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					                                                                  UNDP/PAPP
         PALESTINE CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS Waste Water Treatment Plant
              VOLUME 2 – PART 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – CIVIL WORKS




                                 PALESTINE
                       CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS
                        WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

                     VOLUME 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
                            PART 2 – CIVIL WORKS




SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 1
                                                                           UNDP/PAPP
                  PALESTINE CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS Waste Water Treatment Plant
                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – CIVIL WORKS

                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.    DESCRIPTION OF WORK.................................................................................. 3
2.    MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP ................................................................ 5
3.    EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING ....................................... 9
4.    MANHOLES AND CHAMBERS ....................................................................... 19
5.    CONCRETE WORKS ......................................................................................... 22
6.    MASONRY WORKS ........................................................................................... 34
7.    PAINTING AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS .................................................. 37
8.    METALWORK .................................................................................................... 37
9.    PROTECTIVE COATING, LINING And PAINT WORK ................................ 38
10.    STEEL PIPES, VALVES AND FITTINGS .................................................... 43
11.    WELD INSPECTION AND TESTS ................................................................ 50
12.    HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TEST............................................................... 52
13.    CONCRETE MANHOLES ............................................................................. 53
14.    FINISHING WORKS....................................................................................... 56
15.    LANDSCAPING ............................................................................................... 66
16.    BITUMINOUS CONSTRUCTION ................................................................. 74
17.    CONCRETE BLOCK PAVING ....................................................................... 85




       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                                VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 2
                                                                        UNDP/PAPP
               PALESTINE CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS Waste Water Treatment Plant
                    VOLUME 2 – PART 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – CIVIL WORKS

1. DESCRIPTION OF WORK

 1.1 General Information
    1.1.1 Location of Site
        The construction site for Khan Younis Waste Water Treatment Plant is located at eastern side of Khan
        Younis governorate beside Sofa crossing point.

    1.1.2 Adjoining Contracts
        This contract is one of four contracts to be implemented separately under the ” Phase I, Khan Younis
        Wastewater Treatment Plant ”. These contracts are
        1- Construction of Khan Younis Waste Water Treatment Plant (KY WWTP),
        2- Construction of main pressure lines to the sea, and to the infiltration basins,
        3- Construction of the infiltration basins in Al Fukhari, and
        4- Construction of the electrical power supply to the WWTP.

    1.1.3 Temporary Works
        The Contractor shall take into consideration all temporary works he may require for the execution of the
        Works. He shall submit four (4) weeks in advance of any scheduled temporary work, detailed drawings
        and supporting calculations on stability, hydraulics or any other calculation considered essential by the
        Engineer’s Representative.
        Within two weeks after submission of the afore-mentioned drawings and calculations the Engineer’s
        Representative shall comment or approve the relevant Temporary Works.

        Notwithstanding the approval by the Engineer’s Representative of any temporary works, the Contractor
        shall remain responsible for their efficiency, safety and maintenance, and for all obligations in regards to
        such works specified or implied in the Contract until the removal of such works.
        Unless provided for in the Bill of Quantities, expenditures whatsoever dealing with any temporary
        works shall be deemed to be covered by the other rates and prices in the Bill of Quantities and shall not
        be measured for payment nor be paid for under a separate item.

    1.1.4 Demolish And Dismantling Works
        The Engineer’s Representative must be given at least two weeks notice in writing before demolition or
        dismantling of any existing obstruction on site or relocation of utilities. The Contractor shall require the
        approval of the Engineer’s Representative for the method and order of work and the steps taken to
        ensure the safety and stability of any remaining structures affected thereby. This approval by the
        Engineer’s Representative shall not in any way relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities in
        connection with carrying out the Works.

        The Contractor shall dismantle carefully and handing over to the store or any place as directed by the
        Engineer’s Representative all the items specified in the Bill of Quantities.

        No measurement will be required for this type of work, unless it is clearly specified in the Bill of
        Quantities. No payment shall be made for clearing, grubbing, demolition, dismantling, or relocation of
        utilities, unless it is clearly specified in the Bill of Quantities. Otherwise prices shall be deemed to be
        included in the various unit prices of the items of the Contract.

        The average yearly rainfall in the eastern part of Khan Younis governorate is 200 mm which falls during
        the months of October to March. Rainfall intensities can very occasionally exceed 100 mm per hour,
        and when this happens flooding occurs in low lying areas.

    1.1.5 Datum Level
        All levels (z co-ordinates) are referred to Mean Sea Level (MSL), which is (00.00).
        The Contractor shall establish his own additional bench marks and control points needed under the
        Contract, all levels and coordinates on new control points shall be based on the level and coordinates of
        the main bench mark that will be handed to the contractor at the commencement of work by the
        Consultant.


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 3
                                                                        UNDP/PAPP
               PALESTINE CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS Waste Water Treatment Plant
                    VOLUME 2 – PART 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – CIVIL WORKS

  1.1.6 Co-ordinate System
      The official grid system for Gaza is defined as the Palestinian Co-ordinate System.

  1.1.7 Local Material
      Cement and reinforcement steel are imported from Israel and outside. Sources of supply of sand are
      from Palestinian Territory. Sources of supply aggregates from West Bank via Israel and from Israel
      itself. The Contractor shall make his own investigations to secure the necessary supply of cement locally
      or imported and of aggregates for his operations during the full construction period. Mechanical parts,
      pumps, pipes and electrical equipment will most likely have to be imported. The contractor shall set all
      precautions to avoid delays of supply due to the frequent closure of the border to Israel.

1.2       Scope of Works
        The permanent works to be carried out within the scope of Construction of New Waste Water Treatment
        Plant facilities as shown in the contract drawings and in the BOQ and according to the relevant technical
        specifications.

1.3       Phasing Of Works And Time Schedule
        The Contractor shall on the basis of the indicated time schedule elaborate a detailed programme for the
        execution of the work given due consideration to his resources in plant and to his working methods. The
        programme shall show the interaction between activities and which activities are critical.
        The Contractor shall take into consideration that The construction work for the Infiltration Basins and
        the pressure line will be carried out by other contractor and during the same period of the construction
        of the New Waste Water Treatment Plant facilities.

1.4       Contractor’s Area
        The Contractor shall make his own arrangements with local authorities or private landowners for any
        areas needed for his plant, equipment, material etc.
        It is the Contractor’s responsibility to secure adequate supplies of water, sewerage disposal and electri-
        city for his needs from the local authorities or to make his own arrangements therefore.
        The Contractor shall also make his own arrangements for telecommunications.
        Irregularities in water and electricity supply may be expected to arise, therefore the Contractor may need
        to provide standby power and temporary water tanks in order to be able to carry out the Works in
        accordance with his contractual obligations.
        The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for collecting and disposing of sewage from his office
        and other facilities within the areas in his possessions to the satisfaction of the Engineer’s
        Representative.

1.5       Field Laboratory
        The Contractor may provide, set up and fully equip a field laboratory at the site. The laboratory shall be
        suitably located and of adequate size and layout to accommodate and operate all apparatus needed to
        carry out specified tests and to store samples, as required.
        All necessary personnel and labour required for the efficient running and maintenance of the laboratory
        and its equipment shall be provided by the Contractor. An indication of the equipment required is given
        under section 2 of Materials and Workmanship. Apart from necessary requirements to run the laboratory
        to the Engineer’s Representative’s satisfaction, the laboratory shall include a separate lockable office
        room, fully furnished for one site engineer from the Engineer’s Representative’s staff.
        If the contractor wishes not to provide a field laboratory as specified above, he may carry out specified
        tests at an independent laboratory approved by the Engineer’s Representative.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 4
                                                                        UNDP/PAPP
               PALESTINE CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS Waste Water Treatment Plant
                    VOLUME 2 – PART 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – CIVIL WORKS

2. MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP

2.1       Standards And Codes Of Practice
        This Technical Specification is not complete in the respect of covering all materials and type of works
        occurring under this Contract. It shall be seen as complementation/clarifications and/or replacement of
        relevant standards where this is deemed necessary, for the materials and works it covers.
        If contradicting information between this Technical Specification and relevant standards should occur,
        this Technical Specification shall prevail unless otherwise directed by the Engineer’s Representative.
        For materials and works not covered by this Technical Specification, relevant standards shall apply.
        Depending on the origin of manufacture, materials complying with other well known standards will be
        accepted for incorporation in the works if deemed necessary by the Engineer’s Representative’s
        Representative, to be at least of equal quality as given by the specified standards. It is the objective,
        however, to standardize such installations and components that may eventually need replacement, to
        comply as far as possible with those already established in the Site.
        One original set of the latest issue of all reference standards shall be available on Site for the use of the
        Engineer’s Representative at the start-up of the Works. These standards shall remain the property of the
        Contractor when the work has been completed.
        Reference standards mentioned in the documents shall be regarded as minimum standards required.
        Where reference standards refer to other standards, code of practice etc., which are deemed to be
        necessary for execution of the Work, these standards, code of practice etc. shall also be handed over in
        original to the Engineer’s Representative’s Representative if so requested.
        The publication in effect on the date of issue of Contract Documents, except when a specific publication
        date is specified, shall be the standards in effect for execution of the Works.

2.2       Design Data
        Work, for which the Contractor shall or may be required to design, shall be designed in accordance with
        American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).

2.3       Workmanship
        The Contractor shall employ only adult skilled labours and workmen according to Palestinian Laws and
        regulations, who have the good experience in such projects, as included in the General Conditions and
        Specifications. The Engineer’s Representative has the authority to dismiss any of the contractor’s
        labours or workmen; he found that he is not suitable to work in this particular project.


2.4       Laboratory and Testing Equipment
  2.4.1 Laboratory
      The Contractor may choose to set up his own laboratory as indicated under 1.5 above. If he decides to
      do so, the laboratory shall be completed and operational at the commencement of the civil works.
      Furthermore, the laboratory building shall be supplied with electricity, water and air conditioning, and
      shall have a concrete floor capable of adequately supporting all testing equipment etc.

  2.4.2 Staffing
      If the Contractor chose to set up his own laboratory, he shall provide for the duration of the Contract:
                  an engineer or technician fully experienced in directing and undertaking site and laboratory
                   tests using the specified or other necessary equipment, and in preparing appropriate reports
                   on tests carried out, including all necessary computations involved;
                  a laboratory assistant, who has satisfactorily completed necessary education, capable of
                   carrying out tests under the direction of the engineer or technician.

  2.4.3 Testing Equipment
      The contractor shall perform all tests during the course of the Contract, as referred to in this Technical
      Specification in accordance with relevant Standard and Codes of Practice. The tests required in this
      Technical Specification mostly refer to American Society Testing and Material (ASTM). The


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 5
                                                                        UNDP/PAPP
               PALESTINE CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS Waste Water Treatment Plant
                    VOLUME 2 – PART 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – CIVIL WORKS
        Contractor may propose to substitute such tests and test apparatus to similar test and test apparatus of
        other well known standards, subject to the approval of the Engineer’s Representative.
        Tests which shall be carried out frequently includes at least the following:
                   Soil and Aggregate tests:
                    -dry density
                    -compaction (CBR)
                    -sieve analyses
                    -water absorption
                    -silt and clay content
                    -sulphate content
                    -chloride content
                    -acid soluble content
                   Cement and Concrete Tests
                    - cement setting time
                    - water analysis
                    - temperature
                    - slump
                    - water-cement ratio
                    - cube, masonry block, paving block strength
                   Pipe Tests
                    - pressure pipe testing equipment
                    - gravity pipe testing equipment

  2.4.4 Field Equipment
      At least the following equipment shall be provided exclusively for the supervision operations of the
      Engineer’s Representative:
                automatic levelling instrument with two staffs, labelled with inch on one side and cm/mm
                  on the other.
                50 and 100 m tapes
                templates, spirit level
                required nos. of 2 m pocket tapes
                3 m straight edge
                marking flags, ranging rods, stakes, paint etc., as required
                any additional equipment in normal site use, required by the Engineer’s Representative from
                  time to time.
                Furthermore, an electronic theodolite shall be available to the Engineer’s Representative
                  when required.

  2.4.5 Lifting Equipment
      The Contractor’s lifting equipment shall, before use on site and as may be required during the
      construction period, be inspected according to the Standard regulations of relevant authorities in the
      Palestinian Territory.



2.5       Approvals
  2.5.1 Approval of Material
      The Contractor shall submit, for approval of the Engineer’s Representative, at least 21 days in advance
      of placing orders for any materials for incorporation in the Permanent Works, at least the following
      information:
                name of manufacturer or supplier proposed;
                sufficient evidence to prove that the materials proposed comply in all respects with the
                  Specification and a declaration stating the Standards with which they comply;
                declaration that the materials will be supplied with the specified markings and certificates;
                manufacturer’s current instructions and explanatory data;
                details of fabrication and painting arrangements where appropriate;


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                    VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 6
                                                                    UNDP/PAPP
           PALESTINE CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS Waste Water Treatment Plant
                VOLUME 2 – PART 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – CIVIL WORKS
               declaration that the whole quantity required to complete the work can be supplied from the
                 same source, with written evidence if requested.
    Within 14 days of the receipt of the request from the Contractor, the Engineer’s Representative will
    return to the Contractor with his eventual approval, or request for further information. After such further
    information has been provided by the Contractor, the Engineer’s Representative will, again within 14
    days, return to the Contractor with his reply. This procedure shall be repeated until final approval has
    been given by the Engineer’s Representative.
    Materials shall not be used in the Permanent Works until the Engineer’s Representative has given his
    written approval. Such approval shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the materials.

2.5.2 Inspection and Testing on the Site
    All materials delivered to the Site and workmanship on the Site shall be subject to inspection and testing
    by or under the direction of the Engineer’s Representative.

2.5.3 Tests on Completion
    Except where specifically agreed to the contrary in writing, the Contractor shall present all Plant and
    systems installed under the Contract for Tests on Completion, at least 14 days before the date for the
    Taking-Over Certificate for the Works. These tests are in addition to any works tests performed by the
    manufacturer and tests the Contractor may need to carry out in order to set up the systems to his own
    satisfaction.
    Before the Contractor offers Plant and systems for Tests Completion, all associated systems and
    installations are to be complete, checked, adjusted and set up. Final paintwork must be complete. Tests
    on Completion shall not be carried out until the approved operation and maintenance manuals have been
    provided.
    The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer’s Representative a detailed Schedule and Programme of
    Tests on Completion, to be agreed and completed 28 days before the commencement of testing.
    Testing shall be carried out in the presence of and to the satisfaction of the Engineer’s Representative
    and in the presence of one or more representatives of the Employer, to demonstrate that the Plant and
    systems perform in accordance with the Specification and are ready for operation. Undertaking of the
    tests and demonstrations shall be the responsibility of the Contractor and all costs associated therewith
    shall have been included in the rates and prices.
    The Contractor shall provide all rigs, test loads, instrumentation and labour assistance necessary for the
    proper performance of the Tests on Completion, and shall take and record such readings as are required.
    Any defects discovered during the Tests on Completion shall be recorded by the Contractor and
    Engineer’s Representative and shall be duly rectified by the Contractor. Following rectification the
    Contractor shall repeat the tests before final handover of the Plant or system.
    On completion of the Tests on Completion, the Contractor shall provide three copies of the Test
    Schedule completed for all observed tests and data readings. A Test Certificate shall be submitted in
    triplicate for signature by the Engineer’s Representative.

2.5.4 Manuals
    Except where specifically agreed to the contrary in writing, the Contractor shall provide comprehensive
    manuals in English, with those to be used by operators for operation and maintenance translated to
    Arabic, covering all aspects of operation and maintenance in respect of all Plant and systems installed
    under the Contract.
    The Contractor shall submit the manuals in hard copies draft form at least 2 months before the date for
    the Tests on Completion. The Contractor shall make such modifications and additions as the Engineer’s
    Representative requires and shall re-submit the manuals for final approval by the Engineer’s
    Representative at least 14 days before the Tests on Completion are to be carried out.
    The Contractor shall be entirely responsible for the consequences of any delay by the Engineer’s
    Representative in agreeing to commission the Plant and equipment where such delay is due to errors,
    omissions or defects in the documents submitted by the Contractor.
    The Contractor shall make any further revision of the manuals required or agreed by the Engineer’s
    Representative and shall provide one original hard copy and five hard copies of each manual in addition
    to soft copy on CD within a period of 28 days after the Tests on Completion have been completed. The
    manuals shall clearly describe with step-by-step procedures and diagrams the starting up, running and
    shutting down of each item of Plant or system.



  SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 7
                                                                  UNDP/PAPP
         PALESTINE CONSTRUCTION OF THE KHAN YOUNIS Waste Water Treatment Plant
              VOLUME 2 – PART 2 – TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS – CIVIL WORKS
  They shall contain sufficient information to permit the Employer to take over, operate and maintain the
  Plant or system efficiently and effectively. Full spare parts lists shall be included together with ordering
  procedures.
  The manuals shall be of high quality in both presentation and technical content presentation and
  technical content. Manual not meeting this standard will be rejected.




SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 8
3.     EXCAVATION, TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING

     3.1 Site Investigation
       The Contractor shall be deemed to have visited the site of Works and satisfied himself as to the
       nature of the ground and made himself conversant with the local conditions to be encountered
       during the execution of the Contract.

     3.2 Materials
       Construction materials supplied by the Contractor shall include but not be limited to the following:

       Backfill: Backfill and fill shall be structurally sound material such as sand or native soil free of
       rocks, lumps, vegetable and other organic materials, obtained from suitable excavated material
       and/or from approved borrow pits. The backfill shall be appropriate for the existing road or paving
       construction to be reinstated as required.

       Water shall be clean potable water free from injurious amounts of oil, acid or any other deleterious
       mineral and/or organic matter.

       Concrete for thrust blocks, chambers, cover slabs or used as fill for making up to correct level and
       areas of over-excavation, shall have a characteristic strength of 25 N/mm2.

       Pipe bedding and surrounds shall be sand.

       The sand shall be clean coarse sand free from dirt or organic materials.

     3.3 Site Preparation
       Prior to commencing any excavation work, the Contractor shall establish a horizontal and vertical
       survey network, record existing ground elevations and stake the location of trenches to be
       excavated.

       The Contractor shall prepare the site for construction by clearing, removing and disposing of all
       items not indicated on the Drawings to remain or so defined by the Engineer or his representative.


 3.3.1 Existing Utilities
     The Contractor shall ascertain the whereabouts of all existing utilities on the site both, above and
     below ground.

       The Contractor shall be held responsible for all damages entailed on any of the utilities adjacent to
       the site resulting from the Works.

       All proposed or existing utilities, including buried pipes, sewers, ducts, culverts, cesspits, chambers
       and the like, in the vicinity of the work site, are to be determined by the Contractor and the location
       of them is to be shown on the as-built drawings.

       Prior to commencement of excavation, the Contractor shall establish the number and location of
       underground utilities and chambers in the immediate proximity of the work.

       Where necessary, the Contractor shall use hand tools to excavate test pits prior to excavation to
       determine the exact locations of existing utilities. It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to
       make such explorations sufficiently in advance of construction to enable the Engineer or his
       representative to approve modifications, if any, to be made to the pipeline, structure or conflicting
       utility. The Contractor shall obtain the permission of the Engineer or his representative before
       commencing any test pits and shall fence, mark and protect them, as required by the Engineer or his
       representative. Test pits shall be refilled by hand as soon as practicable after the necessary
       information has been obtained.

       As the excavation approaches sewers conduits, cables or other underground facilities, the excavation
       shall be continued with care by means of hand tools. Where necessary, the Contractor shall provide


         SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 9
    temporary support for the existing utilities to prevent damage during his operations.
    Notwithstanding these provisions, if damage to existing utilities results from the Contractor's
    operations, such damage shall be repaired without delay by the Contractor to the Utility Engineer or
    his representative’s satisfaction.

    If damage to existing utilities causes disruption to Contractor's schedule of work by delaying work
    in the area of such damage, the Contractor shall re-adjust his program, methods of working and
    resources so that critical dates in the schedule for the completion of the Contract are not affected.
    This shall not be deemed to be an instructed acceleration.


3.3.2 Cleaning And Grubbing
    The Contractor shall perform the clearing and grubbing (if any), of top soil consisting mainly of
    loose soil, vegetable and organic matters, drift sand, unsuitable soil and rubbish by scarifying the
    areas to be excavated and sidewalks to a minimum depth of 300mm from the natural ground level.
    All materials resulting from the above operations shall be removed from the site, loaded and
    transported and off loaded, spread and leveled to approved municipal dumps.


 3.4 Excavation
    The Contractor shall perform all excavation true to line, width and depths shown on the Drawings or
    to such further lines, depths or dimensions or to reach suitable bearing strata as may be directed by
    the Engineer or his representative.

    Excavation for structures includes reduction of levels where indicated, excavation for manholes,
    foundations, supports, and other structures, in accordance with the specific set of Drawings. All
    such excavations shall be carried out to the dimensions, lines and grades as shown on the Drawings,
    or directed by the Engineer or his representative. Where necessary because of the depth of the
    excavations or the nature of the soil, the Contractor shall prevent caving in or slides by either
    excavating to slopes or installing sufficient shoring braces or supports. Excavations on or against
    which concrete or compacted fill is to be placed, shall be clean and free from stones, clods, debris
    and other loose material.

    Where the bottom of an excavation does not provide a solid basis for casting concrete, it shall be
    consolidated by tamping and/or watering as necessary until the required base density is obtained.
    Any over-excavation in the bottom of the structure shall be cleaned and backfilled with concrete or
    selected backfill compacted to the density of the adjacent natural soil or 95% relative density using
    modified Proctor test, whichever is greater. Over-excavation in rock shall be backfilled with the
    concrete of the structure or with dry stone pack, as directed by the Engineer or his representative.

3.4.1 Keeping Excavations Free From Water
    All excavations shall be kept clear of water by pumping or bailing or by well-point de-watering, but
    the latter system shall not be employed if any danger exists withdrawing water from the foundations
    of the adjoining buildings and such water shall be discharged clear of the Works and the method
    adopted shall in no way contravene with regulations of the Municipalities.

    The system or systems to be employed shall be approved by the Engineer or his representative. Such
    approval if given, shall not waive the Contractor's responsibilities and liabilities under the Contract.

    Particular attention shall be paid to the installation of sheeting and shoring as may be necessary for
    the protection of the work and for the safety of personnel and public.

3.4.2 Storing Of Suitable Excavated Material
    During excavation, materials suitable for backfill shall be stockpiled on the site at adequate distance
    from the sides of the excavation to avoid over-loading and prevent collapse of the trench walls.

3.4.3 Disposal Of Unsuitable And Surplus Excavated Material
    Upon the order of the Engineer or his representative, all unsuitable and surplus materials shall be
    immediately removed, loaded and transported off the site area by the Contractor to approved dumps
    and he shall abide by the relevant local regulations.

      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 10
3.5 Sheeting, Shoring And Bracing
  Except where banks are cut back on a stable slope, excavation shall be sheeted, braced and shored
  as necessary to prevent collapse of the excavations. The Contractor shall furnish, put in place, and
  maintain such sheeting, bracing, etc..., as may be necessary to support the sides of the excavation
  and to prevent any movement of earth which could in any way diminish the width of the excavation
  to less than that necessary for proper construction, or could otherwise injure or delay the work, or
  endanger adjacent structures. If the Engineer or his representative is of the opinion that at any point
  sufficient proper supports have not been provided, he may order additional supports.

  The Engineer or his representative may direct that sheeting and bracing be cut off at any specified
  elevation.

  All sheeting and bracing not to be left in place shall be carefully removed in such manner as not to
  endanger the construction or other structures. All voids left or caused by the withdrawal of sheeting
  shall be backfilled immediately with approved material and compacted by ramming with tools
  especially adapted to that purpose, by watering or by other means as may be directed.

3.6 Trench Excavation
 3.6.1 General Requirements
  Trench excavation work shall be performed in a safe and proper manner with appropriate
  precautions being taken to safeguard workmen and existing structures and utilities against all
  hazards.

  All trench excavation shall be open cut from the surface unless authorized by the Engineer or his
  representative and shall be excavated so that pipes can be laid straight at uniform grade without dips
  or humps between terminal elevations indicated on the Drawings.

  No more trench shall be opened in advance of pipe laying than is necessary to expedite the work.
  The maximum length of open trench on any line under construction shall be 50m.

  The pipe is to be laid in sand bedding, as indicated on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer or
  his representative. The trench is to be excavated by labour to, or to just below, the designated sub-
  grade, provided that the material remaining at the bottom of the trench is not disturbed. The pipe is
  not to be laid directly on the trench bottom.

  Whenever unstable soil which in the opinion of the Engineer or his representative is incapable of
  properly supporting the pipe is encountered in the bottom of the trench, such soil shall be removed
  to the depth instructed and the trench backfilled to the proper grade with sand approved by the
  Engineer or his representative.

 3.6.2 Mechanical Excavation
  The use of mechanical equipment will not be permitted in locations where its operation would cause
  damage to trees, tree roots, buildings, culverts or other existing property, utilities or structures above
  or below ground. In all such locations hand excavation shall be used.

  Mechanical equipment if used for trench excavation shall be of type approved by the Engineer or his
  representative. Equipment shall be so operated that the rough trench excavation bottom can be
  controlled, that uniform trench widths and vertical sidewalks are obtained at least from an elevation
  20cm above the top of the installed pipe when accurately laid to specified alignment will be
  centered in the trench with adequate clearance between the pipe and sidewalks of the trench.


 3.6.3 Alignment And Minimum Cover
  The alignment of each pipeline shall be fixed and determined from offset stakes. Horizontal
  alignment of pipes and the maximum joint deflection used in connection therewith, shall be in
  conformity with requirements of the section covering installation of pipe.



    SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                         VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 11
  Pipe grades or elevations are not definitely fixed by the Drawings, trenches shall be excavated to a
  depth sufficient to provide a minimum depth of backfill cover over the top of the pipe of 100cm for
  main lines with surface traffic, 80cm for main lines with no traffic including pavements and 60cm
  for house connections. Greater pipe cover depths may be necessary at certain locations, the locations
  and depths will be determined by the Engineer or his representative. Measurement of pipe cover
  depth shall be made vertically from the outside top of pipe to finish ground or pavement surface
  elevation except where future surface elevations are indicated on the Drawings. Where there is no
  adequate minimum cover, concrete encasement shall be used as detailed on the Drawings or as
  directed by the Engineer or his representative.

3.7 Depth Of Trench
  The depth of trench shall be the sum of the specified cover to pipe plus pipe O.D plus 15cm
  minimum. The trench bottom shall be straight and even so as to provide a good support for the pipe
  along its entire length and shall be free of roots, stones, lumps and other hard objects that may injure
  the pipe or its protective coating as applicable. The sand bedding under the pipe shall be not less
  than 15cm.



3.8 Width Of Trench
  No wide unsupported trenches shall be permitted, in general, within the area of the works and
  therefore all trenches should conform to the minimum trench widths stated and shall be supported
  with the use of approved trench sheeting or sheet piles.

  Pipe trenches shall be made as narrow as practicable and shall not be widened by scraping or
  loosening materials from the sides. Every effort shall be made to keep the sides of the trenches firm
  and undisturbed until backfilling has been completed and consolidated.

  To allow sufficient working room plus trench wall supports, the minimum excavated trench width to
  the outside of the sheeting or shield box shall be as shown in the following values:


Nominal Pipe Size Diameter,              Trench Width, Minimum                   Trench Width,
          (mm)                                   (m)                             Maximum (m)
           200                                    0.90                               2.50
           315                                    1.00                               2.50
           450                                    1.20                               2.65
           500                                    1.30                               2.65
           630                                    1.40                               2.65
           710                                    1.50                               2.95
           750                                    1.55                               2.95
           800                                    1.60                               3.35
           900                                    1.70                               3.35
          1000                                    1.80                               3.35

  Widths are based upon 200 to 400mm clearance on each side of the pipe to the inner face of trench
  supports. The trench supports are assumed to be 150mm thick trench box or shield walls or 100 mm
  walls inside of 50mm sheeting. Exceptionally deep trenches with thicker sheeting and bracing or
  other systems of trench support may require the Engineer or his representative to vary these trench
  widths. Timber sheeting, where used below the top of the pipe, shall be driven approximately 60cm
  below the bottom of the pipe and be left in place approximately 45 cm above the top of pipe. In
  supported trenches compaction of foundation and embedment materials should extend to the trench
  wall or sheeting left in place.

  In confined areas, where the passage of excavating equipment is impossible, or where the Engineer
  or his representative deems the use of such equipment impracticable or undesirable for any reason



    SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 12
     whatsoever, trench excavation shall be done by hand. All requirements specified above for common
     excavation shall apply to trench excavation.

 3.9 Unauthorized Excavation
     Except where specifically stated otherwise all the provisions of this section shall equally apply to
     both common and rock excavation. All excavation shall be done to the lines, grades and dimensions
     shown on the Drawings and within the tolerances given by the Engineer or his representative.

     If the bottom of any excavation is taken out beyond the limits indicated or prescribed, the resulting
     void shall be backfilled at the Contractor's expense with thoroughly compacted, selected screened
     gravel or sand fill as directed by the Engineer or his representative if the excavation was for a
     pipeline, or with concrete if the excavation was for a structure or a manhole.

 3.10 Elimination Of Unsuitable Material
     Suitable material shall comprise all material that is acceptable in accordance with the Contract for
     use in the Works. Suitable material for earthworks shall be approved soil with a plasticity index not
     exceeding 6% obtained from excavations within the Works or from borrow pits approved by the
     Engineer or his representative. It shall not contain an excess of fines.

Unsuitable material shall be deemed to be:
      - Rock particles exceeding 75mm in size.
      - Organic material, stumps and other perishable material.
      - Material susceptible to spontaneous combustion.
      - Soils of liquid limit exceeding 40% and/or plasticity index exceeding 6%.
      - Any other material which the Engineer or his representative may       deem to be unsuitable for
earthwork.

If material unsuitable for foundation (in the opinion of the Engineer or his representative) is found at or
below the grade to which excavation would normally be carried in accordance with the Drawings and/or
structure, the Contractor shall remove such material to the required width and depth and replace it with
compacted, selected screened gravel, sand fill or concrete as directed by the Engineer or his
representative.

 3.11 Disposal Of Surplus Excavation Materials
All surplus excavated materials shall be disposed of by the Contractor, except as otherwise directed or
approved by the Engineer or his representative.

 3.12 Backfilling
In general, and unless other material is indicated on the Drawings or specified, material used for
backfilling trenches and excavations around structures shall be suitable material.

Backfilling of pipe trenches, (except at joints) shall be done as practicable after the pipes have been
satisfactorily laid in position and jointed and in no case shall more than five pipe lengths be left
uncovered after laying. The first stage of the backfill, from the bedding surface and up to 30 cm above
the top of the pipe, shall consist of granular material as specified in section 1.15 obtained from trench
excavation or from borrow areas, free from stones, clods, and organic matter. This backfill shall be
hand-tamped under and around the pipe in layers not exceeding 15 cm in thickness after compaction, to
a density not less than that required for the subsequent backfill. (at least 95% of modified Proctor).

The remainder of the pipe trench (second stage backfill from 30 cm above the pipe to the top of the
trench) shall be backfilled by one of the following methods:

a)       Where the pipeline runs transversely underneath asphalt paved roads highways, the second
         stage backfill shall be done with selected excavated material or imported material as specified
         in section 1.20, and shall be placed in layers not exceeding 15 cm thickness after compaction,
         wetted as necessary and compacted to a density not less than that of the adjacent material or
         compacted soil. (at least 95% of modified Proctor). As shown on the Drawings or directed by
         the Engineer or his representative, the top of the trench backfill shall consist of four layers with
         total thickness of 38 cm, the first layer is of crushed aggregate base course layer 15 cm thick

       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 13
      and the second layer of 15 cm thickness of crushed aggregate base course layer mixed with
      cement in the proportions of 7:1, with each layer wetted as necessary and compacted to a
      density at least 98% of modified Proctor. The third layer shall be asphalt base course layer of
      40 mm thick of (3/4") aggregate size and the fourth layer shall be asphalt wearing layer of 40
      mm thick of (1/2") aggregate size. MC70 and RC70 are used for priming the base course and
      between the two asphalt layers at a rate of 1.00 kg per m2 and 0.50 kg per m2, respectively.
      Edges of asphalt shall be sawed into straight lines with no curves or abrupt edges; with berm
      width of 15cm on either side of the trench and to a depth of 8cm. All crossing shall be of one
      straight segments. The Contractor is responsible for cutting, removing and reinstating all
      pavements cracked or destroyed as a result of his Work.
b)    Where the pipeline runs longitudinally underneath asphalt paved roads highways, the second
      stage backfill shall be done with selected excavated material or imported material as specified
      in section 1.20, and shall be placed in layers not exceeding 15 cm thickness after compaction,
      wetted as necessary and compacted to a density not less than that of the adjacent material or
      compacted soil. (at least 95% of modified Proctor). As shown on the Drawings or directed by
      the Engineer or his representative, the top of the trench backfill shall consist of four layers with
      total thickness of 38 cm, the first two layers shall be of crushed aggregate base course layers 15
      cm thick, each wetted as necessary and compacted to a density at least 98% of modified
      Proctor. The third layer shall be asphalt base course layer of 40 mm thick of (3/4") aggregate
      size and the fourth layer shall be asphalt wearing layer of 40 mm thick of (1/2") aggregate size.
      MC70 and RC70 are used for priming the base course and between the two asphalt layers at a
      rate of 1.00 kg per m2 and 0.50 kg per m2, respectively.
      Edges of asphalt shall be sawed into straight lines with no curves or abrupt edges; with berm
      width of 15cm on either side of the trench and to a depth of 8cm. Each straight segments shall
      not be less than 50m. The Contractor is responsible of cutting, removing and reinstating all
      pavement cracked or destroyed as a result of his Work.
c)   Where the pipeline runs longitudinally underneath concrete pavement, the second stage backfill
      shall be done with selected excavated material or imported material as specified in section 1.20,
      and shall be placed in layers not exceeding 15 cm thickness after compaction, wetted as
      necessary and compacted to a density not less than that of the adjacent material or compacted
      soil at least 95% of modified Proctor. As shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer
      or his representative, the top of the trench backfill shall consist of two layers the first top layer
      shall be crushed aggregate base course 15 cm thick wetted as necessary and compacted to a
      density at least 98% of modified Proctor and the second layer of 10 cm thickness of plain
      concrete B200
d)    Where the pipeline runs underneath tile paved roads, the second stage backfill shall be done
      with selected excavated material or imported material as specified in section 1.20, and shall be
      placed in layers not exceeding 15 cm thickness after compaction, wetted as necessary and
      compacted to a density not less than that of the adjacent material or compacted soil at least 95%
      of modified Proctor. As shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer or his
      representative, the top of the trench backfill shall consist of three layers the first top layer shall
      be crushed aggregate base course 20 cm thick wetted as necessary and compacted to a density
      at least 98% of modified Proctor and the second layer of 5cm thickness of fine granular
      material and the third layer of 8cm thickness of concrete tiles.
e)    Where the pipeline crosses tile-paved sidewalk or island, the second stage backfill shall be
      done with selected excavated material or imported material as specified in section 1.20, and
      shall be placed in layers not exceeding 15 cm thickness after compaction, wetted as necessary
      and compacted to a density at least 95% of modified Proctor. As shown on the Drawings or
      directed by the Engineer or his representative, the top of the trench backfill shall consist of
      three layers with total thickness of 21 cm, the first layer shall be crushed aggregate base course
      10 cm thick wetted as necessary and compacted to a density at least 98% of modified Proctor
      and the second layer shall be 5 cm thick of fine granular material. The third layer shall be
      concrete tiles 6 cm thick or similar to existing tiles with 2cm mortar, if any.
f)    Where the pipeline crosses an asphalt paved sidewalk or island the second stage backfill shall be
      done with selected excavated material or imported material as specified in section 1.20, and
      shall be placed in layers not exceeding 15 cm thickness after compaction, wetted as necessary
      and compacted to a density at least 95% of modified Proctor . As shown on the Drawings or
      directed by the Engineer or his representative, the top of the trench backfill shall consist of two
      layers with total thickness of 15 cm, the first is of crushed aggregate base course layer 10 cm
      thick wetted as necessary and compacted to a density at least 98% of modified Proctor and the
      second layer shall be asphalt wearing layer of 5 cm thickness of (3/8") aggregate size. MC70 is

     SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 14
       used for priming the base course at rate of 1 kg/m2. Edges of asphalt shall be sawed into
       straight lines with no curves or abrupt edges;
g)    Where the pipeline runs longitudinally underneath a road’s unpaved shoulder, the second stage
       backfill shall be done with selected excavated material or imported material as specified in
       section 1.20, and shall be placed in layers not exceeding 15 cm thickness after compaction,
       wetted as necessary and compacted to a density not less than that of the adjacent material or
       compacted soil at least 95% of modified Proctor. As shown on the Drawings or directed by the
       Engineer or his representative, the top of the trench backfill             shall consist of crushed
       aggregate base course layer 15 cm thick, wetted as necessary and compacted to a density at
       least 98% of modified Proctor.
  h) Where the pipeline runs longitudinally underneath a road’s paved shoulder, the second stage
       backfill shall be done with selected excavated material or imported material as specified in
       section 1.20, and shall be placed in layers not exceeding 15 cm thickness after compaction,
       wetted as necessary and compacted to a density not less than that of the adjacent material or
       compacted           soil at least 95% of modified Proctor. As shown on the Drawings or directed
       by the Engineer or his representative, the top of the trench backfill shall consist of two layers
       with total thickness of 20 cm, the first is of crushed aggregate base course layer 15 cm thick,
       wetted as necessary and compacted to a density at least 98% of modified Proctor and the
       second layer of 5cm thick of asphalt wearing (1/2") aggregate size. MC70 is used for priming
       the base course at rate of 1 kg/m2. Edges of asphalt shall be sawed into straight segments with
       no curves or abrupt edges. Each straight segment shall not be less than 50m with width of 15cm
       on either side of the trench and to a depth of 5cm
i)     In agricultural land or in natural ground roads of width less than 2.5m, where the requirements
       of para (a),(b),(c),(d),(e), (f), (g) and (h) do not apply, the second stage backfill may be done
       with selected excavated material, and shall be placed in layers not exceeding 30 cm after
       compaction, wetted as necessary and compacted to a density. (at least 90% of modified
       proctor). provided that the fill material does not contain any large stones.
j)     In natural ground roads of width equal or more than 2.5m, where the above requirements do not
       apply, the second stage backfill may be done with selected excavated material as specified in
       section 1.20, and shall be placed in layers not exceeding 30 cm after compaction, wetted as
       necessary and compacted to a density. (at least 90% of modified proctor). provided that the fill
       material does not contain any large stones. The top of the trench backfill shall consists of one
       layer of 15cm thickness of natural material in accordance with the grading requirements in the
       Specifications, and shall be wetted as necessary and compacted to a density at least 95 % of
       modified proctor.

All joints, and other accessories shall be left uncovered until and after the pipeline shall have passed any
leakage tests that may be prescribed by the Specifications

Where the backfill cover over the pipe is less than 100 cm, the travel of the trucks or heavy equipment
thereon, will be strictly prohibited, and the Contractor shall be responsible for any damage caused to the
pipe by non-compliance with this requirement.

 3.13 Fill And Backfill Under Structures
Unless otherwise indicated or specified, all fill and backfill under structures shall be compacted. The
percentage of compacting for backfill shall be 95% maximum density at optimum moisture content.

 3.14 Backfilling Around Structures
The Contractor shall not place backfill against or on structures until they have attained sufficient
strength to support the loads (including construction loads) to which they will be subjected, without
distortion, cracking or other damage as practicable after the structures are structurally adequate and
other necessary work has been done, special leakage tests, if required, shall be made. Promptly after the
completion of such tests, the backfilling shall be started and then shall proceed until its completion.
Suitable material shall be used in backfilling. Unequal soil pressure shall be avoided by depositing the
material evenly around the structure.

The material shall be placed and compacted as specified below, insofar as applicable. Compacting shall
be accomplished by water-jetting or pudding, if the nature of the material permits, otherwise by
tamping.



      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 15
Walls with fill on both sides shall have the fill constructed such that the difference in the top elevation of
the fill on the two sides does not exceed 60cm at any time.

 3.15 Backfilling Material
3.15.1 Granular Backfill
The material shall consist of natural silica sand subject to approval of the Engineer or his representative,
other inert materials with similar characteristics having durable particles.

Materials from different sources of supply shall not be mixed or stored in the same pile nor used
alternately in the same class of construction without permission from the Engineer or his representative.

The granular material shall be uniformly graded and shall meet the following gradation requirements.

  Sieve designation        Passing Square-Mesh Sieves Percentages by Weight
                                           (AASHTO T 27)
        3/8"                                      100
        No. 4                                  95 – 100
       No. 16                                   45 - 80
       No. 50                                   10 – 30
       No. 100                                   2 – 10
The material shall not contain deleterious substances in excess of the following
percentages:
                                            AASHTO              Percentage
                                          Test Method            by Weight
Clay lumps                                   T 112                   1
Coal and Lignite                             T 113                   1
Material passing sieve No. 200                T 11                   3

Total deleterious substances including the above and shale, alkali, mica, coated grains, and soft and
flaky particles shall not exceed 5 percent by weight.

The placing, compacting and testing of granular backfill shall conform to applicable requirements for
select backfill as specified herein except as noted above.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer or his representative samples of proposed Granular Backfill.
The proposed material must receive the approval of the Engineer or his representative prior to using of it
on the project. The Contractor will be permitted to use excess materials from the trench provided that
they conform to the above requirements.

3.15.2 Select Backfill
Select backfill shall be placed as shown and specified or where directed by the Engineer or his
representative. All materials used as select backfill shall consist of well-graded clean sand or sand and
gravel meeting the following gradation requirements:

                  Sieve Size                                     Percent Passing by Weight
1"                                                   100
No. 4                                                30 – 100
No. 40                                               0 – 40
No. 200                                              0 – 10

No material containing pieces of wood or other organic matters or having lumps, pockets or
concentrations of silt or clay will be accepted. Samples of proposed backfill material should be
submitted to the Engineer or his representative for testing and approval prior to using of the backfill.
The Contractor shall certify that for samples submitted, sufficient similar material is available to

       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 16
complete the Work. No backfill shall be placed at the Site without approval by the Engineer or his
representative. The Engineer or his representative shall be permitted access to borrow pits at all times
for purposes of inspection.

Prior to placement of select backfill, the surface of the subgrade shall be levelled and shall be compacted
with two complete coverage using equipment approved for backfill placement. Engineer or his
representative shall approve the subgrade prior to backfill placement. All backfill shall be placed in
horizontal loose lifts not exceeding the thickness specified in section 1.17 para (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) and
(f), and shall be mixed and spread in a manner assuring uniform lift thickness after placing. Each layer
of backfill shall be properly compacted as specified herein before placement of the following lift.
Backfill against foundation walls shall not be placed until obtaining the approval of the Engineer or his
representative. The backfill shall be performed in a manner that will not create unbalanced pressure that
could damage completed Work.

Backfill material may be placed in either a dry or a wet condition. Any material which is in the
“bulking” range of the moisture content of the material shall be saturated before compaction. No
backfill material shall be placed when free water is standing on the surface of the area where the backfill
is to be placed. No compaction of backfill will be permitted with free water on any portion of the
backfill to be compacted. Any backfill containing organic materials or other unacceptable material
previously described shall be removed and replaced with approved backfill material prior to compaction.

Compaction of backfill shall be performed as specified, with equipment suitable for the type of backfill
material being placed. The Contractor shall select equipment capable of providing the minimum density
required by these Specifications or in cases where the compaction equipment is specified, this specified
equipment shall be used, and shall submit information pertaining to the equipment to the Engineer or his
representative for approval. Equipment shall be capable of compacting in restricted areas next to
structures and around piping without damaging same.

Each lift of backfill material shall be compacted by at least two coverages of all portions of the surface
of each lift by approved compaction equipment. One coverage is defined as the condition obtained
when all portions of the surface of the backfill material have been subjected to the direct contact of the
compacting surface of the compactor. The minimum density to be obtained in compacting select
backfill shall be 95 percent of maximum density obtained in the laboratory in accordance with
Palestinian Standard. This percentage is of standard Proctor density. Compaction tests, soil analyses
and any other laboratory tests necessary in the opinion of the Engineer or his representative for proper
completion of the work shall be performed by the Contractor.

The water content of the fill shall be controlled during placement within the range necessary to obtain
the compaction specified. In general, the moisture content of backfill soils shall be within 3 percent of
the optimum moisture content for compaction as determined by laboratory tests. All laboratory tests
necessary to establish that the water content of the backfill is suitable for placement shall be performed
by the Engineer or his representative. The Contractor shall perform all necessary work to adjust the
water content of the backfill material to be within the range necessary to permit the compaction
specified. This shall include, but not be limited to, spreading, scarifying and mixing to permit drying to
reduce natural water contents to an acceptable range or adding water to increase the water content to an
acceptable level.

The Contractor shall perform whatever tests he deems necessary to provide data for his selection of
backfill material and control of water content. Copies of a test results shall be furnished to the Engineer
or his representative for his review.

If the field and laboratory tests indicate unsatisfactory compaction, the Contractor shall provide the
additional compaction necessary to obtain the specified degree of compaction. All additional
compaction work shall be performed and paid for by the Contractor until the specified compactions is
obtained.

If the specified densities are not being obtained because of the Contractor’s improper control of
placement or compaction procedures or because of improperly functioning compaction equipment, the
Contractor shall perform whatever work is required to provide the specified densities. This work shall
include complete removal of unacceptable backfill areas and replacement and re-compaction until

       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 17
acceptable backfill is provided. All additional work to provide acceptable backfill shall be performed
and paid for by the Contractor. In-place density determinations shall be made by an approved laboratory
using a sand density cone or equivalent method as specified by Palestinian Standard.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer or his representative samples of proposed select backfill.
The proposed material must receive the approval of the Engineer or his representative prior to using of it
on the project. The Contractor will be permitted to use excess materials from the trench provided they
conform to the above requirements.

3.15.3 Gravel Or Crushed Stone Backfill
Gravel or crushed stone backfill shall consist of gravel, crushed stone, crushed rock, material sands,
manufactured sands or combination thereof, and shall conform to the following gradation requirements:

               Screening size                             Percentage passing by Weight
                    2"                                                100
                   No. 4                                            30 – 100
                  No. 40                                             0 – 30
                  No. 200                                             0-5
 The portion of the backfill passing the No. 4 screen shall have a sand equivalent of not less than 60
percent.

Gravel or crushed stone backfill shall be placed as shown and specified or where directed by the
Director or Works or his representative.

Gravel or crushed stone shall be spread in layers of uniform thickness not exceeding 20 cm and shall be
thoroughly compacted with suitable power driven tampers or other power driven equipment. The
placing, compacting and testing of gravel or crushed stone shall conform to applicable requirements for
select backfill as specified herein except as noted above.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer or his representative samples of proposed gravel or crushed
stone backfill. The proposed material must receive the approval of the Engineer or his representative
prior to using of it on the project. The Contractor will be permitted to use excess materials from the
trench provided that they conform to the above requirements.

 3.16 Preparation Of Sub-grade
The Contractor shall remove loam topsoil, loose vegetable, matter, stumps, large roots, etc..., from areas
upon which material will be placed for grading. The sub-grade shall be shaped as directed by the
Engineer or his representative and shall be so prepared for forking, furrowing or plowing that the first
layer of the new material placed therein will be well bonded to it.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 18
4. MANHOLES AND CHAMBERS

4.1 General
 All chambers and manholes to be supplied by the Contractor. The work covered by this section of the
 specification shall consist of furnishing all plant, labor, equipment, appliances and materials, and
 performing all operations necessary in the construction of manholes in accordance with the
 specifications and the drawings and subject the terms of the conditions of contract

 Concrete, reinforced concrete, concrete blocks and reinforcement bars shall be as specified under
 concrete. All pipes shall be as specified under pipe and pipe laying. Materials and allowable loads in
 cast iron frames and covers shall comply with British standard 497, and as specified hereinafter.

4.2 Cleaning
 All manholes and valve chambers specified under this section shall be cleaned of any accumulation of
 silt, mortar, debris or any other foreign matter of any kind and shall be free of any such accumulations
 at the time of final inspection.

4.3 Construction Of Manholes And Valve Chambers
 All manholes and chambers shall have concrete bases. The Contractor shall construct all manholes,
 chambers, and special structures including transition chambers and outfall structures as indicated on the
 Drawings and herein specified.

 Manholes, chambers, and special structures shall conform in shape, size, dimensions, materials, and
 other respects to the details indicated on the Drawings or as ordered by the Engineer or his
 representative.

 Manhole and chamber cover slabs shall be either pre-cast or cast in place reinforced-concrete as marked
 on the Drawings. The cast iron frames and covers for manholes and chambers shall be brought to grade
 by the number of courses of concrete blocks shown on the Drawings and a reinforced concrete frame
 into which the cast iron frame is embedded. Class B concrete shall be cast to a minimum thickness of
 150mm around the concrete blocks for rigidity.

 Manhole walls (rings) and cover slabs shall be either pre-cast or cast in place reinforced-concrete. In
 pre-cast construction rubber rings are to be placed in all joints except for the joint between the cast in
 place roof slab and the top wall ring. In below the manhole cover slab shall have removable plus or
 minus 30cm high concrete ring.

 The cast iron frames and covers for manholes shall be brought to grade by a maximum of three courses
 of concrete blocks and a reinforced concrete frame into which the cast iron frame is embedded.
 Manhole frames shall be set with the tops conforming accurately the grade of the pavement or finished
 ground surface or as indicated on the drawings directed. The cast iron manhole frames and covers shall
 be as indicated on the drawings and hereinafter specified .
 The inverts shall conform accurately to the size of the adjoining pipe Side inverts shall be curved and
 main inverts (where direction changes) shall be laid out in smooth curves of the longest possible which
 is tangent, within the manhole the centerlines of adjoining pipelines all as indicated on the drawings
 and approved by the Engineer or his representative. All benching indicated shall be class B300
 Concrete. Class B200 should be used for plain concrete.

 External and internal form work for all manholes shall be in accordance with the requirements of the
 specifications. The use of the sides of the excavations instead of external form works is not allowed.
 Internal surfaces of all manholes shall be smooth finished by the used of steel forms, plywood or timber
 with one face treated to a smooth surface, indicated with two coats of coal tar epoxy compound. The
 internal surfaces of the manholes will be plastered with cement mortar using 1: 5 mix and 1.0cm
 thickness.

 Manholes shall be completely constructed as the works progress and as each one is reached by the pipe
 work.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 19
 Manhole frames and covers shall be placed immediately after the completion of the manhole. If not
 defined elsewhere, the depth shall be taken as the difference between the top of the manhole and the
 base of the manhole.

 The contractor shall furnish all cast-iron frames and covers conforming to the details shown on the
 drawings, or as herein before specified. As described in the general specifications, the contractor shall
 submit for approval detailed shop and working drawings of all casting before fabrication.

 The castings shall be of good quality, strong, tough, even grained cast iron, smooth, free from scale,
 lumps, blisters, sand holes, and defects of every nature which would render them unfit for service for
 which they are intended.

 For mainlines cast iron heavy duty covers of 120kg weight and 25 tons bearing capacity will be used,
 for laterals and sub-laterals cast iron medium duty covers of 50kg weight and 8 tons bearing capacity
 will be used. They shall have a rubber ring installed at the inner surface of the cover and frame seating
 to ensure non-rocking under traffic.

 Before being shipped from the foundry, castings shall be given one coat of coal-tar pitch in a
 satisfactory manner so as to make a smooth coating, tenacious, and not brittle or with any tendency to
 scale off.

4.4 Formwork Of Valve Chambers
 The Contractor shall be responsible for the design and stability of the formwork. The Contractor shall
 submit a full program of work indicating the various phases for the erection and removal of forms and
 the manner in which he intends to execute.

4.5 Pre-Cast Elements
 Pre-cast elements shall be either of concrete or mortar as shown on the Drawings and as specified
 hereinafter.

4.5.1 Pre-Cast Concrete Elements
 Pre-cast concrete elements shall be of plain or reinforced concrete dimensions, thickness and
 reinforcement rods and bars shown on the Drawings and stated in the Bill of Quantities.

4.5.2 Pre-Cast Mortar Elements
 Moist tamped mortar pre-cast elements shall be of a mixture of ordinary or tinted cement and sand (fine
 aggregate) approximately in the proportions of one part cement to two and one-half parts of sand. The
 sand shall be specially selected for color and grading. The sand shall be screened through 1/8" inch
 square meshes and all oversize particles shall be discarded. Only sufficient water shall be used in
 mixing to permit the immediate removal of the member from the mould. The pattern, dimensions and
 thickness shall be as shown on the Drawings and/or as directed in writing by the Engineer or his
 representative.

4.5.3 Mortar
 Mortar for joining the pre-cast elements shall be composed of one part of Portland cement and three
 parts of clean sand unless otherwise specified. The cement and sand shall conform to the requirements
 of ordinary Portland cement and aggregate for mortar specified heretofore.

4.5.4 Fabrication
 Pre-cast concrete or mortar elements shall be cast in mortar-tight metal lined timber moulds and shall
 be mechanically vibrated when cast. The Pre-cast elements shall be removed from the moulds as soon
 as practicable and shall be kept. damp for a period of at least 10 days. Any elements that shows
 checking or soft corners or surfaces shall be rejected. The method of storage and handling shall be such
 as to preserve true and even edges and corners, any pre-cast element which becomes chipped, marred or
 cracked before or during the process of placing shall be rejected, sampling of pre-cast elements shall be
 submitted to the Engineer or his representative for approval, prior to fabrication, at the Contractor's
 own expense.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 20
4.5.5 Workmanship
 All pre-cast concrete or mortar elements shall be well cleaned and thoroughly wetted with clean water
 before placing in their positions shown on the Drawings. The pre-cast elements shall be bedded and
 jointed in cement and sand mortar (1:3) mix and the joints raked out on both faces to receive plaster or
 pointing as indicated on the Drawings to the satisfaction of the Engineer or his representative.

4.6 Manholes Protective Coating
 The interior walls of the manholes in contact with waste water shall be painted with epoxy paint on
 concrete in two layers at least and until a uniform color is attained and as per the manufacturer’s
 recommendations.

4.7 Connection Of A Sewer To An Existing System
 The following specifications include the requirements for executing the following works:
              Concoction of a sewer to an existing manhole
              Construction of a manhole on an existing sewer.

4.7.1 Safety Regulations
 Whenever any work or repair/or connection to existing sewers is about to be executed, the contractor
 shall inspect and test such sewers for the presence of dangerous gases by means of detection torches or
 similar devices and shall take all necessary precautions and protective measures, which shall include,
 but not limited to, the following:

         Before entry into a manhole, the absence of noxious gases and availability of oxygen in it must
          be ascertained. Should any noxious gases or lack of oxygen in it be discovered, no entry shall
          be made until the manhole has been thoroughly ventilated with the aid of blowers. Only after
          all gases have been removed and sufficient oxygen has been introduced, will entry be
          permitted, but only to personnel wearing gas masks.
         Manhole covers shall be opened to ventilate pipelines for 24 hours, at least, as follows:
         For work in an existing manhole: the cover of the manhole upstream and downstream of it. A
          total of three covers.
         For connection to a sewer: the covers of the manholes upstream and downstream of the
          connections.
         no entrance into a manhole shall be permitted unless at least one person stays outside the
          manhole in readiness to render assistance if required.
         The person entering the manhole shall wear rubber gloves and rubber knee-boots with acid
          resistant soles. He shall also wear a safety harness with lifting rope, the end of which will be
          held by the person outside the manhole.
         persons entering the manholes deeper than 3.0m shall wear suitable gas masks.
         Mechanical ventilation by blower must be employed prior to entry and throughout the work in
          manholes deeper than 5.0m.
         Personnel employed on work requiring entry into manholes, septic tanks, etc. shall be briefed
          on the above noted safety measures and drilled in the use of harnesses, gas masks, etc.
         The provisions of this section shall in no way be construed as relieving the contractor from full
          and complete responsibility for the safety of his workmen and any other person who may suffer
          accident or injury due to the works carried out by the contractor.

4.7.2 Permission To Proceed
 The contractor must receive written permission from the Engineer or his representative before
 executing any of the previous described works. In all cases permission to proceed should be recorded in
 the works diary by the Engineer or his representative.




        SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 21
5. CONCRETE WORKS
 5.1 General
 Concrete work shall consist of furnishing all materials and constructing structures of the forms, shapes
 and dimensions shown on the Drawings or as directed, using Portland Cement Concrete, in accordance
 with the details shown on the Drawings and these Specifications.

 5.2 Classification
 The concrete is classified on the basis of its characteristic strength in compressive at 28 days as shown
 in the following table

                                                 Comp. Strength @ 28 day for
      Concrete Class
                                             Cylinder                 15x15x15 cm cube
           B 300                       300kg/cm2 ( 4260 psi )       345kg/cm2 ( 4900 psi )
           B 250                       250kg/cm2 ( 3550 psi )       287kg/cm2 ( 4075 psi )
           B 200                       200kg/cm2 ( 2850 psi )       230kg/cm2 ( 3270 psi )
           B 150                       150kg/cm2 ( 2130 psi )       180kg/cm2 ( 2555 psi )

Note :
 The concrete characteristic strength in compression (fcu) is the crushing strength at 28 days of cube
 100x100x100mm cured in water for 7 days at 21 ± 2C° provided that the concrete characteristic
 strength of not more than 5% of the tested samples is allowed to be less than the specified strength in
 above table.

 5.3 Admixtures
Air entraining agents, plasticisers, water proofing agents, retarders, and other similar admixtures shall
comply with Palestinian Standard Specifications and shall be used in accordance with the
manufacturer’s recommendations and B.S. Samples of proposed admixtures shall, if required, be
submitted to an approved testing authority by the Contractor in order to ascertain its suitability for use in
the Works. Use of any admixtures must be approved before hand by the Engineer or his representative.

The cost of such admixtures shall be included in the cost of concrete and no extra payment shall be
made if they are used. The proportions of cement, fine aggregate and water shall be determined by the
Contractor before concreting commences and submitted together with such test results as may be
required to the Engineer or his representative for approval and the Contractor shall not commence
concreting before such approval is given nor shall he alter or vary in any way the proportion of mix
unless he submits fresh test results and mix proportions to the Engineer or his representative for
approval.

The approval by the Engineer or his representative of such mix designs does not in any way absolve the
Contractor of any of the requirements of the Specifications.



 5.4 Mixing And Testing
 5.4.1 Samples Of Aggregates
Samples of both fine and coarse aggregates are to be submitted to the Engineer or his representative for
testing at least one week before commencing deliveries. No deliveries in bulk are to be commenced until
such samples are approved by the Engineer or his representative as complying with this Specification.

 5.4.2 Trial Mixes
Following the Engineer or his representative’s approval of the materials for each class of concrete, the
Contractor shall prepare a trial mix of each grade of concrete in the presence of the Engineer or his
representative. Each trial mix shall comprise not less than 1/3 of a cubic meter of concrete and shall be
mixed in an approved type of concrete mixer similar to that which the Contractor propose to employ on
the Works. The quantities of all ingredients of trial mix including water shall be carefully determined by
weight according to the approved mix design. Each trial mix shall show no tendency to segregate when



       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 22
handled and compacted by the methods by which the Contractor proposes to handle and compact the
grade of concrete in the Works and it shall be capable of adequate compaction by such methods.

 5.4.3 Water/Cement Ratio
The quantity of water to be added to the cement and aggregates during mixing shall be just sufficient to
produce a workable mix to enable it to be well compacted and worked into corners of formwork and
around reinforcement. All mixes shall be designed in respect of the proportioning of water so that the
Slump Test as carried out according to B.S. 1881 shall be in accordance with the slump specification.
Measurement of water on the site shall take into account the moisture present in the aggregates , and
Slump Tests shall be taken sufficiently frequently to ensure that variations in the moisture content of the
aggregate are fully taken into account in determining the amount of water to be added.

 5.4.4 Measurement Of Ingredients
The aggregates for the concrete shall be measured by weight but measurement by volume may be
allowed in special circumstances with approval of the Engineer or his representative.

When the aggregates are to be measured by weight the weight batching machines shall be of a type
approved by the Engineer or his representative. They shall be clean and in good condition and
adjustment. At the Engineer or his representative may require, the Contractor shall check the accuracy of
each weight-batching machine.

When the aggregates are to be measured by volume, the proportions of fine and coarse aggregates shall
be measured in well constructed gauge boxes, of dimensions approved by the Engineer or his
representative to guarantee that whole multiples of such gauge boxes wile-sure the use of one or more
whole bags or containers of cement and the capacity of the concrete mixer shall be such as to ensure that
no splitting of cement bags or containers is required. Gauge boxes shall be properly filled and struck off
level, addition of fine aggregates to allow for bulking due to moisture content being made as required.

An efficient water measuring device shall be fitted to each concrete mixer. Any cement container shall
be such as to contain an accurately weighed amount of cement.

 5.4.5 Mixing Concrete
The concrete shall be mixed in a power driven machine of the batch type, no hand mixing shall be
permitted. Mixing shall continue until the mass of concrete batch is uniform in consistency and color.
The method of discharge shall be such as to cause no segregation of the concrete materials.

Concrete which has commenced to set before placement shall not be re-mixed and shall be rejected and
in no case used in the works.

 5.4.6 Concrete Testing - Compressive Crushing Strength
A) General
The methods used in sampling, making, curing and testing the concrete samples, either in the field or in
the laboratory, will be in accordance with PS 55 Part 1 1997.
Adequate facilities shall be provided for the Engineer or his representative to inspect ingredients and
processes used in the manufacture and delivery of the concrete. The manufacturer and/or Contractor
shall afford the Engineer or his representative, without charge, all facilities necessary to secure samples
and conduct tests to determine whether the concrete is being furnished in accordance with the
Specifications.

A part from the samples taken from the batching plant, to check the uniformity of production of the
same, all samples taken in the field shall be taken at random from batches of concrete after leaving the
mixer and under the Supervision of the Engineer or his representative. The quantity of samples and tests
will be established by the Engineer or his representative, but each class of concrete shall be represented
by at least one test (8) specimens, cubes 100x100x100mm) for each 75 cubic meter of concrete poured,
but there shall be at least one test for each concrete poured for each day’s concreting regardless of the
quantity.

The cubes shall be numbered consecutively and marked with the date, section of work form which they
are taken and any other relevant information and tested at an approved laboratory. The first set of four
cubes shall be tested after seven days.


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 23
B) 7 (Seven) day Tests and Acceptance of the Concrete Works
The results of 7 day tests may be used as an indication of the compressive strengths which may
considered to be 67% of strength at 28 days.

If the average strength of the four cubes tests after seven days is below 67 percent of the required
strength after 28 days, the Contractor must immediately stop all concreting until checks are made on the
material and equipment and immediately rectify any defect which has become apparent as the result of
such checking. If the Contractor elects to remove and replace the defective concrete without waiting for
the results of the twenty eight day test, concreting can then continue entirely at the responsibility of the
Contractor otherwise, the second set of four cubes shall be tested, after 28 days.

C) 28 (Twenty eight) day Tests and Acceptance of the Concrete Works:
The specified strength requirements shall be assumed satisfied if for any set of 4 consecutive test cubes
none of the strengths is below the specified characteristic strength, or the average is not less than the
specified characteristic strength and the difference between the greatest and least strength is not greater
than 20%.


D) Concrete Testing - Workability
Concrete shall be of a consistency and workability suitable for the conditions on the job. For most
concrete a “plastic” mix is required, vibrated, without segregation.

The Contractor shall provide the equipment necessary to determine the slump of freshly-mixed concrete
at each place where concrete is being placed and shall determine the slump of the concrete on each
occasion that a set of test cubes is made and not less than once a day or as the Director or Works or his
representative may direct.

Concrete delivered for placing, except as otherwise instructed by the Engineer or his representative,
shall have a working slump limit ranging from 75 to 125 mm.

Whenever the working slump limit is out of the range mentioned above, the concrete shall be rejected
and disposed at the Contractor’s expense.

The Engineer or his representative may choose to adopt lesser slumps whenever concrete of such lesser
slump can be poured and consolidated readily in place by means of vibrators


E) Concrete Testing - Materials
The Contractor shall also obtain and furnish the Engineer or his representative with current Material
Test Certificates from the concrete supplier or otherwise for the following parameters;

         Grading, fine and coarse aggregate
         Flakiness and Elongation Index
         Compacting Factor Test
         Co-efficient of expansion for the aggregates
         Absorption Index
         Mix Design

F) Requirements For The Concrete To Resist Chemical Attack.
Sulphate-Resistance Portland Cement (SRPC) can be used for concrete to resist chemical attack as far as
ultimate strength, durability, workability etc. are concerned. It is also essential to obtain a hardened
concrete of low permeability. However, due to the very aggressive nature of acids, protective measures
would have to be taken to prevent the acid coming in contact with concrete by using water proofing .

Full compaction of the concrete so as to reduce the permeability to a minimum is an essential factor in
resisting sulphate attack even when SRPC is used. Workability and compaction can be improved by
increasing the cement content of the mix to 330 kg/m3.



        SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 24
Waterproof coatings shall be applied to concrete structures in order to protect the concrete against the
aggressive effects of saline ground water, generally, protective coatings will be applied to surface of
structures which are close to or in contact with ground water.

Before applying any coating the surface of the concrete shall be cleaned of all dirt, dust and loose
material and where necessary any surface shall be made good so that the surface is smooth and free from
air or water holes. No coating shall be applied until the Engineer or his representative has approved the
preparatory work. The coating shall be applied using approved bituminous coating with approved
coatings.

 5.5 Transporting Concrete
Concrete shall be taken from the place of mixing to the place of deposition by methods which shall
prevent the segregation or loss of the ingredients and which are sufficiently rapid to ensure that the
concrete does not commence to set before it is compacted in position. The concrete shall be deposited
as near as possible to its final position in the works and shall not be allowed to flow laterally into
position. Deposition of the concrete through chutes shall not be permitted nor dropped freely from a
height exceeding 1.50m.

 5.6 Placing Concrete - General
The concrete shall be deposited generally in horizontal layers in such a manner as to maintain, until
completion of the pour, a plastic surface approximately horizontal. The thickness of each layer shall
range from 300 to 600mm as approved, and the placement shall be carried out at such a rate that no
concrete surface can reach an initial set, before additional concrete is placed thereon and in any case not
after 30 minutes (in the case that no retarding admixtures are used) or 2 hours (in the case that retarding
admixtures are used).

The Engineer or his representative may authorize higher lifts or layers where concrete can be placed or
consolidated in thick layers. Concrete shall be deposited, as nearly as practicable, directly in its final
position, flowing of concrete with vibrators, or by other means will not be permitted. For locations
where direct placement is not possible and in narrow forms, hoppers and trunks must be provided, of a
size to allow proper placing.

Where steep slopes are required for placing concrete with chutes, the chutes shall be equipped with
baffle boards or be in short lengths that reverse the direction of movement. Chutes and use of chutes
must be approved by the Engineer or his representative.

All chutes, troughs and pipes shall be kept clean and free from coatings of hardened concrete by
thoroughly flushing with water after each run. The water used for flushing shall be discharged clear of
the concrete already in place.

Concrete shall not be dropped in the forms a distance of more than one and on half (1½) meters unless
confined by approved closed chutes or pipes, and care shall be taken to fill each part of the form by
depositing the concrete as near to the final position as possible. The coarse aggregate shall be worked
back from the forms and worked around the reinforcement without displacing the bars. After initial set
of the concrete, the forms shall not be jarred and no strain shall be placed on the ends of projecting
reinforcement.

Any tendency to segregation shall be corrected by shoveling stone into mortar, rather than mortar into
stones.

Concrete that is of excessive slump, segregated, partially hardened, or unworkable, shall not be placed in
forms or if placed, shall be removed and wasted as directed by the Director or Works or his
representative, at the Contractor’s expense.

Each layer of the concrete shall be worked with suitable types of equipment, until the concrete is
consolidated to the maximum practicable density, is free of pockets of coarse aggregate, and fits tightly
against all form surfaces and embedded materials.

Construction equipment used for spreading, vibrating or other operations must absolutely not spatter
loose oil, fuel and grease on the concrete.

      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 25
No concrete work shall be stopped or temporarily discontinued within forty five (45) centimeters of the
top of any finished surface, unless such work is finished with a coping having a thickness less than forty
five (45) centimeters, in which case the joint shall be made at the under edge of the coping.

 5.7 Concrete During Rain
Outdoor concreting shall not be started during rain unless the Contractor has taken all protective
measures including proper shelters so that the concrete maintains the slump tested at the mixing plant
during transport and placing. If concreting is already in process, it shall be suspended if the rain affects
the quality of concrete i.e. when the slump of vibrated concrete is 25 mm or more than the slump tested
at the mixing plant for the same class of concrete.



 5.8 Concreting Under Water
Concrete shall be deposited in water only with the permission of the Engineer or his representative and
under his supervision. The minimum cement factor of the class of concrete being deposited in water
shall be increased ten (10) percent without further compensation and the slump shall be 125 mm
maximum. When depositing in water is allowed, the concrete shall be carefully placed in the space in
which it is to remain in a compact mass, by means of a termite, bottom-dumping bucket, or other
approved method that does not permit the concrete to fall through the water without adequate protection.
The concrete shall not be disturbed after being deposited. No concrete shall be placed in running water,
and forms which are not reasonably watertight , shall not be used for holding concrete deposited under
water.

 5.9 Concrete At Night
No concrete shall be mixed, placed, or finished when the light is insufficient, unless an adequate and
approved artificial lighting system is operated, and such night work is approved by the Engineer or his
representative.

 5.10 Concreting In Hot Weather
Unless otherwise directed, when concrete is placed in hot weather and the temperature is expected to
reach thirty three (33) degrees C, (ninety (90) degrees F) or higher, the Contractor shall schedule his
operations to place and finish the concrete during the hours that the air temperature in the shade will be
below thirty three (33) degrees C, ninety (90) degrees F); or as approved by the Engineer or his
representative.

The setting time of concrete can be with hot weather very short and “cold joints” are often hard to avoid
when large concreting works have to be carried out in continuous operation. To avoid cold joints,
therefore, the Contractor shall provide sufficiently large capacity in his concrete producing plant and
concrete transporting arrangements and use an appropriate retarder when deemed necessary by the
Engineer or his representative to facilitate placing and finishing of concrete and additives to delay water
evaporation. The Contractor shall use pumps for pouring concrete.

When the rate of evaporation of surface moisture from concrete is expected to approach 1 kg/m2 per
hour or when the shade air temperature is expected to reach 33 degrees C and above, precautions shall
be taken, including the following:

   Dampening the forms which shall be painted white.
   Reducing the concrete temperature to the lowest practical level by procedures such as:
     Shading the aggregate and cooling them by pre wetting.
     Cooling the water before mixing in concrete, by using appropriate and approved chilling
        equipment.
     Screening the mixing plant and transporting vehicles from wind, rain and sun.
     Shielding form the direct rays of the sun all the surfaces, including reinforcement, against
        which concrete is to be placed.
   Erecting wind breaks and sunshades at the concrete placing location.
   Placing concrete at night.
   Reducing the time between the placing of the concrete and the start of curing to the minimum
    possible.

      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 26
   Minimizing evaporation (particularly during the first few hours subsequent to placing the concrete)
    by suitable means such as applying moisture by fog spraying.

All precautions to be taken shall be subject to the Engineer or his representative’s approval and the
Contractor shall demonstrate that all approved precautions are available for use prior to the Engineer or
his representative granting approval to any concreting operation.

The temperature of the concrete when placed shall not exceed 32 degrees C nor shall concrete be mixed
or placed when the shade air temperature is 33 degrees C or above, or is expected to reach such a level
during concreting, without special permission from the Engineer or his representative.

The Contractor shall provide a sufficient number of concrete thermometer for use both by his own and
the Engineer or his representative’s staff.

No additional compensation will be recognized or paid to the Contractor if he has to resort to special
measures, such as are described above, to control the concrete temperature.

 5.11 Compacting Concrete
 5.11.1 Tamping
All concrete shall be thoroughly compacted to the maximum with approved tampers without any
segregation in its final position before it commences to set. Care shall be taken to avoid the use of spade
type tampers which may cause segregation. Initial compaction shall be with tampers and compaction
with screed boards shall be limited to final shape and finish. During the placing and compaction of
reinforced concrete, a competent steel fixer shall be in attendance to adjust and correct if necessary the
position of the reinforcement.

 5.11.2 Vibrating
Concrete shall be compacted by vibrating with an approved vibrator. The vibrators shall not be attached
to any reinforcement or embedded fittings and where immersion type vibrators are used , care shall be
taken to ensure that they do not come into contact with the reinforcement or embedded fittings. Freshly
placed concrete shall not be vibrated in a manner likely to cause damage to concrete which has already
began its initial set. Concrete shall not be vibrated excessively where segregation would result. Shutter
type vibrators shall not be used. Nor shall immersion type vibrators come into contact with the
formwork.


 5.12 Curing Of Concrete
All concrete shall be protected from the harmful effects of sunshine, drying winds, rain, flowing water,
or other adverse effects. For at least 7 days after placing, the concrete shall be prevented from drying out
by being sprayed with water and covered with Hessian, clean sand or other approved material which
shall be kept wet.

Membrane curing of concrete with an approved liquid may be used as an alternative to curing with water
except that membrane curing liquid shall not be applied to surfaces of concrete from which the
shuttering has been struck, until the concrete surface and finish has been inspected and approved by the
Engineer or his representative.

Concrete curing compound shall be readily upon the concrete surface for at least four hours after the
application. The color, if any, shall be inconspicuous on exposed surfaces within seven days after
application.

The contractor shall ensure that the concrete is adequately protected against inclement weather until
properly set and shall if necessary provide additional protection to that specified above.

 5.13 Inspect of Concrete
The condition of formed surfaces shall be inspected immediately on striking the shuttering by the
Contractor and Engineer or his representative, for the presence of defects. Any remedial action approved
by the Engineer or his representative, such as application of cement slurry or mortar to superficial


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 27
defects, shall be carried out immediately while the concrete surface is still moist and before any curing
membrane is applied.

 5.14 Defective Concrete
The Contractor shall on the written instruction of the Engineer or his representative remove and
reconstruct any portion of the work which in the opinion of the Engineer or his representative is
unsatisfactory as regards the quality of concrete, incorrect dimension or position of the cast concrete,
badly placed or insufficient reinforcement, honeycombing or other such cause as to render the
construction defective or non compliant with the specification or which may prejudicially affect the
strength or durability of the construction.

 5.15 Repairs To Concrete
The method of repairing and replacing defective concrete which the contractor proposes to adopt shall
be submitted to the Engineer or his representative for prior approval and the repair shall be carried out in
such manner as he may direct or approve.

 5.16 Supervision Of Concrete Work
Throughout the progress of the concrete work the Contractor shall employ and provide such supervision
as is necessary to ensure the following;

  - the day to day control of the quality of the concrete,
  - the mixing, transporting, placing, compacting, curing and protection of the concrete,
  - the testing of concrete and material constituents specified,
  - investigation of defects as required by the Engineer or his representative,
  -       preparation of all concreting records and reports as required by the Engineer or his
  representative.

 5.17 Finishing Of Concrete
All concrete surfaces not formed by shuttering shall be trowelled to a smooth dense surface with the
minimum of cement and fine particles being brought to the surface and shall be free from irregularities.

Shuttered surfaces of concrete may be formed by casting against sawn timber. All other exposed
concrete including pre-cast concrete shall be cast against steel, plywood or planed timber formwork and
shall be carefully rubbed down with carborundum to remove all imperfections and irregularities.

 5.18 Design And Construction Of Formwork
Forms shall be used whenever necessary to confine the concrete, and shape it to the required lines,
grades and dimension shown on the Drawings. Forms shall have sufficient strength to withstand the
pressure resulting from placement and vibration of the concrete, and shall provide concrete surfaces
conforming to the requirements of the finishes specified in concrete pavement. Forms shall be
sufficiently tight to prevent The loss of mortar from the concrete. Where re-used forms are used, the
original strength, rigidity, tightness and surface smoothness of the forms shall be maintained throughout
their usage.

The Contractor shall submit to the Director or Works or his representative, for approval prior to the start
of any concrete construction, the detailed design he proposes to adopt for form work, but approval of the
Drawings shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for their adequacy. The Contractor is
advised that is recommended that form work be fabricated by a specialist supplier but in any case form
work, wherever manufactured must be fabricated in a controlled environment facility.

The form surfaces in contact with the concrete will be treated or protected to avoid chemical reactions in
or discoloring of the concrete surface.

The use of forms with bruises, irregularities and encrustations shall not be permitted.

Should any of the elements show signs of deformation during the pouring, they shall immediately be
replaced, in order to guarantee the perfect outcome of the work.

The Contractor shall be responsible for the calculations and designs for the form work and if required,
shall submit them to the Engineer or his representative before construction. On form work to external

      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 28
faces which will be permanently exposed, all horizontal and vertical form work joints shall be so
arranged that joint lines will form a uniform pattern on the face of the concrete. Where the Contractor
proposes to make up the form work from standard sized manufactured form work panels, the size of
such panels shall be approved by the Director or Works or his representative before they are used in the
construction of Works. The finished appearance of the entire elevation of the structure and adjoining
structures shall be considered when planning the pattern of joint lines caused by form work and by
construction joints to ensure continuity of horizontal and vertical lines. Adjacent panels of form lining
shall be so placed that the grain of the wood will be in the same general direction (all horizontal or all
vertical).

Form work shall be provided for the top surfaces of sloping work where the slope exceeds fifteen
degrees from the horizontal (except where such top surface is specified as spaded finish) and shall be
anchored to enable the concrete to be properly compacted and to prevent flotation care being taken to
prevent air being trapped.

Opening for inspection of the inside of the form work and for the removal of water used for washing
down shall be provided and so formed as to be easily closed before placing concrete.

Before placing concrete, all bolts, pipes or conduits or any other fixtures which are to be built in shall be
fixed in their correct positions, and cores and other devices for forming holes shall be held fast by fixing
to the form work or otherwise. Holes shall not be cut in any concrete without the approval of the
Engineer or his representative.
The support form shall be such that no deflection occurs under the weight of wet concrete or other loads.

 5.19 Spacing Blocks And Temporary Ties
Internal spacing blocks and construction ties shall be avoided as far as possible and practicable. Where it
is intended that these shall be removed whether before or after the concrete has set, the making good of
the concrete shall be subject to the Engineer or his representatives approval. The removal of the blocks
or internal ties must not jeopardize the stability of the construction. If, with the approval of the Engineer
or his representative, these are allowed to remain in the concrete then they shall be of a material and
quality that they do not prejudice the strength of the work. Concrete spacing blocks shall be made of
concrete at least equal in quality to the main concrete. Metal ties shall be positioned such that they do
not come into contact with any of the reinforcement or fittings and no part of the tie shall be
permanently embedded in the concrete nearer than 5 cm to the exterior surface of the concrete. All holes
resulting on the concrete surface from their removal shall be in filled with 1 :2 cement mortar.

 5.20 Preparation For Concreting
Immediately before the concrete is deposited, the formwork, shall be thoroughly cleaned out and freed
from sawdust, shavings, wire cuttings, dust, sand, soil and all other deleterious and extraneous materials.
Temporary openings shall be provided in the formwork to facilitate this work. The internal surfaces of
the formwork shall, immediately prior to final erection, be coated with mould oil. The mould oil shall
be of approved type and shall be applied uniformly and the quantities used shall be the minimum
consistent with its purposes. The contractor shall ensure that all steel reinforcement and adjoining
concrete surfaces are kept free of mould oil.

 5.21 Approval Before Concreting
The Contractor shall in all cases request the approval of the formwork by the Engineer or his
representative in sufficient time to allow an inspection to be made and shall not commence concreting
until such approval is obtained. The period between the Contractor’s request for approval and his
intention to commence concreting shall be not less than 24 hours.

Such approval shall not absolve the Contractor of his responsibilities under the Contract.

 5.22 Removal Of Formwork
The removal of the forms shall be carried out when the concrete has reached a sufficient strength, except
where shorter time is approved by the Engineer or his representative.

The minimum time which shall elapse between the completion of concerting and removal of the forms
shall be established by the Engineer or his representative for any particular structure, according to the
design calculations. After authorization for removal, the forms shall be removed as soon as practicable,

       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 29
to avoid delay in specified curing of concrete, and also to enable the earliest practicable repair of surface
imperfections. Methods of forms removal likely to cause over stressing of the concrete, or injury to the
concrete surface, shall not be used. Forms and their supports shall be removed in such a manner as to
allow the concrete to take the stresses due to its own weight uniformly and gradually.

Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer or his representative, forms shall remain in place for the
following specified periods of time:

      1. Arch Centers                                                               Fourteen (14) days
      2. Centering under beams                                                      Ten (10) days
      3. Floor slabs
          Less than three (3) meter span                                            Seven (7) days
          More than three (3) meters & less than six (6) meter span                 Fourteen (14) days
      More than six (6) meters & less than fourteen (14) meter span                 Twenty one (21) days

       4. Columns, walls, sides of beams, and other vertically formed surfaces shall be removed at an
           early date, as directed by the Engineer or his representative to facilitate finish and proper
           curing.

In any case removal of form works shall have to be carried out only after the concrete has reached a
strength of 75% of the one required in the Specifications.

If high strength cement is used, the time limits may be decreased as determined by the Engineer or his
representative. Special notes on the plans relative to the removal of forms and false work under arches,
continuous spans and other special structures shall have precedence over the above time limits for
removal of forms and false work.



 5.23 Blinding Concrete
Prior to placing any structural concrete on natural surfaces, a blinding layer of class C concrete shall be
laid to a minimum of 75mm thickness. This blinding layer shall be suitably cured prior to subsequent
concrete placement. The blinding shall be clean and free from any dust and impurities prior to
subsequent concrete placement.

 5.24 Concrete Below Ground
All concrete placed below ground level shall be painted with two coats of bituminous paint membrane.
The expansion joints underground should be filled with rubber.

 5.25 Reinforced Steel
All the reinforcing steel shall be fusion bonded epoxy coated and it shall comply with the requirements
of Palestinian Standard and as specified hereinafter. Only fusion bonded epoxy coated reinforcement
steel will be accepted. No other means of epoxy coating will be approved.

 5.25.1 Materials
Reinforcing steel shall be High Bond, High Tension, Deformed bars having the following
characteristics. (Palestinian Standard).
     Minimum yield point                   4,218 kg/cm2
     Minimum ultimate tensile strength     6,327 kg/cm2

 5.25.2 Reinforcement Steel Fixing
Prior to concreting the Contractor shall ensure that all reinforcement bars are entirely free from loose
mill scale, loose rust, oil, grease, paint, mould oil, and all other deleterious and extraneous material. All
hooks, bends and shape codes for bar bending schedules shall be to PS 52, or equivalent to be approved
by the Engineer or his representative. Bars shall be bent to the correct radius around proprietary
mandrels of the requisite diameter.

All bars to be fixed shall be so positioned to provide the specified cover of concrete. The steel
reinforcement bars shall be fixed with tying wire to form a rigid cage.



       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 30
Reinforcement projecting from the framework for continuation shall be adequately supported throughout
concreting and shall not be sent out of p.

The Contractor shall in all cases request the approval of the steel fixing by the Engineer or his
representative in sufficient time to allow an inspection to be made and shall not commence concreting
until such approval is obtained. The period between the Contractor’s request for approval and his
intention to commence concreting shall be not less than 24 hours.

Such approval shall not absolve the contractor of his responsibilities under the Contract.

 5.25.3 Submittals
The Contractor shall submit the following in advance of fabrication:


a) Shop Drawings
Before ordering reinforcing steel the Contractor shall submit bar bending schedules for reinforcing steel
prepared in accordance with BS 4466 showing layouts, bending diagrams, assembly diagrams,
dimensioned types and locations of all bars laps and splices, and shapes, dimensions, and details of bar
reinforcing and accessories. Layout plans for bar supports and chairs, with typical details shall be
included. Engineer or his representative review and approval of shop drawings will apply to the size,
locations, and types of bars, and dimensions of bar lap splices only. Dimensions shown on the shop
drawings are the responsibility of the Contractor and the Engineer or his representative’s approval of
shop drawings shall not constitute approval of dimensions thereon.

b) Samples
Representative samples of all reinforcing steel that the Contractor proposes to use in the Works must be
submitted, before Work is commenced, to the Engineer or his representative for his written approval,
together with manufacturer’s certificates stating clearly for each sample the place of relevant details of
composition, manufacture strengths and other qualities of the steel. In the event a reinforcing steel
sample under test fails to meet the Specifications requirements at any time, or the Engineer or his
representative considers that samples which were presented to him for test were not truly representative,
or if it becomes apparent that reinforcing steel which has not been approved has been used on the
Works, then the Engineer or his representative may instruct the Contractor to break out and remove
completely all such sections of the Work already constructed using such suspect reinforcing steel.

All testing of reinforcing steel bars shall be carried out in accordance with Palestinian Standard

 5.26 Cement Mortar And Grout
Mortars and grout shall be composed of Portland cement and sand in the following proportions;

Quality                     Portland Cement                       Sand
G1                                   1                                      1
G2                                   1                                      2
G3                                   1                                      3

The amount of water added shall be sufficient to make the mortar or grout workable, consistent with its
purpose.

 5.27 Ready Mixed Concrete
The use of concrete delivered to the site in a plastic condition ready for placing in its final position shall
be permitted provided that the constituent materials and the concrete mix shall comply with the
requirements of this specification and subject to the following conditions;

- Water shall only be added to the mix under the control of the central batching plant,
- No further addition of water shall be permitted,
- Dry batching with water added on site shall not be permitted,
- The Contractor shall submit details of his proposed supplier to the Engineer or his representative for
approval including copies of all specified current materials test certificates plus copies of batching plant
and dosing meter calibration certificates,

       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                         VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 31
The Concrete shall be placed in its final position within 1 hour maximum of the time of adding cement
to the wetted aggregates.

The contractor shall provide one copy of the delivery ticket number together with a record of the slump
test on site, times of placing, completion time of placing, position of placing plus the works test cube
reference number. If necessary the site test cube results should be capable of being compared with the
central batching plant cube results.

 5.28 Concrete Spacing Blocks
1. Concrete spacing blocks shall be used to ensure correct placing and cover of the bars.
2. The cover to reinforcement between the outside of the bars and the concerts face shall be : 40mm
±5mm.

 5.29 Water Stops
 Water stops are generally performed strips of durable impermeable material which are wholly or
partially embedded in the concrete during consideration so as to span across the joint and provide
permanent water tightness movements and for preserving water tightness. It is important to ensure that
proper compaction of the concrete against the water stop is practicable. The water stop should be
sufficiently wide to ensure the water tightness, and it not be allowed the water stop moving during
concreting; in wall joint, water stops of the fully embedded type should be placed centrally in the
thickness of the concrete and the wings or end bulbs should be supported by some form of tying to
adjacent reinforcement. The distance of the water stop from the nearest exposed concrete face should be
not less than half the width of the water stop. The full concrete cover to all reinforcement should be
maintained. Centrally-placed water stops should not generally be used in a flat horizontal position such
as in a floor slab joint. If this is unavoidable care should be taken to ensure full compaction of concrete
under the water stop. With slabs, the 'under-slab' partially embedded type is preferable.

The Contractor shall submit with his Tender a detailed description of the water stop he intends to use,
accompanied by a drawing showing the shape and size of the water stop, the name of the manufacture,
and the methods to be installing and splicing the water stop, which shall be in accordance with the
requirements detailed below.
The Contractor shall also furnish all labour and materials for making field splices in all water stops. The
Contractor shall take suitable precaution to support and protect the water stops during the progress of the
work and shall repair or replace any damaged water stop.
The rubber water stop shall be fabricated from a high-grade, tread-type compound. The basic polymer
shall be natural rubber or a synthetic rubber. The material shall be compounded and cured to have the
following physical characteristics: yield strength 10.2 N/mm2, elasticity of 400% at braking strain.

The design of the structure should generally provide for the continuity of the water stops system across
all joints particular between floor and wall systems. The correct procedure for making the running joints
on site using heat fused butt joint for PVC, vulcanized or pocketed sleeve joints for rubber and braised
or welded lap joints for copper or steel must be adopted. Intersections and special junctions such as arise
between rubber and PVC should be prefabricated it sealing compounds. Joint sealing compounds are
impermeable ductile materials which are to provide a watertight seal by adhesion to the throughout the
range of joint movement, which a have been in common use for this purpose usable teen based on
bitumen or coal-tar pitch without filler such as limestone or state dust, asbestos rubber.

The sealing compound is usually applied in the surface of the concrete along the. The actual minimum
width will depended on the known characteristics of the material. In floor joints of the expansion type
the sealant is supported by the joint filler. The sealing of floor joints is generally quite successful since
retention of the material is assisted by gravity and in many sealing can be delayed until just before the
reservoir is put service so that the amount of joint opining subsequently to be accommodated is quite
small. The chase should not be too narrow or too deep to hinder complete filling. Here again, a wider
joint demands a smaller percentage distortion in the material.

Vertical joints in wall should be primed where necessary and they sealed on the water face with
bituminous putty or other approved sealant. A suitably shaped chase should previously have bed formed.
Cold-applied two-component sealing compounds based on polysulphide rubber complying with BS
4254 may be used in vertical joints in walls and generally in expansion joints because of their non-


       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                         VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 32
slumping properties and greater extensibility. Most sealants should be applied in conditions of complete
dryness and cleanliness.

 5.30 Expansion Joint Finishing.
the material should be un-shrinkageble mastic sealant for wastewater, polystyrene sheets of 12cm height
and 2.50cm thickness.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 33
6. MASONRY WORKS
6.1 General
  Generally, the blocks used shall be of local manufacture made with cement and sand in approved
  vibrated pressure machines. The fine aggregate to be used for blocks shall be clean and sharp. It shall
  be chemically and structurally stable and shall comply with the Table of Gratings given here under.
  The cement, fine aggregate and water to be used for blocks shall comply with the requirements given
  under Concrete Works; and the methods of measuring and mixing the materials shall be the same.
  The following Mixing Table shall be strictly adhered to in all cases: -
MIXING TABLE
Nominal          Cement Sand
Mix           Kilos        Cu. Meters
               360             1.0

TABLE OF. GRADING – PERCENTAGE PASSING
SIZES -                                                                % Passing
BS                                         Approximate
Sieve No.       Inches Millimeters                 Sand
 -                                            3                          95-100
7                       .095                   2.4                       80-100
14                     .47                   1.2                       60 -100
25                     .24                   .6                          30-100
52                     .012                  .3                        5 -65
                       .006                   .15                       0.15
   Note: The above figures represent the limits of percentages (by     weight) passing sieves of the sizes
   mentioned.

   The blocks shall be hard, sound, square and clean with sharp well-defined arise sand shall be
   approved by the Engineer. Hollow blocks, where required, shall be of similar quality and overall size
   to the said blocks, and shall be of local manufacture made with cement and sand in approved vibrated
   pressure machines. The design of the cavities and webs shall be submitted to the Engineer for
   approval before manufacture. The thickness of the membranes or solid portions of hollow blocks
   shall be not less than 4 cm. each and the combined thickness of the solid portions shall exceed one
   third of the total thickness in either horizontal direction. Immediately after molding the blocks shall
   be placed on clean, level, non-absorbent pallets. Blocks shall not be removed from the pallets until
   inspected and approved by the Engineer. Blocks shall be cured by being kept thoroughly wet by
   means of water sprinklers or the approved means for a period determined by the Engineer, but in all
   cases for not less than three days. Blocks must not be left on earth or sand during the curing process.
   Blocks shall be stacked in honeycomb fashion. Solid stacking will not be permitted.
   The average compressive strength of solid blocks shall be not less than 45 kg.lcm2 of gross area at 28
   days (average of 12 blocks) such that minimum crushing strength of individual block is not less than
   85% of required strength.
   The average compressive strength of hollow blocks shall be not less than 35 kg.lcm2 of gross area at
   28 days (average of 12 blocks) such that minimum crushing strength of individual block is not less
   than 85% of required strength.

6.2 Mortars
   The sand to be used for mortar shall be clean sharp. It shall be chemically and structurally stable and
   shall comply with the Table of Grading below. The lime to be used mortar shall be imported hydrated
   lime complying with Class B of British Standard No.890. Where colored -mortars are required these
   shall be obtained either by the use of colored cement or by addition of pigments complying with
   British Standard No.1014. The cement and water to be used for mortar shall comply with the
   requirements given under Concrete Works. The methods of measuring and mixing shall be the same.
   The following Mixing Table shall be strictly adhere to in all cases: -

        MIXING TABLE
        Cement/Sand 1:4                   Cement Kilos 361       Sand Cubic Meters 100       Imported Lime (Dry
                                                                                             Hydrate) Kilos
        1:4 Imported Lime with 10%                               ---                         161
        Cement (1:10:2 ½)                 145                    Mix                         Normal


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 34
       TABLE OF GRADINGS - PERCENTAGE PASSING
      SIZES                                                                              Sand
      PS                                Inches                 Approximate               for
      Sieve No.                                                Millimeters               Mortar
      -                                                        5                         95-100
      7                                 .095                   2.4                       80-100
      14                                .047                   1.2                       60-100
      25                                .024                   .6                        30-100
      52                                .012                   .3                        5-65
      100                               .006                   .15                       0-15
  Note: The above figures represent the limits of percentages (by weight) passing sieves of   the size
  mentioned.

  The mortar generally shall be cement and sand (1:4) mix. Where plasticiser is added to the mortar the
  following mixes shall be used: - (a) Building mortar - cement and sand (1:6) and (b (Mortar for
  pointing - cement and sand (1:3) the palsticiser for jointing-cement and sand (1:3) the palsticiser shall
  be used strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All mortar shall be used before
  the mitial set has begun. Mortar shall not be re-mixed after the initial set has taken place. The full
  description given under Section 1 Plaster-work shall apply also to the measuring, mixing, etc. of
  mortar for Block work.

6.3 Construction
  All block work shall be set out and built to the dimensions shown on the Drawings. Walls shall be
  carried up regularly without leaving any part more than one meter lower than another unless the
  permission of the Engineer is first obtained. In the case of cavity walls both thickness shall be carried
  up more than about 40 cm. in advance of the other. The courses of block work shall be properly
  leveled. The perpendicular joints shall be properly lined and quoins, jambs and other angles plumbed
  at the work proceeds: All walls shall be thoroughly bonded in accordance with the best constructional
  practice and as directed by the Engineer. Broken blocks shall not be used except where required for
  bond. All cement and sand blocks shall be soaked with water before being used and the tops of walls
  left off, and concrete elements in touch shall be wetted before work is recommenced. The faces of
  walls shall be kept clean and free from mortar droppings and splashes. All blocks shall be properly
  spread with mortar before being laid and all joints shall be thoroughly flushed up solid through the
  full thickness of the wall at each course as the work proceeds. For block walls the gauge shall be ten
  courses to 210 cm. Walls to be left unplastered shall have a fair face consisting of selected blocks
  pointed with a neat weathered or flush joint as the work proceeds using the same mortar mix as for
  the jointing. Walls to be plastered shall have the horizontal joints raked out to a depth of 11/2 cm. to
  form a key. Block work shall be bonded to concrete columns by using non-ferrous metal ties east in
  concrete of type and dimensions approved by the Engineer.

  Cavity walls shall be built to the dimensions shown on the Drawings and the two thickness shall be
  bonded together with wall ties spaced one meter apart horizontally and approximately 40 cm. apart
  vertically and staggered. Extra ties shall be provided at reveals, quoins and openings.

  The ties shall be of the butterfly twist type of No.10 S.W.G. mild steel wire zinc coated and similar to
  those described in British Standard No. 1243. The length of the ties shall be approximately 8 cm. less
  than the total thickness of the wall. The cavity shall be kept clean by lifting screeds or other means
  approved by the Engineer and shall be left clean at completion. Allowance shall be made for leaving,
  temporarily; open courses immediately under all structural members built into the walls. These open
  courses shall be left in suitable positions to permit the structural members to take up their full
  deflection. The members have been fully loaded and before the completion of the Works.

6.4 Labors
  Arches shall be constructed in purpose-made cement and sand (1:5) mix solid blocks as appropriate
  to the sizes shown on the Drawings. The Contractor shall provide and erect temporary centering of
  timber construction and easy, strike and remove on completion. The Contractor shall cut and fit block


     SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 35
work around steel work etc., leave or form chases for edges of concrete slabs, Staircases, ends of
partitions etc., cut chases for pipes, conduits etc., and make it good. The Contractor shall build all
overselling courses, corbels, etc., where shown and build in or out and in ends of sills, steps, lintels,
etc., required. Wooden plates and doors and windows frames shall be bedded and exposed edges
pointed in mortar and fixing cramps shall be built in. Metal windows shall be bedded in mortar and
exposed edges pointed in mastic. Fixing legs shall be built in and channels and frames grouted with
mortar. The Contractor shall perform all cutting away and making good for all trades.

Expansion joints as shown on the Drawings or as directed in the Particular Specification shall be
constructed generally as either:
a) Open expansion joint with a clean straight cavity of the width directed.
b) Joint filled with an impregnated fiberboard of the thickness directed.




   SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 36
7. PAINTING AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS

     7.1 General
       Painting and coating materials shall be as specified. The amounts used, and the application, shall
       be in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions, including surface preparation (cleaning, sealing,
       roughing, etc…), and shall be subject to the prior approval of the Engineer or his representative.

       If the painting and coating are not executed as specified, the Contractor shall, at his own expense,
       remove the paint and thoroughly clean the area, in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer
       or his representative. Only after receiving the approval of the Engineer or his representative, the
       Contractor shall apply the painting or coating once again (and in accordance with the
       Specifications).

       All concrete surfaces to be painted shall first be thoroughly prepared, including cleaning,
       smoothing, filling-in, etc. Prepared surfaces shall be free of dirt, oil, grease and other foreign
       matter, and shall be completely dry.

     7.2 Interior Areas
       The interior walls, floors and roofs of the valve chambers, pump wet pit , distribution chamber and
       the manholes, shall all be painted with epoxy paint first class after receiving the approval of the
       Engineer or his representative, at least 2 layers and until a uniform color is attained.

     7.3 Exterior Areas
       The exterior berried walls of the valve chambers, pump wet pit, distribution chamber and the
       manholes, shall all be painted with hot bitumen emulsion, on concrete, in at least 2 layers and until
       a uniform color is attained.

     7.4 Metalwork
       All metal items coming into contact with the wastewater, whether inside or outside of a structure or
       building, shall be Stainless Steel. Items not coming into contact with the wastewater shall be
       painted with special epoxy paint.



8.     METALWORK

8.1 Ladders
      Ladders shall be as specified in the Drawings and the Bill of Quantities. Stainless Steel ladders shall
      be used. Payment shall be per meter length, including supply, erection, and all required works.

8.2 Hand Rail

      The Contractor shall erect on top of the walls of the parapet of the pump pit and distribution
      chamber Stainless Steel hand rail, as per the Drawings.

      Payment for this work shall be per meter and shall include supply of the anchoring plates and the
      profiles, all welding and connection works, and all requirements indicated in the Drawings.

8.3 Covers
      Covers shall be as per standard drawings, and requirements as specified in the Bill of Quantities and
      Drawings. Covers shall be galvanized and painted. Price shall be per unit (as per its dimensions),
      including supply, erection and all other necessary works.




        SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 37
9. PROTECTIVE COATING, LINING And PAINT WORK
      Unless otherwise specified, the protective coatings, linings and paint-work described in this Sub-
      clause shall be applied, as directed in this and other Sub-clauses of this Specification, to all
      metallic items supplied in this Contract. To permit future repairs of items supplied, the Contractor
      shall furnish the Employer with one (1) gallon each of all coatings, linings and paints (both primer
      and cover paints) used for equipment supplied. The cost of these coatings, linings and paints shall
      be included in the tender price of the equipment to be supplied.

      All equipment supplied and delivered to Site under this Contract shall be inspected by the
      Engineer or his representative, and any equipment found to have defective or damaged coatings,
      linings or paint-work shall be repaired or replaced as per the decision of the Engineer or his
      representative by the Contractor supplying the equipment.

      The contractor may suggest equivalent alternative materials to those specified in this Tender, but
      prior approval by the Engineer or his representative shall be required in all cases. If the applied
      coating, lining or paint-work is not as specified or approved, the Contractor shall be required, at
      his expense, to remove it (to the satisfaction of the Engineer or his representative) and to replace it
      with a coating, lining or paint meeting the requirements of this Specification.

 9.1 Hot-Dipped Zinc Galvanized Coating
      The following items shall be supplied with a hot-dipped Zinc galvanized coating: all metallic
      items in the general sewage/sludge atmosphere (such as control panels, guardrails, and covers),
      other items as indicated in this Specification.

      Items to be coated in this way shall be made of what is commonly known as “galvanization -
      suitable” steel: the content of carbon in the steel shall be less than 0.3%, and of phosphorus, less
      than 0.2%. The zinc shall be at least of GOB (Good Ordinary Brand) quality, containing no less
      than 98.5% pure zinc. The zinc bath shall contain no more than 0.03% aluminum.

      The design of items to be supplied with a hot-dipped zinc galvanized coating shall take into
      consideration the requirements of this coating process with regard to maximum permissible size,
      the need for the molten zinc to be able to flow freely on all internal and external surfaces to be
      coated, the requirement that no sealed empty spaces be immersed in the bath, and the
      requirements that the item undergo cleaning, a caustic acid bath, flux treatment, and immersion in
      a molten zinc bath of 450C and higher.

      Prior to application of the coating, the surfaces of the item to be coated shall be prepared , except
      that sandblasting may not be required in all cases and may be eliminated upon the
      recommendation of the coating manufacturer, subject always to the Engineer or his
      representative’s prior approval the coating shall be continuous and without defects. The coating
      shall be tightly bonded to the metal substrate, such that no peeling or other defects occur during
      movement, transport, installation or usage of the product.

      Testing of the hot-dipped zinc galvanized coating shall be conducted at the factory application site
      prior to shipment of the coated items. The shall make such arrangements as are necessary to
      permit him access to the items during all stages of the galvanization process, and to be aided in
      the testing of those items.

      Documentation attesting to the application of the coating as per the requirements of this section
      shall be furnished with all galvanized items supplied under this Contract, and at the time of
      delivery to of such items.

9.1.1 Painting Of Galvanized Steel
      The external surfaces of all galvanized steel items shall be painted. Before painting, the surfaces
      to be painted shall be prepared after due consultation with the paint manufacturer and the
      galvanized steel supplier to ensure that no damage is done to the galvanized coating.

      As with all painting operations, the surfaces to be painted shall be completely cleaned and then
      washed with clean water. Care is to be taken in the use of any soaps or detergents which may
      interfere with the adhesion of the paint to the metal. Oil and grease shall be cleaned with a strong


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 38
     thinning agent, preferably the solvent “Erdrox 551-G”, manufactured by “Chimeras”, or
     equivalent.

9.2 Epoxy Paint
     Selected items shall, where so specified, be painted with an epoxy paint. The surfaces of such
     items shall be prepared as per Clause 8.1. Four coats of epoxy paint shall be factory-applied to
     these items, with the application of each layer followed by appropriate oven heating. Each coat
     shall be of at least 30 microns dry thickness. The first two layers shall be an epoxy-based primer.
     The top two layers shall be an epoxy-based cover paint.

9.3 Painting Schedule
     All exposed pipe and other equipment shall be painted according to the following schedule by the
     Contractor supplying them.
     Additions to this schedule will be provided by the Engineer or his representative at a later date.

     - Orange:          dangerous parts of machines or energized equipment and
                 flammable gas lines.
     -   Blue:                  potable water
     -   Jade Green:              no- potable process or flushing water.
     -   Brown:         wastewater.
     -   Red:                     fire protection equipment.

     Exposed piping will be painted with arrows showing the direction of flow in the piping, and with
     signs (with white Arabic lettering) painted on the pipes showing the destination of the flow. Signs
     shall be placed for maximum convenience of viewing and at intervals of no more than 4 meters in
     any one room. For ease of viewing, signs on adjacent pipes (whether horizontal or vertical) shall
     be lined up so that they all begin on a common plane.

     The cost of the paint-work and the signs described in this sub-clause shall be understood as
     included in the tender price of the pipes erected. No additional payment will be made to any
     contractor for the paint-work and sign work described herein.

9.4 Corrosion Protection and Surface Coatings

9.4.1 9.4.1 Materials

   a) Corrosive Environments
     Corrosion protection systems and surface coatings shall in all cases be suitable for exposure to
     their contact environmental conditions which may include any or all of the following:-

         1.   The climatic conditions prevailing in the project area with particular emphasis on
              temperature variations, high surface temperatures and high humidities.
         2.   Septic sewage with a pH value of unity.
         3.   Sulphuric acid solution in sewage slimes in concentrations up to 15 % by weight.
         4.   Hydrogen sulphide and other gases emanating from sewage, septic sewage and sewage
              sludge's.
         5.   Saline groundwater with high sulphide contents both below the water table and in soil
              zones above the water table where capillary action and the presence of oxygen may cause
              extremely severe conditions.
         6.   Wind blown chlorides.
         7.   Wind blown abrasive sands.


   b) Paint
     Protective and decorative paint systems including primers and undercoats shall be obtained ready
     mixed for use. All containers of paints and other coating systems shall show date of manufacture,
     shelf life and pot life where applicable.




     SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 39
        The contractor shall only be allowed to use paints which are delivered to the site in sealed cans or
        drums bearing the name of the manufacturer and properly labeled.

        Tints and shades of final coats shall be advised by the Engineer or his Representative.


   c)     Impervious Tanking Membrane
        Membrane used for tanking to concrete structures shall be impervious, self-adhesive and covered
        with a release agent.
        Rubber bitumen/PVC membrane shall have a minimum bitumen thickness of 1.5 mm and PVC
        thickness of 0.3 mm.


   d) PVC Sheet Lining Materials
     PVC sheet materials to be used for lining concrete structures and pipelines internally shall be
     manufactured from polyvinyl chloride, plasticisers and pigments to make permanently flexible
     sheets.

        The color of the sheet shall be approved on site.

        The PVC sheet shall have a minimum thickness of 1.5 mm and shall be formed by extrusion to
        have on one side locking keys or ribs of either T or diamond section at centers not greater than 75
        mm. It shall be capable of forming a continuous 100 % effective seal with the use of welding
        strips or other approved method and shall be supplied with all materials and tools for making the
        joints.

        The tensile strength of the material shall be not less than 17000 kN/m2.

        All weld strips, patches and other sheets used in the permanent fixing of the ribbed sheet shall be
        of a material having the same composition as the ribbed sheet.


   e)     Bituminous Emulsion
        Bituminous emulsion shall be to the approved standard and shall not contain less than 53 % of
        bitumen.

9.4.2 Installation

   a) Protection to Surface of Concrete Structures
     Concrete structures shall be protected both internally and externally where indicated on the
     drawings and by the methods detailed.

        All protection systems shall be applied strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions,
        two copies of which shall be included with the Contractor's application for the approval of the
        material, and when approved will be deemed to be part of this specification unless stated
        otherwise.

        The permissible rate of permeation of all protection systems shall not exceed 0.0027 perm inches
        (ASTM, 1 perm inch = 1 gramme of water per hour per square foot (0.0929 m2) per mil (0.0254
        mm) of thickness for a 1 inch (25.4 mm) difference in Hg vapor pressure on each side of a
        membrane.

        Coatings shall not be applied at expansion, contraction or construction joints which incorporate a
        sealant.

        The minimum of all coatings and linings shall be 0.5 mm.




        SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 40
1) External Buried Surfaces
 The external surfaces of concrete substructures shall be protected or "tanked" by one of the
 following methods which will be indicated on the drawings.

  (a)         An impervious bituminous sheet membrane. The self adhesive lap joints shall not be
  less than 150 mm wide.

  Where the membrane is laid on blinding concrete, the surface shall be free from sharp edges and
  projections. The membrane shall be protected from damage during the fixing of steel
  reinforcement and the pouring of concrete. Where the tanking is applied to vertical surfaces the
  surface shall first be painted with one coat of bitumen primer.

  (b)        A brush applied bituminous emulsion. The surface shall first be wire brushed and all
  dust and loose scale removed. Three coats of bituminous rubber emulsion paint shall then be
  applied. The second coat shall not be the same color as either the 1st or 3rd.

  Both methods of protection shall totally enclose the substructure within a waterproof membrane
  to the limits shown on the drawing.

  During the backfilling operation around all tanked structures the waterproof membrane shall be
  protected from damage by the use of fiberboard, or other approved material.

  2) Internal and External Exposed Surfaces

  Where exposed surfaces of concrete structures are not protected by reinforced plastic liners one of
  the following systems will be indicated on the drawings required.

  (a)         An epoxy resin, acrylic, polyester or latest paint system. The surface shall first be wire
  brushed and all dust and loose scale removed. An epoxy resin or other primer/sealer (for concrete
  and allied substrates) shall then be applied followed by coats of high build epoxy airless spray or
  other coatings to give a minimum thickness of 300 microns. The approved paint system must
  have adequate flexibility to suit the thermal movements of the concrete without cracking whilst
  maintaining an effective bond.

  (b)         A PVC sheet lining which shall be fixed such that the keys or ribs are cast into the
  concrete surface. The lining shall be capable of taking up the same profile as the concrete
  substrate as indicated on the drawings.

  Site operatives for employment on this work shall be certified by the manufacturer as trained to a
  satisfactory standard in fixing and welding techniques.

  After completion of either of the linings or systems as described in sub-clauses (a) and (b) above
  they shall be offered for inspection and testing. Two sets of testing equipment e.g. feeler probes
  and spark testing shall be provided and be maintained and available at all times for the sole use of
  the Engineer's Representatives.

  Only linings or systems completely free from pinholes will be accepted.


b) Protective Coating to Metalwork
  Protective coating and surface preparation shall be to the approved standard and conform to the
  "Schedule of Protection Systems" given below, but only epoxy systems. Coatings shall only be
  applied when:

             (1)      The surface to be coated is completely dry.

             (2)      The air temperature is above 4o C.

             (3)      The humidity is less than 85%.



  SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 41
Manufactured items shall have all surface protection applied at the place of manufacture or in
Palestine under controlled application conditions approved by the Engineer.

All coats of paint or other coating systems shall be purchased from one manufacturer and applied
strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

All machined, polished or bright surface whether internal or external shall be protected against
corrosion and damage.

Where like metals are jointed at the works priming shall be applied prior to joining.

The mating surfaces of structural steelwork shall be sealed with litharge and glycerin during
erection.

Where dissimilar metals are mated including bolts, nuts and washers, the mating surface shall be
insulated the one from the other to provide protection against galvanic action.

On delivery of items to site, any defect in the protective coatings shall be made good.




SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 42
10. STEEL PIPES, VALVES AND FITTINGS

10.1 General Scope
   This chapter of the specification shall apply to the construction of steel pipelines and pipe-work in
   valve assemblies and similar work.

10.2 Description Of Pipe
   Except as otherwise specified steel pipes, tees, bends and reducers shall meet the requirements
   AWWA standard C 200 ASTM A 139 grade B with alumina mortar internal lining 8 mm thick and
   three layers polyethylene coating from outside. Pipes and fittings shall be designed to withstand a
   sustained internal pressure of 16 bar in combination with earth loads and other external loads as
   shown on the drawings or required. All buried pipe and fittings shall be designed for an American
   Association of State Highway and Transportation officials H-20-S-16 loading plus 50 percent for
   impact, or equivalent DIN standard, and trench loads using a soil weight of 2,100 kg/m3 together
   with a sustained internal pressure of 16 bar. Earth loads shall be based on the cover over the pipe and
   fittings. Where greater loads are imposed upon the cover over the pipe and fittings. Because of the
   contractor’s operation, the pipes and fittings shall be designed for these greater loads.

10.3 Materials Quality Assurance
10.3.1 Experience Clause
   Materials and products incorporated in the work shall be manufactured by establishments regularly
   engaged in production of equipment meeting the specifications cited herein and in subsequent piping,
   valve, or piping appurtenance section. Manufacturing of the pipe and the application of the lining
   and coating shall be made at the same plant. All work shall comply with acceptable industry
   standard practice.

10.3.2 Factory Inspection
   Up to three Engineer or his representative may inspect pipe production at the manufacturer's plant.
   The Contractor shall notify the Engineer or his representative of the production schedule in sufficient
   time so that factory inspection will be made after the manufacturer has performed satisfactory
   checks, adjustments, tests and operations. Time of inspections and materials expenses including, but
   not limited to, air fare, transportation, lodging and resetting, caused by delay of the manufacturer, or
   failed tests, shall be borne by the Contractor through deduction in Contract price.

a) General Design Criteria:
   All piping, valves and accessories shall be of suitable design for the service intended. They shall be
   of ample strength for all stresses which may occur during fabrication, transportation, erection, testing
   and continuous or intermittent operation and corrosion resistant to the fluid being conveyed.

b) Hardware:
   All bolts, nuts, studs and washers used in the assembly of piping shall be stainless steel for sewage.

c) Flanged and connections:
   It is intent of this specification that valves, fittings and piping to be jointed, has compatible end
   connections. As various valve and fittings has differing pressure capacities, this specification calls for
   flanges conforming to Palestinian Standard 16.1 Class 125 bolt patterns for design working pressures
   of 11.0 kg/m2 and below and flanges Conforming to Palestinian Standard 16.1 Class 250 bolt pattern
   for design working pressures of greater than 11.0 kg/m2.

d) Pipe Supports:
   All exposed piping shall be adequately supported with devices of appropriate design. Where details
   are shown, the supports shall conform there to and shall be placed as indicated, provided that support
   for all piping shall be complete and adequate regardless of whether or not supporting devices are
   specifically shown.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 43
10.4 Transporting And Handling Of Pipes And Fittings
   Pipes and fittings shall not be allowed to drop, free-wheels or strike objects which will injure them.
   When lifting pipes or their open ends, special hooks or plates shaped to fit the wall shall be used.
   Chaining will be allowed on bare pipes only, wrapped pipes shall be lifted by padded straps at least
   20 centimeters wide. Care shall be exercised in transporting, handling or storing pipes and fittings in
   order to avoid distortion, flattering, denting, scoring or any other damage to pipes and fittings and to
   their outer wrap and/or inner lining (if any).

10.5 Stringing Of Pipes
   Pipes of the various diameters and wall thickness shall be stung along the alignment as close as
   possible to their final-position. Pipes and fittings strung along the alignment shall be protected
   against intrusion of earth, mud, dirt and other foreign bodies, and a gist damage to the outer wrap.
   Pipes shall not be strewn the side of the trench where excavation material has been or is to be placed.
   Where necessary or as directed by the Engineer or his representative gaps shall be left in stringing in
   order to allow movement of vehicles or men across the alignment.

10.6 Repairs Of Defective Pipes
   Should lamination, cracks or other defects be discovered on any pipe, or its coating or lining, the
   Engineer or his representative will issue instructions as to whether such defects shall be repaired or
   the defective part shall be cut out or the defective pipe shall be removed. Where the pipes were
   supplied by the Engineer or his representative, the Engineer or his representative will pay the
   Contractor the cost of the repairs or other extra work necessitated there by, but other repair or
   replacement of pipes shall be done by the Contractor at his own cost.

10.7 Welding Of Pipes
10.7.1 Welding Methods
   All welds shall be made by the manual shielded metal-arc method. The welding procedure to be
   applied by the Contractor shall be submitted to the Engineer or his representative for approval, before
   the commencement of the work. All weld shall be made according to the instructions of the
   manufacturer and to the approval of the Engineer or his representative. All welds shall be made only
   by welders having passed the welders qualification test. Welds will be either butt welds for planned
   pipe joints or fillet welds for lap joints (bell and spigot). The use of welding machines with two
   outlets will not be permitted; every welder shall work with a separate machine.

10.7.2 Electrodes
   Electrodes used for welding shall meet the requirements of ASTM Specification A 233 as last
   revised. Generally, with DC generators, H610 product by Sika or HR6010 4mm product by Universal
   electrodes shall be used. In any event, the electrodes proposed by the Contractor shall be subject to
   the Engineer approval prior to their use.

   Electrodes shall be stored in the unopened original containers in such a manner as to prevent
   absorption loss of moisture or mechanical damage to the coating. Electrodes in open containers shall
   be protected against moisture. Electrodes that have been damaged, become mist or otherwise
   deteriorated, shall be rejected.

10.7.3 Cleaning Of Pipes
   Pipe ends to be welded together shall be thoroughly cleaned of any dirt, oil, residues of paint and
   asphalt, and any other foreign matter that may adversely affect the quality of the weld. Paint oil
   residues shall be removed with kerosene or benzene.

10.7.4 Welding Of Joints
   The pipe will be joined by a spigot bell welded joint. The number of beads in each weld seam hall
   not be less than two, and their thickness shall not exceed 3.0 mm.
   In fillet welds (bills & spigot joint), the thickness of the throat shall be at least (0.707) of the pipe
   wall thickness. Cutting back of the edge of the bell shall be kept to a minimum. All weld metal shall
   be thoroughly fused to the parent metal and to the previously placed weld metal.
   The inside of every joint is protected by Sika A.1 as a primer covered within 5 hours by Sikaflex
   11Fc sealant (Polyurethane compound) which joins the adjacent mortar lining and provides for
   continuous protection of the inside surface of the pipe.


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 44
   After the completion of each bead, the weld shall be thoroughly cleaned of all scale, slag, or dirt. All
   spots on the weld where electrodes are changed shall also be cleaned. A penning hammer and steel
   brush may be used for cleaning, provided it is done to sound and bright metal. The finished seam
   shall be thoroughly cleaned by means of steel brushes.

10.7.5 Welding Positions
   The welds shall be made either by roll welding or position welding. Roll welding will be permitted,
   provided alignment is maintained by the use of skids and roller dollies supporting two or more
   lengths of pipe. Position welding shall be done with the pipes resting on skids at the proper height
   over or alongside the trench, so as to permit completing the weld on the whole circumference. All
   requirements as to the quality of the welds shall apply equally to roll welding and position welding.

10.7.6 Jointing Of Line Sections
   Pipes shall be connected to each other by welding as specified above, while they are placed on
   suitable supports on the trench bottom or on the ground beside the trench.
   The length of sections to be welded together before lowering shall be as determined by the Engineer
   or his representative. The position of every pipe or elbow in the section shall be such that, when the
   section has been lowered to the trench bottom, the longitudinal seams will be located between the
   figures 10 and 2 on the clock face, so that repairs on the seams can be done in the trench without
   necessitating deep excavation. Before being connected to the line, each pipe and each elbow shall be
   cleaned on the inside.

10.7.7 Repair Of Weld Defects
   The Director for works or his representative may permit repairs of defects in the root or filler beads
   to be made, but any weld that shows evidence of repair work having been done without such
   permission may be rejected.
   Pinholes and undercuts in the final bead may be repaired but such repairs shall be subject to the
   Engineer or his representative approval. Undercuts not exceeding 1.0mm in depth will not be
   considered as defects.
   Before repairs are made, the defective areas shall be removed by chipping grinding, or flame
   gouging. All slag and scale shall be removed by wire brushing. When cracks are found, the entire
   seam shall be cut and re-welded.
   The Contractor shall clearly mark with oil paint on top of the pipe any defect that may be discovered
   in the pipe or weld.

10.8 Various Welding Work
10.8.1 Cutting And Preparing Pipes For Weld
   Square cuts shall be in a plane perpendicular to the pipe axis. Oblique cuts shall be done accurately
   to the required angle in such a manner that the cut edge is in one plane. Pipe ends for butt welding
   shall be beveled to an angle of 300 with the plane of the edge, with a permissible variation of +50 or -
   00.

   All cutting shall be done with a mechanical tool, or by acetylene flame cutting by means of a special
   cutting device or Arc-air (carbon electrode with air jet). Flame cut surfaces shall be perfectly clean,
   and if this is not achieved by cutting, the cut surfaces shall be filed smooth. Cutting of mortar-lined
   pipes shall always be done with Arc-air cutting equipment. After the metal has been cut through to
   the mortar lining, the latter shall be carefully broken along the cut and pipe edge prepared for
   welding as required above.

10.8.2 Welding Of Flanges
   The welding of flanges to pipes shall be of the same quality as that specified for pipe welds. Slip on
   flanges shall receive an interior weld inside the flange opening, in addition to the external weld.

   Weld-neck flanges shall be attached to pipe ends as specified above for the welding together of pipes,
   care being taken to ensure a perfect concentric alignment between pipe and flange.

   When welding on flanges, care shall be taken that the face of the flanges is perpendicular to the pipe
   axis. Flange faces shall be kept free from weld material or other defects such as splutter, dirt, etc.
   All defects in the flange faces that may interfere with the proper sealing of flanges shall be repaired.



      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 45
10.8.3 Welded Elbows
   These shall consist of suitable obliquely cut pieces of pipe (“miters”) welded together. These miters
   shall be cut to the exact dimensions shown on the drawings and accurately fitted together s that after
   welding the completed elbow will have the exact shape and dimensions shown on the drawings. The
   ends of the miters shall be beveled for welding as specified as specified above.

   In all elbows having a diameter of more that 10” the seams between miters shall also receive and
   internal weld pass, which shall be made after the weld root has been thoroughly cleaned.

10.8.4 Prefabricated Fittings
   Prefabricated elbows, tees and reducers shall be jointed to pipes by square butt welds or by welds as
   specified above for pip-welding, care being taken that the true alignment and correct position of the
   fitting are ensured.

10.9 Valves And Fittings
10.9.1 Scope And Specified Gate Valves And Sluice Gates
   The work includes the manufacture, testing and supply of valves, supports, hangers and all required
   appurtenances as shown on the Drawings. Valves should be Hacohav, ARI or equivalent approved.
   The Contractor shall submit all the catalogues and manuals of every valve before their installation for
   approval.

10.9.2 Gate Valves
a) General
These specifications are applicable to all sizes of gate valves described in this section.

b) Valves
Shall conform to the provisions of AWWA C500 as latest revised and as further specified herein.
Valves shall be cast iron body, of the double-disc, parallel seat, non-rising stem type for under ground
use. Valves shall open counter clockwise.

c) Pressure Rating
The minimum designed working pressure shall be 16 bar for valves with diameters of 300 mm and
above. Valves pressure ratings shall equal the class of pipe unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings.

d) Material
All bronze parts other than valve stems shall conform to ASTM B62 Grade 1, except that the maximum
zinc allowance shall be seven (7) percent and the maximum aluminum allowance be two (2) percent.
Valve stems shall not contain more than five (5) percent zinc silicon bronze and shall have a minimum
tensile strength of 400 MPa and a minimum yield strength of 220 MPa, and elongation of not less than
ten (10) percent in 40 mm. Body bolts and nuts shall be cadmium plated. Body seats rings shall be
Grade 1 bronze. They shall be backed, threaded, and screwed into machine seats in the body. Stem
collars shall be cast r forged solid with the stems. Stems entirely engaged with the valve in closed
position. The threaded length of the stem nuts shall be not less than 1-1/2 times the outside diameter of
the stem. Stems and stem nuts shall be Grade 1 bronze. All wave interior ferrous surface shall be
protected from a minimum thickness of 250 microns in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Before application, the surface shall be sandblasted and air blown to ensure a good bond. The
Contractor shall examine all bolted pats on the valve body to ensure that valve have been internally
coated and tight proper to installation.

e) Packing
The packing shall be double “O” ring recessed into the grooves in the ring plate only. Grooves shall not
be in the stem unless the thickness of the stem at the smallest diameter of the groove equals that of a
stem required without a groove.
10.9.3 Air And Vacuum Valves
The valve shall allow air to be released and to enter the line at normal operation conditions, during
filling and draining out and under water hammer conditions. Under water hammer, the valve shall allow



       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 46
enough air to enter to keep the pressure close to atmospheric. The valve shall not have a quick opening-
slow closing mechanism.

It shall be of 100 mm diameter and shall be supplied and installed all with necessary fittings including a
stop gate valve  100mm. The valve shall be coated with anti-rust paint suitable for marine
environment. It should have a flushing mechanism without the need to dismantle the valve.

The Contractor shall submit for the approval of the Engineer or his representative all catalogues and
manuals of the manufacturer prior to the installation.

The work shall be in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer and to the approval of the
Engineer or his representative.

10.9.4 Installation Of Valves And Fittings
a) General
Before being installed, the valves and fittings, and specifically valve sets shall be cleaned of any dirt that
may have entered them. When installing the vales, their correct position shall be ensured by means of a
spirit level . Fitting the valves to pipes shall be done accurately, but without using force. Fitting of
valves by tightening bolts forcibly or by any other method that will case internal stresses in the valve or
flanges will not be permitted.

b) Flanges
Flanges shall be welded to the pipes in accordance with the requirements of subsection 12.8.2 . Care
shall be taken to weld the flange with the face perpendicular to the pipe axis and the bolt holes
straddling the center line. Flange faces shall be kept free from weld material, spatter, and any other
foreign matter, and all defects that may prevent proper sealing of flanges shall be repaired.

c) Bolts
Only bolts of the correct diameter shall be used. All bolts used on a valve shall be equal length, which
shall be such that after the nut has been tightened not less than one thread and not more than three of the
bolt will protrude from the nut. Bolts shall be tightened crosswise, gradually and uniformly.

d) Gasket
Only one sealing gasket shall be used between each pair of flanges. Gaskets shall be of the ring type,
i.e. their outer rim shall just touch the bolt holes and their inside diameter shall be equal to that of the
corresponding pipe. Gasket material shall be either fabric reinforced rubber or compressed asbestos
sheets known as “Klingerit”. Gaskets shall be fabricated by cutting from sheets. Cutting the gaskets by
hammering on the flange will be strictly prohibited. When being installed the gaskets shall be
absolutely clean. Each gasket shall be used only once.

10.10 Sluice Gates
10.10.1 General
The Contractor shall supply and erect sluice gates as shown on the pertinent Drawings, and as specified
in this Sub-clause.

The supply of all sluice gates shall include the gate slide or seat, frame, floor-stand, guide bars, wedges,
stems (or extension spindles), stem guides, actuator, bearings, seals, fasteners, mounting equipment and
all related and auxiliary equipment.

All gates and accessories shall operate safely, properly and with a practical degree of water tightness
under the maximum unbalanced heads indicated. All parts of sluice gates supplied shall be designed to
carry the strains without springing or bursting and shall have a factor of safety of not less than five times
any force which may come upon the equipment under the heads and condition of use. Gates shall be
designed to prevent chattering of the gate or springing of the lifting jack.

All gates shall be operated by hand-wheel lifts. Unless otherwise indicated, the horizontal axis of the
hand-wheel (perpendicular to the stem) shall be approximately 90-100 centimeters above the flooring
above which it is mounted. All gates shall be suitable for both seating and unseating pressures.


       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 47
10.10.2 Sluice Gates Components
a) Scope
The Contractor shall supply circular sluice gates, according to the following schedule, the Drawings and
the Bill of Quantities. All gates shall be operated from floor-stands mounted at the top concrete slabs or
gratings.

Unless otherwise indicated, all circular sluice gates shall be face-mounted.

b) Construction and materials
(1) Gate frames shall be of Stainless steel 316 and of adequate section to resist distortion.

(2) Wedges Side, top and bottom wedges are to be Stainless steel 316 all bearing surface fully machined,
or neoprene. They must be fully and accurately adjustable and shall be provided with bronze mount
bolts, adjusting screws and lock nuts. The distribution and number of wedges shall be such as to ensure
proper seating of the slide under the maximum heads specified.

(3) Door, sealant and frame plate shall be made of HDPE (high density polyethylene). The stems must
be furnished in sections, if necessary, to permit reasonable ease in installation and removal. All stem
couplings and the thrust nut for connecting the stem to the gate are to be Stainless steel. Couplings must
be threaded and bolted to the stem and provision must be made at the thrust nut to prevent stem rotation.
Stop collars with set screws shall be provided to prevent over-travel in closing the gate.

(4) Thread spindle shall be of Stainless steel 316, extended to the required level of operation.

(5) Stem guides shall be Stainless steel 316. The guides shall be adjustable in two directions, to provide
full adjustment for proper alignment with the stem. The slenderness ratio (L/r) of the stem shall not
exceed 200.

(6) Hand wheel lifts shall be of cast-iron with anti-friction thrust bearings above, and a cast manganese
bronze lift nut flange below. The bearings and nut must be lubricated. An indication of the direction of
turn for either opening or closing shall be cast in a readily visible location. The maximum tangential
pull at the rim of the hand wheel shall not exceed approximately 40 pounds for operation of the gates.

(7) Painting a metallic surfaces shall be prepared. Exposed machined or bearing surfaces shall be coated
with a water resistant rust-preventive compound. Enclosed machined or bearing surfaces shall be coated
with water-resistant grease. The exterior surfaces of the lift assemblies shall be shop painted with a
machinery enamel. All other assembled units shall be given an epoxy coal tar coating. Epoxy-resin shall
be applied in-situ after installation

10.11 Lining, Coating And Painting Of Pipes
10.11.1 External Coating On Underground Piping
All Pipe to be laid blow ground shall be protected against corrosion by the use of the following external
coating.
         1- Base layer of epoxy primer 80 micros thick.
         2- Hand adhesive (polythyle “copolymer) 500 micros thick.
         3- Top coat material polythyle which contains 2% of carbon Black of thickness shall not be
         less than specified thickness in table below

Diameter          Up to 4            4 - 10            12 - 30            24 – 38               40 - 68
(inches)
Thickness         1.5                1.8               2.0                2.5                   3.5
(mm)

Pipe ends to be welded shall be bare. All valves and fittings and pipe to be laid below ground shall be
supplied with an anti-corrosive priming.
Polyethylene coating to be done under this Contract shall include:
         - Coating of weld joints
         - Repair of defects in factory-applied coating


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 48
         - coating of primed or bare pipes, fittings, and valves.
Coating applied by the Contractor shall be equal to the coating applied to pipes in the factory. Repairs
and coatings of welds on coated pipes and the coating of bare pipes and fittings shall be bonded to the
existing pipe coating so that a continuous uninterrupted coating over the entire length of pipeline is
achieved. No joint shall be coated before the Engineer or his representative approval to proceed with
coating has been given. Only qualified experienced personnel under expert supervision shall apply the
coating described in this Specification.

10.11.2 Painting Of Exposed Piping
The metal surfaces of all pipes laid above ground together with valves, straps and supports as well as all
steel structures shall be painted in accordance with an anti-corrosive priming. Colors of paints shall be
as directed by the Engineer or his representative.

10.11.3 Internal Coating
The internal coating of steel pipes conveying sewage is consisting of high Alumina Cement of thickness
is as specified in the following table in accordance with Palestinian Standard. Welding and jointing shall
be according to instructions of the manufacturer.

  Nominal Pipe Size                                Lining Thickness                          Tolerance
                                (mm)
      (Inch)                                    (inch)        (mm)                  (inch)                 (mm)
       4 – 10                (100 – 250)           ¼            (6)              -1/16, + 1/8          (-1.6, + 3.2)
      11 – 23                (280 – 580)         5/16           (8)              -1/16, + 1/8          (-1.6, + 3.2)
      24 – 36                (600 – 900)          3/8          (10)              -1/16, + 1/8          (-1.6, + 3.2)
         36                   ( 900)             ½           (13)             -1/16, + 3/16          (-1.6, + 4.8)

10.12 Laying Of Pipelines
Except for pipes shown on drawing or as instructed by the Engineer or his representative to be laid on
supports, steel pipes shall be laid below ground in trenches.

All jointing between pipes and between pipes and fittings shall be done by welding, except that where
shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer or his representative, flanges, or mechanical
couplings shall be used. Before lowering in, the pipe coating shall be inspected and all defects repaired.
Lowering of pipes into the trench shall be
 done by pipe layers or other equipment acceptable to the Engineer or his representative, so that no
injury or deformation is caused to the pipes or the coating and lining.

Welded pipes shall be laid on the finished trench bottom, so that each pipe is supported over its entire
length. Where valves, or flanges or mechanical joints are to be installed, or overhead welds are to be
made in the trench, the latter shall be widened and deepened by additional excavation around the pipe in
order to provide working space (bell holes).

The dimensions of such bell holes hall be such as to provide convenient access and sufficient working
space. Before joining each pipe to the line, a cleaning swab with a cable attached to it shall be
introduced into the pipe last welded before the new pipe. When the welding to the line has been
completed the swab shall be pulled forward by means of the cable through the new pipe, thus cleaning
and removing all slag, metal, dirt and foreign matter which may have accumulated inside the pipe.
Where pipes are large enough to be entered by workmen, said cleaning shall be done by hand.
At the end of each working day and wherever work is discontinued for a considerable time, the ends of
each welded section whether in or alongside the trench shall be closed by a suitable cover snapping on
the pipe end. Lowering-in of pipe or replacing them on permanent supports shall be done carefully to
prevent damage to pipe coating or paint. To prevent pipes from slipping out of mechanical joints or the
formation of excessive stress in welds at a result of temperature changes, lowering-in of pipes and
joining of sections shall be done in the early hours of the morning only.

The first stage backfill of the trench shall be done before the final teeing welds or bolted connections (in
the case of mechanical joints or flanges) are made, leaving a stretch of about 20 mm uncovered on either
side of such final joint.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 49
11. WELD INSPECTION AND TESTS

11.1 Inspection And Tests - General
   The Engineer or his representative will exercise a continuous control of the welding work and will
   inspect the quality of the welds. In addition to routine supervision and visual inspection of the
   completed welds, the Engineer or his representative will have the right to request samples to be cut
   from the welds for destructive tests. If so required by the Engineer or his representative, welds shall
   also be tested by radiography.

11.2 Destructive Tests

11.2.1 General
   Destructive tests will include all or part of the following, at the discretion of the Engineer or his
   representative:
        - Break Test
        - Bend Test
        - Tensile Test (in special cases)
   Both the Contractor and the Engineer or his representative will endeavor to ensure the proper
   execution of the welds, so as to avoid altogether or minimize the number of destructive tests.

11.2.2 Frequency Of Test
   Should one of the samples taken for the destructive tests not meet the standards of acceptability set
   out below, the Contractor will be required to cut additional samples from the same weld or from
   other welds made by the same welder. If one of the new samples does not meet the requirements, the
   Contractor will be required to cut more samples unit a clear picture of the extent of defective welds in
   obtained.

   Should such additional tests show that the quality of the welds in unacceptable, as determined by the
   Engineer or his representative, the Engineer or his representative may required the Contractor to
   remove and re-weld all welds made by the welder concerned. In the event of the test sample meeting
   the requirements of the Specification, the cost of cutting the sample and preparing and testing the
   specimens, and that of patching the pipe where the sample has been cut out, will be borne by the
   Engineer or his representative. Should the sample fail to meet the above requirements, all such cost,
   as well as the cost of all additional tests that may be required, to determine the extent of the defective
   welds as aforesaid, shall be borne by the Contractor.

11.2.3 Taking Samples For Bend Test, Break Test, And Tensile Test
   Samples for Bend Test, Break Test and Tensile. Test shall be cut from the pipe in the forms of strips
   5 cm wide perpendicular to the weld seam and extending 10 cm on either side of the weld, so that the
   weld will be located in the center of the sample. The opening resulting from cutting the sample shall
   be closed by the welding on a patch of steel plate having a thickness not less than that of the pipe
   wall. The cost of patching up openings as herein described shall be included in the cost of taking
   samples as specified above.

a) Bend Test:
   The bend test samples shall be bent in a suitable jig in the field or in the shop. The bend shall be
   located exactly over the weld with the weld face on the convex side. The sample shall be considered
   as meeting the requirements if it will not break and no cracks larger than 3 mm in any direction will
   appear on the convex side of the bend.

b) Break Test:
   The break test samples shall be hacksaw-notched on both edges across the center of the weld to
   ensure breaking of the sample in the weld. The sample shall be supported on both sides of the weld
   and broken by a strong hammer blow. The required result is: the broken surface shall show full
   penetration of the weld and no burns or excessive slag inclusions. The break surface shall not show
   more than one gas pocket per square centimeter, provided that no gas pocket has a diameter of more
   than 1.5 mm.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 50
c) Tensile Test:
   Samples for tensile strength and elongation tests shall be send for testing to an authorized laboratory.
   These tests will serve as a control of the welding procedure and of the quality of the electrodes, but
   not to test the welders’ ability. In this test, the samples shall show a tensile strength not less than that
   required of the steel of which the pipes are made.

11.3 Radiographic Test
   Where required, radiographic tests shall be performed in accordance with the Palestinian Standard
   Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Unless otherwise specified, 10 (ten) percent of al weld seams shall
   be radiographer.

   If these primary tests should not give satisfactory results, the Engineer or his representative will
   conduct additional radiographic test as certain the quality of the welding work. All weld defects
   discovered by the tests shall be repaired as directed by the Engineer or his representative and all
   repaired welds shall be re-tested.

   The routine radiographic tests (10 percent) will be carried out at the Engineer or his representative’s
   expense. Should, however, the Engineer or his representative think it necessary to conduct additional
   tests because of the defective quality of the welds. The cost of all such additional tests will be
   charged to the Contractor’s account. The contractor shall also bear the cost of repair of all welds
   found defective under test as well as the cost of re-testing such repaired welds.

   Unless otherwise specified, the standard of acceptability for radiographic weld tests shall be in
   accordance with the I.W.I (International Welding Institute) standard for class “Green”.




       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                         VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 51
12. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TEST

12.1 GENERAL
  After pipe laying, casting of concrete structures on the line and partial backfill have been completed,
  the line shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test. The line shall be tested over its entire length
  or, in the case of long line in section. The pressure test shall only be performed in the presence of the
  Engineer or his representative. The test pressure shall be determined by the Engineer or his
  representative in Each case. The required pressure shall be obtained by means of a special pressure
  pump or by connecting the line to a suitable source of pressure.

12.2 Preparations For Pressure Test
  Filling of the line with water shall not begin until 6-7 days after the last concrete structures have been
  cast. Prior to filling the line, all joints and structures shall be inspected and the good condition and
  proper functioning of all valves shall be bullheaded and securely anchored. The testing installation
  and the working of the pump shall also be examined.

12.3 Filling The Line With Water
  The line shall not be filled until the Engineer or his representative written approval thereto has been
  given. The line shall be filled gradually and slowly in order to prevent water hammer or chattering in
  the pipe and to permit the escape of all air from the pipeline. The rate at which the line is to be filled
  shall be as determined by the Engineer or his representative. At the commencement of filling, all
  blow-out valves shall be open, and each valve shall be closed after the water has flushed all dirt that
  may have accumulated in the pipes. After the filling has been completed, but before the pressure is
  raised, all valves shall be inspected for water-tightness and all leaks in gaskets an stuffing boxes shall
  be stopped. Should this inspection show And leaks at the joints or defects in the valves that cannot be
  repaired while the line is full of water, the line shall be drained and the necessary repairs done. This
  inspection shall be repeated until all leaks are stopped.

12.4 Pressure Test
  The pressure in the line shall not be raised until 24 hours after its being filled with water, and in any
  case not until the Engineer or his representative approval has been obtained. The pressure shall be
  increased gradually and slowly until it has reached the required height and shall be kept at such
  height for as long as the Engineer or his representative will determine (The pressure test value is 1.5
  the pressure design value). While the line is under pressure all joints shall be checked for water
  tightness and any leak discovered shall be considered as a defect that has to be repaired. After the
  leaks have been stopped, the pressure shall be raised again and the test repeated. The tests and repairs
  shall be repeated until the line is absolutely tight to the satisfaction of the Engineer or his
  representative. The pressure test shall also serve as a strength test for the concrete structures on the
  line, and any defects discovered in such structures shall be required; at the Engineer or his
  representative request faulty structures shall be turn down and rebuilt.




     SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                         VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 52
 13. CONCRETE MANHOLES
   Concrete manholes shall be constructed at the locations shown on the Drawings, and elsewhere as
   directed by the Engineer or his representative. Their shape and dimensions shall conform to those
   shown on the typical Drawings and the inner dimensions, if not specified otherwise, will be after
   plastering or otherwise finished surfaces.

13.1 Cast-In Situ Reinforced Concrete Manhole
   This type consists of a reinforced concrete (B300) base slab cast on firm ground foundations (so as to
   prevent any differential settlement), reinforced concrete (B300) walls cast on the base at least 24
   hours later with the required openings for installation of pipes in one time or more according to the
   manhole depth, and reinforced concrete roof slab with the appropriate cover. Reinforcement and
   dimensions shall be as shown on the Drawings. The forms used shall be tight, proper and smooth.
   Water stop RX type or equivalent, shall be placed when the concrete cast on stages.

13.2 Pre-cast Concrete Manhole
   This type consists of a cast-in situ or pre-cast reinforced concrete (B300) base with the required
   openings for installation of pipes installed on a firm ground foundations (so as to prevent any
   differential settlement), precast concrete (B300) rings of 1 m height or as specified on the Drawings
   of tongue and groove type for the walls fixed on the base and precast reinforced concrete roof slab
   with the appropriate cover. Reinforcement and dimensions shall be as shown on the Drawings. The
   forms used shall be tight, proper and smooth.

   Joints between the slabs, rings and bases of manholes shall have natural or synthetic rubber ring
   maintained in place in such manner as to ensure watertight joints during the specified tests and the
   subsequent life of the installed manholes. The rubber ring shall be highly resistant to deterioration in
   contact with sewage and shall be seamless and MAGNUFLEX type or equivalent.

13.3 Benching, Plastering And Coating
a) Benching
   Smoothly constructed U-shaped channels, to carry and direct the sewage flows, shall be formed
   integrally with the concrete base, or may be constructed separately by benching. The lateral height of
   the channel shall be as shown on the Drawings. Adjacent floor areas shall slope with 4:1 to drain to
   the channel with the same longitudinal gradient. All transition curves shall be smooth. The concrete
   used for benching shall be B300.

   Pipe stubs for future connections shall be installed where shown on the Drawings or otherwise
   required. The stubs shall extend at least 50 cm beyond the outside of the walls of the manhole and
   shall be plugged watertight. Appropriate channels for the future connections shall also be prepared in
   the benching.

b)Plastering
   Where shown on the Drawings or otherwise required, internal surfaces (e.g., cast-in situ manholes)
   shall be lined or plastered with 1 cm thick cement sand mortar in the proportions 1:1½ and steel
   trowel finished.

   The inside plastering may be omitted if steel forms are used and the inside surface of the wall is as
   smooth as the cement plaster finish or otherwise directed by the Engineer or his representative.

c) Coating
   Coating material of 100% Solid Coal Tar Epoxy or equivalent shall be applied to the internal surface
   of the walls and the roof of Sewerage manholes as shown on the Drawings or otherwise directed by
   the Engineer or his representative.

13.4 Deep Manholes
   The upper ring where the depth of manhole is more than 2.5 m or as directed by the Engineer or his
   representative, should be of a cone shape. Concrete encasement for manhole cover shall be
   constructed according to the Drawings and as directed by the Engineer or his representative.
   Encasement should be applied where manhole laid in natural ground surface or in the gradient of


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 53
   1.5% or more in paved area, the manhole neck should be encased as shown on the Drawings with
   reinforced concrete B300.

13.5 Drop Manhole
   Drop manholes shall be built where shown in the Drawings. The drop shall be made by means of a
   pipe and related fittings like elbow and tee, of the same diameter of the pipe, all shall be located
   outside the manhole. The incoming sewer will have an emergency straight connection to the
   manhole. The outside drop should be entirely encased in a concrete block, as shown on the Drawings.
   Where the walls are of precast rings, great care shall be taken to assure good connection between
   walls and the above mentioned blocks. Appropriate openings for the drop pipe and emergency inlets
   should be made in the precast rings at the factory where shown on the Drawings or directed by the
   Engineer or his representative.

13.6 Manhole Cover And Grating
   Manhole covers shall be circular, made of cast iron or of concrete with cast iron frames, the
   dimensions and type conforming to Palestinian Standard, as shown on the Drawings or requested by
   the Engineer or his representative. Manhole frames shall be set firmly in cement mortar so that the
   covers are 1cm below the final surface. All manhole covers shall be non-ventilated and non rocking.
   All sewerage manhole covers shall have the words (SANITARY) and (                     ) cast on their
   surface. Heavy duty type cover (25 tone bearing capacity) shall be installed in all roads, streets and
   highways greater than 4.0m with an opening of 50 cm or 60cm as specified on the drawings, where
   as openings for 5 &8 tone bearing capacity are 40 & 50cm, respectively.

   After completion of the Work, cast iron parts of the covers and the frames shall be painted with
   bitumen paint. Grease shall be placed between the frame and the cover.

   Unless otherwise indicated or directed, concrete roofs and cast iron covers and frames shall have the
   following bearing capacity:
        a- Heavy duty cover and frame shall withstand a load of not less than 25 metric tones.
        b- Medium duty covers and frame shall withstand a load of not less than 8 metric tones.
        c- Light duty cover, and frame shall withstand a load of not less than 5 metric tones.

   Cast iron grating with frame shall be supplied and or manufactured in accordance with details shown
   on the Drawings and in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer or his representative. Frame
   shall be embedded in the concrete of the roof of storm water inlet and Catch basin and depressed 3cm
   below the final surface.

   After completion of the Works, cast iron parts of the gratings and frames shall be painted with
   bitumen paint.

13.7 Manhole Inspection
a) Water absorption test
   In accordance with the Palestinian Standard, the increase in the dry mass of a single test piece by
   absorption of water shall not exceed:
        I. 3.6% after 30 minuets.
        II. 6.5% after 24 hours.

b) Cube crushing test
Tests of concrete shall be carried out in accordance with Palestinian Standard.. Preliminary tests shall
be made by the Contractor to determine suitable mixes. Routine tests shall be made for cube strength
with 8 cubes 100x100x100 mm of concrete from each concreting location take in such manner as may
be specified by the Engineer or his representative. The first four cubes shall be tested after 7 days and if
these cubes shown an average strength as specified in clause 5.3.3, below 67 percent of the required
strength after 28 days; the second four cubes shall be tested after 28 days.

If the strength of the second four cubes does not meet the requirements as specified in clause 5.3.3, the
cubes represent the concrete structure, shall be core tested. If the core test results do not meet the
requirements, then the manhole will be rejected and removed and the Contractor shall redesign and



      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 54
improve the concrete mixture. All costs associated due to testing, remedies or replacement of the failed
manholes shall be at the expense of the Contractor.

c) Service load test
The service load of the manholes rings tested by the three edge bearing method, shall not be less than
the following:

 Manhole internal diameter, mm                600               800       1000           1200            1500
 Service Load , kN/m                          37.5              47.5       56             64              77

d) Water tightness test
The hydrostatic pressure to ensure water tightness of the manholes rings, shall not be less than the
following:

 Manhole internal diameter, mm                  600            800         1000          1200            1500
 Hydrostatic pressure, bar                       0.1           0.2          0.7           0.7             0.7
All costs in connection with the tests shall be at the Contractor’s own expense.

13.8 Manholes Protective Coating
The interior walls of the manholes in contact with waste water shall be painted with epoxy paint,
Nitocote ET401 from FOSROC or equivalent, on concrete in two layers at least and until a uniform
color is attained and as per the manufacturer’s recommendations.

13.9 Safety Regulations
Whenever any work or repair/or connection to existing sewers is about to be executed, the contractor
shall inspect and test such sewers for the presence of dangerous gases by means of detection torches or
similar devices and shall take all necessary precautions and protective measures, which shall include,
but not limited to, the following:
     o before entry into a manhole, the absence of noxious gases and availability of oxygen in it must
          be ascertained. should any noxious gases or lack of oxygen in it be discovered, no entry shall
          be made until the manhole has been thoroughly ventilated with the aid of blowers. only after all
          gases have been removed and sufficient oxygen has been introduced, will entry be permitted,
          but only to personnel wearing gas masks.
     o manhole covers shall be opened to ventilate pipelines for 24 hours, at least, as follows:
     o for work in an existing manhole: the cover of the manhole upstream and downstream of it. a
          total of three covers.
     o for connection to a sewer: the covers of the manholes upstream and downstream of the
          connections.
     o no entrance into a manhole shall be permitted unless at least one person stays outside the
          manhole in readiness to render assistance if required.
     o The person entering the manhole shall wear rubber gloves and rubber knee-boots with acid
          resistant soles. He shall also wear a safety harness with lifting rope, the end of which will be
          held by the person outside the manhole.
     o persons entering the manholes deeper than 3.0m shall wear suitable gas masks.
     o Mechanical ventilation by blower must be employed prior to entry and throughout the work in
          manholes deeper than 5.0m.
     o Personnel employed on work requiring entry into manholes, septic tanks, etc. shall be briefed
          on the above noted safety measures and drilled in the use of harnesses, gas masks, etc.
     o The provisions of this section shall in no way be construed as relieving the contractor from full
          and complete responsibility for the safety of his workmen and any other person who may suffer
          accident or injury due to the works carried out by the contractor.

13.10 Permission To Proceed
   The contractor must receive written permission from the Engineer or his representative before
   executing any of the previous described works. In all cases permission to proceed should be recorded
   in the works diary by the Engineer or his representative. Connection of gravity sewers to existing
   manholes will not be paid separately, but will be a subsidiary obligation of the contractor.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 55
 14.      FINISHING WORKS

14.1 Block Layer
               I.     Quality of mix for block work and mortar to match the general
                      masonry specifications.
               II.    Dimensions of used blocks :-
                       40x20x20 cm for walling.
                       40x20x15 cm for walling.
                       40x20x10 cm for walling.
               III.   Curing for masonry works must be carried out for seven days.
               IV.    Block work compression strength test after 28 days = 35 kg/cm2.
               V.     The maximum height allowed to be built at one time is one meter
                      (5 rows of blocks)
               VI.    The execution of this works must be carried out according to the
                      drawings, specifications and engineer's instructions.

   Generally the blocks used shall be of local manufacture made with cement and sand in approved
   vibrated pressure machines. The sand to be used for blocks shall be clean and sharp. It shall be
   chemically and structurally stable and shall company with the Table of Grading given here under.
   The cement and water to be used for blocks shall comply with the requirements given under
   Section 4 - Concrete Work, and the methods of measuring and mixing the materials shall be the
   same. The following Mixing Table shall be strictly adhered to in all cases:-

  Nominal              Cement                   Sand        Lime
   Mix                  Kilos                    m3 (Dry Hydrate) Kilos
    1:4                 360                    as approved by the Engineeror
                                                1.00
                                                     his representative
                 TABLE OF GRADING - PERCENTAGE PASSING
                           SIZES
          B.S.                         Approximate             Sand for
       Sieve No.          Inches       Millimeters              Mortar
            -                               3                   95-100
            7              .095            2.4                  80-100
           14               .47            1.2                  60-100
           25               .24             .6                  30-100
           52              .012             .3                   5-65
                           .006            .15                   0.15


Note: The above figures represent the limits of percentages (by weight) passing             sieves of the
sizes mentioned.

   The blocks shall be hard, sound, square and clean with sharp well defined arises and shall, unless
   previously approved by the be 20 cm in weight. Hollow blocks, where required, shall be of similar
   quality and overall size to the said blocks, and shall be of local manufacture made with cement and
   sand in approved vibrated pressure machines. The design of the cavities and webs shall be
   submitted to the for approval before manufacture. The thickness of the membranes or solid portions
   of hollow blocks shall be not less than 4 cm. each and the combined thickness of the solid
   portions shall exceed one third of the total thickness in either horizontal direction. Immediately after
   molding the blocks shall be placed on clean, level, non-absorbent pallets. Blocks shall not be
   removed from the pallets until inspected and approved by the Blocks shall be cured by being kept
   thoroughly wet by means of water sprinklers or the approved means for a period determined by the
   , but in all cases for not less than three days. Blocks must not be left on earth or sand during the
   curing process. Blocks shall be stacked in honeycomb fashion. Solid stacking will not be
   permitted.


       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 56
14.1.1 MORTARS
   The sand to be used for mortar shall be clean sharp. It shall be chemically and structurally stable
   and shall comply with the Table of Grading below. The lime to be used mortar shall be imported
   hydrated lime complying with Class B of British Standard No. 890. Where colored mortars are
   required these shall be obtained either by the use of colored cement or by addition of pigments
   complying with Palestinian Standard. The cement and water to be used for mortar shall comply with
   the requirements given under Section 4, Concrete, and the methods of measuring and mixing shall
   be the same. The following Mixing Table shall be strictly adhere to in all cases:-

           MIXING TABLE
           Sand                  Cement                 Cubic Meters                          Imported Lime
                                 Kilos                                                         (Dry Hydrate)
           1.00                                                                               Kilos
           1:4                    360                  1.00                      --
             1:4 Imported                                                                     161
             Lime with 10%              145                      --
             Cement                                              Mix
             (1:10:2 1/2)                                                                     Nominal



           TABLE OF GRADINGS - PERCENTAGE PASSING
             SIZES                                                                           Sand
            B.S.            Inches             Approximate                                   for
           Sieve No.                           Millimeters                                   Mortar
           -                                    3                                             95-100
            7               .095                2.4                                          80-100
            14              .047               1.2                                           60-100
           25               .024               .6                                            30-100
           52               .012               .3                                            5- 65
           100              .006               .15                                            0- 15

Note: The above figures represent the limits of percentages (by weight) passing sieves of the size
mentioned.

   The mortar generally shall be cement and sand (1:4) mix. Where plasticiser is added to the mortar
   the following mixes shall be used:- (a) Building mortar - cement and sand (1:6) and (b (Mortar for
   pointing - cement and sand (1:3) the palsticiser for jointing-cement and sand (1:3) the palsticiser
   shall be used strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All mortar shall be used
   before the initial set has begun. Mortar shall not be re-mixed after the initial set has taken place. The
   full description given under Section Plaster-work shall apply also to the measuring, mixing, etc. of
   mortar for Block work.

14.1.2 Construction
   All block work shall be set out and built to the dimensions shown on the Drawings. Walls shall be
   carried up regularly without leaving any part more than one meter lower than another unless the
   permission of the is first obtained. Work is left at different levels shall be back. In the case of cavity
   walls, both thickness shall be carried up more than about 40 cm. in advance of the other. The
   courses of block work shall be properly leveled The perpendicular joints shall be properly lined and
   quoins, jambs and other angels plumbed at the work proceeds.. All walls shall be thoroughly
   bonded in accordance with the best constructional practice and as directed by the Broken blocks
   shall not be used except where required for bond. All cement and sand blocks shall be soaked
   with water before being used and the tops of walls left off shall be wetted before work is
   recommenced. The faces of walls shall be kept clean and free from mortar droppings and
   splashes. All blocks shall properly spread with mortar before being laid and all joints shall be
   thoroughly flushed up solid through the full thickness of the wall at each course as the work
   proceeds. For block walls the gauge shall be ten courses to 210 cm. Walls to be left un-
   plastered shall have a fair face consisting of selected blocks pointed with a neat weathered or


       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 57
   flush joint as the work proceeds using the same mortar mix as for the jointing. Walls to be plastered
   shall have the horizontal joints raked out to a depth of 1 1/2 cm. to form a key.

14.2 Roof Finishes
   The work of roof finishes shall consist of the following:-
        a)       Hot bitumen primer coat to concrete roof slab.
        b)       Thermal insulation.
        c)       Sheathing membrane.
        d)       Sand/Cement screed.
        e)       Roof waterproofing and U/V protection

Contractors Obligations:-
     The Contractor shall provide all the materials, labor and equipment etc., for this work and
        shall carry out and complete the entire work of roof finishes as per specifications
        detailed below:-
     The Contractor shall submit to the Department a five years guarantee in the form of an
        Insurance Policy for the roof finishes from any of the approved local Insurance Companies
        prior to initial takeover of the project by the Department. A specimen copy of the Insurance
        Policy shall be submitted before starting work on site for the approval of the Department.
     The insurance policy must cover the cost of labor, plant and materials for replacement and
        repair of the roof finishes, water-proofing and insulation in the event of its failure or leakage
        during the course of five years from the date of initial handing over of the projects.

14.2.1 Specifications
a) Insulation

Polystyrene Rigid Foam Boards
   Contractor shall lay a layer of 5 Cm. thick rigid polystyrene boards fully bonded to primed
   surface of the screed or directly on the concrete slabs as specified here under.

   Bonding shall be done either by hot bitumen or any other approved bonding agent recommended by
   manufacturer. Above polystyrene rigid boards shall comply with the following:-

           Thickness                                               : 5 Cms.
           Thermal conductivity at 10% mean temperature            : K=0.028 W/m deg. C
           Density                                                 : 32.35 Kg./m3
           Water absorption                                                 : 0.1% volume
           Capillary                                               : None
           Compressive strength at 5% Compression                : =0.245 M/N/M2

   There shall be no air between screed or concrete slab and polystyrene board.


Polyurethane Foam:
   3 Cm. thick (minimum) polyurethane foam sprayed in 3 layers each 1 cm. thick over cement/sand
   screed laid to fall (1%) over the primed surface of the concrete roof slab. It shall consists of the
   following:-

           1 part 'Plyol' and 1 part 'Isocyanate' mixed as recommended by the manufacturer and approved
by the .
           Mixing Proportions                 : 1/1
           Density                            : 60 Kg./m3
           Tensile strength                   : 5.0 daN/cm2
           Compressive strength               : 3.5 daN/Cm2
           Water absorption                   : 59 gr/M2/24 hours
           Thermal conductivity               : 0.021 W C




       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 58
Rigid Mineral Wool Slab:-
   Rigid mineral wool slabs shall be bonded to the primed surface of concrete slab. The rigid
   mineral wool slabs shall comply with the following:-

         Thickness:
         8 Cms. thick faced with aluminum foil on one side.
         Non combustibles and water repellent.

         Density:
         120 Kg/m3
         Thermal conductivity coefficient 'K' value at 10 C shall not be more than 0.031 w/m deg. C.
         It shall be fully bonded to concrete roof slab with hot bitumen or the approved/recommended
         bonding agent.

b) Sand/Cement Screed:
   (A base for waterproofing treatment or thermal insulation)

   Minimum 3 Cm. thick sand/cement screed layer - 1 part cement to 4 parts clear sand shall be laid to
   fall 1% or as specified on the drawings, over the concrete roof slab or the roof thermal insulation
   depending on the types of roof finishes specified here under. Maximum thickness of the screed
   shall be 10 cm.

   Sand used for the screed shall be clean natural and, free of all salts and other impurities, graded
   passing through a 4.76 mm. British Standard sieve with a good proportion of larger particles.

   Cement shall be Portland cement complying to Palestinian Standard for ordinary and rapid hardening
   Portland cement.

c) Waterproofing:
Two coats of Elastomeric Acrylic Paint
   Diathon or similar approved waterproofing and ultraviolet ray's protection shall be applied over the
   polyurethane foam. First coat shall be gray color with fiber glass mesh reinforcement bonded to the
   insulation surface. The second top coat shall be white color applied perpendicular to the first coat.
   Total thickness of the coat shall be 609 dry microns (excluding fiberglass mesh). The above
   waterproofing only used when polyurethane foam insulation is used over the screed for non-traffic
   able roofs.

Cold applied waterproofing membrane for non-Traffic able roofs:-
   a) 2 coats of 2 component Elastomeric self adhesive membrane over primed, screeded surfaces with
   aluminum paint on top for U/V protection. Component Elastomeric self adhesive membrane shall
   consist of a mix of 9 volumes 'premix' - polymerizable black liquid and one volume of 'Activator' -
   straw colored liquid - laid to an average thickness of 1.5 mm. Top coat shall be sprayed with a layer
   of clean sand when it is still green, as a key for the U/V protection, which shall be done by two coats
   of aluminum reflective paint.

   b) Rubberized bitumen/polyurethane membrane shall consist of standard rolls of self adhesive and
   self-sealing 1.5 mm. thick rubber-bitumen compound with solar shield a luminous to exposed top
   surface - all to be laid on primed screeded surface with necessary end laps and side laps as
   recommended by the manufacturers.

Traffic able Roofs
   a) 2 components Elastomeric membrane shall have average thickness of 1.5 mm. and shall be mix
   consisting of 9 volumes 'Premix' - polymerizable black liquid and one volume of 'Activator' - a straw
   colored liquid laid over primed roof surface.
   Rubberized bitumen/polythene shall consist of standard rolls of self-adhesive and self sealing
   bitumen/polythene waterproofing membrane to factory controlled thickness of 1.5 mm. confirming to
   B.S. Code of Practice 102.

   b) Self adhesive membrane 4kg/m2 with angle fillet will be used as water proofing layer (polypit or
   approved equivalent).

      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 59
Priming of Concrete Roof Slab Surfaces:
   Top surfaces of roof slab shall be primed and given two coats of Oxidized bitumen 115/15 at the
   rate 2 kg./m2 brush applied to cover all the surfaces - up stands, sleeves of ducts, pipes etc., that
   are required to covered with roof finishes mentioned above.

Sheathing Membrane:
   Polythene 'Visqueen' 500 Grade or similar membrane laid with necessary side laps (10 Cm.) and
   end laps as required (Min. 15 Cm.)

Concrete Passing Slabs:
  Pre-cast paving slabs shall be hydraulically pressed, square edges sizes 60 x 60 5 Cm. thick made
  from Portland cement and aggregates-all to comply Palestinian Standard.

Mastic Sealant:
  Mastic used for the joints shall be cold poured - 2 part polysulphide based sealants confirming to
  Palestinian Standard.

d) Type of Roof finishes based on the above Specifications:-
1        Roof finishes Type A:                      (Non-Trafficable Roofs)
         Step (1) : Priming of roof slab/surfaces
         Step (2) : Sand/cement screed
         Step (3) : Polyurethane foam
         Step (4) : U/V protective coating/waterproofing

2       Roof Finishes Type B:                           (Non-Trafficable Roofs)
        Step (1) : Priming of roof slab/surfaces
        Step (2) :Polystyrene rigid insulation slabs (boards) laid over primed surfaces of roof slab
        Step (3) : Sheathing membrane
        Step (4) : Sand/cement screed
        Step (5) : Waterproofing

3       Roof Finishes Type C:                    (Non-Trafficable Roofs)
        Step (1) : Priming of the roof slab surfaces
        Step (2) : Rigid mineral wool insulation slabs
        Step (3) : Sheathing membrane
        Step (4) : Sand/Cement screed

4       Roof Finishes Type D:                 (Trafficable Roofs)
        Step (1) : Priming of the roof slab surfaces
        Step (2) : Thermal insulation
        Step (3) : Sheathing membrane
        Step (4) : Sand/Cement screed
        Step (5) : Roof waterproofing
        Step (6) : Sand/cement mortar (1:6) bed min. 2.5 Cm. thick
        Step (7) : 5 Cm. thick 60 x 60 Cm.

5.      Contractor must use the type of finishes as specified on the drawings for the particular project
        or any other type of roof finishes specified above and approved by the . Work of the roof
        finishes shall be carried to the complete satisfaction of the . The roof shall be tested for water
        tightness by flooding the same with 5 Cm. deep sheet of water for 72 hours prior to initial
        take-over of the building.

6.    Contractor must use the appropriate type of detail for horizontal and vertical joints as shown
      on the drawings. Up stands for expansion joints on the roof shall be properly covered with the
      waterproofing membrane over the plastered vertical and horizontal surfaces. Points shall be
      properly sealed with approved mastic sealants and protected from damage by providing pressed
      aluminum sheet cover as indicated in details on he drawings.



      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 60
14.3 Metal Work
14.3.1 Generally
   All materials shall be free from scale, rust damage or defects.
   All welding, brazing or hot forging shall be carried out by approved processes.
   All metalwork shall be approved by the Engineer or his representative before starting painting
   works.

14.3.2 Windows And Doors
   The following specifications relating to metal windows shall cover also metal casement doors
   and, where applicable, partitions. generally metal windows shall be supplied complete with frames,
   fixing lugs and glazing clips or beads. Composite windows shall be - supplied complete with the
   necessary transoms and mullions. Generally the windows will be required to open inward.

   Mild steel windows shall be manufactured in accordance with B.S. 990 with regard to materials and
   workmanship. The windows shall be formed of hot rolled mild steel sections, electrically welded,
   and rustproof by either hot or cold galvanizing, metallizing or sheradizing process as required. The
   rust-proofing shall be sufficient to withstand the 72 hour salt-spray test as provided for in B.S.
   1391. Opening sashes shall be fitted with steel hinges having brass pins. Pivoting sashes shall be
   fitted with bronze centers. Side hung or vertically pivoting sashes shall be fitted with sliding stays
   and handle fasteners with two point noses as shown on the Drawings or as specified in the Particular
   Specification. Top hung or horizontally pivoting sashes shall be fitted with brass peg stays. Button
   hung sashes shall be fitted with brass lever catches and, according to size, one or two steel side arms
   each. Aluminum windows shall be manufactured of extruded sections of Aluminum alloy, flash
   welded. Fittings shall be of aluminum alloy in accordance with Palestinian Standard. Fly screens
   shall fitted to all opening leaves of windows, consisting of aspirated metal sub-frame filled in
   with fly wire as previously described. The fly screens shall be adequately secured with suitable
   slips, set screws or turn buckles and shall be removable for maintenance purposes. Fly screen
   doors shall consist of similar sections to the metal casement doors and shall be fitted with
   removable panels of fly wire in a manner similar to that described for window fly screens.

14.3.3 Sundries
   Wrought steel balustrades shall be provided to staircases and balconies as shown on the Drawings.
   Burglar bars and safety bars shall be provided to windows where shown on the Drawings. Cramps
   for fixing wood door and window frames shall be 20 cm long x 3 cm x 3 mm section and shall
   have one end bent and twice drilled for screwing to frame and other end fishtailed for building into
   walling. Cramps shall be galvanized or dipped in bitumen before fixing Mild steel ladders where
   required shall be as shown on the Drawings. Metal roller shutters shall be provided to sized shown
   on the Drawings. Each roller shutter shall be constructed of heavy-gauge metal slats and shall be
   complete, including channel iron guides, roller box, spindle and counter balance springs and with
   staple welded to door, hasp set in concrete floor and padlock.

14.4 Plaster And Other Floor Wall And Ceiling Finishes Work
14.4.1 Materials
The cement and water used for plastering shall comply with the requirements given under
CONCRETE WORKS. The sand for plastering shall be clean, fine sand and shall be chemically and
structurally stable. The sand shall be sieved and graded in accordance with the Table of Grading given
below:-

                             TABLE OF GRADINGS-PERCENTAGE PASSING
                      SIZES                       FOR PLASTERING
         B.S. Sieve No.    Inches        Approximate      Undercoat                            Finish Coat
                                         Millimeters
         7                 0.095          2.4             95-100                               100
         14                0.047          1.2             80-95                                95-100
         25                0.024         0.6              30-55                                30-85
         52                0.012         0.3              5-50                                 5-50
         100               0.006         0.15             0-10                                 0-10




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 61
   Note: The above figures represent the limits of percentages (by weight) passing sieves          of the
   sizes mentioned. The gypsum plaster shall be of the hemi-hydrate type with a controlled setting
   time as Type 6 Clause B of Palestinian Standard. The resultant plaster shall be chemically inert
   when set, be capable of being trowelled to a smooth surface and shall be highly resistant to cracking
   and crazing. Imported lime shall be of the hydrate type complying with Class B of British Standard
   No. 890.

14.4.2 Mixing
The methods of measuring and mixing shall be as laid down under CONCRETE WORKS and the
proportions shall be in accordance with Mixing Table given below:-
                                              Mixing Table
                 Nominal Mix                Ratio           Cement Kilos Sand Imported
                                                                         m3   Lime(Dry
                                                                              Hydrate)
                                                                              Kilos
     1:4 cement                                             361          1.00 -

     1:1 cement                                                 442            1.00          -
     1:5 cement with 20% imported lime       1:5:1               289           1.00          124


     1:4 Imported                            1:10:2 1/2         145            1:00          161
     lime with 10% cement

   With regard to the lime mortars gauged with cement, the addition, just before use, of the cement
   to small quantities of the lime/sand mix shall preferably take place in a mechanical mixing shall
   continue for such time as will ensure uniform distribution of materials and uniform color and
   consistency. It is important to note that the quantity of water used shall be carefully controlled.
   Gypsum plaster shall be mixed in a clean pail or other approved vessel. The required amount of
   water shall be placed in the pail and the plaster added gradually and allowed to soak for 5
   minutes. It shall then be stirred to a uniform consistency free from lumps and no more material
   shall be mixed than can be used in half an hour.

14.4.3 Workmanship
   All plastering shall be executed in a neat workman like manner. All faces except circular work
   shall be true and flat and angles shall be straight and level or plumb. Plastering shall be neatly made
   good up to metal or wood frames and skirting and around pipes or fittings. Angles shall be rounded
   to 5 mm. radius. Surfaces of undercoats shall be well scratched to provide a key for finishing coats.
   Screed marks or making good on under-coats shall not show through the finishing coats. Surfaces
   described as trawled smooth shall be finished with a steel or celluloid trowel to a smooth flat surface
   free from trowel marks. Surfaces described as floated shall be finished with a wood or felt float to
   a flat surface free from trowel marks. All tools, implements, vessels and surfaces shall at all times be
   kept scrupulously clean and strict precautions shall be taken to prevent the plaster or other materials
   from being contaminated by pieces of partially set material which would tend to retard or
   accelerated the setting time.

14.4.4 Preparation
   All surfaces to be plastered shall be clean and free from dust, loose mortar and all traces of salts.
   Where cement plaster is to be applied to surfaces shall first be dashed with a mixture of Portland
   cement and (1:1) mix to form a key. All surfaces shall be thoroughly sprayed with water and all
   free water allowed to disappear before plaster is applied. Before plastering is commenced all
   junctions between differing materials shall be reinforced. This shall apply where walls join columns,
   where brick walls join block walls and similar situations where cracks are likely to develop and as
   directed by the . The reinforcement shall consist of a strip of galvanized wire mesh (10 to 15 mm.
   hexagonal mesh) 15 Cms. wide which shall be plugged, nailed or stapled as required at intervals
   of not exceeding 50 cms. at both edges.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                         VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 62
14.4.5 Curing
   Plaster shall be cured after the application of each full coat by similar to those described in
   CONCRETE WORKS.

14.4.6 Application
After preparation of the surfaces as described in above the undercoat shall be applied to the required
thickness between screeds laid, ruled and plumbed as necessary. When nearly set the surface of the
undercoat shall be scratched as described. The undercoat shall be allowed to set hard and shall be curd
as described. Where plastering is applied in one coat or where roughcast is to be applied the
scratching should be omitted. The finishing coat shall be applied to the required thickness by means
of a laying-on trowel and finished to give the required surface. The sprayed finish shall be applied with
an approved machine to give a finish of even texture and thickness. The sprayed finish shall be applied
in four separate coat allowing time for drying between coats. Application in one continuous operation to
build up a thick layer will not be permitted. the total finished thickness of the four sprayed coats shall
be not less than 3 mm. The sprayed finish shall not be applied until all repairs and making good to the
undercoat are completed. Rain-water pipes, fittings and the like shall first be fitted, then removed
during the spraying process and refitted and jointed afterwards. Any plaster which adheres to other
pipes, doors, windows and the like shall be carefully removed before it has set. Curing shall take place
after the application of the fourth coat.

14.5 Painting And Decorating
14.5.1 Generally
Every possible precaution shall be taken to keep down dust before and during painting processes. No
paint shall be applied to surfaces structurally or superficially damp and all surfaces must be
ascertained to be free from condensation, of florescence, etc., before the application of each coat.
Primed or undercoated wood work and metal work should not be left in an exposed or unsuitable
situation for an undue period before completing the painting process. No exterior or exposed painting
shall be carried out under adverse weather conditions, such as rain, extreme humidity, dust storms,
etc. Metal fittings such as ironmongery etc., not required to be painted shall first be fitted and then
removed before the preparatory processes are commenced. When all painting is completed the
fittings shall be cleaned and re fixed in position. The Contractor will be required to repaint at his own
expense any work on which the paint is found to be incorrectly applied. The Contractor shall be
responsible for protecting from damage the paint work and all other work during and after painting
operations including the provision of all necessary dust heats, covers, etc. Brushes, pails, kettles etc.
used in carrying out the work shall be clean and free from foreign matter. They shall be thoroughly
cleaned before being used for different types or classes of material.

14.5.2 Materials
   The decorating materials shall be obtained from approved manufacturers and shall be supplied in the
   manufacturers' sealed and branded containers. All materials must be thoroughly stirred before use.
   Details of mixing and application shall be in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturers
   concerned and to the approval of the . The mixing of paints etc., of different brands before or during
   application will not be permitted. No dilution of painting materials shall be allowed except strictly
   as detailed by the manufacturers and as approved by the . Mordant solution shall be equal in
   quality to "Litho form" manufactured by I.C.I. Ltd. Rust inhibitors shall be equal in quality to
   "James" brand Calcium Plum bate Primer manufactured by Foster, Blackett and James Ltd. or as
   described elsewhere herein. Fillers shall be "Polyfilla", "Alabastine" or other equal and approved.
   Thinners shall be approved turpentine or white spirit. Priming paints shall be:
         (a) For wood work: Leadless gray priming paint in accordance with Palestinian Standard.
         Alternatively wood work of hard, non-absorbent timber, resinous timber of prominent
         grain shall be primed with one coat of aluminum sealer equal to "A 519-3648" manufactured
         by I.C.I. Ltd.
         (b) For steel work: Red oxide priming paint in accordance with Palestinian Standard (c) For
         galvanized, zinc or aluminum alloy surface: gray zinc chromate priming paint equal to "A
         500-388" manufactured by I.C.I. Ltd.
         (dFor plaster, concrete and brickwork, ceiling boards etc.: Algalia resisting priming paint
         equal in quality to "A 500-368" manufactured by I.C.I. Ltd. Knotting shall be in accordance
         with Palestinian Standard. Stopping shall be hard stopping composed of paste white lead, gold
         size whiting. Undercoating shall be:
         (a) Zinc oxide based undercoating paint.


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 63
        (b) White lead based undercoating paint in accordance with British Standard No. 2525.
        Colors shall approximate to the finishing paint.
        (c) Synthetic alkyd based undercoating equal to "Dulux" undercoating paint         manufactured
        by I.C.I. Ltd. Finishing paints shall be:
        (a) Zinc oxide based oil paint in accordance with British Standard Nos. 277
        (b White lead based oil gloss finishing paint in accordance with Palestinian Standard
                  .
        (c) Synthetic alkyd based finishing paint equal to "Dulux" finishing paint
        manufactured by I.C.I. Ltd.
                  Petrifying liquid shall be used undiluted as supplied by the manufacturer. A small
                  quantity of water paint of the finishing color may be mixed with the petrifying liquid.
                  Water paint shall be an approved brand of washable oil-bound water paint
                  complying with British Standard No. 1053 Type A. Thinning shall be done with
                  petrifying liquid or fresh water only. Emulsion paint shall be of the Polyvinyl Acetate
                  (P.V.A.) type obtained from an approved manufacturer. The precise specification
                  shall comply with the manufacturer's normal practice. In all cases thinning shall be
                  done with thinners supplied by the manufacturer or fresh water only. Stain for wood
                  work shall be an approved brand of oil stain complying with British Standard No.
                  1215. Varnish for wood work shall be an approved brand of exterior oil varnish
                  complying with Palestinian Standard

14.5.3 Preparation Process
a) Internal Plaster, Fair faced Concrete And Block work
Surfaces shall be allowed to dry out completely and cracks shall be cut out and made good with
suitable hard plaster or cement/sand mix as appropriate, such repaired portions shall be allowed to dry
out. No painting shall be carried out on plastering less than five weeks old. Efflorescence shall be
completely removed by rubbing down with dry coarse cloths followed by wiping down with damp
cloths and allowed to dry. All surfaces shall be rubbed down with fine glass paper and brushed free of
dust before applying any form of decoration. Surfaces which are to receive water paint shall be
treated with one coat of petrifying liquid applied by brush and allowed to dry for at least twenty four
hours before the application of water paint. A period of twenty four hours, or longer if necessary, shall
be allowed between subsequent coats. Fair faced concrete and/or cement and sand plastered surfaces
which are to receive oil paint shall be given one thin coat of oil putty and allowed to dry for at least
two days. The surfaces shall then be rubbed down with fine glass paper and given a second thin coat
of oil putty when completely set shall be rubbed down again with fine glass paper before applying the
priming coat of oil paint. All surfaces which are to receive oil paint shall be treated with one coat of
alkali resisting priming applied by brush and allowed to completely harden.

b) Steelworks including Windows, Louvers, etc. Internally and Externally
If delivered galvanized, the surfaces shall be cleaned to remove grease and dirt before priming. Where
rusting has occurred through damage to the galvanizing, such rust shall be removed by wire brushing
back to clean metal and the galvanizing made good with a rust inhibiting agent. The surface shall
then be treated with one coat of mordant solution and one coat of zinc chromate priming paint. If
delivered primed, the surfaces shall be examined to ascertain that the priming paint is hard, firmly
adhering and in good condition. If not satisfactory, the priming paint shall be removed and the
surfaces cleaned to removed rust, and re primed. If the condition shall be cleaned to remove grease
and dirt, minor damage to the priming paint being made with red oxide priming paint after removal
of rust. If delivered un primed and not galvanized, the surfaces shall be cleaned to remove grease and
dirt, and wire brushed and scraped to remove all rust and scale before applying a red oxide priming
paint. Priming paint shall be brushed well into the surface and shall be allowed to dry and harden
thoroughly before the application of subsequent coats. Items of steelworks such as frames to roller
shutters, covers to expansion joints, etc., which are to be built into walls first be primed.

c) Exposed Service Pipes
Copper, aluminum and brass pipe work shall have the surfaces slightly abraded with glass paper and
white spirit or similar solvent and wiped clean. No priming paint will be necessary, the surfaces
being finished in two coats of glass paint. Steel pipes will be treated as for steelworks with the
exception that galvanized pipes are to be treated with a zinc chromate priming paint. Coated soil pipes
shall be wiped clean and treated with two coats of knotting followed by priming paint as described
above.

      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 64
14.5.4 Finishing Progress
a) Internal Plaster
Where emulsion paint is specified two coats shall be applied by brush in addition to any priming
paint. Where water paint is specified two coats shall be applied by brush in addition to the petrifying
liquid. The water paint shall be thinned to the consistency of thick mream. Where oil paint is specified
this shall be two or three coat work as detailed in the Particular Specification, applied by roller or
brush, but not by spray, to produce hard gloss, oil gloss, eggshell or flat finish as required. The
finishing coat of paint to walls and ceilings shall be applied after the completion testing of the electrical
installation. Any paint splashes on electrical fittings shall be carefully cleaned off.

c) Unplastered Concrete or Block work
As for plastered surfaces. Externally a cement type paint may be used, and shall be applied keeping a
constantly wet edge, in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

d) Steelworks And Exposed Service Pipes
Internally, apply one coat gloss paint over two undercoats. Non-ferrous pipes shall be finished in two
coats of gloss Externally, apply two coats gloss paint over one undercoat.




       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 65
15. LANDSCAPING

15.1 General
The work covered by this division consist of providing all plant, labour and materials and performing all
operations in connection with ground covers, plants, trees and soil.

15.2 Product Delivery, Storage And Handling
15.2.1 Product Delivery
The Contractor shall notify the Engineer of the delivery schedule 48 hours in advance so that plant
material may be inspected on arrival at the site. Unacceptable plant material shall be removed from the
site immediately.

The Contractor shall produce an itemized list, in duplicate of the actual quantity of plant material in each
delivery so as to ensure satisfactory coordination of deliveries and to expedite the required inspection at
the site. The itemized list of the plant material for each delivery shall include the pertinent data as
specified in the list of required plants. The list and the necessary inspection certificates to accompany
each delivery shall be given to the Engineer prior to acceptance and planting of the plant material.

Plant material delivered by truck shall be loaded so as to provide adequate protection against climatic,
seasonal, and breakage damage during transit. Entire loads of plants shall be securely covered with
tarpaulin or canvas to minimize wind whipping and drying. Rail cars or air freight containers shall be
carefully loaded and adequately ventilated to prevent excessive transpiration of the plants during transit.
Shipments made by rail or air to local freight yards or terminals shall be given special attention to ensure
prompt delivery to the site and careful handling. Container grown trees shall be protected from sharp
jolts during transit by tying the main stem to the container, using a strong twine from cutting on to the
stem from becoming loose in the so8 mould, cracking the soil mould, or breaking the delicate surface
surface roots. Care shall be taken to prevent the twine from cutting into the stem by using a padding of
burlap or other suitable material. The ball of the large balled and buriapped plants shall be set in wood
crates or property tied to a base to provide stability during transit. To prevent damages of the bark of
trees with a stem diameter of more than 50 mm a special jute double layer should cover the stem, from
the stem base up to the first branches. This should be done before any loading and transport operations.
Additionally, the contractor has to ensure that the whole plant material is sprayed with insecticides and
fungicides before transportation. This must be done twice with two weeks interval
between the spraying operations.
Soil ingredients like fertilizer, peat moss, shredded bark, manure and organic resin foam shall be
delivered to the site in the original unopened containers, bearing the manufacturer's name, trade name or
trademark, the guaranteed chemical analysis and any other information needed to comply with local .
statutes. In lieu of containers soil additives may be produced in bulk with a certificate indicating the
above information accompanying each delivery.

15.2.2 Product Storage
Plants not planted on the day of delivery at the site are to be stored and protected as follows:

Especially, if plants are imported, a heeling-in nursery should be provided, where plants have an
opportunity to recover from their travel and get used to their new environment. Plants require a
minimum of six weeks in this holding area. Time for this process must be incorporated into the
construction schedule. This plant staging area should protect the plants from sun and wind and must
have Irrigation. It should be located in a suitable area on site, which provides this protection. If no such
area exists, the contractor shall be required to construct a lath house or other suitable construction which
provides sun and wind protection for the plants.

All plants stored on site shall be protected from crying out at all times by covering the balls or roots with
moist sawdust, wood chips, shredded bark, peat moss, or kept moist until planted by watering with a fine
mist spray.

Seeds have to be stored dry and in -air-conditioned room with a maximum temperature of 25 degree
Celsius .


       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 66
Soil additives and other materials shall be kept in dry storage away from contaminants.

15.2.3 Product Handling
Care shall be taken to avoid damaging plants being moved from the nursery or storage area to the
planting position. Plants shall be protected from drying out at all times. Balled and bunapped plants shall
be handed carefully to avoid cracking or breaking the earth ball. Plants shall not be handled by the truck
of stems.

Under no circumstances shall plants be dropped from box cars or trucks to the ground. Cracked or
mushroomed plants balls will be rejected. Bare-root plants shall be "paddled" when removed from the
heeling-in nursery to protect the roots from drying out. Plants shall be protected from drying out by a
covering of burlap, tarpaulin or mulching material during transportation from the heeling-in bed to the
planting position. Damaged plants will be rejected and shall be removed from the site immediately.

Big trees with a stem diameter of more than 100 mm the following will be necessary:
Wooden battens (100 x 60 x 600 mm) shall be adequately padded with several layers of burlap and
firmly wired in place around the trunk for protection from lifting devices during digging, transportation
and planting operations. Under no circumstances will nailing of battens to trunk be allowed. Digging
shall be by hand or by mechanical means or both.

15.3 Plants And Seed Products
15.3.1 Grass Seed
Grass seeds shall be only cynodon dactylon for seeding in summertime and lollium perenne mixed with
cynodon dactylon 50 % of each kind seeding in wintertime. Seed shall be stored in sealed , standard
containers and should be described in terms of quality, quantity and Its origin. Each seed container shall
bear the date of the last germination which shall be a date within a period of six months prior to
commencement of planting operations. Seed that is wet, mouldy, or that has been otherwise damaged in
transit or storage will not be accepted. The seed shall be free of field bindweed, hedgeweed and nutgrass
seed. Seed should not contain noxious weed seed. Weed seed shall not exceed one percent. Common
bermuda grass seed shall not contain in excess of three percent of giant strains of bermuda grass.

15.3.2 Ground Covers
Ground covers shall be vigorous, have the number and length of runners and clump size specified, and
the proper age for the grade of plants specified. Only ground cover plants well-established in removable
containers, integral containers, or formed homogeneous soil sections shall be used. Plants shall have
been grown or acclimatized under climatic conditions similar to those in the locality of the project. All
ground cover plants shall be free from pest and disease, eggs and larvae and should have a vigorous root
system.
The ground covers to be used for slopes are Carbobrotus Edulis.

The minimum sizes of all plants for acceptance are measured before pruning and with brnaches in
normal position.
They shall have at least three well-developed branches or runners and grown 'for a period of at least 6
months. The minimum size of the root ball shall not be less that I liter in volume.

15.3.3 Shrubs
Shrubs shall be symmetrically developed, well-branched, their structure and habit of growth shall be
typical of the species of variety. Shrubs shall have grown in a container at least for six months for the
root system to have developed sufficiently to hold its soil together in a fine and integral manner. No
plants which are loose in their container shall be accepted. Shrubs shall be free from disease, pests, eggs
or larvae.

Shrubs to be used in the work shall be Evergreen and Dedonia.
Shrubs shall be measured when branches are in normal position from the ground level to the top of the
shrub.

15.3.4 Trees
Trees shall-be symmetrically developed, their structure and habit of growth shall be typical of the
species or variety, and shall have straight boles or stems free from objectionable disfigurements. The
side branches shall start at least 500 mm from the ground line. Trees with abrasion of the bark,

      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 67
 sunscalds, disfiguring knots, or fresh cuts of limbs over 30 mm which have not completely calloused,
 shall be rejected.
 If trees are container grown at least for 6 months, they shall have a sufficient root growth to hold the
 earth intact when the container is removed.
 If trees are imported, the contractor shall conform to the local regulations dealing with the importation
 of plant material.
 if not container grown, trees shall be balled with firm, natural balls of soil. Balled and burlapped plants
 shall be wrapped firmly with burlap, strong doth or plastic and tied. The wrapping material shall be
 capable of rotting in the ground and shall not be permanent nature.


                 Trees to be used in the work shall be

              Latin Name                    Common Name                              Common Use
         Eucalyptus Camaldulensis                     Red Gum              Roads, Car Parks, Screen, Shade,
                                                                                                Ornamental
                Quercus Calliprinos             Palestinian Live Oak             Wind Break, Roads, Shade,
                                                                                                 Ornamental
 Cupressus Sempervirens Varstricta                       Italian Cypress                  Wind Break, Roads

                        Ficus Nitida                                             Wind Break, Screen, Roads,
                                                                                                Ornamental
                   Ceratonia Siliqua         St. Johns Bread (Carob)        Fooder, Ornamental and Midecal
                                                                                                     Plant

DECIDUOUS TREES
               Jacaranda Acutifolia                          Jacaranda                            Ornamental
                    Dulenoux regia                           Dulenoux                             Ornamental
PALMS
                            Phoenix                          Date Palm         Ornamental, timber, Fruit tree
FRUIT TREES
                        Citrus limon                             Lemon         Ornamental, timber, Fruit tree
                        Ficus carica                          Edible fig                                 Shade
                       Olea Europea                               Olive        Ornamental, timber, Fruit tree

EVERGREEN SHRUBS

                 Carpobrotus Edulis                            Ice Plant             Ground Cover, Rockery
                 Dodonaea Viscosa                        Hopseed Bush                           Hedge, Screen

 Calliper measurement shall be taken at a point on the trunk 250 mm above natural ground level for trees
 up to 100 mm in diameter, and at a point 300 mm above the natural ground level for trees 100 mm in
 diameter. Spread dimensions shall refer to the main body of the tree and not from branch tip to tip.

 15.3.5 Palm Trees
 Palm trees not container grown shall be planted immediately after delivery. They must be mother-plants
 with a root system which is not dried out. Additionally the stem and 50 % of the leaves should be
 protected against drying out with a double layer of jute bandage. Palm trees with a height of over 3
 meters must have a ball with a diameter of mare than 1 meter.

 Type to be used in the work is Cupressus Sempervirens Varstricta known as Italian Cypress
 Palm trees shall be measured from the nursery grown ground line to the beginning of the spread
 branches.


       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 68
15.4 Soil
15.4.1 Top Soil
Soil shall be free of admixture, subsoil and foreign matter and shad be taken only from well-drained
areas, free of objects larger than 20 mm, and shall have the following characteristics :
Clay max.                    60 %
Sand min.                    40 %
pH value max.                8.3

The Contractor shall provide soil analysis, which has to include the pH value. The electrical
conductivity, CaC03, texture as well as the contents of nrtrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.
The maximum levels of acceptance are:
Available phosphorus P2 05         :10 mg/100 g soil
Available magnesium Mg             : 10 mg/100 g soil
Available potassium K2 0           : 40 mg/100 g soil

The value of electrical conductivity shall not be higher than 2000 micro mhos. / cm- if it is higher,
leaching of the soil in a well-drained area will be necessary with a suggested water quantity of 300
ltr/m2 with a soil depth of 300 mm.
To get top soil, this wadi soil shall be mixed with sweet sand and soil improvers according to sand and
soil analysis, and as stated in the project documents.
The following mix states an example.
Wadi soil                    50%
Sweet sand                   20 %
Soil improvers:
Organic fertilizer           5%
Peat moss                    10%
Shredded bark                10%
Organic resin foam            5%
Inorganic fertilizer         200 gr/m3

15.4.2 Sand
Sand shall be natural, free of toxic material, friable and typical of the locality. Sand shall be reasonable
free from subsoil, stones, earth dods, sticks, stumps, clay lumps, roots or other objectionable matter or
debris and have the following characteristics:
Clay (less than 0.002 mm)                      max. 3%
Silt (0.002 - 0.005 m)                         max. 7 %
Sand (0.05 - 2 mm)                             min. 90 %
pH value                                       max. 8
Electrically Conductivity less than            1000 micro mhos/cm
Exchangeable sodium (ESP)                      less than 10 % in ammonium acetate .

15.4.3 Top Soil Additives
Inorganic granular compound fertilizer, uniform in composition, dry and free-flowing shall be used.
They shall be delivered in original unopened containers and bear the manufacturer's analysis.
They shall contain N (Nitrogen), P2 05 (Phosphorus) and K2 0 (Potassium) in an adequate mix to suit
the purpose. The regulations governing inorganic fertilizer edited by the Ministry of Agriculture shall be
adhered to.

Organic fertilizer, Manure shall be a commercial product thoroughly pulverized, sterilized, decomposed,
equivalent in every respect to packed sheep manure. Green manure shall not to be used.

Peat moss shall be of a quality acceptable for use as a soil amendment and shall have a pH range from
3.7 to 5.0. It shall be unfertilized and consist of sphagnum only.

Shredded bark made from conifers shall be proprietary decomposed bark in sealed containers and shall
have the following specification:
Maximum water capacity            50 %
Nirogen stabilised
pH value                          5, 5-7


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 69
available nutrients:
 Nitrogen N                           100 - 250 mg/ltr
 Phosphorus P2 05                     200- 400 mg/ltr
 Potassium K2 0                       200-600 mg/ltr
 Magnesium Mg.                        300 mg/ltr

 Other soil additives such as phosphates and silicates can be used with the approval of the Engineer. The
 materials mentioned above are listed as examples only and are not limiting.

 15.5 Irrigation Water
 Fresh water from the underground water tank shall be used to irrigate areas of splinkler system as shown
 in the drawings, while the treated effluent water will be used in the drip system.



 15.6 Accessories
 15.6.1 Staking
 Stakes for supporting trees shall be of healthy wood, uniform in size, reasonably free from knots and
 capable of standing in the ground for at least two years. For small trees with a clear stem of up to 1
 meter, a stake of minimum 50 mm in diameter and 2 meter in length (750 mm in the ground) shall be
 used. For larger trees with clear stem of up to 1.8 meter, a stake of minimum 75 mm in diameter and 3
 meter in length (1.0 meter in the ground) shall be used.
 For trees with clear stem of more than 1.8 meter or 3 meter in height, the method of wiring shall be
 used.

 15.6.2 Tree Wrapping Material
 Tree wrap shall be two thickness of kraft paper glued together with a layer of bituminous material.
 Wrapping material shad be a minimum of 100 mm in width and have a stretch factor of 33 1/3 percent
 Twine for typing shall be a lightly tarred medium of coarse sisal yarn.

 15.6.3 Wiring
 Wire for tree bracing and guying shall be pliable 2 mm to 3 mm diameter galvanized soft steel wire.
 Cable shall, be 4.5 mm diameter, seven-strand cadmium-plated cable- Cable clamps and tumbuckles
 shall be galvanized steel of size and guage to provide tensile strength equal to that of the cable.
 Tumbuckle opening shall be at least 75 mm.
 Chafing guard shall be a two-ply reinforced rubber or plastic garden hose of unrform colour throughout
 the work.

 15.6.4 Drainage
 When shallow soil is underlaid by a layer of impervious soil or hadrpan and excess water cannot drain
 away, the sub surface plowing is required.

 15.6.5 Pit Filling
 Porous fill for plant pit and bed drainage: Granular fill for filling over excavations and for bedding of
 pipes shall consist of uniformly graded sand stone, gravel, or stone screenings free from soft or harmful
 particles or other objectionable material.

 15.7 Execution
 15.7.1 Inspection
 Plants shall be subject to inspection and approval at the place of growth and upon delivery for on
 formity to project documents as to quality, size and variety.

 The source and quality of soil and sand shall be subject to inspection and rejection upon delivery at the
 site or during the progress of work. The contractor shall ensure that an independent soil analyst prepares
 a physical and chemical analysis of the soil in accordance with the top soil specification together with a
 report and recommendations on fertilizer treatment. The soil analysis report, fertilizer recommendations
 and soil source shall be made available to the Engineer prior to approval.

 No soil shall be brought on site prior to approval by the Engineer. The approved fertilizers and other
 Soil improvers shall be added to the top soil in accordance with the soil analyst's recommendations.

        SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 70
Water has to be tested periodically and also throughout the maintenance period. The contractor shall
provide
equipment for testing the electrical conductivity of water.

15.7.2 Preparation
The soil shall be conditioned by adding soil amendments and nutrients in compliance with this
specifications and the recommendations of the soil analysis report.
Fertilizer shall be applied not more than 24 hours in advance of tilling operations. Fertilizer shall be
applied not
more than 24 hours In advance of filling operations.
Fertilizer shall be applied not more than 24 hours in advance of tilling operations. Fertilizer shall be
spread with
a fertilizer distributor. All amendments and nutrients shall be thoroughly mixed and incorporated into
the soil by using a roto-tiller.
The seed bed shall be raked, dragged and then rolled making passes in two directions. Tillage depth
shall be, 300 mm. Before during and after all mixing operations, water shall be added to soil and soil
additives.

Stockpiled, wind blown sand shall be cleaned of all stones, sticks, plants and other foreign materials
before being spread.
Sand shall be placed and spread over all areas not required to be developed otherwise. Sweet sand shall
be placed, and spread in all areas designated for planting and garden areas to a depth of 150 mm,
including filling plant pits to the required depths. Both types of sand shall be supplied and installed to a
depth sufficiency greater than required so that after natural settlement the completed work will conform
to the lines, grades and levels indicated.

Vegetation surfaces shall be fine-graded after applying soil improvements materials. Surfaces are to be
compacted in such a way as to prevent subsequent setting, and without damage to any roots to a standard
proctor density of 80 to 85 %.

After sand has been spread, it shall be carefully prepared by harrowing and hand raking. All large stiff
clods lumps, brush, roots, stumps, titter and other for lawn areas shall be left smooth for ease of
mowing.

15.8 Planting And Seeding
The season for planting materials other than bare root plants shall be between November and March.
Bare root plants should be installed during the months of January and February.

15.8.1 Lawn
Lawn areas must have a layer of top soil mix with a minimum depth of 300 mm. Before seeding the
ground level shall be prepared by leveling + 20 mm on 10 m distance and stones and branches shall be
removed .
Especially edges and connections to constructions have to be compacted.
Time for seeding cynodon dactylon is between March and October and the average air temperature shall
be higher than 25 degree celsius. Time for seeding the mixture of lollium perenne and cynodon dactylon
is between October and March and the average air temperature shall be higher than 10 degree celsius.
When delays in 'operations extend the work beyond the most favorable planting season for species
designated or when conditions are such by reason of drought, high winds, excessive moisture, or other
factors that satisfactory results are not likely to be obtained, work shall be halted as directed and
resumed only when conditions are favorable or when approved alternative or corrective measures and
procedures have been effected.
If, on inspection, certain areas are not adequately seeded, these areas shall be seeded again and
maintained.

For large areas, where seeding with machine equipment necessary, the quantity of seed shall be 4Q
g/m2- For small parts where hand seeding is allowed, the quantity of seed to be used shall be 60 g/m2.

Seed shall be spread with hydraulic seeding equipment or with the sowing equipment. Small areas may
be seeded by hand. Seed shall be distributed uniformly over designated areas.


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 71
Half of the seed shall be sown with the shower moving in one direction, and the remainder with the
shower moving in right angles to the first sowing. Seed shall be covered to an average depth of 20 mm
by brush, harrow, cultipacker, hand rake with wood tines or other adequate device. Seed shall not be
spread during windy weather.

Drill seeding shall be accomplished using equipment with drills set not more than 20 mm apart. Seed
shall be sown uniformly in. areas to an average depth of 20 mm. immediately after the seeding
operations have been completed the surface shall be compacted by a cult packer, roller or other
equipment.
When planting by machine the roller shall be operated immediately behind the planter.

Special maintenance shall be done between seeding date and preliminary handing-over date. The
operations which will be necessary are different and depend in season and actual situation.
For handing over and first acceptance it must be possible to walk an the grass without damage. The
growth must be uniform throughout the lawn area. The last mowing operation shall be less than 5 days
before handing over inspection. More than 90% of the area must be covered with grass.

Including rainfall the lawn shall be irrigated as follows:
          From seeding date up to germination 4-5 times each operation 8 ltr/m2 each week
          After germination 2-3 times total 30 ltr/m2 each week
proper fertilization shall be provided against traffic, animals and other use by erecting and placing
barricades and warning signs immediately after the planting is complete.

15.8.2 Ground Covers
Planting season for ground covers shall be between November and March.
Ground covers beds shall be dug to depth of 400 below final grade and filled up with top soil. Rocks and
other underground obstructions shall be removed to a depth necessary to permit proper planting.
After watering the soil, the ground covers shall be located on the bed in final position. After excavation,
ballad and burlapped plants, shall be set in sweet sand which, shall be compacted around bases of balls
to fill all voids. All burlap, ropes and containers shall be removed from the root balls. Roots of bare root
plants shall be property spread out and sweet sand carefully worked, or frayed roots shall be cut off
clean.

15.8.3 Shrubs And Trees
Planting season for Shrubs and trees shall be between November and March.
The location of all plants shall be staked out before excavating plants pits. If pits are prepared and
backfilled prior to planting, their location shall be marked and recorded on drawings so that when
planting proceeds they can easily be located.

Plants Pits Plant pits shall be excavated with sides as nearly vertical as possible with following sizes:

Shrubs : Shrub pits shad be 300 mm greater in diameter than the spread of the roots and sufficiently
deep to allow a minimum of 100 mm top soil mix under the root balls. If the height of shrubs is not more
than 80 cm, the size of the shrub pits should be 500 x 500 mm .
Trees : Tree pits shall be 600 mm greater in diameter than the bail of earth or spread of roots of the tree
and sufficiently deep below root system to allow for a 150 mm thick layer of planting soil beneath the
ball or roots. If the tree is not higher than 2 meters, the tree pit shall have a minimum size of 1000 x
1000 x 1000 mm.

In salty ground, all shrubs and tree pits shall be irrigated with sweet water for two consecutive days to
ensure adequate leaching of the salt. The water applied per day shall be twice the volume of the pit. The
bottom of the pit shall be filled with sweet sand about 500 mm deep. If there is a rocky ground
underneath stone mulch shall be filled in about 200 mm deep. Between the stone mulch and the top soil,
a filter sheet of fiberglass shall be installed. The rest of the plant pit has to be filled with top soil .

Before planting container grown plants some of the roots shall be cut and removed, so that they are
matted at the bottom circling around the outside of the root ball. In freeing the roots at the periphery of
the soil, some of the soil shall be broken away to provide better contact between the root ball and the fill
soil. With balled and burped plants the burlap shall be folded back at least 5 cm below the soil level. The
burlap shall be sliced carefully on the sides and at the bottom of the root ball to allow for easy root


       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 72
penetration. The hole shall be backfilled with top soil. Then a shallow basin shall be built around the
tree pit, so that water soaks down into the root ball.
Staking should be done to support and protect the plant. It shall be done at the same time as planting.
For vines only one stake snail be used, whereas for trees two stakes are necessary. The trunk shall be
tied to the stakes in one level.
Stakes shall be at a right-angle to the most troublesome wind. Trees with a height of more than 3 meters
or with a dear stem of more than 1.8 meter have to be anchored using 3 stakes and guy wires.

15.8.4 Palm Trees
Planting season for palm trees shall be between September and October or March and April.
The size of pits for palm trees shall be as follows:
            Palm tree up to 4 meter - 1.5 m deep 2.5 x 1.5 m wide
            Palm tree up to 4 meter - 2.0 m deep 2.0 x 2.0 m wide
 if there is a rocky ground, adequate drainage shall be installed.
Before starting planting, all injured, dry and damaged roots shall be cut off, the leaves of the palm trees
generally have to be cut back by a quantity of 30 % in one level; This is to reduce water requirement
After setting the palm tree, the ball and root system shall be surrounded by sweet sand. The rest of the
pit shall be filled with top soil.
The trunk and 50 % of the spread branches have to be protected against drying out by covering with a
double jute layer.

Palm trees with a trunk height of more than 1 meter should be anchored with guy wire and 3 stakes to
support against the wind.

15.9 Landscape Maintenance
15.9.1 Maintenance
Maintenance shall commence immediately after each plant is planted and shall continue in accordance
with the following requirements:
All planting shall be inspected at least once monthly during the maintenance period.
All site planting shall be maintained in a healthy growing condition until completion of the maintenance
period.
Maintenance shall include watering, weeding, cultivating, malching, fertilizing, tightening and repairing
of guys, removal of dead materials, resetting plants to proper grades or upright positions, spraying
against inectial disease and all other necessary operations normally required to sustain, healthy growth.
All wrapping and guying material shall be removed at the end of the maintenance period.

15.9.2 Replacement
Replacement shall be made by the contractor of any trees or plants that are dead or that are in unhealthy
or unsightly condition or that have lost natural shape due to dead branches, excessive pruning or
inadequate or improper maintenance.
All replacement planting is to be done no later than the earliest planting season following receipt or
request for replacement from Engineer.
Ail areas damaged by tree or shrub planting or replacement operations are to be fully restored to their
original condition.




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 73
16. BITUMINOUS CONSTRUCTION

16.1 MATERIAL
16.1.1 Scope
All material sources and the quality of materials proposed for use in the works shall be approved prior to
procurement or processing material from such sources. Inspection, sampling , testing and re-testing as
necessary, shall be at the contractors expenses.

16.1.2 Sampling And Testing Of Aggregate
 - In order to ascertain the properties of aggregate materials, the contractor shall submit for testing and
approval, representative samples of all materials intended for corporation in the works, prior to starting
quarry operations, the samples shall be taken by contractor in the presence of the Director of works or
his representative.

- Tests performed by the contractor shall utilized in assessing the locations, extent of deposits and
quantities of materials which will conform to the specifications when properly processed. All testing
as carried out by the contractor shall in no way obviate the need for further testing by Director of works
or his representative.
Approval of specific sources of materials shall not be construed as final approval and acceptance of
materials from such sources.

- Unsatisfactory materials whether in place or not, shall be removed promptly from the site. The
contractor shall furnish all necessary material, labor , tools, and equipment and transport required by the
Director of works or his representative for such inspections.

16.1.3 Aggregates For Bituminous Paving Mixes
1. Aggregate for use in bituminous, binder and wearing courses, shall consist of crushed stone.
2. course aggregate shall be the fraction of crushed aggregate material retained on 4.75 mm (No. 4)
    sieve. Fine aggregate shall be the fraction of crushed aggregate material passing 4.75 mm (N0. 4)
    sieve. Mineral filler shall be added when the combined grading of course and fine aggregates is
    deficient in material passing 0.075 mm(No. 200) sieve.
3. The material from hot bins passing the number 40 sieve (0.425 mm) when tested in accordance with
    AASHTO T90 shall be non plastic.
4. Aggregate shall not contain gypsum more than 1% and the course fraction of the aggregate shall not
    contain more than:
    5% chert and flint for aggregate to be used in the Wearing course.
    5% chert and flint for aggregate to be used in the Binder course.
5. Aggregates shall be of uniform quality, free from decomposed stone, organic matter, shale.
6. The percentage by weight of friable particles, clay lumps, and other deleterious matter shall not
    exceed 1% as determined by AASHTO T112.
7. Aggregate particles shall be clean, hard, durable and sound. Crushing shall result in a product such
    that, for particles retained on 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve, at least 90% by weight shall have 2 or more
    fractured faces.
8. The flakiness index and the elongation index test should be conducted in accordance with BS 812, the
    following are the maximum limits:

         Wearing Course & Binder Course:
                  Flakiness Index F.I = 2530
                  Elongation Index E.I. = 2530
9. Aggregates shall be washed if directed, to remove any clay lumps, organic matter, adherent dust or
   clay films or other extraneous or deleterious matter that may prevent or detract from proper adhesion
   of bitumen to the aggregate particles.

10. Material filler shall consist of fine divided mineral matter such as limestone dust if added sperately;
   hydrated lime; other non-plastic mineral filler, free from clay and organic impurities; or Portland
   cement, conforming to AASHTO M17.

11. The mineral aggregate for the base course shall be of such size that the percentage composition by
   weight as determined by laboratory screens, will conform to the grading specified in the following
   tables. Grading of the aggregate shall be determined by ASTM C 117 and C 136.

      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 74
Aggregate Grading (asphalt base layer of ¾" aggregate size)
                                              Sieve Size                          Percentage by Weight Passing
         Pavement                         (square opening)                             Square Mesh Sieve
                                                 1½"                                             -
                                            1" (25.4 mm)                                       100
                                            ¾" (19.0 mm)                                    70 - 100
                                            ½" (12.5 mm)                                     53 - 90
           Base                             3/8" (9.5 mm)                                    40 - 80
                                          No. 4 (4.85 mm)                                    30 - 56
                                          No. 8 (2.36 mm)                                    23 - 38
                                          No. 20 (1.18 mm)                                   13 - 27
                                         No. 50 (0,300 mm)                                    5 - 17
                                         No. 80 (0,150 mm)                                    4 - 14
                                         No. 200 (0,075 mm)                                    2-8


Aggregate Grading (asphalt wearing layer of ½" aggregate size)
                                                                                  Percentage by Weight
                              Sieve                                                     Passing Sieves
                              1½"                                                            -
                         1" (25.4 mm)                                                      100
                         ¾" (19.0 mm)                                                   90 - 100
                         ½" (12.5 mm)                                                    71 - 90
                         3/8" (9.5 mm)                                                   56 - 80
                        No. 4 (4.25 mm)                                                  35 - 65
                        No. 8 (2.36 mm)                                                  23 - 49
                       No. 20 (1.18 mm)                                                  14 - 43
                       No. 50 (0,300 mm)                                                  5 - 19
                       No. 80 (0,150 mm)                                                  4 - 15
                      No. 200 (0,075 mm)                                                  2-8
            Bitumen content by weight of total mix (%)                                    4-6

Aggregate Grading (asphalt wearing layer of 3/8" aggregate size)
                                                                        Percentage by Weight
 Sieve                                                                     Passing Sieves

                      ½"(12.52 mm)                                                   100
                      3/8" (9.53 mm)                                               90-100
                     No. 4 (4.75 mm)                                                60-80
                     No. 8 (2.36 mm)                                                35-65
                    No. 50 (0.300 mm)                                               6-25
                   No. 200 (0.075 mm)                                               2-10
         Bitumen content by weight of total mix (%)                                  4-6


12. The loss in weight of aggregate after 500 revolutions, when tested in accordance with AASHTO
   T96, shall not exceed 35%.
                       Abrasion after100Rev.
Ratio of wear loss =                                  is less than or equal 25.
                       Abrasion after500Rev.
13. When tested for soundness in accordance with AASHTO T104 the course aggregate (retained on No.
   4 sieve) shall not shown sings of disintegration and the loss by weight after 5 cycles shall not exceed
   9% in the case of the sodium sulphate test and 12% in the case of the magnesium sulphate test.
14. When tested for resistance to stripping in accordance with the AASHTO T-182 at least 95% coated
   particles should be achieved. Scandinavian test shall be carried out and at last 60% of the coarse
   aggregate surfaces area shall remain coated with a bitumen film especially for exposed surfaces other
   wise anti stripping agent must be added to achieve the required coating.
15. The material shall contain minimum 50% sand equivalent. Test sample shall be taken from hot bins.


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                         VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 75
16.1.4 Heating Of Bitumen
1- Heating equipment shall be of an approved type. Any method of heating that introduces free steam or
   moisture into the bitumin will not be approved.
2. Bitument shall not be heated more than 170c. materials heated in excess of this temperature will be
   rejected and shall not be used in the works.
3. Heating of bitumen shall be uniform and under control at all times, to the specified temperature. The
   circulation system shall be of adequate size to insure proper and continuous circulation of bitumen
   during the entire operating period.
4. Thermometers of adequate range (calibrated in 2 degrees c increments) for accurately measuring the
   temperature of the bitument, shall be located so as to be readily visible and shall be kept clean and
   working order at all times.

16.2 Bituminous Prime And Tack Coats
16.2.1 Scope
This work shall consist of furnishing and applying and MC cutback bitumen prime coat to a previously
constructed aggregate base course and applying tack coat on Asphalt or concrete surfaces all as and
where shown on the Drawings.

16.2.2 Medium Curing Cutback Bitumen
1. MC-70 cutback bitumen for prime coat shall be used as recommended by ASTM D2399-83 for open
   and tight surface, and RC-70 should be used as tack coat.
2. All surfaces to receive either prime or tack coats shall conform with the specified tolerances and
   compaction requirements and shall be properly cleaned and finally approved before applying any
   bitumen material.
3. Application of prime and tack coats shall be performed only when the surface to be treated is
   sufficiently moist and atmospheric temperature is above 15 c. There should be no fog, rain , strong
   winds, dusty conditions, or dust storms.
4. The surface of all structures shall be protected in an approved manner during the equipment
   operation. The contractor shall be responsible for making good any staining or damage of the
   structures to the satisfaction of the Director of works or his representative
5. Traffic shall not be permitted to surfaces after they have been cleaned and prepared for prime coat
   application.
6. The contractor shall maintain prime or tack coats until it is covered by the subsequent pavement
   course. Any area where the coats have been damaged shall be cleaned of all loose material and re-
   applied at the contractor's expense.
7. Applying temperature of MC- 70 shall be 45-80c.
8. Areas to be primed shall be including 200 mm widths outside the edge of the permanent line.
9. Application rate for prime coat shall be 1 lit/sq.m and tack coat application shall be 0.5 lit/sq.m.
10. Asphalt pavement shall not be placed on prime coat before 24 hours, and no traffic is allowed to pass
   on prime coat.

16.3 Bituminous Courses
16.3.1 Scope
This work shall consist of the general requirements of furnishing materials, mixing at a central mixing
plant, spreading and compacting bituminous courses.

16.3.2 Job Mix And Project Mixes
1. The contractor shall submit his proposed Job Mix Formula for approval , at least 30 days prior to
    beginning production. Therefore , samples from materials use in the preparing mix design (
    aggregates and bitumen) shall be sent to specialized laboratories to be tested for final approval of
    mix design.
2. The Job Mix Formula be established by the contractor, under the supervision of the Director of works
    or his representative, in the field laboratory Mix design procedures shall conform with the Marshall
    method of mix design. All trial mixes shall be prepared and tested by the contractor in the presence
    of the Director of works or his representative .
3. The Job Mix Formula shall specify a combination of mineral aggregates including filler and bitumen
    in such proportions as to produce a Job Mix which is within the limits of the specified gradation and



      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 76
      bitumen content ranges and which meets the Marshall test requirements. It shall also stipulate the
      mixing temperature at discharge from the mixer which, unless otherwise directed, shall be 170 C.
4.   The Marshall test procedure shall be used to determine the percentage of bitumen to be incorporated
      in the mix. The Job Mix Formula shall take into consideration the absorption of bitumen into the
      aggregates. Air voids shall be calculated in accordance with the procedure given in the Asphalt
      Institute Manual, MS-2.
5.   When compacting specimens on accordance with the Marshall test procedure, the number of blows
      applied with the compaction hammer shall be 75 on each test.
6.   In order to meet the requirements, an approved additive such as Portland cement, hydrated lime or
      liquid antistrup agent, may be required in the Job Mix. Portland cement shall meet the requirements
      of ASTM M 85. Hydrated lime shall meet the requirements of ASTM C207, Type N. Cement or
      hydrated lime will normally be required in the approximate range of 2-3% by weight of the
      aggregates and shall be added at the cold feed in dry or slurry form as directed. Liquid antistriping
      agent, if needed will normally be required in the approximate range of 0.6-1.0% by weight of the
      bitumen, or according to the manufacturers specifications.
7.   Upon receipt of approval of the Job Mix Formula, the Contractor shall adjust his mixing plant to
      proportion the individual aggregates, mineral filler and bitumen to produce a final project mix within
      the limits given in Table shown with respect to the Job Mix gradation:-

Maximum Variations of Project Mix from Approved Job Mix
          Sieve     Designation        (squre Specified Tolerances
          openings)
          9.5     mm (3/8 in.) and above         5.0%
          4.75 mm (No. 4)                        4.0%
          2.36 mm (No. 8)                        4.0%
          1.18 mm (No. 16)                       4.0%
          0.600 mm (No. 30)                      4.0%
          0.300 mm (No. 50)                      4.0%
          0.150 mm (No. 100)                     4.0%
          0.75 mm (No. 200)                      1.5%
          Bitumen Content                        0.3%
          Temperature of Mix on discharge  5 C of the specified mixing
          temperature
8 Conformance to gradation requirements will be determined on the extracted aggregate in accordance
   with AASHTO T 30. The bitumen content shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T 164.
9 The participation of the Director of works or his representative in the preparation of the Job Mix
   Formula shall in no way relieve the Contractor of responsibility for producing project mixes meeting
   the specified requirements.
10 At the commencement of the contract one copy of the ASTM, AASHTO and Manuals MS-2 MS3,
   MS and MS22 shall be furnished by the contractor for use by Director of works or his representative.

16.3.3 Spreading And Finishing Equipment
1. Bituminous course shall be spread and finished using approved type, self contained, power-propelled
    pavers of sufficient capacity. Pavers shall be provided with electronically controlled vibratory screed
    or strike-off assembly and shall be capable of spreading and finishing the course of bituminous mix
    to the proper thickness and in lane widths applicable to the typical cross sections shown on the
    Drawings.
2. The pavers shall employ mechanical devices such as equalizing runners, straightedge runners, evener
    arms or other compensating devices, to maintain trueness of grade and confine the edges of the mix
    to true lines without the use of stationary side forms. Joint leveling devices shall be provided for
    smoothing adjusting longitudinal joints between lanes.
3. The paver shall be equipped with receiving hopper having sufficient capacity for a uniform spreading
    operation. The hopper be equipped with a distribution system to place the mix uniformly in front of
    the full length of the screed.
4. The screed or strike-off assembly and extensions shall effectively produce a findhed surface of the
    required evenness and texture without tearing, shoving, or grouging the mix.
5. The paver shall be capable of being operated at forward speeds consistent with satisfactory laying of
    the mix. Speed shall be fully adjustable


         SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                     VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 77
6. The Contractor shall make available, for refference by the Director of works or his representative, the
    manufacturer's instruction and operating manuals for each paver intended for use

16.3.4 Surface Preparation.
1. When the bituminous mix is to be placed on a base, course the surface shall be prepared to meet the
   appropriate specified compaction and surface tolerance requirements. The surface shall then be
   primed as specified “Bituminous Prime Coat”. No bituminous mix shall be laid on a prime coat until
   it has been inspected and approved.
2. Broken, soft, or unstable areas of aggregate base course shall be removed and replaced. The areas
   shall be excavated to a depth as directed and refilled with the specified bituminous mix.

16.3.5 Delivery, Spreading And Finishing
a) Delivery of Mix to Site
1. A sufficient number of haul vehicles shall be provided so that adequate supplies of mix are delivered
    to ensure that continuos paving will be achieved.
2. Hauling equipment for aggregates and bituminous mixes shall consist of vehicles having dump bodies
    suitable for dumping materials in a windrow or in spreader boxes. The bodied shall be so
    constructed that their volume measurement can be accurately determine. They shall be constructed
    and maintained such that loss of materials during hauling operations will not occur.
Dump controls shall be capable of operation from the driver’s seat.
3. Hauling equipment for hot bituminous mixes shall have tight, clean, smooth metal beds which are
    periodically thinly coated with a lime solution or other approved material to prevent adherence of the
    mix. All hauling units shall be equipped with a canvas or other approved type cover which shall be
    used to cover the hot material upon loading at the mixing plant and shall not be removed until the
    mix is discharged into the paver.
4. The dispatching of the hauling vehicles to the site shall be so scheduled that all material delivered is
    placed at least 90 minutes before sunset to allow sufficient time for compaction. Delivery of material
    shall be at a uniform rate and in an amount well within the capacity of the paving and compacting
    equipment.
5. The mix at delivery to the paver shall be not more than 10C below discharge temperature at the
    mixing plant. The minimum temperature for the commencement of breakdown rolling is 120 C.
    Mix loads of temperature less than 120C shall not be accepted, and the load shall be disposed of and
    another load used. If there consistent failure to meet the temperature requirement the Director of
    works or his representative shall order paving operations to stop until suitable measures are taken by
    the Contractor to ensure that temperature requirements are met.
6. Each haul vehicle shall be weight after each loading at the mixing plant and accurate records shall be
    kept of the gross weight and net weight of each load, for each vehicle dates and time of
   loading.

b) Setting Out Reference Line
1. The Contractor shall survey the centerline profile and crown of the existing surface or base and
    determine a reference grade line which will be submitted for approval. A reference line of wire or
    suitable cord shall be installed at a uniform grade parallel to the approved reference grade line such
    that conformance with the required geometric, surface tolerance and minimum thickness
    requirements shall be ensured.
2. The reference line shall be maintained taut and free from sags at all times during spreading and initial
    compacting operations.
3. A wire or cord reference line shall be installed on both sides of the paver for the initial bituminous
    course being laid. Thereafter only one reference line will normally be required, if the paver is
    equipped with adequate automatic superelevation control.

c) Spreading and Finishing
1. Bituminous mixes shall be laid only when the air temperature is at least 5 degrees C or above when
   the existing surface is free from moisture, and when the weather is not foggy, rainy, dusty or
   excessively windy (particularly at low temperatures).
2. After completion of surface preparation, the bituminous mix shall be spread and finished true to
   crown and grade by approved automatically controlled bituminous pavers. The mix may be spread
   and finished by approved hand methods only where the Director of works or his representative



      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 78
    determines that machine methods are impracticable. Hand methods include heated hand tampers of at
    least 10 kg weight and approved type mechanical (vibratory) tampers.
3. The paver shall spread the bituminous mix without tearing the surface and shall strike a finish that is
    smooth, true to cross section, uniform in density and texture and free from hollows, transverse
    corrugations and other irregularities.
4. The paver shall be operated at a speed which gives the best results for the type of paver being used
    and which coordinates satisfactorily with the rate of delivery of the mix to the paver. A uniform rate
    of placement shall be achieved without repeated intermittent operation of the paver.
5. The mix shall be delivered to the paver in time to permit completion of spreading, finishing and
    compaction of the mix during daylight hours.
6. If during laying, the paver is repeatedly delayed because of lack of mix or if the paver stands at one
    location for an extended period, resulting in the (unrolled) mat under and adjacent to the rear of the
    spreader falling below the minimum temperature for breakdown rolling, the affected portion of mat
    shall be cut out and discarded and a transverse joint shall be constructed. Paving shall not
    recommence until the Director of works or his representative is satisfied that paving will proceed
    without interruptions.
7. Contact surfaces of curbing, gutters, manholes, and similar structures shall be painted with a thin,
    uniform coating of tack coat material. The bituminous mixture shall be placed uniformly high near
    the contact surfaces so that after compaction it will be 10 mm above the edge of such structure.
8. If during the paving operations, it is found that the spreading and finishing equipment in operation
    leaves in the pavement surface tracks or indented areas or other objectionable irregularities that are
    not satisfactorily corrected by the scheduled operations, the use of the equipment shall be
    discontinued, until faults are corrected to the approval of the Director of works or his representative.
    If this is not possible, other satisfactory spreading and finishing equipment shall be provided by the
    Contractor.
9. Transverse joints in succeeding layers shall be offset by at least 2 m. Longitudinal joints shall be
    offset at least 150 mm.
10. Bituminous mix shall be spread in one or more layers so that, after rolling, the nominal thickness of
    each layer of the compacted bituminous material does not exceed 2 to 3 times maximum size of
    aggregate. This maximum thickness may be increased slightly when such increase is more
    appropriate to total pavement thickness and provided the Director of works or his representative
    determines that such increased thickness will not be detrimental to the quality of the finished
    bituminous course, and the Contractor can show that the required density is attained throughout the
    layer thickness.
11. Transitions and structure approaches shall meet the design criteria for geometric, the surface
    tolerance specifications, and shall not be visually discontinuous or abrupt in appearance.

d) Joints and Edges
1. All joints between old and new pavements or between successive days’ work shall be as to ensure
    thorough and continuous bond between the old and new material.
2. Before placing fresh mix against previously laid, the contact surface shall be cut back to a near
    vertical face, and shall be sprayed or painted with a thin uniform coat of tack coat material.
    Longitudinal joints shall be made by overlapping the paver screed on the previously laid material
    (cut back as necessary ) and depositing a sufficient amount of fresh mix so that the joint formed will
    be smooth and tight.
3. Unsupported edges of bituminous layers shall be rolled immediately following the rolling of the
    longitudinal joint. The material along the unsupported edge may, if approved, be raised slightly by
    hand methods, to ensure that the full weight of the roller will bear fully on the edge material
4. On completion, the longitudinal edges of bituminous pavement shall be true to the width and
    alignment as shown on the Drawings. The edges shall be cut back if necessary prior to rolling,
    additional mix placed manually in a longitudinal strip adjoining each pavement edge, and the edge
    rolled down to a neat 3:1 (H:V) slope.
5. Transverse joints shall be carefully constructed and thoroughly compacted to provide a smooth riding
    surface. Joints shall be straight-edged and string-lined to assure smoothness and true alignment
e) Compaction
1. After spreading and strike-off, and as soon as the mix conditions permit the rolling to be performed
   without excessive shoving or tearing, the mixture shall be thoroughly and uniformly compacted,
   using approved types, sizes and number of rollers. rolling shall not be prolonged to the point where
   cracks appear or shoving or displacement occur.



      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 79
2. All rollers shall be self-propelled vibratory steel wheel, 2-axle tandem steel-tired and pneumatic-tired
    types, in proper operating condition, capable of reversing without backlash or tearing of the surface,
    and shall be operated at numbers of rollers required is 3, of which one must be pneumatic type. The
    Contractor shall select a suitable method and pattern of rolling that will achieve the required
    compaction, to Director of works or his representative approval.
3. Prior to use on Site of pneumatic-tired rollers, the Contractor shall furnish, for reference and retention
    by the Director of works or his representative, manufacturers’ charts or tabulations showing the
    contact areas and contact pressures for the full range of tire inflation pressures and for the full range
    of tire loading for each type and size of compactor tire to be used. The Contractor shall ensure that
    tire pressures are maintained at all times in conformity with such charts or tabulations. The
    maximum allowable tolerances shall be plus or minus 35 KN/sq.m (5 psi).
4. Rollers should move at a slow but uniform speed, generally with the drive roll or wheels nearest the
    paver.
5. Minimum temperature of the mat at which rolling shall be allowed to start is 120c.
6. Breakdown rolling shall be consist of 3 complete coverage unless otherwise directed Rolling shall be
    longitudinal, and over lapping on successive trips by at least one half the width of the rear wheels.
7. To prevent adhesion of the mix to the rollers, the wheels shall be kept lightly moistened with water.
    Excessive use of water will not be permitted.
8. The initial or breakdown rolling shall be followed by intermediate rolling involving 3 coverages with
    pneumatic-tired rollers unless otherwise specified.
9. Finishing rolling shall then be carried out by means of tendem power steel rollers unless otherwise
    designated. If specified density is not achieved, changes shall be made in size and number of rollers
    being used to ensure the compaction requirements are met.
10. The compacted density shall be equal to or more than 97% and 98% for binder course and wearing
    course, respectively, of average Marshall bulk specific gravity for each days production unless
    otherwise directed by the Director of works or his representative.
11. Any mix that becomes loose, broken, mixed with foreign material, or which does not conform in all
    other respects with the specified requirements, shall be removed, replaced with suitable materials and
    properly finished.

e) Test For Bituminous Pavements
1. Minimum Tests Required

Work item            Tests at Source of material          Frequency        of   Tests at road site     Frequency
                                                          tests                                        of tests

1- Materials used    1- Specific gravity                  - Test for each
in Asphalt mix (at   and                                  source
Batching plant)      water absorption
                     2- Abrasion test                     - When materials
                                                          quality changes
                     3- Chert content                     - As requested
                     4- Clay lumps and friable
                     materials
                     5- Flaky and elongayed particles
                     6- Soundness
2- Materials used    1- Gradation                         - Test for each
in Asphalt mix (                                          source
from hot bins)       2- Specific gravity and              - when materials
                     water absorption                     quality changes
                     3- Plasticity index
                     4-Sand equivalent                    - As requested
                     5- Stripping with asphalt




       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 80
Work item            Tests at Source of material          Frequency        of   Tests at road site     Frequency
                                                          tests                                        of tests

3- Asphalt mix       1. Complete mix design in            -For each project
design         (At   accordance      with  American       -When materials
batching plant)      Asphalt Institute (MS2)              quality changes
                      2. Loss of stability                -When results are
                                                          not      consistent
                                                          with the mix
                                                          design results
                                                          - As requested
4- Asphalt           At Batching plant                    - Test each 3         Behind spreader        -Test    each
                                                          working days          1- Stability           working day
                     1- Stability                         - Test for each       2- Flow                - Test for
                     2- Flow                              batching plant        3-Extraction           each batch
                     3- Extraction (binder content        - As requested        (binder                -          As
                     and gradation)                                             content and            requested
                                                                                gradation
                     4- Air voids                                               4-Air voids
                     5- Voids in mineral aggregates                             5-     Voids     in
                     6- Daily Marshall density                                  mineral
                                                                                aggregates
                                                                                6-Marshall
                                                                                density
                     7-Loss of Stability                  - Once a week         7- Road density        - Test each
                                                          - As requested        and thickness          200     lin.m.
                                                                                (after        final    per lane
                                                                                compaction
                                                                                                     -         As
                                                                                                     requested
                                                                                8-Loss          off - Once a
                                                                                stability            week
                                                                                                     -         As
                                                                                                     requested
2. The Marshall bulk specific gravity shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T 166 or
    AASHTO T 275. The Marshall specimens shall be prepared from the same material used in
    construction, taken from samples of fresh bituminous mix at the mixing plant or from trucks
    delivering mix to the site. Oven heating for up to 30 minutes to maintain the heat of the sample is
    permissible.
3. The bulk specific gravity of the mix as placed and compacted in situ shall be determined from 100
    mm nominal diameter core samples, or slab samples cut from compacted layer on the road at
    locations designated by the Director of works or his representative who may require additional tests
    to determine limits of areas deficient in density, or for recheck.
4. Samples for in situ bulk specific gravity determinations shall be taken in sets of 2 from each pavement
    location. Minimum frequency of sampling for each bituminous layer shall be one set/lane/500 m,
    with a minimum of one set per day of placing bituminous layers.
5. The Contractor shall, cut the samples with an approved core drill in the presence of the Director of
    works or his representative. the equipment shall be capable of cutting the mixture without shattering
    the edges or otherwise disturbing the density of the specimen. The contractor shall fill and compact
    all test holes at his own expense.

f) Surface Tolerances
1. The fully compacted and completed bituminous course shall conform to the lines, grades and cross
   sections as shown on the Drawings.
2. The elevations of the finished course shall be checked by the Contractor in the presence of the
   Director of works or his representative at maximum intervals of 25 and at intermediate points as
   directed.



       SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 81
3. When the finished surface is tested with a 3 m long straightedge, placed parallel to, or at right angles
    to the centerline, the maximum deviation of the surface from the test edge between any 2 contact
    points shall not exceed the tolerances specified for each type of bituminous course laid.
4. All areas which exceed the specified tolerances shall be corrected by removing the derective sections
    of bituminous course and reconstructing them or, if approved, by adding new material and
    recompacting and finishing to the specified standard or increasing the thickness of the succeeding
    course.
5. The tolerances specified for evenness of finished surfaces for all types of bituminous course, shall not
    invalidate the tolerances specified for construction thickness and elevations of such courses.

g) Determination of Thickness of Course
1. Cylinder core samples shall be taken as specified for in situ bulk specified gravity core samples.
2. Thickness of bituminous course shall be determined by average caliper measurement of cores,
    rounded upwards to the nearest mm.
3. Paved sections to be measured separately shall consist of each 300 lin. m section in each traffic lane.
    The last section in each traffic lane shall be 300 m plus the fractional part of 300 m remaining. Other
    areas such as intersections, entrances, etc. Shall be measured as one section and the thickness of each
    shall be determined separately. Small irregular unit areas may be included as part of another section.
4. One core shall be taken from each section by the Contractor at approved locations and in the presence
    of the Director of works or his representative. When the measurement of the core from any paved
    section is not deficient by more than 5 mm from the specified thickness, the core will be deemed to
    be of the specified thickness as shown on the Drawings.
5. When the measurement of the core from any paved section is deficient by more than 5 mm but not
    more than 20 mm, 2 additional cores spaced at not less than 100 m shall be taken and used together
    with the first core to determine the average thickness of such section.
6. When the measurement of the core from any paved section is less than the specified thickness by
    more than 20 mm, the average thickness of such section shall be determined by taking additional
    cores at not less than 5 m intervals parallel to the centerline in each direction from the affected
    location until, in each direction, a core is taken which is not deficient by more than 20 mm.
    Exploratory cores for deficient thickness will not be used in average thickness determinations.
7. Any deficiencies in the total thickness of bituminous courses shall be subject to a proportional
    reduction in the area of (wearing) course measured for payment. Alternatively, the Contractor shall
    construct all at his own expense, a wearing course overlay, if practicable in the judgement of the
    Director of works or his representative. Any such overlay shall be a minimum of 40 mm compacted
    thickness and to the specified standard of the course it is overlaying.
8. If the deficiency in total asphalt layers thickness is from 0 -3 mm, full payment will be made, on
    condition that deficiencies are not found in more than 10% of the total project. Deficiencies
    exceeding 3 mm shall be left to the substantial handing -over procedure.

h) Measurement
         Bituminous course shall be measured by squ.m for furnished, paved compacted, tested and
         approved areas placed according to drawing.
         Any correction, tests, samples, etc. shall not be measured for direct payment.

16.4 Bituminous Binder And Wearing Courses
16.4.1 Scope
These works shall consist of furnishing materials, mixing at mixing plant, spreading and compacting
bituminous binder and wearing course on an approved aggregate base course as and where shown in the
Drawings.

16.4.2 Materials
1. Materials shall conform with relevant requirements of section” Materials” mentioned before.
2. Unless otherwise shown on Drawings, bitumen for binder and wearing course construction shall be
   60/70 penetration graded bitumen.

16.4.3 Job Mix And Project Mix:
1.The Job Mix formula shall be established by the contractor in accordance with the procedure and
   requirements of section “ Bituminous Course” mentioned before.



      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 82
2. The Job Mix for bituminous binder and wearing courses shall conform to the following composition
   limits, as shown in Table:

a) Job Mix Requirements To Bituminous Courses
   Property Medium-Light
                                  Binder                                 Wearing
   Marshall Stability at 60c (kg) 800                                    900
   Flow (mms)                     2-4                                    2-4
   Voids in Mineral aggregate 13(-1)                                     14(-1)
   (WA)
   Air Voids (%)                  4-5                                    3-5
   Stiffness (kg/mm)                                                     400 (Min)
   * Loss of stability (%)                                               25 (Max)
   Asphalt Content (% in weight)  4.5-6                                  5-7

         This test to be carried out in accordance with AASHTO T 165-82.
         After the Job Mix Formula has been established and approved, all subsequent mixes shall
         conform to it within the allowable tolerances.

b) Equipment:
  Plant and equipment for mixing, hauling, placing and compacting bituminous binder courses and
  wearing course materials, shall conform with the relevant requirements of section “ Bituminous
  Course”.

c) Surface Preparation:
  Preparation of surface upon which bituminous binder course and the bituminous wearing course mixes
  are to be laid, and the use of prime coat, shall be appropriate to type and condition of such surface and
  shall conform with the relevant requirements of section "Bituminous Courses".

d) Delivery, Spreading And Finishing
General :
 The delivery, spreading and finishing of bituminous mixes for binder and wearing courses shall
 conform with the relevant requirements of Section “Bituminous Course” and with the following
 particular requirements.

Rollers:
1. Initial breakdown rolling shall be carried out by use of 2 dual-drum steel-wheeled rollers each of
    minimum weight 7,000 kg. These rollers shall be purpose made for compaction of hot bituminous
    courses.
2. Intermediate rolling shall be carried out by of at least 2 self-propelled, tandem pneumatic smooth-
    tired rollers each capable of exerting contact pressures of up to 690 kN/sq.m (100 psi) and ballast-
    adjustable to ensure uniform wheel loading.
3. Final rolling shall be carried out by use 2, 2-axle tandem, steel-tired rollers each of minimum weight
    10.000 kg, capable of exerting contract pressures of up to 65 kg/cm (350 Ib/in.)

Standard of Compaction:
The compacted density of the bituminous wearing course shall be not less than 98% of the average
Marshall bulk density for each day’s production.

e) Sampling And Testing
 Sampling and testing shall conform with the relevant requirements of Section “Bituminous Course “.

h) Surface Tolerances
1. Surface tolerances shall conform with the relevant requirements of Section “Bituminous Course “,
   and with the following particular requirements.

2. The tolerances on elevations of the final bituminous wearing course surface shall not be greater than
   10 mm.


      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                        VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 83
3. When the finished wearing course surface is tested with a 3 m long straightedge, placed parallel to, or
   at right angles to the centerline, the maximum deviation of the surface from the testing edge between
   any 2 contact points shall not exceed 5.0 mm.

i) Determination of Thickness
1. Procedures for determining the average compacted thickness of bituminous binder and wearing
   course shall conform with the relevant requirements of Section ” Bituminous Courses” and the
   following particular requirements.
2. Cores for thickness measurements of binder course shall be used to determine if changes are
   necessary in the constructed thickness of the wearing course and thickness deficiencies in the binder
   course.

j) Measurement
1. Bituminous binder course and bituminous wearing course shall be measured by sq.m. of mix finished,
    spreaded, compacted, completed and accepted. Measurements shall be of the areas and thickness as
    shown on the drawings.
2. Deficiencies in thickness of wearing course shall, unless an overlay is constructed at contractor's
    expense, result in proportion only of the wearing course area being measured for payment.
    Proportions shall be determined in accordance with the thickness deficiencies and area proportions
    mentioned in section " Bituminous Course".
3. Bituminous Prime coat and Tack coat shall be measured as prescribed in "Bituminous Prime and Tack
    Coats".
4. All other items shall not be measured for direct payment as prescribed in section " Bituminous
    Course".




      SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 84
17. CONCRETE BLOCK PAVING

17.1 Form Of Construction
 Concrete block surfacing shall consist of precast concrete blocks on a laying course 50mm thick sand
 on sub-base on subgrade.

17.2 Test Standards
 Unless stated otherwise, testing of subgrade, sub-base materials and workmanship shall be carried out
 in accordance with BS 812 and BS 1377, Laboratory Maximum Dry Density tests shall be in
 accordance with Test 13 of BS 1377 and liquid limit shall be determined in accordance with test 2A or
 2B of BS 1377, In-situ C.B.R testing shall be in accordance with Test 15 BS 1377.

17.3 Subgrade
 Subgrade shall consist of approved granular material compacted to 95% of the laboratory maximum
 dry density , The C.B.R value shall not be less than 95% ( in case of supplying imported fill material )

17.4 Sub-Base Material
 Sub-base material shall be crushed rock or similar hard material or naturally occurring gravel which is
 clean and free from organic matter, clay balls and other deleterious materials, The materials shall
 comply with the following grading :-

                         sieve size (mm)         Percentage     by     weight
                                                 Passing
                         75                      100
                         37.5                    85-100
                         10                      40-70
                         5                       25-45
                         0.600                   8-22
                         0.075                   0-10

 The total acid-soluble sulphate content ( as S03 ) (BS 812 Test 118) shall not exceed 2% by weight,
 The total acid-soluble chloride content (as NaC1) (BS 812: Test 117) shall not exceed 3.3% by
 weight.
 The laboratory C.B.R value shall be a minimum of 60% at 95% of the laboratory maximum dry
 density after soaking for 96 hours.

 Material for Sub-base shall have physical Properties which do not exceed the following test value:
 Liquid limit                      25%
 Linear shrinkage                  3%
 Plasticity index                  6%
 Stone size                        50mm
 Aggregate crushing value          25%
 Water absorption                  2%
 Flakiness index                   35%
 Elongation index                  35%
 Soundness
 ( 5 cycles ) ( ASTM C 88 )        15%

 The sand equivalent shall not be less than 45 when tested in accordance with ASTM D24419.

17.5 Laying Compaction Of And Testing Sub-Base
 Sub-base material shall be spread evenly and compacted in layer not exceeding 200mm compacted
 thickness to obtain a well-bound surface finish, loose or segregated areas shall be made good by
 addition of lines or by removal and replacement of the material as directed.
 Compaction shall be carried out by approved plant operating on the material at an approved moisture
 content until a dry density of not less than 100% of the laboratory maximum dry density is achieved.
 One density test shall be carried per 250m2.


     SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                      VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 85
 The sub-base shall be laid to the level shown on the Drawings the rate of one set of tests for each
 500m2. The set contains of 3 sand cones tests.
 The edge restraints to the paved area shall be installed before the laying course.
 The sand shall be laid at a uniform moisture content and carefully screened to form a smooth
 compacted surface.

 The profile of the laying course before compaction shall be similar to that of the finished surface, The
 maximum deviation from the design levels shall be + 5mm. The laying course shall be placed to a
 level which takes into account the compaction which occurs during vibration of the blocks ; the
 amount of this compaction shall be determined by trials prior to commencement of surfacing.

17.6 Surface Course
 The surface course shall consist of approved precast concrete blocks complying with BS6717: part 1.
 The concrete constituent shall comply with the requirement of the concrete specification given
 elsewhere.
 Additional requirements are contained in the following Clauses of this specification.

17.7 Fine Aggregate
 Fine aggregate shall not contain more than 25% by weight of soluble calcium carbonate in either the
 fraction retained on or the fraction passing a 600 micron BS sieve.

17.8 Coarse Aggregate
 Coarse aggregate shall be material retained on a 4.75mm BS sieve, the nominal maximum size shall
 be 10mm, The grading shall comply with BS 882, Table 4 so that when mixed with sand and cement a
 high density concrete is produced.

17.9 Sampling And Testing
 Sampling and testing of blocks shall be carried out in accordance with BS 6717. Sampled blocks shall
 be subjected to all the tests covered by appendices A and B of BS 6717.

 If any of the 20 test blocks do not comply with the requirements for dimensional accuracy the whole
 consignment may be rejected.

17.10 Test For Compressive Strength
 Testing of blocks for compressive strength shall be carried out in accordance with appendix B of BS
 6717 except that blocks shall be soaked for 24 hours in fresh water at 20 degrees centigrade
 immediately prior to testing Fresh plywood packing shall be used for each specimen tested.

17.11 Water Absorption
 Blocks shall be tested for water absorption , The test shall be based on that specified in BS 1881 : Part
 122 and the maximum acceptable limits for water absorption.
 2.5% absorbed after 10 minutes.
 5.0% absorbed after 24 hours.

 The acceptable limits for water absorption may be required to be varied to achieve the minimum
 absorption compatible with the aggregate approved for use in the paving blocks.

17.12 Color
 The color of blocks shall be uniform and as detailed on the drawings or as directed, Samples of each
 different color shall be submitted for approval.

17.13 Block Laying
 Block laying shall commence at angles to the main pavement axis starting at one end of the area.
 Interlocking blocks shall be laid in a herringbone pattern at 45 degree to the main pavement axis or
 other pattern as approved or directed, Rectangular blocks shall be laid in patterns as directed using
 different colors if directed.
 Blocks shall be laid on the sand laying course so that blocks already laid are not distributed, Blocks
 shall be placed to fit closely together, the width of joints shall not exceed 3mm.

     SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 86
 Dimensional accuracy, uniformity of joint gaps, alignment and squares shall be checked after laying
 the first three rows of blocks and thereafter at regular intervals.
 If joints begin to open, the blocks shall be knocked together using a hide mallet
.
17.14 Edge Details
 Special edge blocks shall be used on all edges of interlocking block paving which are parallel to or
 perpendicular to the main pavement axis,
 Where the shape or dimensions of paved areas preclude the use of special or standard blocks on all
 edges, cut blocks shall be used , Blocks shall be cut to suit, using a mechanical block splatter, In-situ
 concrete shall not be used to make up to edge restraints.

17.15 Compaction By Vibration
 Blocks shall be compacted to the required levels using a plate vibrator as each area of 20 m2 is laid.
 The plate vibrator shall have a plate area of 0.2 to 0.3m2 and compaction force of 9 to 16KN. Two
 passes of the plate vibrator shall be made in two directions at 90 degrees to each other.

17.16 Filling Joints
 Joints shall be filled by brushing in line dry sand with a particle size up to 2mm and maximum
 sulphate content (as S03) of 0.4% by weight a further pass of the plate vibrator shall be made in each
 direction.
 Weed killer have to be mixed with residual qualities with the sand used for sealing the joints.
 The vibrator shall not be used within 1m of an unrestrained edge. Paving shall not otherwise be left
 uncompleted overnight.

17.17 Laying Tolerance
 The finished surface level shall be within 5mm of the design level and the maximum deviation within
 the compacted surface, measured by a 3m straight edge shall not exceed 5mm. The level of any two
 adjacent blocks shall not differ by more than 2mm.

17.18 Laying Course
 This is a 50mm thick layer of clean sharp sand containing not more than 3% silt and clay. and with not
 more than 10% by weight retained on a 5mm sieve. For best results, the moisture content of the
 laying course sand should be within 1% of the optimum, as determined be Test 12 of BS 1377.
 The sand should be spread over the area to be paved. The actual thickness will vary according to the
 tolerance of the Sub-base layer. Sub-bases Specification are allowed a tolerance of 25mm.

17.19 Compressive Strength
 The average compressive strength of the Block on delivery when sampled and tested in the manner
 described in BOQ shall not be less than 40N/mm2 in wet condition.




     SOGREAH CONSULTANTS/UNIVERSAL GROUP N° 1310076 - MAY 11                       VOLUME 2 – PART 2 - PAGE 87

				
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