Social Partners and
Research Director Fundación 1º de mayo. CC.OO. Spain
30th of March ETUI Conference. Brussels.
Coordination: Fundación 1º de mayo. Spain
Preliminary Report about Green Jobs in the European Union
ISTAS (Union Institute of Work, Environment and Health).
5 National reports about green jobs, climate change
and social dialogue:
Germany- Alexander Gallas (International Center for
Development and Decent Work. University of Kassel).
Sweden- Bo Johansson (SALTSA. Uppsala University).
Spain- Begoña María-Tomé (ISTAS).
Italy- Serena Rugiero. Osservatorio Energia e
France- Benoit Robin (IRES-France).
A literature review on the national
policies and plans implemented in EU-
27 to promote a green economy,
green jobs (sept. 2010).
A questionnaire to the 27 embassy’s
economy and labour section.
Preliminary Report Contents
1. Political framework for green
economy at european level.
2. Overview of green jobs in the EU
3. Review of the agenda for green
jobs in Member States
4. References and significant web
Bibliography and references links
More than 205 references at the
European level and national level
References with the web links
Preliminary Report Conclusions
5 millions of green jobs in Europe
Official definition for “green Number of green jobs
Germany Yes 1.800.000
United Kingdom Yes 881.000
France Yes 404.900
Austria Yes 185.145
(National Statistics Agency)
Denmark Yes 49.300
Ireland Yes 19.160
Bulgaria Yes ¿?
Spain No 530.947
Italy No 297.000-336.000
Poland No 221.280
Belgium No 126.000
Finland No 11.275
Germany: General Debates
With the CDU-FPD government the idea of
“Green New Deal” (GND) has been ignored.
The unions (DGB) has endorsed the idea of
the GND in its conference in 2010 but with
reluctance. Its proposals are building
renovation, investment in public transport,
and energy efficiency. Thinking more in a
Social New Deal with few green aspects.
For the employers “green jobs” haven't to
be the focus of strategies in economic and
Germany: Social Dialogue
Building Renovation Programme.
It is the most significant instance of cooperation
between social partners.
Implemented by the red-green government in 2000.
It created 200.000 jobs each year between 2006-08.
Other sectorial agreements: Aluminium, Electric
Mobility (IG Metall, Federal Gov, scientists and
branches of industry affected)
Agreements only with employers, without
unions.(After the rigth gov’t).
Sweden: General Debates
Sweden was a leading actor in the EU:
Goal of 50% energy consumption from renewable
energy by 2020
Car fleet independent of fossil energy by 2030.
Net emissions of greenhouse gases will be Zero by
But this issue has lost considerable intensity
since the Copenhagen summit in 2009. More
often remains on the rhetorical level.
After the emergence of the financial crisis the
priorities of the voters valued Climate Change
as the tenth issue.
Sweden: Social Dialogue
No formalized social dialogue on climate change at
central organizations level.
Unions (LO, TCO, Saco):
Relates the climate change with jobs, welfare system and
Promotes the idea of including these matters in the
collective bargaining agenda
Need of a carbon tax
Sweden must maintain a leading position.
The Employers agree with the long-term environmental
objectives, but not legally binding for the companies.
Some of the goal relating transport, energy and chemical
sector are unrealistic in the given time-limit.
The Swedish Union of Local Government Officers has
reached an agreement stating that the climate
improvements by employees shall be rewarded.
Spain: General Debates
On March 2011 the Sustainable Economy Bill (SEB) was
approved, without social dialogue, after two years of
discussions, it get worse after may 2010. In many matters
the Bill is considered merely a declaration of principles. The
VAT reduction for building renovation.
Promotion of energy services.
No carbon tax.
The law allows to extend the life of the nuclear plants
(Agreement of the socialdemocratic and right parties).
The Gov. have change the legal framework of aids to the
renewable energy sector, and thousands of employs have
been laid off.
Spain: Social Dialogue
There are 8 Sectorial Social Dialogue Boards, tripartite
(unions, employers, gov.) created in 2005 by law, after de
“Social Agreement for dialogue on the compliance with
Kyoto Protocol”: electricity, refineries, iron, steel and coke
industries, cement plants, ceramic and paste, glass
industry, paper and cardboard, and diffuse emissions.
Employers prefer to maintain them as an
exchange of opinion and information.
Unions believe that theses boards should become
a space for political debate and social consensus.
In the wind sector there has been a bilateral initiative
(unions and employers) develop defend jobs. 6000 direct
employees and 10.000 indirect have been laid off due to
the legal changes.
Italy: General Debates
The implementation these policies are in
trouble after the inconclusive results of
Copenhagen summit of 2009.
Most of the normative frame of reference
is almost entirely derived from EU.
Unions: “A sense of failure”
Confindustria criticises the gov. for
constraints to the industry in order to
meet the EU´s goals.
Italy: Social Dialogue
There isn't social dialogue at national level about
There is an Economic and Social Council for
Environmental Policies since 2004, with social
partners and Gov’t.
Unions and employers considered that is not very
useful due to the short-time positions of the Gov’t.
Building Renovation Agreement (Tax reduction of 55%
for energy renovation)
Positive effects at productive and employment
level: technological innovation and emergence of
the black market.
France: General Debates
Before the economic crisis the sustainable
development had become omnipresent.
2007 Environment Grenelle.
National Sustainable Development Strategy.
Report on “Green growth and employment”
600.000 new employs
The crisis reduce the extent to which
environmental issues are taken into
France: Social Dialogue
The most important processes of consultation with all
the social partners is the Environment Grennelle.
Eleven sectors committees were created in November
2009:transport, car industry, renewable energy,
water-sanitation-waste-air, building, agriculture and
forestry, eco-electric systems, refineries-fuel-green
chemicals, tourism, maritime, biodiversity-ecological
Three levels: State, sectors and regions.
The Unions (CGT, FO, CFDT) opinion is that the
government impetus about sustainable development
seems to have disappeared. There are many delays in
translating into law the results of Grenelle.
Employers believes that the measures must be based
more on incentives than on penalties. Tax neutrality
Two competing conceptions:
Incremental technological modernisation.
Politically-induced rupture and
Intermediate positions can be found at national or
Step by step adaptation to a low carbon Economy:
Innovative technologies + political interventions
Supported from right wing Gov’t.
Social dialogue it is not necessary except in the
field of training workers in new skills. Only
DO IT YOURSELF
Politically-induced rupture and
Complete overhaul of given socio-economic order
through far-reaching political interventions.
Need of big public budget:
Supported by social democratics Gov’t and
Policies developed in the context of social
dialogue between employers, employees and
Gov’t, with a high level of institutionalization.
WE DETERMINE THE FINISH LINE
Ratio of green stimulus of
national recovery packages
Weight of plans to promote the green economy in OECD countries
COUNTRY % GDP
• The effects of the crisis on national budgets and the poor results of
the Copenhagen summit in 2009 have pushed the positions
towards the DO IT YOURSELF conception.
• The most advanced Employers org. have the position that the
measures to reduce climate change has to consider the median of
the EU-27, 20% in 2020, without unilateral obligations.
• Social Dialogue has been reduced:
- Delay of legal application of the Grenelle in France.
- No social dialogue at national level in Italy and Sweden.
- In Spain limited to a exchange of information. Many changes in LSE without
it and cuts in environmental budgets.
- In Germany low continuity of general agreements during the red-green gov.
and beginning of agreements without unions.
DO IT YORSELF policies, means no more than 20%
reductions in 2020. It can't prevent increase of 2
centigrade medium temperature of the planet.
WE DETERMINE THE FINISH LINE policies can
promote european economy as leader in environmental
products and services.
March 2011: only 7 countries of UE have proposed more
reductions (30% in 2020)