product form with reduced water content
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              for chemical syntheses
    4000 PS      Spray        3,700–4,400           Dihydroxy-          25–30           53–58       114–142          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.45 (70°C)    max. 1     max. 1     55                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-90    Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                 powder                                                                                              (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
    4000 PF      Fine         3,700–4,400           Dihydroxy-          25–30           53–58       114–142          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     55                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-90    Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                 powder                                                                                              (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 10–200 µm
    5500 FL      Melt         5,100–5,900           Dihydroxy-          19–22           55–60       144–203          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0,1      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05               Product form with reduced water content
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              for chemical syntheses
    6000 S       Flakes       5,600–6,600           Dihydroxy-          17–20           55–60       220–262          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-150   Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
    6000 P       Powder       5,600–6,600           Dihydroxy-          17–20           55–60       220–262          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-150   Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
    6000 PS      Spray        5,600–6,600           Dihydroxy-          17–20           55–60       220–262          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-150   Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                 powder                                                                                              (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
    6000 FL      Melt         5,600–6,600           Dihydroxy-          17–20           55–60       220–262          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0,1      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-150   Product form with reduced water content
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              for chemical syntheses
    6000 PF      Fine         5,600–6,600           Dihydroxy-          17–20           55–60       220–262          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.455 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-150   Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                 powder                                                                                              (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 10–200 µm
    8000 S       Flakes       7,000–9,000           Dihydroxy-          12–16           55–60       290–450          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-180   Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
    8000 P       Powder       7,000–9,000           Dihydroxy-          12–16           55–60       290–450          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-180   Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm



8   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E    G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                                    P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   9
     Technical data on polyethylene glycols
 Type            Product Molar                      Functionality Hydroxyl              Solidi-     Viscosity        Density       pH            Water           Refractive     Residual   Residual   Maximum solu-     Vapour     Oxide         INCI      Application
                 form    mass                                     value                 fication    at 20°C          at 20°C       at 5%         content         index nD20     EO         Dioxan     bility in water   pressure   ash           desig-    characteristics
                         g/mol                                    (DIN 53240)           point       (50% aqueous     (DIN 51757)   (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)     (DIN 51423)    GC         GC         %m / m            at 20°C    (DIN 51575)   nation
                                                                  mg KOH / g            EP III °C   solution) mPas   g / cm3                     % (m / m)       (± 0.002)      mg / kg    mg / kg    at 20°C           hPa        %m / m
 8000 FL         Melt         7,000–9,000           Dihydroxy-    12–16                 55–60       290–450          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0,1        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-180 Product form with reduced water content
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              for chemical syntheses
 8000 PF         Fine         7,000–9,000           Dihydroxy-       12–16              55–60       290–450          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     54                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-180 Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                 powder                                                                                              (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 10–200 µm
 10000 S         Flakes       9,000–11,250          Dihydroxy-       10–12              55–60       550–750          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     53                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-220 Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
 10000 P         Powder       9,000–11,250          Dihydroxy-       10–12              55–60       550–750          1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     53                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-220 Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
 12000 S         Flakes       10,500–15,000         Dihydroxy-       7.5–11.0           56–60       1,100–1,400      1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     53                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-240 Humectant / binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / aqueous solutions
 12000 P         Powder       10,500–15,000         Dihydroxy-       7.5–11.0           56–60       1,100–1,400      1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     53                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-240 Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
 20000 S         Flakes       min 16,000            Dihydroxy-       max. 7             min. 57     2,700–3,500      1.20          4.5–7.5       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     52                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-450 Binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / plastics additive
 20000 P         Powder       min 16,000            Dihydroxy-       max. 7             min. 57     2,700–3,500      1.20          4.5–7.5       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     52                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-450 Powdered binder / pressing agent, dry mixtures /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              plastics additive, particle size approx. 50–400 µm
 20000SR         Flakes       min 16,000            Dihydroxy-       max. 7             min. 57     2,700–3,500      1.20          4.5–7.5       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     52                < 0.01     max. 0.05             Binder / pressing agent for ceramics applications /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              thermooxidative stabilization
 20000SRU        Flakes       min 16,000            Dihydroxy-       max. 7             min. 57     2,700–3,500      1.20          5.0–7.5       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     52                < 0.01     max. 0.05             Reduced alkali content for synthesis and
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              polyurethane applications / plastics additive
 35000 S         Flakes       approx. 35,000        Dihydroxy-       max. 4             min. 57     11,000–14,000    1.20          5.0–7.0       max. 0.5        1.456 (70°C)   max. 1     max. 1     50                < 0.01     max. 0.05     PEG-800 Binder / release- / processing agent /
                                                                                                                     (melt)                                                                                                                              synthesis / plastics additive



     Polyethylene glycol (cross-linked)                                   CAS-No.: 42617-82-3

 Type            Product Molar mass                 Functionality Hydroxyl              Solidi-     Viscosity        Density     pH at 5%        Maximum         Vapour
                 form                                             value                 fication    25-% in water    at 20°C     (DIN 19268)     solubility in   pressure
                                                                  (DIN 53240)           point       at 38°C          (DIN 51757)                 water %m/m      at 20°C
                                                                  mg KOH / g            EP III °C   mm2 / s          g / cm3                     at 20°C         hPa
 Cl 20000 S Flakes           crosslinked            Polyhydroxy- not                    approx.     100–300          1.20        5.5–8.5         ca. 54          < 0.01
                                                                  applicable            60                           (melt)




10   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                                     P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   11
     Technical data on M-type polyglycols
     Polyethylene glycol monomethyl ethers CH3(OCH2CH2)nOH                                                CAS-No.: 9004-74-4

 Type              Product       Molar                Functionality           Hydroxyl      Solidi-        Viscosity        Density       pH            Water         Refractive         Maximum solu-     Vapour     Oxide           INCI           Application
                   form          mass                                         value         fication       at 50°C          at 50°C       at 5%         content       index nD at 20°C   bility in water   pressure   ash             desig-         characteristics
                                 g / mol                                      (DIN 53240)   point          mm2 / s          (DIN 51757)   (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)        %m / m            at 20°C    (DIN 51575)     nation
                                                                              mg KOH / g    EP III °C                       g / cm3                     % (m / m)     (± 0.002)          at 20°C           hPa        %m / m
 M 250             Liquid        272–285              Monohydroxy-            197–206       approx. -26    9–11             1.090         6.0–8.0       max. 0.2      1.454              unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.05                      Solvent / chemical synthesis /
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                   esterification / polyurethane – hydrophilization
 M 350             Liquid        330–370              Monohydroxy-             152–168      approx. -6     9–11             1.090         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.457              unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.05                      Solvent / chemical synthesis /esterification /
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                   polyurethane – hydrophilization
 M 350 PU          Liquid        330–370              Monohydroxy-            152–168       approx. -6     9–11             1.090         3.0–5.0       max. 0.5      1.457              unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.05                      Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                   and polyurethane applications
 M 500             Liquid        470–530              Monohydroxy-             106–119      approx. +12    17–21            1.074         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.461              unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.05       Methoxy        Solvent / chemical synthesis /esterification /
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                                                                                                                                                    PEG-10         polyurethane – hydrophilization
 M 500 PU          Liquid        470–530              Monohydroxy-            106–119       approx. +12    17–21            1.074         3.0–5.0       max. 0.5      1.461              unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.05                      Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                   and polyurethane applications
 M 750             Liquid        720–780              Monohydroxy-             72–78        approx. +27    29–35            1.083         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      —                  unlimited         < 0.01     max. 0.05       Methoxy        Chemical synthesis / esterification /
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                                                                                                                                                    PEG-16         polyurethane – hydrophilization
 M 1100            Wax /         1,000–1,200          Monohydroxy-            47–56         approx. 40     25–31 (50% in    —             5.0–7.0       max. 0.3      —                  approx. 70        < 0.01     max. 0.05                      Chemical synthesis / esterification /
                   melt                               Monomethoxy-                                         water at 20°C)                                                                                                                            polyurethane – hydrophilization
 M 2000 S          Flakes        1,800–2,200          Monohydroxy-             25.5–31      approx. 50     45–55 (50% in    —             5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      —                  approx. 50        < 0.01     max. 0.05       Methoxy        Chemical synthesis / esterification /
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                         water at 20°C)                                                                                                             PEG-40         polyurethane – hydrophilization
 M 2000 FL         Melt          1,800–2,200          Monohydroxy-             25.5–31      approx. 50     45–55 (50% in    —             5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      —                  approx.50         < 0.01     max. 0.05       Methoxy        Chemical synthesis / esterification /
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                         water at 20°C)                                                                                                             PEG-40         polyurethane – hydrophilization
 M 5000 S          Flakes        4,500–5,500          Monohydroxy-             10.2–12.5    approx. 57     150–180          —             5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      —                  approx. 50        < 0.01     max. 0.05       Methoxy        Chemical synthesis / esterification /
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                         (50% in water                                                                                                              PEG-100        polyurethane – hydrophilization
                                                                                                           at 20°C)
 M 5000 FL         Melt          4,500–5,500          Monohydroxy-             10.2–12.5    approx. 57     150–180          —             5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      —                  approx. 50        < 0.01     max. 0.05       Methoxy        Chemical synthesis / esterification /
                                                      Monomethoxy-                                         (50% in water                                                                                                              PEG-100        polyurethane – hydrophilization
                                                                                                           at 20°C)



     Polyethylene glycol monomethylether monomethacrylate CH3(OCH2CH2)nOCOC(CH3)=CH2                                                                CAS-No.: 26915-72-0

 Type            Product       Molar mass             Functionality           Solidi-       Density        pH at 5%      Application
                 form          g / mol                                        fication      g / cm3        in water      characteristics
                                                                              point °C      at 35°C        (DIN EN 1262)
 Genagen pasty                 810–870                Monomethacryl-          approx. 21    1,1            2–4           Macromonomer /
 M 750 MA                                             Monomethoxy-                                                       Polymerisation
 Genagen Wax /                 1160–1220              Monomethacryl-          approx. 25    1,1            2–4           Macromonomer /
 M 1100 MA melt                                       Monomethoxy-                                                       Polymerisation




12   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                      P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   13
     Technical data on A- and R-type polyglycols
     Polyalkylene glycol monoallyl ethers CH2=CHCH2(OCH2CH2)n(OCH2CHCH3)mOH                                                              CAS-No.: 272 74-31-3

 Type            Product       Molar                  Functionality           Hydroxyl      Iodine            Solidi-       Viscosity         Density        pH            Water         Refractive         Vapour     Oxide            Application
                 form          mass                                           value         value             fication      at 20°C           at 50°C        at 10%        content       index nD at 20°C   pressure   ash              characteristics
                               g / mol                                        (DIN 53240)   g / iodine / 100g point         (DIN 51562)       (DIN 51757)    (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)        at 20°C    (DIN 51575)
                                                                              mg KOH / g                      EP III °C     mm2 / s           g / cm3                      % (m / m)     (± 0.002)          hPa        %m / m
 A 350           Liquid        approx. 350            Monohydroxy-            170–190       75–85             approx. -12   approx. 28        1.069 / 20°C   5.0–7.0       max. 0.3      1.461              < 0.01     max. 0.05        Chemical synthesis / hydrosilylation / hydrophilization /
                                                      Monoallyl-                                                                                                                                                                        reduced alkali content
 A 500           Liquid        approx. 500            Monohydroxy-            110–120       48–53            approx. +6     approx. 58        1.089 / 20°C   5.0–7.0       max. 0.2      1.465              < 0.01     max. 0.05        Chemical synthesis / hydrosilylation / hydrophilization /
                                                      Monoallyl-                                                                                                                                                                        reduced alkali content
 A 1100          Wax /         approx. 1100           Monohydroxy-            50–57         22–27            approx. +35    approx. 62        1.084          5.0–7.0       max. 0.2      —                  < 0.01     max. 0.05        Chemical synthesis / hydrosilylation / hydrophilization /
                 melt                                 Monoallyl-                                                            / 50°C                                                                                                      reduced alkali content
 A 6-4           Liquid        approx. 500            Monohydroxy-            95 - 110      43–50            approx. -40    approx. 48        1,064 / 20°C   4,0–7,0       max. 0,3      —                  < 0,01     max. 0,05        Chemical synthesis / hydrosilylation /
                                                      Monoallyl-                                                                                                                                                                        hydrophilization / reduced alkali content
 A 11-4          Liquid        approx. 750            Monohydroxy-            70–75         28–33            approx. -15    84–96                —           5.0–7.0       max. 0.2      —                  < 0.01     max. 0.05        Chemical synthesis / hydrosilylation / hydrophilization /
                                                      Monoallyl-                                                                                                                                                                        reduced alkali content
 A 20-10         Liquid        approx. 1500           Monohydroxy-            35–39         15–18            approx. -20    200–300              —           5.0–7.0       max. 0.3      —                  < 0.01     max. 0.05        Chemical synthesis / hydrosilylation / hydrophilization /
                                                      Monoallyl-                                                                                                                                                                        reduced alkali content
 A 20-20         Liquid        approx. 2100           Monohydroxy-            29–34         12–15            approx. -46    approx. 100       1.024          5.0–7.0       max. 0.2      —                  < 0.01     max. 0.05        Chemical synthesis / hydrosilylation / hydrophilization
                                                      Monoallyl-                                                            / 50°C



     Polyalkylene glycol monovinyl ethers CH2=CH(OCH2CH2)nOH                                                  CAS-No.: 126682-74-4

 R 500           Liquid        approx. 550            Monohydroxy-            93–112        Not              approx. +5     approx. 80         1.08 / 20°C   10.0–12.0     max. 0.3      —                  < 0.01     max. 0.05        Copolymerization / hydrophilization / emulsification
                                                      Monovinyl-                            determinable
 R 1100          Wax /         approx. 1100           Monohydroxy-            47–56         Not              approx. 40     25–31 (50% in         —          10.0–12.0     max. 0.3      —                  < 0.01     max. 0.05        Copolymerization / hydrophilization / emulsification
                 melt                                 Monovinyl-                            determinable                    water at 20°C)
 R 2000          Wax /         approx. 2000           Monohydroxy-            26–30         Not              approx. 50     50–57 (50% in         —          10.0–12.0     max. 0.3      —                  < 0.01     max. 0.05        Copolymerization / hydrophilization / emulsification
                 melt                                 Monovinyl-                            determinable                    water at 20°C)
 R 5000          Wax /         approx. 6000           Monohydroxy-            8.6–10.2      Not              approx. 57     160–210 (50% in       —          10.0–12.0     max. 0.3      —                  < 0.01     max. 0.05        Copolymerization / hydrophilization / emulsification
                 melt                                 Monovinyl-                            determinable                    water at 20°C)




14   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                        P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   15
     Technical data on PR-type polyglycols
     Polyalkylene glycols H(OCH2CH2)n(OCHCH3CH2) (OCH2CH2)mOH                                                CAS-No.: 9003-11-6

 Type            Product          Molar               Functionality          Hydroxyl      Pour point    Viscosity     Density       pH            Water         Refractive         Vapour     Oxide         INCI                      Application
                 form             mass                                       value         (DIN 51597)   at 50°C       at 20°C       at 10%        content       index nD at 20°C   pressure   ash           designation               characteristics
                                  g / mol                                    (DIN 53240)   °C            (DIN 51562)   (DIN 51757)   (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)        at 20°C    (DIN 51575)
                                                                             mg KOH / g                  mm2 / s       g / cm3                     % (m / m)     (± 0.002)          hPa        %m / m
 PR 300          Liquid           approx. 300         Dihydroxy-             approx. 375   approx. -50   18–22          1.100        4.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.461              < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 PR 450          Liquid           approx. 450         Dihydroxy-             approx. 250   approx. -25   26–32         1.110         4.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.465              < 0.01     max. 0.01     PEG-10                    Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Propylene Glycol          esterification / defoaming agent
 PR 600          Liquid           approx. 600         Dihydroxy-             approx. 187   approx. -5    34–42         1.115         4.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.468              < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 PR 1000         Liquid           approx. 1,000 Dihydroxy-                   approx. 112   approx. 17    59–71         1.120         4.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.468              < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 PR 1000 PU Liquid                approx. 1,000 Dihydroxy-                   approx. 112   approx. 17    59–71         1.120         3.0–5.0       max. 0.5      1.468              < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Reduced alkali content for synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and polyurethane applications

 VP 1962         Liquid           approx. 700         Dihydroxy-             approx. 80    approx. -17   95–115        1.124–        8.0–10.0      max. 0.5      1.494              < 0.01     –                                       Lubricant
                                                                                                                       1.130




16   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                          P O LYA L K Y L E N E    G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   17
     Technical Data on B11 / D21-type polyglycols
     Statistical ethylene oxide / propylene oxide-copolymerisate-monobutyl ether                                                 CH3CH2CH2CH2(OCH2CH2)n(OCH2CHCH3)mOH                              CAS-No.: 9038-95-3

 Type              Product Molar                       Functionality            Hydroxyl      Pour point     Viscosity   Density       pH            Water         Refractive         Cloud           Vapour     Oxide         INCI                      Application
                   form    mass                                                 value         (DIN 51597)    at 50°C     at 20°C       at 10%        content       index nD at 20°C   point, 1%       pressure   ash           designation               characteristics
                           g / mol                                              (DIN 53240)   °C             mm2 / s     (DIN 51757)   (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)        in water        at 20°C    (DIN 51575)
                                                                                mg KOH / g                               g / cm3                     % (m / m)     (± 0.002)          °C              hPa        %m / m
 B11 / 50          Liquid      approx. 1,300           Monohydroxy-             approx. 33    approx. -50    45–55       1.038         6.0–8.0       max. 0.5      1.457              approx. 58      < 0.01     max. 0.01     PPG-15-Buteth-20          Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 B11 / 70          Liquid      approx. 1,600           Monohydroxy-             approx. 28    approx. -45    66–74       1.042         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.457              approx. 50      < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 B11 / 100         Liquid      approx. 1,850           Monohydroxy-             approx. 25    approx. -45    80–100      1.044         5.0–7.0       max. 0,15     1.458              approx. 50      < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 B 11 / 150        Liquid      approx. 2,500           Monohydroxy-             approx. 18    approx. -45    135–165     1.046         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.459              approx. 48      < 0.01     max. 0.01     PPG-28-Buteth-35          Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 B11 / 150 K       Liquid      approx. 2,500           Monohydroxy-             approx. 18    approx. -45    135–165     1.046         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.459              approx. 48      < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 B11 / 300         Liquid      approx. 3,250           Monohydroxy-             approx. 14    approx. -40    270–330     1.048         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.459              approx. 48      < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent
 B11 / 700         Liquid      approx. 3,800           Monohydroxy-             approx. 11    approx. -35    630–770     1.049         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.460              approx. 48      < 0.01     max. 0.01                               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                                                       esterification / defoaming agent




     Statistical ethylene oxide / propylene oxide-copolymerisate                                            H(OCH2CH2)n(OCH2CHCH3)mOH                CAS-No.: 9003-11-6

 Type              Product Molar                       Functionality            Hydroxyl      Pour point     Viscosity   Density       pH            Water         Refractive         Cloud           Vapour     Oxide         INCI                      Application
                   form    mass                                                 value         (DIN 51597)    at 50°C     at 20°C       at 10%        content       index nD at 20°C   point, 1%       pressure   ash           designation               characteristics
                           g / mol                                              (DIN 53240)   °C             mm2 / s     (DIN 51757)   (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)        in water        at 20°C    (DIN 51575)
                                                                                mg KOH / g                               g / cm3                     % (m / m)     (± 0.002)          °C              hPa        %m / m
 D21 / 150         Liquid      approx. 2,700           Dihydroxy-               approx. 40    approx. -35    135–165     1.080         5.0–7.0       max. 0.3      1.463              approx. 95      < 0.01     max. 0.01     –                         Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         esterification / defoaming agent
 D21 / 300         Liquid      approx. 4,000           Dihydroxy-               approx. 28    approx. -38    270–330     1.080         5.0–7.0       max. 0.3      1.463              approx. 82      < 0.01     max. 0.01     –                         Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         esterification / defoaming agent
 D21 / 700         Liquid      approx. 6,000           Dihydroxy-               approx. 19    approx. -35    approx.     1.075         5.0–7.0       max. 0.3      1.463              approx. 71      < 0.01     max. 0.01     –                         Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis /
                                                                                                             760                                                                                                                                         esterification / defoaming agent




18   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   19
     Technical data on P41-type polyglycols
     Statistical ethylene oxide / propylene oxide-copolymerisates, branched                                              H(OCH2CH2)n(OCH2CHCH3)mOH n:m = 4:1                   CAS-No.: 58205-99-5

 Type              Product Molar                      Functionality          Hydroxyl      Pour point    Viscosity     Density       pH            Water         Refractive         Cloud        Vapour     Oxide             Application
                   form    mass                                              value         (DIN 51597)   at 50°C       at 20°C       at 10%        content       index nD at 20°C   point, 1%    pressure   ash               characteristics
                           g / mol                                           (DIN 53240)   °C            mm2 / s       (DIN 51757)   (DIN 19268)   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)        in water     at 20°C    (DIN 51575)
                                                                             mg KOH / g                                g / cm3                     % (m / m)     (± 0.002)          °C           hPa        %m / m
 P41 / 200 K       Liquid      approx. 3,500          Tetrahydroxy-          approx. 64    approx. -25   180–220        1.094        7.0–9.5       max. 0.5      1.467              approx. 90   < 0.01     max. 0.05         Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              esterification / defoaming agent
 P41 / 300         Liquid      approx. 5,000          Tetrahydroxy-          approx. 45    approx. -10   270–330       1.094         7.0–9.5       max. 0.5      1.467              approx. 90   < 0.01     max. 0.05         Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              esterification / defoaming agent
 P41 / 3000        Liquid      approx. 15,000         Tetrahydroxy-          approx. 15    approx. 0     2700–3300     1.094         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.467              approx. 80   < 0.01     max. 0.05         Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              esterification / defoaming agent
 P41 / 12000       Liquid      approx. 20,000         Tetrahydroxy-          approx. 11    approx. 0     10800–13200   1.046         5.0–7.0       max. 0.5      1.467              approx. 75   < 0.01     max. 0.05         Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              esterification / defoaming agent
 P41 / 12000       Liquid      approx. 20,000         Tetrahydroxy-          approx. 11    approx. -10   2700–3300     1.101         10.0–12.0     19.0–21.0     1.450              approx. 75   –          max. 0.05         Lubricant / thickener / quenching oil
 M 80

 Genolub         Liquid        Mixture                Mixture                –             approx. -10   185–235       1.090         9.0–11.0      4.0–6.0       1.463              > 90°C       –          max. 0.05         Lubricant / cutting fluid
 1674




20   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                        P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   21
     Technical data on B01 / T01-type polyglycols
     Propylene oxide polymerisate-monobutyl ether CH3CH2CH2CH2(OCH2CHCH3)mOH                                                          CAS-No.: 9003-13-8
     Propylene oxide polymerisate-monoisotridecyl ether CH3(CH2)12(OCH2CHCH3)mOH                                                         CAS-No.: 72108-90-8

 Type            Product       Molar                   Functionality            Hydroxyl      Pour point    Viscosity   Density       pH                Water         Refractive         Vapour     Oxide         INCI                 Application
                 form          mass                                             value         (DIN 51597)   at 50°C     at 20°C       at 10% in         content       index nD at 20°C   pressure   ash           designation          characteristics
                               g / mol                                          (DIN 53240)   °C            mm2 / s     (DIN 51757)   ethanol / water   (DIN 51777)   (DIN 51423)        at 20°C    (DIN 51575)
                                                                                mg KOH / g                              g / cm3       (SAE)             % (m / m)     (± 0.002)          hPa        %m / m
 B01 / 20        Liquid        approx. 800             Monohydroxy-             approx. 70    approx. -50   18–22       0.981         5.0–7.0           max. 0.5      1.446              < 0.01     max. 0.01     PPG-14               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                Butyl Ether          esterification / defoaming agent
 B01 / 40        Liquid        approx. 1,100           Monohydroxy-             approx. 51    approx. -45   36–44       0.989         5.0–7.0           max. 0.5      1.448              < 0.01     max. 0.01     PPG-18               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                Butyl Ether          esterification / defoaming agent
 B 01 / 80       Liquid        approx. 1,400           Monohydroxy-             approx. 40    approx. -45   72–88       0.996         5.0–7.0           max. 0.5      1.450              < 0.01     max. 0.01     PPG-24               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                Butyl Ether          esterification / defoaming agent
 B01 / 120       Liquid        approx. 2,000           Monohydroxy-             approx. 28    approx. -40   110–132     0.996         5.0–7.0           max. 0.5      1.450              < 0.01     max. 0.01     PPG-33               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                Butyl Ether          esterification / defoaming agent
 B01 / 240       Liquid        approx. 2,300           Monohydroxy-             approx. 24    approx. -40   216–264     1.000         5.0–7.0           max. 0.5      1.451              < 0.01     max. 0.01     PPG-40               Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                       Monobutoxy-                                                                                                                                                Butyl Ether          esterification / defoaming agent
 T01 / 35        Liquid        approx. 800             Monohydroxy-             approx. 70    approx. -45   31.5–38.5   0.965         5.0–7.0           max. 0.5      1.449              < 0.01     max. 0.01                          Solvent / lubricant / chemical synthesis
                                                       Monoisotri-                                                                                                                                                                     esterification / defoaming agent
                                                       decyloxy-

 VP 1856 /       Liquid        > 3500                  Monobutoxy-              –             approx. -22   900–1100    1.008         5.0–7.0           max. 0.20     1.453              < 0.01     –             –                    Lubricant / defoaming agent
 1000                                                  Polyhydroxy




22   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                 P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   23
     Physico-chemical properties
                                                                                     cible with water in any ratio, whereby the addition of water lo-
                                                                                                                                                        Figure 2: Viscosity of PEG 200–35,000 as a function of temperature
     Viscosity / Melting point                                                       wers the solidification point compared to pure liquid PEG. Solu-
                                                                                                                                                                   mm2 / s                                                                                                         mm2 / s
                                                                                     bility in water drops somewhat with increasing molar mass, but
                                                                                                                                                                 1,000,000
Depending on their molecular weight, polyethylene glycols are                        never falls below 50% even in PEG 35,000. Dissolution can be                                                                                                                                  500,000
either viscous liquids or low-melting waxy solids. The melting                       accelerated to a considerable degree by heating the substance                 300,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   200,000
point of polyethylene glycols with a molecular weight excee-                         to above the melting point. The behaviour of PEGs is not ionoge-              100,000                                                                            35 00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
ding 4,000 g/mol is always around 58–65°C. The viscosity of the                      nic in aqueous solutions. They are not sensitive to electrolytes                                                                                                                               50,000
                                                                                                                                                                    30,000
melts and solutions of PEGs increases markedly with their                            and can therefore also tolerate hard water. The water solubility                                                                                                                               20,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20,00
molecular weight (Fig. 2).                                                           of polyalkylene glycols decreases with the proportion of propy-                                                                                                             0
                                                                                                                                                                    10,000
The melting point / pour point of polyalkylene glycols, i.e. copo-                   lene oxide in the copolymer. This is reflected in a lowering of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     5,000
lymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, drops with the                         the cloud point in water. Pure polypropylene glycols such as the                3,000                                                                            12,0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                00
proportion of propylene oxide groups (Fig. 3). Thus polyalkyl gly-                   B01-type polyglycols are practically insoluble in water. When                                                                                                    10,0                           2,000
                                                                                                                                                                     1,500                                                                                      00
cols with a propylene oxide content exceeding 50% are highly                         our PEGs are shipped, the water content is max. 0.5%. Drying
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1,000
viscous liquids with a very low pour point of approx. -40°C.                         down to 0.1% is feasible if necessary by drying at temperatures                                                                                                      8,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                     of up to 165°C under vacuum. Using fresh or correctly regene-                     500

                                                                                     rated molecular sieves (pore size 3–4 Å), the water content can                                                                                                      6,00                        300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
     Solubility / Hygroscopicity                                                     be reduced to 0.05%. Polyglycols are hygroscopic. Their hy-
                                                                                                                                                                       200
                                                                                     groscopicity increases with molecular weight and the proporti-                                                                                                                                   150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4,0
The combination of hygroscopic, viscous, lubricating, releasing                      on of propylene oxide in the comonomer (see Fig. 4). Polyethyle-                                                                                                           00
                                                                                                                                                                       100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3,3
and binder properties in PEGs with their excellent solubility in                     ne glycols are also readily soluble in many polar organic sol-                                                                                                             50
water creates ideal conditions for their use in numerous fields                      vents, for example acetone and methanol. Polyethylene glycols                                                                                                        3,0
                                                                                                                                                                        50                                                                                      00
of application. The low-molecular liquid PEGs 200–600 are mis-                       are insoluble in pure hydrocarbons.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2,0                             40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                00
                                                                                                                                                                        30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             00                           25
     Figure 3: Melting points / pour points of polyglycols                                                                                                              20                                                                                1,3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1,0
                                                                                                                                                                        14                                                                                      00
                                                                                                                         PEG                                                                                                                               80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12
                                                                                                                                                                        10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60                             9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                         8
                                                                  Proportion of propylene oxide 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           7
                                                                                                                                                                         6                                                                                  40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            30                             5
                                                                  Proportion of propylene oxide 50                                                                                                                                                               0

                                                                                                                                                                         4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           20
                                                                  Proportion of propylene oxide 100




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                                                                         3                                                                                                                 3

      -50         -40          -30              -20         -10             0            10      20         30          40         50         60                          – 10    0           + 20         40          60           80          100                  120      °C
                                                                  Pour point / melting point in °C



24   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /    P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                             P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S     /    P O LY E T H Y L E N E    G LY C O L S   25
     Physico-chemical properties
     Figure 4a: Sorption isotherms (23 ± 1°C) for PEG 200–4,000, glycerol and sorbitol                                                               Figure 4b: Sorption isotherms for various polyglycols at 23 ± 1°C

                                                                                                                       max. water uptake % (m / m)   max. water uptake % (m/m)
                                                                                                                                                            100
                                                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                                                                              90
                                                                                                                                               90
                                                                                                                                                              80
                                                                                                                                               80
                                                                                                                                                              70
                                                                                                                                               70
                                                                                                                                                              60
                                                                                                                                               60
                                                                                                                                                              50
                                                                                                                                               50
                                                                                                                                                              40
                                                                                                                                               40

                                                                                                                                                              30
                                                                                                                                               30



                                                                                                                                                              20
                                                                                                                                               20                                                                    PR 300
                                                                                               000
                                                      ol
                                                   er




                                                                                          G1
                                                 yc


                                                            0
                                                Gl


                                                           20




                                                                                          PE




                                                                                                                                               10                                                                    M 500
                                                        G




                                                                                                                                                              10
                                                      PE




                                                                                                                                                9
                                                                     0




                                                                                                                                                               9
                                                                 40
                                                                G




                                                                                                                                                8              8
                                                            PE

                                                                      0




                                                                                                                                                7
                                                                    60




                                                                                                                                                               7
                                                                 G
                                                                PE




                                                                                                                                                               6
                                                                           tol




                                                                                                                                                6
                                                                          rbi
                                                                      So




                                                                                                    500




                                                                                                                                                5              5
                                                                                                G1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     P 41
                                                                                               PE




                                                                                                                                                4              4
                                                                                                           000
                                                                                                          G2




                                                                                                                                                               3                                                     B 11
                                                                                                      PE




                                                                                                                                                3
                                                                                                      000
                                                                                                     G4




                                                                                                                                                               2
                                                                                                                                                2
                                                                                                     PE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     B 01

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            T 01

                                                                                                                                                1              1
                   10             20             30              40              50             60               70   80         90                                0       10        20        30        40         50         60          70              80         90       100
        % relative humidity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     % relative humidity




26   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E     G LY C O L S                                                                                                                         P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /    P O LY E T H Y L E N E    G LY C O L S   27
     Physico-chemical properties
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Propan-1-ol                      ∞
                                                                                                                                                                    Iodine                         20%     1,2-Propylene glycol             ∞
     Volatility and heat resistance                                                     Solubility of various substances                                            Iron(III) chloride · 6H2O     *50%     Pyridine                         ∞         Solubility of various substances in
                                                                                                                                                                                                     ∞                                                Polyglykol P41/300, B11/150, M500,
                                                                                        in PEG 400 at room temperature                                              Isobutyl acetate
                                                                                                                                                                    Isobutyl alcohol                 ∞     Resorcinol                    50%
Polyglycols are not volatile, which is a considerable advantage                                                                                                     Isodecyl alcohol                 ∞                                                PR 600 and T01/35 at 20°C / mixing
                                                                                                                                                                    Isooctyl alcohol                 ∞     Saccharin                     10%
in view of their applications as plasticizers and humectants.                       Figures indicate % (m/m)
                                                                                                                                                                    Isopropyl alcohol                ∞     Salicylaldehyde                  ∞
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ratio 1:1.
                                                                                    ∞ = miscible in any ratio
When they are heated to temperatures exceeding 150°C, the re-                                                                                                       Isotridecyl alcohol              ∞     Salicylic acid                30%
                                                                                    cold ss = sparingly soluble at room temperature, soluble at 70–80°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sorbic acid                     5%
sulting weight losses are not due to evaporation, but rather to                     ins. = insoluble                                                                                                                                                                 P41/300 B11/150 M 500 PR 600 B01/120 T01/35
                                                                                                                                                                    Lactic acid, 90%                  ∞    Sorbitol                   cold ss
release of volatile decomposition products. Thermal decompo-                                                                                                        Lead acetate                     1%    Sodium chloride              0.3%
                                                                                    Acetanilide                   16%       o-Cresol                           ∞    Lead stearate                   ins.   Sodium cyclamate                3%
sition of polyglycols results neither in hard encrustations nor to                  Acetic anhydride                ∞       Copper(II) chloride · 2H2O     *50%     Lecithin                        ins.   Sodium nitrite               0.4%       Acetic acid           +            +     10%      10%         +        +
deposit of viscous sludge. The decomposition products of poly-                      Acetone                         ∞       Cyclohexane                      ins.   Lithium stearate                ins.   Sodium sulphate                ins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Acetone               +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Acrylonitrile                   ∞       Cyclohexanol                       ∞                                           Stearic acid               cold ss
glycols vary according to air exposure. In addition to water,                       Acrylic acid                    ∞       Cyclohexanone                      ∞    Magnesium chloride · 4H2O *25%         Stearylamine                   ins.     Allyl alcohol         +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Adipic acid diisopropyl ester   ∞                                               Manganese(II) chloride · 4H2O          Styrene                          ∞
carbon dioxide and aldehydes, simple alcohols, acids and gly-                       Allyl alcohol                   ∞       Diacetone alcohol                ∞                                   *40%      Styrene oxide                    ∞      Ammonia, 25%          +            –       +        +         –        –
col esters also form. When handling polyglycols at temperatu-                       Ammonia, 25%                    ∞       Dibutyl phthalate                ∞      Menthol                       10%      Sulphanilamide                10%       Amyl alcohol          +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Amyl acetate                    ∞       b,b'-Dichloroethyl ether         ∞      Mercury(II) acetate          *10%      Sulphathiazole                10%
res above 100°C, we recommend the addition of suitable oxida-                       Amyl alcohol                    ∞       Diethanolamine                   ∞      Methanol                         ∞     Sulphuric acid, 50%              ∞      Aniline               +            +       +        +         +        +
tion stabilizers. The type and amount of stabilizer required de-                    Aniline                         ∞       Diethylene glycol                ∞      Methoxybutyl acetate             ∞                                             Avocado oil           –            –       –        –         +        +
                                                                                    Antipyrine                    10%       Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether ∞      Methyl acetate                   ∞     Tannic acid                    50%
pend on what is expected from the PEG. The following sub-                           Azulene (guajol azulene)      10%       Dimethyl acetamide               ∞      Methyl diglycol                  ∞     Terpineol                        ∞      Benzaldehyde          +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                                                            Dimethyl formamide               ∞      Methyl ethyl ketone              ∞     Tetrahydrofuran                  ∞
stances have proved useful as antioxidants:                                         Beeswax                          ins.   Dimethyl phthalate               ∞      Methyl glycol                    ∞     Tetralin                       55%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Benzine               –            –       –        –         +        +
1. Polymeric trimethyldihydroquinoline                                              Benzaldehyde                       ∞    Dimethyl sulphoxide              ∞      Methyl glycol acetate            ∞     Thiourea                       10%      Benzene               +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Benzene                            ∞    Dioctyl phthalate              ins.     Methyl methacrylate              ∞     Thymol                         50%
2. Diphenylamine derivative                                                         Benzine                          ins.   Dioxan                           ∞      Methyl salicylate                ∞     Tin(II) chloride· 2H2O        *55%      Benzyl alcohol        +            +       +        +         +        +
3. Phenothiazine                                                                    Benzocaine                      50%     Diphenyl ether                   ∞      Methylene chloride               ∞     1,1,1-Trichloroethane            ∞      Butanol               +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Benzoic acid                    10%     Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate    ins.     Mineral oils                   ins.    Trichloroethene                  ∞
4. Phenyl-alpha naphthylamine                                                       Benzyl alcohol                     ∞    Dipropylene glycol               ∞      Morpholine                       ∞     Trichloro-tert-butyl alcohol   10%      Butanone              +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Borax, crystalline             0.3%     Dodecan-1-ol                     ∞                                             Triethanolamine                  ∞
5. 4,4' methylene-bis-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol                                                                                                                        -Naphthol                     40%     Triethylene glycol               ∞
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Butyl acetate         +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Bromo acid                      10%
6. Butylated hydroxyanisole                                                         Bromobenzene                       ∞    Ephedrine (1/2 H2O)             20%     Naphthalene                    10%     tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate ∞        Castor oil            +            +       –        –         +        +
                                                                                    Butanol                            ∞    Ester waxes                      ins.   Nitrobenzene                     ∞
7. Methoxyphenol (hydroxyanisole)                                                   Butyl acetate                      ∞    Ethanol                            ∞    Nitromethane                     ∞     Urea                           3%       Carbon
                                                                                    Butyl amine                        ∞    Ethyl acetate                      ∞                                                                                   disulphide            +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Butyl diglycol                     ∞    Ethyl aminoformate              50%     Octan-1-ol                       ∞     Vanillin                      10%
On the other hand, purely thermal decomposition without oxy-                        Butyl glycol                       ∞    Ethyl benzene                      ∞    Oil of eucalyptus               105    Vaseline                       ins.     Carbon
                                                                                                                            Ethyl diglycol                     ∞    Oil of lavender                10%     Vegetable oils                 ins.
gen can hardly be influenced by additives.                                                                                                                                                                                                         tetrachloride         +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Calcium chloride · 2H2O        20%      Ethyl glycol                       ∞    Oleic acid                       ∞
                                                                                    Camphor                        10%      Ethyl glycol acetate               ∞                                           Xylenol                          ∞      Chlorobenzene         +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Canauba wax                     ins.    2-Ethyl hexanol                    ∞    Paraffinic oil                  ins.   Xylene                           ∞
                                                                                    Carbon disulphide              10%      Ethylene chloride                  ∞    Paraldehyde                    50%                                             Chloroform            +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Carbon tetrachloride              ∞                                             PEG-lauric acid ester             ∞    Zinc chloride · 2H2O         *20%       Chlorinated
                                                                                    Casein                          ins.    Formamide                          ∞    PEG-sorbitanoleate          cold ss
                                                                                    Castor oil                       1%     Furfural                           ∞    Perchloroethylene              43%                                             paraffin              +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Catechol                       50%                                              Phenacetin                     10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   o-Cresol              +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Ceresin                         ins.    Gelatine                         ins.   Phenol                         50%
                                                                                    Cetyl stearyl alcohol       cold ss     Glacial acetic acid                ∞    Phenol, 90%                       ∞                                            Cyclohexane           –            +       –        –         +        +
                                                                                    Chloral hydrate                50%      Glycerol                           ∞    Phenothiazine                  15%
                                                                                    Chloramine T                   10%      Glycerol monostearate         cold ss   Phenyl acetate                    ∞                                            Cyclohexanol          +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Chlorinated paraffin 56 and 70 ∞        Glycerol triacetate                ∞    Phenylmercuric acetate         10%     * These metallic salts become so-       Cyclohexanone         +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Chlorobenzene                     ∞     Glycol                             ∞    Phenyl salicylate              50%     lute when heated to about 100°C
                                                                                    Chloroform                        ∞     Glycolic acid butyl ester          ∞    Phosphoric acid, 85%              ∞    and form highly viscous liquids         Diethyl ether         +            +       +        +         +        +
                                                                                    Chlorothymol                   50%      Gum Arabic                       ins.   Piperazine                     10%     with PEG 400 that are also stable       Diethylene glycol +                –       +        +         –        –
                                                                                    Citric acid                    25%                                              Polyethylene glycol 4,000       ins.   at room temperature.
                                                                                    Cobalt(II) chloride · 6H2O    *50%      Hexachlorophene                  45%    (warm soluble)                                                                 Diethylene glycol
                                                                                    Coconut oil amine              10%      Hexadecan-1-ol                cold ss   Polypropylene glycol 400         ∞
                                                                                    Colophony                      50%      Hydrochloric acid, 37%             ∞    Potassium iodide              *15%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   dimethyl ether        +            +       +        +         +        +




28   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                                      P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   29
     Physico-chemical properties
                   P41/300 B11/150 M 500 PR 600 B01/120 T01/35                                           P41/300 B11/150 M 500 PR 600 B01/120 T01/35
                                                                                                                                                          Molar mass distribution /
Dimethyl                                                                                Nitrobenzene       +       +      +      +       +      +         Hydroxyl value
formamide              +         +          +         +        +         +              Nitromethane       +       +      +      +       +      +
Dimethyl                                                                                Octan-1-ol         +       +      +      +       +      +      The various polyglycol types are not chemical compounds with
sulphoxide             +         +          +         +        –         –              Olive oil          –       –      –      –       +      +      a precisely defined molar mass, but rather polymers with a cer-
1,4-Dioxan             +         +          +         +        +         +              Oleic acid         +       +      +      +       +      +      tain molar mass distribution. Normally, the molar masses Mn –
Dipropylene                                                                             Paraffinic oil     –       –      –            +hot     +      calculated on the basis of the hydroxyl value (OH value) – are
glycol                 +         +          +         +        +         +              Peanut oil         –       –      –      –       +      +      the values listed. A knowledge of the OH value is decisive for
Ethanol                +         +          +         +        +         +              Perchloro-                                                     many chemical processes involving polyglycols.
Ethyl acetate          +         +          +         +        +         +              ethylene           +       +     40%    40%      +      +
Ethyl benzene          +         +          +         +        +         +              Petroleum ether    –       –      –      –       +      +                        56,110 x number of free OH groups per molecule
                                                                                                                                                          Molar mass =
Ethyl diglycol         +         +          +         +        +         +              Polyethylene                                                                                          OH value
Ethylene chloride +              +          +         +        +         +              glycol 400         +       +      +      +       –      –
Ethyl glycol           +         +          +         +        +         +              Polyethylene                                                   The molar mass distribution can be calculated by means of gel
2-Ethyl hexanol        +         +          +         +        +         +              glycol 4,000      +hot     –      –      –       –      –      permeation chromatography (GPC). This distribution range is
Fluorotrichloro-                                                                        Polypropylene                                                  generally quite narrow for polyethylene glycols (Fig. 5).
methane                +         +          +         +        +         +              glycol 2,000       –       +      –      –       +      +
Glycerol               –         –          +         +        –         –              Propylene glycol +         +      +      +       –      –
Glycol                 +         –          +         +        –         –              Spindle oil        –       –      –      –       +      +
Hexadecan-1-ol +hot            +hot     +hot        +hot     +hot        +              Stearic acid      + hot   +hot    –      –     +hot     +                                                                                                                                                 % (m / m)
Hexane                 –         –          –         –        +         +              Sulphuric acid                                                    Figure 5:
Hexan-1-ol             +         +          +         +        +         +              50%                +       +      +      +       –      –         Molar mass distribution of                        n=9                                                                                           14
Hydrochloric                                                                            Tetrahydrofuran    +       +      +      +       +      +         PEG 400–4,000                                     M = 414
                                                                                                                                                          Poisson distribution
acid, conc.            +         +      30%         30%        +         +              Tetralin           +       +      +      +       +      +                                                                                                                                                         12
Isopropyl alcohol +              +          +         +        +         +              Toluene            +       +      +      +       +      +
Kerosene               –         –          –         –        +         +              Trichloroethene    +       +      +      +       +      +
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10
Lactic acid, 80%       +         +          +         +        +         +              Trichloroethyl
Linseed oil            –         +          –         –        +         +              phosphate          +       +      +      +       +      +                                                                  n = 21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   M = 942                                                                                    8
Methanol               +         +          +         +        +         +              Triethanolamine    –       –      +      +       –      –
Methyl diglycol        +         +          +         +        +         +              Trixylenyl
Methylene                                                                               phosphate          +       +      +      +       +      +                                                                                       n = 51                                                                6
chloride               +         +          +         +        +         +              Turkey red oil     +       +      +      +       +      +                                                                                       M = 2262
Methyl glycol          +         +          +         +        +         +              Water              +       +      +      +       –      –                                                                                                                                                             4
Mineral oil            –         –          –         –      +hot        +              Xylene             +       +      +      +       +      +                                                                                                                             n = 101
Morpholine             +         +          +         +        +         +                                                                                                                                                                                                    M = 4462
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2



                                                                                                                                                                                                    n=        20         40       60                 80              100         120           140 = n
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Polyethylene glycol H(OCH2CH2)nOH



30   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                     P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /    P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S       31
     Physico-chemical properties
     Particle size distribution /                                                       Physiological behaviour /                                                FDA regulation of polyethylene glycols
     Powder density                                                                     Pharmaceutical and food approvals
                                                                                                                                                               Table 2
Polyethylene glycols with molar masses of 1,500 to 35,000 are                       The harmlessness of polyethylene glycols in terms of health risk           Regulation   Application                                                                           Type
usually supplied in flake form (S types) with flake sizes of 0.5–2                  is of key significance in many applications in pharmaceutics,              (21 CFR)
cm. Powdered (P types) are also available with molar masses of                      cosmetics and food packaging. Polyethylene glycols are appro-              § 73.1       Diluent in color additive mixtures fo coloring shell eggs.                            Polyglykol 6000 (S)
3,000 to 20,000 as well as fine powders (PF types) at 3,000 to                      ved and listed in all major pharmacopoeias as adjuvants in pro-            § 172.210    Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.                                                       Polyglykol 200 USP and 300 to 8000 (S)
8,000. Polyethylene glycols in powder form are used where                           duction of pharmaceuticals. The low content level requirements             § 172.820    Use in food. Special requirement: no more than 0.2 per cent                           Polyglykol 200 USP and 300 to 8000 (S)
thorough mixing with other types of components in the dry state                     for monoethylene glycol and diethylene glycol of 0.2% as well                           total by weight of ethylene and diethylene glycol.
is important, e.g. in tablet manufacture or preparation of cera-                    as the specification for maximum residual ethylene oxide and               § 173.310    Boiler water additive.                                                                Polyglykol 200 USP and 300 to 8000 (S)
mic pressing masses.                                                                dioxan of 1 ppm are generally met by our polyethylene glycols              § 173.340    Defoaming agent.                                                                      Polyglykol 200 USP and 300 to 8000 (S)
Table 1 shows the sieve analysis for a typical particle size dis-                   beginning at a molecular weight of 300. A Special Quality has              § 175.105    Indirect food additives: components of adhesives                                      Polyglykol 200 USP and 300 to 6000 (S)
tribution and the powder density of our polyglycol powders.                         been defined for Polyglykol 200 (Polyglykol 200 USP) used in               § 175.300    Resinous and polymeric coatings: esters with triglycerides                            Polyglykol 200 USP and 300 to 35000 (S)
                                                                                    such applications. The microbiological specifications and the                           or fatty acids derived from oils
                                                                                    maximum germ counts for pharmaceutical adjuvants are also                  § 177.2420   Polyester resins, crosslinked                                                         Polyglykol 6000 (S)
Table 1                                                                             met by the polyglycols. In addition to pharmaceutical listings,            § 177.2600   Rubber articles intended for repeated use                                             Polyglykol 200 USP and 300 to 8000 (S)
Particle size distribution of PEG powder                                            approvals of polyglycols for food-related applications are deci-           § 177.2800   Textiles and textile fibers, adjuvant substances                                      Polyglykol 400 to 3000 (S)
Microns                Powder                         Fine powder                   sive for a large number of applications, mainly in the field of            § 178.3120   Animal glue                                                                           Polyglykol 300 to 8000 (S)
                       3,000–20,000                   3,000–8,000                   packaging. Both in Germany and the US, polyglycols are listed              § 178.3750   Use as a component of articles intended for use in contact with food.                 Polyglykol 200 USP and 300 to 8000 (S)
                       %                              %                             in the BgVV (German Federal Institute of Consumer Health Pro-                           Special requirement: no more than 0.2 per cent total by weight of ethylene
      < 90             10–20                          75–90                         tection and Veterinary Medicine) Recommendations and the                                and diethylene glycol.
90–200                 20–35                          10–20                         FDA Code of Federal Regulations for many applications invol-               § 178.3910   Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles.                      Polyglykol 300 to 35000 (S)
     > 200             55–70                              1–5                       ving potential food contact (Tabs. 2, 3, 4).                                            Special requirement: no more than 0.2 per cent total by weight of ethylene
                                                                                                                                                                            and diethylene glycol.
Powder density (kg /     m 3)                                                       Please also refer to our brochure "Your universally applicable Polymer".   § 181.30     Substances used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard products                   Polyglykol 400
Flakes                 Powder                         Fine powder                                                                                                           used in food packaging
400–500                500–700                        450–550




32   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                      P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S    /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   33
     Physico-chemical properties
      BGVV (German Federal Health Office) Recommendations for PEGs                                                                                                   FDA regulation of polyalkylene glycols

Table 3                                                                                                                                                            Table 4
 BGVV Recom-            Class of substance                                           Position as of   End use and limits                Purity requirements        Regulation   Application                                                                                  Type
 mendation
                                                                                                                                                                   (21 CFR)
 III                    polyethylene                                                 01.12.1995       lubricant, antiblocking agent,    max. 0.2 %
                                                                                                      antistatic agent, max. 0.25 %     monoethylene glycol
                                                                                                                                                                   § 173.310    Additive for steam boiler to generate steam that comes into contact with food                Polyglykol B11/50 to B11/300
 V                      polystyrene                                                  01.12.1995       antistatic agent,                 max. 0.2 %
                                                                                                      max. 3 %                          monoethylene glycol        § 173.340    Constituent of anti-foaming agents used for sugarbeet production.                            Polyglykol B11/300
 VI                     styrene co- and graft polymers,                              01.12.1995       lubricant,                        max. 0.2 %                 § 175.105    Constituent of adhesives used to process articels for packaging,                             Polyglykol B11/50 to B11/300
                        mixtures of polystyrene with                                                  mould release agent,              monoethylene glycol
                        polymers                                                                      max. 8 %*
                                                                                                                                                                                transport or storing food                                                                    Polyglykol B01/40 to B01/240

 IX                     dyestuffs for the coloration of                              01.06.1994       auxiliary,                        max. 0.1 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Polyglykol D21/150 to D21/700
                        plastics and other polymers                                                   max. 0.35 %**                     monoethylene glycol        § 176.200    Constituent of anti-foaming agents used in the preparation and coating of paper              Polyglykol B11/300 to B11/700
 X                      polyamides                                                   01.12.1995       carrier, adhesion promoter,                                               and cardboard                                                                                Polyglykol B01/50 to B01/300
                                                                                                      max. 0.2 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Polyglykol D21/150 to D21/700
 XII                    unsaturated polyester resins                                 01.07.1984       mould release agent, lubricant    molar mass at least 1000
                                                                                                                                                                   § 176.210    Constituent of anti-foaming agents used in the manufacture of paper                          Polyglykol B11/300 to B11/700
 XIII                   cellulose film                                               25.08.1985       humectant max. 15 %               max. 0.2 %
                                                                                     replaced 1989    (also triethylene glycol)         monoethylene glycol                     and cardboard                                                                                Polyglykol B01/50 to B01/300

 XIV                    polymer dispersions                                          01.12.1995       defoamer, max. 10 %                                          § 178.1010   Constituent of disinfectants to clean food-processing machines or other objects              Polyglykol B11/50 to B11/700

 XVII                   polyterephthalic acid diole ester                            01.12.1995       starting substance, max. 0.1 %                                            that come into contact with food

 XXI                    natural and synthetic rubber                                 01.12.1995       processing aid, lubricant,        max. 0.2 %                 § 178.3120   Anti-foaming agent as in § 176.210 for use in production of animal glues                     Polyglykol B11/150 to B11/700
                                                                                                      mould release agent               monoethylene glycol                                                                                                                  Polyglykol B01/40 to B01/240
 XXVII                  plasticized PVC for                                          01.03.1989       antistatic agent                  molar mass at least 400                                                                                                              Polyglykol D21/150 to D21/700
                        conveyor belts
                                                                                                                                                                   § 178.3570   Constituent of lubricants for processing in machines to manufacture, process,                Polyglykol B11/50 to B11/700
 XXVIII                 crosslinked polyurethane                                     01.06.1981       educt
                                                                                                                                                                                prepare , treat , package, transport or store food.                                          Polyglykol B01/40 to B01/240
 XXXV                   copolymers from ethylene,                                    01.12.1995       processing aid in uncrosslinked   max. 0.2 %
                        propylene, butylene, vinyl esters                                             peroxidically crosslinked and     monoetyhlene glycol                                                                                                                  Polyglykol D21/150 to D21/700
                        and saturated aliphatic acids,                                                ionically crosslinked material,                              § 178.3910   Surface lubricants used in the manufacture of metallic articles.                             Polyglykol B11/50 to B11/700
                        salts and esters                                                              max. 0.1 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Polyglykol B01/40 to B01/240
 XXXVI                  paper, board, cartons                                        01.12.1995       humectant                         max. 0.2 %
                                                                                                                                        monoetyhlene glycol
 XLI                    polyurethanes for paper coating                              01.01.1975       raw material
 XLIV                   artificial sausage skins                                     10.05.1995       polyethylene glycol               max. 0.2 %
                        (cellulose film)                                                              max. 27.5 %* in conjunction       monoetyhlene glycol
                                                                                                      with coating,
                                                                                                      complying BGVV
 XLVI                   crosslinked polyethylene                                     01.06.1984       lubricant,                        max. 0.2 %
                                                                                                      max. 1 %*                         monoetyhlene glycol
 XLVIII                 materials for the coating of                                 01.03.1975       wax dispersion                    max. 0.2 %
                        hollow glassware                                                                                                monoetyhlene glycol
 KTW                    polyethylene                                                 12.08.1976       lubricant, antistatic agent,      max. 0.2 %
 part 1.3.2                                                                                           max. 0.25 %                       monoetyhlene glycol
 health                 hair sprays                                                  20.01.1978       film-former                       max. 0.2 %
 evaluation                                                                                                                             monoetyhlene glycol

 *      Total quantity of all the auxiliaries used for this purpose
 **     Based on colored part of the consumer article




34     P O LYA L K Y L E N E         G LY C O L S       /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E    G LY C O L S                                                                                                                            P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   35
     Applications
                                                                                                                                                          thermoplasts. To prevent migration of the polyethylene glycols
     Technical ceramics /                                                               Production of rubber and elastomers                               out of the plastics, use of high-molecular types such as Polygly-              Binding agents for detergent tablets
     Powder metallurgy                                                                  – polyglycols as lubricant and mould                              kol 20,000, 20,000SRU or 35,000 is recommended.                                (cleaning agents for clothes, dishes,
                                                                                        release agents and as vulcanization                                                                                                              denture cleaners)
Polyethylene glycols are used as lubricants, plasticizers and                           activators
binding agents in the production of extruded ceramic compo-                                                                                                  Paper industry, wood and cellophane                                     Polyethylene glycols are used as water-soluble binding agents
nents made of oxide powders, ferrite extrusion masses or pow-                       Polyethylene glycols have been used for some time in the rub-            processing                                                              for production and pressing of detergent tablets. The rate of ta-
der metals. The standard PEG types 4,000, 6,000 and 20,000 are                      ber and tyre industry. In most cases, PEG 4,000, 6,000 or 8,000                                                                                  blet dissolution can be set as desired by selecting the right type
used as well as the thermally stable product Polyglykol 20,000                      are used. Using the high-molecular PEG 20,000 usually enhan-          The combination of low levels of volatility, hydrophilia and hy-           and dosage of PEGs.
SR formulated especially for the ceramics industry.                                 ces the effect even further. PEGs in the form of a 1–5% aqueous       groscopicity make polyethylene glycols a suitable additive with
In the extruding process, 1% PEG usually suffices to ensure a                       solution can be sprayed into the vulcanization moulds or added        favourable effects on the moisture levels in paper, wood and
sufficient plasticizing effect. Ceramic spray granulates require                    directly to the rubber formula. Polyglycols make mould release        cellophane, thus preventing brittleness, drying out and tearing,               Additives in fibre, textile and leather
about 4% PEGs. In powder injection moulding, much higher per-                       easy. They give the vulcanisates an attractive finish which in        as well as improving the uptake and flow characteristics or ink                processing
centages of binding agent are required. Polyethylene glycols                        the case of black goods is distinguished by a deep shade and          and other colours on paper. According to BgVV and FDA Re-
have numerous advantages over other binding agents.                                 velvety sheen. In general, foam rubber articles require higher        commendations (see Tabs. 2, 3, 4), polyglycols have been ap-               Polyglycols, above all liquid types from the B11, D21, B01, M
– A lower melting point of only about 60°C                                          concentrations. By contrast with mineral oils, polyglycols do         proved for many applications related to food products. Depositi-           and PR series are used in lubricant formulae for processing
– Excellent water solubility facilitating production of aqueous                     not attack rubber and can readily be washed off with water.           on of PEGs in the cell walls of wood can prevent the well-kno-             wool, cellulose and synthetic fibres. The polyglycols used con-
     powder slurries for subsequent spray granulation.                              According to the FDA Recommendation for Rubber Articles (21           wn phenomenon of drying shrinkage, rendering the wood di-                  tribute a combination of favourable characteristics.
– Good plasticizing and lubricating properties in production of                     CFR § 177.2600), PEGs have been approved as processing aids,          mensionally stable.                                                        – Low levels of volatility and residue formation
     moulded parts.                                                                 lubricants and release agents for rubber articles that come into                                                                                 – Good lubricant properties (fibre/metal, and fibre/fibre)
– Improved stability of form and edges and better rupture sta-                      contact with food products.                                                                                                                      – Ready solubility in water, making them easy to wash out
     bility in “green” mouldings.                                                   As vulcanization activators, for example with highly dispersed           Additives in the building materials                                     – Antistatic effect
– Thorough burning without influencing the electrical pro-                          silicic acid, the addition of PEGs (especially PEG 6,000 to 20,000)      industry                                                                – No discoloration of fibres due to the influences of light and
     perties of the finished ceramics.                                              to the vulcanization masses enhances filler dispersion during                                                                                       heat
                                                                                    the mixing process and improves tensile strength modulus and          Polyglycols are used variously in the field of building material           Pure, high-molecular polyethylene glycols are used as formula
Polyglycols are also good carrying media and binding agents                         tear resistance of the end product. PEG 1,500 can be used as a        chemistry in accordance with their specific structures.                    additives for surface treatment of glass fibres.
for pigments. Adding them increases the adhesion strength of                        processing additive for latex production. The PEG acts as a re-
raw glazes and ceramic colours.                                                     lease agents to prevent sticking.                                     – B11, D21, P41 and B01 polyglycols are used as components
Mixing ceramic colours with molten polyglycol (at approx. 70°C,                                                                                              of defoaming agents and pore regulators in flow concrete.                   Anticaking treatment / Spray-coating
for example, 4–5 parts by weight colour with 1 part PEG 6,000)                                                                                            – Polyethylene glycols are commonly used as additives to in-                   of fertilizers and enzymes
and allowing the mass to solidify in colour cups produces a                             Plasticizers, modifiers, processing aids                             crease the flow qualities of liquid fillers and levelling mas-
substance that is easily grindable with water. Glass colours can                        in plastic manufacturing                                             ses. For these applications, dry mixtures of polyethylene gly-          Spray-granulated fertilizers must be protected from caking by
also easily be applied to glass décor using this method. The                                                                                                 col powders are added to cement and mortar formulae.                    suitable treatment. At the same time, consumers demand that
colour mass dries more quickly than applying turpentine oil.                        At low concentration levels, polyethylene glycols influence es-       – Copolymers with M and R polyglycol side branch groups ser-               the granule surface be coated so as to prevent dust from for-
                                                                                    sential properties such as water uptake, softening behaviour or          ve to slow down the setting process; they are also used to              ming. Both of these demands are met by coating the fertilizer
                                                                                    the electrical puncture strength of thermoplastic materials.             plasticize and improve the flow characteristics for concrete            granules with high-molecular polyethylene glycols.
                                                                                    And, as described in the previous section, they also act as lu-          processing.                                                             In enzyme production as well, the enzyme product can be pro-
                                                                                    bricants during processes such as extrusion, injection moulding                                                                                  tected from ambient influences and oxidation by means of a
                                                                                    or calendering. For this reason, PEGs are used as additives in                                                                                   spray-coat of PEGs.
                                                                                    plastics such as polyethylene, polyoxymethylene and fluoro-



36   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                         P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   37
     Applications
                                                                                         Esterification products of polyglycols (PEGs, M-PEGs, B11, D21        In the production of polyesters and polyamides, polyethylene              are highly viscous, water-soluble polyethylene glycols or inso-
     Pharmaceutical and cosmetic                                                         and B01 types) as well as additive compounds of silicones and         glycols are used to modify the polymeric properties.                      luble gels capable of swelling.
     preparations                                                                        allyl polyglycols are also used as foam regulators and defo-
                                                                                         aming agents in coatings and paints (see section: Reactions
As we explained above in the chapter on properties, polyethyle-                          with polyglycols).                                                       Reactions with isocyanates                                                 Reactions with functionalized polygly-
ne glycols are used as additives and adjuvants in many diffe-                                                                                                                                                                                cols – allyl polyglycols
rent pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications on the basis of                                                                                                  Reactions of polyglycols with isocyanates follow the scheme
their physiological harmlessness. Many PEG types have recei-                                 Reactions with polyglycols                                        shown in Fig. 6. Use of diisocyanates together with dihydrofun-           Catalytic addition of an Si-H function to the allyl group in allyl
ved INCI designations as cosmetic components. The application                                                                                                  ctional polyglycols results in linear polyurethanes, whereas use          polyglycols as in the reaction in Fig. 7 (hydrosilylation reaction)
profile reaches from maintaining moisture levels in creams and                           All of the polyglycols described here have primary or secondary       of trifunctional and tetrafunctional isocyanates and polyglycols          results in silicone surfactants composed of a hydrophobic sili-
toothpastes (Polyglykol 300 to 2,000 S) to binding agents in                             alcoholic terminal groups that are accessible to common reac-         – e.g. polyglycols from the P41 series – results in cross-linked          cone and the hydrophilic polyglycol unit. Depending on the type
tablets (Polyglykol 3,000 P to 8,000 P), water-soluble tablet coa-                       tions such as esterification, etherification and reactions with       polyurethanes. M-type polyglycols contain only one terminal               of polyglycol used, their properties can be widely varied. These
tings (Polyglykol 20,000 S, 35,000 S) and use as actives in laxa-                        isocyanates and epoxides. The proportion of secondary hy-             OH group, resulting in chain terminations in reactions with               products are commonly used as special surfactants, defoaming
tive formulae (Polyglykol 3,350 P).                                                      droxyl groups in the ethylene oxide and propylene oxide copoly-       isocyanates. Polypropylene glycols are used most frequently in            agents and foam regulators in paints and foam materials.
Please also refer to our brochure "Your universally applicable Polymer".                 mers increases with the content of propylene oxide.                   production of standard polyurethanes. The much more hydro-
                                                                                                                                                               philic polyethylene glycols are used to modify elasticity, synthe-        Figure 7: Hydrosilylation of allyl polyglycols
                                                                                                                                                               size polyurethane-based thickeners for paints and coatings (as-
     Modifiers in viscose production                                                         Esterifications                                                   sociative thickeners) and in production of aqueous polyuretha-               CH3    CH3                                Pt   CH3 CH3

                                                                                                                                                               ne dispersions. Decisive factors in reactions with isocyanates              -(Si-O)n-Si-H + CH2 = CH-CH2-O(CH2CH2O)nH È -(Si-O)n-Si-CH2CH2CH2O(CH2CH2O)nH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             CH3 CH3                                       CH3 CH3
Polyethylene glycols with a molar mass of 400 to 4,000 g/mol                             Polyglycols can form esters with their free hydroxyl groups.          are the purity and low water content of the polyglycols used.
have come to play a significant role as modifiers in the produc-                         Monoesters, diesters and polyesters can be synthesized depen-         Clariant carries a number of special polyglycols for these appli-
tion of high-strength regenerated (semi-synthetic) cellulose                             ding on the specific functionality of a polyglycol and the acid       cations.
fibres. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the spinning process                      used. Polyglycols are used as hydrophilic components, for                                                                                           Reactions with functionalized
slows the acidification of the viscose, resulting in higher wet                          example in the synthesis of stearic or oleic acid esters. The         Figure 6: Reaction of polyglycols with isocyanates                            polyglycols – vinyl polyglycols
and dry strengths as well as reduced swelling capacities in                              hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) can be specifically controlled
staple fibres and cord / textile rayon.                                                  by selecting an appropriate polyglycol. Polypropylene glycols                                                  O               O                R-type polyglycols can be radically copolymerized with suitable
                                                                                         and ethylene oxide / propylene oxide copolymers such as the            HO-(CH2CH2 O)nH +   2R-N=C=O È R-NH-C-O(CH      2CH2O)n-C-NH-R           comonomers such as maleic acid anhydride, vinyl acetate or
                                                                                         products from the B01, B11, D21 or MP series have secondary                 Polyglycol     Isocyanate              Polyurethane                 methylacrylic acid to raise the hydrophilia and dispersability of
     Solvents and additives in inks, paints,                                             hydroxyl groups in contrast to pure ethylene oxide polymers.                                                                                    the resulting polymer in water.
     coatings and adhesives                                                              These groups are more difficult to esterify, although the resul-                                                                                These polyglycols can be used as reactive emulsifiers and sta-
                                                                                         ting esters are then more stable against hydrolysis. Esterification      Reactions with epoxides                                                bilizers in emulsion and suspension polymerization. With their
Polyglycols are used as non-volatile solvents and substrates for                         of monohydro-functional polyglycols of the M and B series with                                                                                  single free OH group, R-type polyglycols can also be used in a
paints, inks and adhesives. Due to their reduced tendency to                             methylacrylic acid, maleic acid or other unsaturated acids            Reactions of the free hydroxyl groups in polyglycols with epoxi-          wide variety of chemical reactions.
evaporate they prevent the mixtures from drying out and help                             results in macromonomers capable of radical copolymerization.         des, such as for example glycidyl methacrylate, can be used to            In reactions with isocyanates and/or polyesters, a reactive
disperse pigments. Either hydrophilia or hydrophobia can be                              Their hydrophilic properties exert an essential influence on the      provide various reactive groups available for further reactions           vinyl group is integrated in the resulting polymer. Hydrophilysa-
achieved by adjusting the ethylene oxide : propylene oxide ratio.                        solubility and dispersion characteristics of the resulting poly-      with the hydrophilic polyglycol chain.                                    tion of silicones is obtained by additive hydrosilation of both
In terms of pure polyethylene glycols (PEGs) the hydrophilia                             mers. Use of dihydrofunctional PEGs in the same esterification        Dihydroxyfunctional polyethylene glycols can be cross-linked to           vinyl- and allyl polyglycols. As is the case with all vinyl ethers,
(and water solubility) of the products is reduced towards the                            process results in water-soluble cross-linking agents for radical     diepoxides such as bisphenol-A-diepoxide. Depending on the                R-type polyglycols tend to break down the vinyl function in an
D21, B11 and B01 end of the range.                                                       polymerizations.                                                      proportion of diepoxide and on the polyglycol used, the results           acidic environment.




38   P O LYA L K Y L E N E      G LY C O L S     /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                        P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S     /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   39
     Applications
                                                                                    Polyglycols of the PR series can be used for the formulation of        compressors that are used for the polymerisation of ethylene or           Metalworking/plastics processing
     Components for lubricants                                                      biologically degradable hydraulic fluids that are ecologically         propylene.                                                                Polyglycols, e. g. polyglycols of the PR and P41 series, are
                                                                                    and toxicologically harmless. These hydraulic fluids are exten-                                                                                  suitable for the formulation of water-soluble, fully synthetic
The chemical structure of polyglycols gives them very low                           sively used in the food processing industry.                           The solubility of ethylene in B11/150K polyglycol under compa-            cooling/cutting lubricants and spark erosion fluids and for ma-
friction factors, high viscosity indices and minimal pressure-                                                                                             rable pressure conditions is only one tenth of the solubility in          chining steel, castings and lead-free alloys. A typical formula-
viscosity dependence. They also show little sensitivity to shear                    Gear lubricants for extreme temperatures                               white oil. In addition to lower solubility of the gases that are          tion would consist of 10–50 % Polyglycol P41/3000 and 50–90 %
stress. These properties make them interesting candidates for                       Polyglycols are characterised by a shallow viscosity-tempera-          being compressed, lubricant consumption is much lower than                Hostacor IT. 1–5 % solutions are used, depending upon the
lubricant applications. The melting point of pure polyethylene                      ture curve (high VIE -Index), insensitiveness to shearing, out-        with white oil. Other advantages of polyglycols for use as com-           complexity of the machining process.
glycols is, however, above 0°C beginning at a molar mass of                         standing wear protection, excellent ageing stability as well as        pressor lubricants include:
approx. 400 g/mol, so that these substances are unsuitable for                      low friction values and very low solidification points. Conse-                                                                                   Water-soluble polyglycols of the P41, PR, B11 and D21 series
many lubrication uses. By means of copolymerization with pro-                       quently polyglycols, but particularly those of the B01, B11, D21       • High load bearing capacity also without additives                       are ideal heating conducting fluids for use in tempering plastic
pylene oxide, the melting point, or pour point, can be reduced to                   and T01 series, are ideally suited for the formulation of synthetic    • Favourable viscosity-temperature behaviour                              parts, for pressureless vulcanisation and for the production
-40 to -50°C. This makes B11, D21, B01 and P41 polyglycols                          hydraulic fluids and the lubrication of enclosed, high-load            • The viscosity is less dependent on the pressure                         of PC-boards in the electrical industry. In all instances the poly-
useful as basic oils and formula components for lubricants,                         industrial transmission gears, e.g. in rolling mills, feed mills,      • The danger of catalyst poisoning is minimised because poly-             glycol based heat carrier/lubricating medium can be easily
aqueous hydraulic fluids and metal-processing fluids.                               kneaders and conveyors.                                                 glycols do not contain any sulphur                                       washed off with water.
                                                                                                                                                           • The compressed gas can be readily removed by washing with
More detailed examples for the use of polyglycols as lubricants                     As a result of their low coefficient of friction the use of polygly-    water
are given below:                                                                    cols as a lubricant in wormgear transmissions, the oil tempera-
                                                                                    ture can be reduced and the lubrication efficiency increased,          Low-viscous polyglycols of the B11, D21 and B01 series contai-
Fire resistant hydraulic fluids (HFC)                                               thereby significantly extending the service life of the given ma-      ning the corresponding additives are also used to lubricate
Fire resistant hydraulic fluids are used extensively for safety                     chine.                                                                 refrigeration compressors in conjunction with different refrige-
reasons in many industries (mining, foundries, aluminium and                                                                                               rants (e.g. R134 A.)
die-casting industry). The composition of these fluids is as                        In correspondingly designed vehicles polyglycols can be used
follows:                                                                            to lubricate the rear axle transmission.                               Lubricant greases
                                                                                    The „Lubricant Additive 1655“ is ideal for the formulation of po-      High-quality lubricant greases, particularly for use involving
• Approx. 45 % water as the non-combustible constituent                             lyglycol gear transmission oils. For instance 1 part of Lubricant      high and very low temperatures, can be produced with polygly-
• Approx. 25 % ethylene-, diethylene-, triethylene- or propylene-                   Additive 1655 and 15 parts polyglycol B01/120 results in an out-       cols. Modified bentonite or pyrogenic silicic acid can be used
 glycol as anti-freeze compound                                                     standing ageing resistance and a breakdown load stage                  as thickeners. Hydrocarbon resistant greases can be produced
• Approx. 20 % highly viscous, water-soluble polyglycol (e. g.                      exceeding 12 in the tightened FZG test conditions (A/16.6/90).         with water-soluble polyglycols, e. g. the B11, D21 or PR types.
 Polyglycol P41/12000) to achieve the required viscosity and
 lubricity                                                                          Lubricants for gas and refrigeration compressors                       Quenching bath additives
• Approx. 10 % additives to avoid liquid- and gaseous-phase                         Conventional, mineral oil based lubricants tend to absorb non-         The polyglycols P41/3000 and P41/12000 have proved their
 corrosion, as anti-foaming agent and wear protection.                              polar gases while oxidation increases their viscosity. Polygly-        worth as an additive for quenching baths. The formation of a
                                                                                    cols, on the other hand, absorb far less gases such as methane,        water vapour skin during the quenching process is avoided,
The polyglycol/additive mixing ratio is of decisive importance                      ethane, ethylene or propylene on account of their polar charac-        and with it soft spots and cracking. The maximum cooling rate
for the quality of the formulation. Water-glycol hydraulic fluids                   ter. This makes polyglycols, but particularly those of the B11         is diminished in a targeted manner and shifted towards higher
have a clearly more favourable ecological profile than mineral                      series, ideal lubricants for gas compressors. Consequently the         temperature. The amount added to quenching baths is in the
oil or fully synthetic formulations.                                                P41/200K and B11/150K types are ideal polyglycol lubricants for        order of 2 – 5 % polyglycol.




40   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S                                                                                                                                         P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   41
     Shipping and storage                                                               Notes
Liquid PEG 200–600 are shipped in polyethylene or corrugated
steel drums, pallet containers (1 t) or in road or rail tankers. Fla-
kes or powder forms of PEG are supplied in polyethylene sacks
or Big-Bags. The soft, waxy product PEG 1,000 is only available
in a “fused” form. The solid types PEG 800–8,000 are available
as low-cost molten goods supplied in heated tankers.


PEGs in sealed original packaging have a shelf life of 2 years if
stored in a cool, dry place.


Exclusion of moisture is very important, since liquid PEGs are
hygroscopic and the solid types absorb any moisture they are
exposed to due to their good solubility in water. Each time the
containers are opened, they should be released to make them
airtight.


Suitable materials for storage tanks include stainless steel,
pure aluminium, containers lined with rubber or polyethylene
and glass-fibre-reinforced polyester. Tank ventilation should be
realized through a silica gel drying valve. Standard steel tanks
are useful to a certain degree only, since product discolo-
rations from traces of iron may occur after longer periods of
storage.


Stainless steel or aluminium containers with an external heat-
ing coil are suitable for storage of PEG 600 to 8,000 in the mol-
ten state. The storage temperature should not exceed 90°C.
Gentle circulation mixing with a circulation pump and top-filling
of the storage container with a dry stream of nitrogen are
advisable.

                                                                                                                        Our products are constantly upgraded on the basis of the latest re-
                                                                                                                        search results. Products may occasionally be deleted in the course
                                                                                                                        of updating the sales range. Development products that have rea-
                                                                                                                        ched the production stage are not included in this list.

                                                                                                                        This information is based on our present knowledge and is intended
                                                                                                                        to provide general notes on our products and their uses. It should
                                                                                                                        not therefore be construed as guaranteeing specific properties of
                                                                                                                        the products described or their suitability for a particular applicati-
                                                                                                                        on. Any existing industrial property rights must be observed. The
                                                                                                                        quality of our products is guaranteed under our General Conditions
                                                                                                                        of Sale.

                                                                                                                        December 2003




42   P O LYA L K Y L E N E   G LY C O L S   /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E   G LY C O L S           P O LYA L K Y L E N E    G LY C O L S      /   P O LY E T H Y L E N E       G LY C O L S     43
Exactly your chemistry.

Clariant GmbH
Division Functional Chemicals
Industrial Performance Chemicals


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