slides by nuhman10

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 6

									Slide 2.
     According to official figures annually in Russia more than 3.5 billion tons of
waste including 35-40 million tons of municipal (solid) waste (MSW) is produced.
Currently, in the territory of the Russian Federation in waste dumps and stockpiles
are accumulated more than 94 billion tons of solid waste.
     Over the past 5 years the total amount of waste produced in Russia increased
by 1.5 times. More than half of waste (54%) is produced during the extraction of
fuel and energy minerals (mostly in coal mining industry), 17% due to non-ferrous
metals, 16% due to ferrous metal and 12% due to other waste, including utilities.

Slide 3.
     According to average data for each inhabitant of Russia is produced from 1 to
1.4 cubic meters of solid waste per year. The municipal sector is characterized by
enhanced growth of waste production, which is connected primarily with the active
use of packaging and packaging materials. The share of waste disposal facilities is
more than 50% of all waste disposal facilities in the country, of which no more
than 8% conform to the requirements. In particular, in Moscow annually 10 million
tons of industrial and household waste is produced that are removed to special
landfills. There are more than 80 of such dumps in the suburbs, each ranging from
3 to 10 hectares.

Slide 4.
     According to the Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resources Use at
the beginning of 2010 in Russia are recorded 7518 waste disposal facilities,
including:
     - 1699 of solid waste;
     - 576 industrial waste disposal facilities;
     - 5243 illegal dumps.
     In this case, work only 7 incinerators, 5 trash recycling plants and 39 waste
sorting complexes, which indicate a low percentage of recycling and waste
processing plants.
     The country average amount of waste recycling does not exceed 35%, which
is only due to use of the most tonnage of waste to fill the goaf in the extraction of
natural resources, as well as for mined-land reclamation. The level of recycling in
manufacturing sectors does not exceed 30-40% for household waste, which does
not exceed 5%. As it is shown by international experience with rational
organization of recycling of solid waste, these figures may reach values even in
90%.

Slide 5.
     Organization of modern production and consumption waste systems is one of
the most important challenges facing the modern post-industrial society.
     In world practice there are several ways of storing and processing of solid
household and industrial waste. Currently the most widely used are as follows:
     1. pre-sorting;
     2. sanitary dirt fill;
     3. incineration;
     4. and others

Slide 6.
     The main economic benefits of pre-sorting are as follows:
1. Return of recycled materials in processing due to what saving of natural
     resources of oil, ferrous and nonferrous metals is made, which are
     irreplaceable natural resources, and also due to sorting it is possible to reduce
     the need of cellulose industry in wood raw material that has a direct
     environmental effect on conservation of forest lands.
1.       As a result of the solid waste sorting and reuse of sorting products the
     volume of solid waste reaching the disposal of waste at landfills decreases, as
     the major sorted products are waste with long expansions (PE, HPP and other
     plastics), decrease of landfill reclamation and return of lands allocated for it to
     the utility take place.
2.       Not a few important effect of reducing the volume of solid waste to be
     disposed of is to reduce the land needed for landfills for disposal of solid
     waste and allocation of these areas for agricultural use.

Slide 7.
     Sanitary dirt fills. Such a technological approach to the disposal of solid
waste is connected with biogas production and then it’s using as a fuel. To this end,
household waste is filled up by a layer of soil in thickness 0.6 – 0.8 m according to
a specific technology in a compacted form. Biogas landfills are equipped with
ventilation pipes, blowers and bottles for collection of biogas.
     Thus, the landfills are the largest system of biogas production from all
modern. For example, 1 ton of waste evolves no less than 100 m3 of biogas. Given
that the use of biogas is possible at list 5-10 years after the establishment of the
landfill and its profitability appears when the volume of waste is more than 1
million tons, it is possible to identify potential landfills as a tremendous source
of energy.

Slide 8.
     The present level of municipal solid waste incineration in some countries is
different. Thus, of the total volume of household waste incineration percentage
varies in countries such as Austria, Italy, France, Germany from 20 to 40%,
Belgium, Sweden from 48 to 50%, Japan - 70%, Denmark, Switzerland - 80%,
England and USA - 10%. In our country, only about 2% of household waste is
incinerated and in Moscow - about 10%.
     Incineration provides the minimum content in the slag and ash of
decomposable substances, however, is the source of emissions.
     It should be noted that incineration is the most complex, «high tech» and
expensive option for waste processing. For example, the time required to design
and build waste incinerator in USA on average takes 5-8 years. For installations of
mass incineration with capacity of 100 to 3000 tons per day the capital costs shall
range from 80 to 100 thousand dollars per ton of waste incinerated per day. This
price does not include the price of devices for preparation of waste. Operating
costs are about 20 dollars per ton of MSW. Technology of incineration of MSW
was developed at a time when there were less stringent emission standards of a
component of gas. Today, in developed countries there is a legal restriction on the
content of 1 m3 of flue gas emitted to the atmosphere, which is not more than 0.1 x
10-9 g of nitrogen dioxide and furans from waste incineration. In this regard, all
incinerators enterprises are unprofitable because the cost of purification of gas on
waste incineration plants is high enough. In addition, operation experience of
waste incineration plants in the European Union led to the conclusion that the
practice of incineration of waste stream is extremely dangerous. Currently,
the European Union banned the construction of new incinerators, and the
existing are preparing to closure.

Slide 9.
     To date, in the entities of the Russian Federation the main type of waste is
sorted with allocation of recycled materials. Average productivity of waste
sorting complexes located in the territory of Russia is approximately 180 thousand
tons per year, which is comparable to the amount of waste of small towns. These
types of waste sorting systems are used in the following cities: Togliatti, Belgorod,
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Voronezh, Ufa, Arkhangelsk, Maloyaroslavets,
Almetyevsk, Barnaul, etc. While in the world the biotechnological methods both
to produce biogas and to produce fertilizer or bio-fuels and different energy
sources have been applied for a long time.

Slide 10.
      To date, the level of involvement of waste into the economy cannot be
assessed as satisfactory. The average volume of waste in the Russian Federation
does not exceed 35%, which leads not only to the sustainable growth of
accumulated and subsequently disposed waste, but also to the irretrievable loss of
up to 90% of usable products that have a real demand at the market. While
disposing scrap fractions 9 million tons of waste paper is lost annually, 1.5 million
tons of ferrous and nonferrous metals, 2 million tons of polymer materials, 0.5
million tons of glass.

Slide 11.
      Collection and disposal as secondary raw materials is mainly made for the
waste, which is characterized by high liquidity under the current market
conditions: scrap, glass and waste of ferrous and nonferrous metals, plastic, paper,
cardboard and aluminum cans that according to experts make more than 40% of
household waste which appear in landfills, polluting the environment. The use of
recycled materials allows companies that produce packaging reducing costs
seriously. For example, the savings from using recycled materials in packaging
production on average makes 20% of prime cost. Reduction of cost when using
crushed glass for manufacturing may make up to 50%.

Slide 12.
     In the Russian legislation there are legal provisions of restrictive and
prohibitive nature to ensure environmental safety in waste treatment.
     The main problem in creating systems for processing and disposal is the low
level of rates for the delivery of waste to disposal and recycling, as from the public
and from enterprises. This question is most difficult in the negotiations of
economic entities with local administrations as the increase in rates, especially for
the population, is regarded as a socio-political issue.
       As law enforcement practice has shown the local governments were not
able to provide full performance of delegated functions even for the treatment of
municipal (household) waste, which caused a spontaneous increase in illegal
dumping in almost every settlement, and issues of disposal of industrial waste, in
general, cannot be solved by them properly including due to the fact that the
owners of solid waste are legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, whose
economic activity produces waste. Objective reasons for these conclusions are:
lack of financial resources in local budgets, limited opportunities to attract
investment, as well as inter-municipal character of solutions of choice of ways
to remove the waste.

Slide 13.
     Comprehensive programs of procession and disposal of solid and
industrial waste. Pilot projects of Rosprirodnadzor in Kemerovo, Belgorod,
Kirov and Kaluga Regions.
     The problem of waste treatment is proclaimed at the meeting of the
Presidium of the State Council held on 27 May 2010, chaired by the Russian
President Dmitry Medvedev, as one of the main problems of ecological safety of
Russia.
     Having analyzed the situation in treatment of solid household and industrial
wastes in the Russia, the Government of the Russian Federation is currently
developing a targeted investment program for treatment of solid and industrial
waste with specific morphology of waste not only the central part of Russia, but
oil and coal mining regions of Siberia.
     This Government program shall solve the problem of testing the best
available domestic and foreign recycling technologies for solid and industrial
waste and also with its help the subjects of the Russian Federation will attract the
necessary investment.

Slide 14.
     Project purpose
     - improvement of slum populated areas of municipalities of the Kemerovo,
Belgorod, Kirov and Kaluga Regions;
     - creation of a modern system of treatment of consumption waste, including
transportation, sorting and disposal;
     - involvement in recycling of useful components contained in the
consumption waste.

Slide 15.
     Project task
     - modernization of appropriate enterprises of utilities complex in view of the
developed complex system of treatment of consumption waste in population;
     - organization of design and construction of efficient waste sorting complex
providing deep recycling of consumption waste;
     - establishment of sanitary epidemiological service meeting the current
requirements of the order of operation of landfills for disposal of consumption
waste and working conditions of staff.

Slide 16.
     Source of incomes
     Sources of income of the regional companies that operate facilities for
processing and disposal of solid household and industrial waste are:
     - payment by municipal enterprises of housing and utilities services for
acceptance and disposal of solid waste;
     - payment by business enterprises for acceptance and disposal of solid waste;
     - income from sale of sorted secondary raw materials (waste paper, glass,
ferrous and nonferrous metals, polyethylene, plastics, textiles, etc.), as well as
from processed municipal solid waste into useful products.
     Pilot projects have no restrictions on sources of raw materials as the volume
of receipt of MSW for each region is determined based on average data per capita.
Development strategy provides for the conclusion of agreements with local
municipal enterprises to export and recycling of urban solid waste.

Slide 17.
     Project risks
     Risk assessment of pilot projects can be carried out in the following areas.
     Marketing. (Risk of not receiving the expected amount of income).
     1. Possible lack of regional municipal rates for acceptance and disposal of
solid waste without the appropriate cost-based rates, which may affect the value of
sales revenue;
     2. Less than taken in the project percentage of recycled output, which may be
related to morphological composition of MSW of the specific regional project.
     The level of marketing risks can be taken as an average, but this is the highest
level of all possible risks.
     Technological. Connected with possibility of increasing expenses and
estimated cost of the project relating to implementation of regional projects. At
this stage, the risk can be defined as the average because it mainly depends on the
expenses connected with the preparatory work and arrangement of land.
      Legal. Connected with possibility of non-license or permit under the
competence of regional authorities. This kind of risk can be estimated as low,
cause in all pilot regions there are letters of the governors about the readiness of
territories to participate in pilot projects.
      Other types of risks. Financial, construction and other are not crucial for the
proposed pilot projects.

Slide 18.
      Effectiveness.
      Inclusion of the proposed investment projects into the target program of the
Government of the Russian Federation shall allow the entities of the Russian
Federation to attract necessary investments, and Rosprirodnadzor not only solve
the problem of testing the best available domestic and foreign technologies for
utilization of production and consumption waste, but also:
      - optimize the competences and powers under the legislation of the Russian
Federation for the entities of the Russian Federation and local government,
namely, for organization of use (recycling) of solid municipal (household) waste
in the appropriate entity of the Russian Federation and establishment of the order
of separate collection of solid municipal (household) waste in the appropriate
entity of the Russian Federation;
      - determine conditions for ensuring financial sustainability of the industry of
waste treatment, which includes collection, accumulation, dispatch, use
(recycling), disposal, transportation and allocation of waste;
      - determine the scale of financial responsibility for recycling, clearance and
disposal of products that have lost their consumer properties;
      - establish a mechanism to create unified system of normative legal and
technological treatment of waste throughout the entire lifecycle of products from
conception to disposal, decontamination and burying with the aim of quality
management of wastes as raw materials;
      - develop effective measures of prevention, recovery, elimination of pollution
and damage to the environment and human health as a result of waste treatment;
      - establish a mechanism to encourage use of recycled and renewable
resources, ensure conditions for the provision of quality services for the disposal
of production and consumption waste;
      - work out a system of environmentally safe transport and transboundary
movement of waste;
- establish a mechanism to create additional incentives for enterprises, offering
low-cost-effective waste disposal

								
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