Richard Nixon Nixon Ford Carter Regan Nixon’s Domestic Policy by liuhongmei


									Nixon, Ford, Carter, & Regan
           Nixon’s Domestic Policy:
               New Federalism
• Wanted to reduce the role of the federal government (more
  state’s power, like IKE)
• Said LBJ’s Great Society—too expensive
• Solution:
   – Revenue sharing—policy fed. Gov’t gives part of income to
     states, their choice as to what social welfare programs
• Goals:
   –   Reduce inflation
   –   Decrease support for social programs
   –   Strengthen law and order-discourage protests
   –   Move slowly on civil rights
    Tackling the Supreme Court
• In his campaign Nixon complained about the
  ―permissiveness‖ and ―judicial activism‖ of the
  Warren Court
• Court packing
   – Appointments, four conservatives out of nine members
     by 1971
      • 1969-Warren Burger as Chief Justice

• But once they have office they may or may not be
  conservative—their choice
• Burger Court—reluctant to dismantle liberal
  Warren policies
   – Roe v. Wade (1973)
Conservative Republican or Not?
• Surprisingly, Nixon expanded the Welfare State
  (Expansion of Great Society)
   –   Food Stamps, Medicaid, Aid to Families with
     Dependent Children
   – Created Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
       • Benefits to penniless aged, blind, & disabled
   –   Social Security with Inflation rates (1972)
       • Set up to help with inflation but inflation was out of control
• Initially these helped lower Nations poverty rate
  (11%) lowest in modern history (1973)
  Nixon’s Attack on Discrimination
• Philadelphia Plan (1969)
  – Requirement for construction-trade unions working on
    federal projects to have goals & plans for hiring black
     • Soon extended to all Federal contracts
     • ―hiring quotas‖ for blacks
     • Altered Affirmative Action—Johnson wished to help
       individuals, now it was for certain groups
• Supported by Griggs v. Due Power Co. (1971)
  – No Intelligence tests etc. that excluded minorities or
  – Hire minorities to prevent discrimination charges
Nixon’s stance on ecological sanity

• 1970-Environmental Protection agency
  (EPA) Occupational Health and Safety
  Administration& (OSHA)
  – Encouraged by muckraker Rachel Carson’s
    Silent Spring (1962)
  – Clean Air Act
  – Endangered Species Act of 1973
           Inflation Problems
• At 5%, raising faster than the last 20 years,
  unemployment was rising, & GNP was
  – 90-day wage and price freeze in 1971
  – Stimulate exports
     • Took U.S. off gold standard (devaluing the dollar)
     • Ended stabilization system in place for last 25 years
       (Bretton Woods)
Other Domestic Events under Nixon
• 1969-Neil Armstrong, walked on moon
• 26th Amendment (1971)—appease youth and anti-
  Vietnam movement
• Women’s Rights advancements
  – More enrolled in schools-medicine, engineering, law,
    and business
     • But full time workers were paid 59% less than men
• Consumer Rights Movement
  – Ralph Nader-attacks automotive industry
     • ―Nader’s Raiders‖ pushed for environmental and consumer
Determination to Win 1972 Election

• Campaign (MORE TRICKS)
  – Gain southern support
     • Supreme court nominations
     • Soft-pedaling civil rights
  – Reduced troops in Vietnam
  – 12 days before election, Kissenger, ―peace is at
    hand‖ in a few days
• Landslide victory
  Watergate-Tricky Dick is at it
• June 1972, 2 months before re-nomination
   – Burglary in Democratic headquarters, Watergate
     apartment office complex in WA
   – 5 arrested
      • Republican Committee for the Re-election of the President
          – Able to raise a lot of money, unethical and unlawful was
   – By 1874, 29 indicted, pled guilty or convicted
   – Improper use of FBI and CIA and IRS—harass
     opponents (PLUMBERS UNIT-plug leaks)
      • Burglary of Psychiatrist of Ellsberg, man who ―leaded‖ the
        Pentagon Papers
 Senate Hearings on TV 1973-74
• Senator Ervin
  – Questioned John Dean III, former White House
     • Testified on the involvement of top officials in the White
       House, including the President
         – But not evidence
     • Nixon told the American Public that he didn’t know anything
       about it.
     • Former aid—bugging device in White House
     • V.P. Agnew—asked to resign ’73 for taking bribes
         – Invoked 25th Amendment
         – New, non-elected Gerald Ford
          Trouble is in the Air…
• Special Prosecutor, Archibald Cox, appointed by
   – Subpoenaed relevant tapes and document from the White
• Nixon ordered the firing of Cox, but attorney
  general and deputy attorney resigned after refusing
  to follow ordered

*Same time as Cambodia attacks & War Powers Act*
        OIL CRISIS, to ice the cake
• 1973—Syrians & Egyptians surprise attacked Israel
   – In attempts to regain territory lost during Six Day War in 1967
   – Yom Kippur War
• Nixon sent $ to Israel
• Uneasy cease-fire but price to pay
      • Oil Embargo 1974 (5 months)
• Resulted in:
   – Oil Pipeline—Alaska
   – National Speed limit 55mph
   – Proposals for solar, wind, geothermal sources (maybe even
   – Nuclear power plants
   – End to Cheap energy
       Impeachment of Nixon
• 1974-Nixon gave the tapes
  – But parts were missing
• He was asked to give them
  – Nixon refused-executive privilege
  – Supreme court said, ―no‖
• Nixon resigned on Aug. 9, 1974
    The FORD Administration
• Tried to rebuild the image of the president
• Had initial problems
  – Nixon’s Pardon
  – Amnesty Plan
     • Offered amnesty to 1,000’s of draft dodgers
     • Inflation
        – 1973 OPEC Embargo
        – Reached 10%, worst recession since WWII
       Ford & Foreign Policy
• Henry Kissinger-helped negotiate a cease-
  fire agreement (Egypt & Israel)
  – End to 1973 Yom Kippur War & Oil Embargo
• Continued Détente (grain to USSR)
• Oversaw withdraw of last troops in Vietnam
 Election of 1976 (Bicentennial)
• Ford vs. Jimmy Carter
  – Close race
  – Carter won due to his appeal to the Americans
    on his honesty and integrity
   Jimmy Carter’s Domestic Policies
• Congress tended to question every executive act
• Stagflation-inflation rising (increased prices) while the economy
  stagnated (no growth)
    – Energy problems
        • Imported 40% of it’s oil (OPEC-high prices)
• Corporate bailouts
    – Had to provide loans to big corporations to prevent bankruptcies
        • Chrysler & Lockheed Aircraft
• Environmental Problems
    – Acid rain, created by air pollution
        • Steps required money
• Nuclear Energy
    – 1979-accident Three Mile Island (Harrisburg, Penn.)
        • Threat to nuclear energy (producing 4% of nations energy)
    Jimmy Carter’s Foreign Policy
• Helsinki Accords
    – 1975- signed and promised to respect basic human rights (no aid to those
      violating human rights)
• Camp David Accords (retreat in Maryland)
    – 1977-Egyptian President Sadat invited Israel’s P. Minister Begin to visit
    – Peace treaty—signed in 1979
• Panama Canal Treaties
    – 1977, signed 2 treaties turning control of Canal to Panama (1999)
• End to Détente-
    – Met to sign SALT II Treaty, 1979
    – but USSR invaded Afghanistan (1980) which ended détente
        • No grain
        • Boycotted 1980 Summer Olympic games in Moscow
• Hostage Situation
    – Iran 1979: Islamic Fundamentalists toppled pro-American shah, Pahlavi
        • Shah had cancer, requested treatment in U.S. CARTER—YES
        • Islamic rebels responded by seizing U.S. embassy in Teheran (>50 hostages)
                Election of 1980
• Ronald Reagan beat Jimmy Carter
   – ―good old days‖ conservative speeches," In the present crisis . .
     .government is not the solution to our problem; government is the
• Why Reagan?
   – 1980 census—population aging, more conservative move from
     liberal NE to ―sunbelt‖ states‖ (south & west)
   – 1970’s revival of evangelical religion (like Great Awakening)
       • TV/radio, schools and universities
       • Reverend Jerry Falwell ―moral majority‖
           – Opponent to liberal political candidates (wanted free enterprise, reduce
             size of government, abortion outlawed, prayer in school, evolution
             replaced by creation, soviets are pagan totalitarians, defend traditional
             values and tough on criminal laws.
   – Well financed backlash against Feminists Movement (I.E.
     National Right to Life Committee)
       • Phyllis Schlafly-Illinois (―Women who want to be women‖ ―Females
         opposed to Equality‖)
           – ―feminists are ―bunch of bitter women seeking a constitutional cure for
             their personal problems.‖
His Election wasn’t a victory by the
• Only 53% of the public eligible to vote
  – Vote by the middle upper class ―white‖
  – No voter turnouts, voter-apathy,
    disillusionment from Watergate
• Victory seen as an end to Welfare State
             Supply-Sided economics
• REAGANOMICS- (critics-Voodoo Economics)
       • Reduce by tax reductions = incentive to spend
       • ―a recession is when your neighbor loses his job, a depression is when you
         lose yours. A recovery is when Jimmy Carter loses his.‖
   – End price controls on oil
   – Ended wheat embargo on USSR
   – Increase defense spending
       • Created a deficit larger than all predecessors combined
   – Decrease social spending
       • $35 billion cut on educational and cultural spending i.e. food stamps & school
       • Poverty level rose from 11.7(1979) to 15.3% (1983)
   – Tax reform (Economic Recovery Tax Act)
       •   Reduce personal income tax by 25%, cut maximum rate from 70 to 50%
       •   Cut capital gains tax by 1/3
       •   Lowest since Coolidge
       •   (More money to rich, so they will spend, which will improve the economy)
   – ALL BY SUMMER OF 1981
           Problems & Corruption
• 1982, deficit doubled
   – Scared people & investors hurt bonds and stock market
   – High interest rates—so people save money
• Forced revenue enhancements (increased taxes:
  $100billion, unemployment reached 10.4%)
• Conflicts of Interest: Like Harding & Coolidge
   – Hired poor people
       • Interior Secretary: James Watt
           – Forced out of office after criticizing environmentalist for hurting
             commercial lumber & minerals
       • Administrator of EPA-
           – Resigned after granting favors to industrial polluters
       • President deputy Chief of Staff
           – Indicted for getting a loan form person who was later given a government
       • 200 other appointees accused of unethical behavior
       • President was untouched Teflon President
      Other Setbacks under Reagan
• Labor
   – 1981: PATCO (professional air traffic controllers) were fired for illegal strike
   – Election of 1980 & 1984 hurt power of AFL-CIO
        • Criticism of unions
   – 1987-Union membership only 17% full time workers (IN 1979, 24%)
• Anti-Women’s Lib
   – Opposed ERA, Abortion, & Legal guarantee of equal pay
   – But Sandra Day O’ Connor
        • First female Supreme Court Justice
• Blacks & Minorities
   – Little support-affirmative action
   – Cut funds for Civil Rights & Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
   – Initially opposed renewal of the Voting Rights Act 1965, but overruled by

To top