SEW_Report_2006_Final

					Louisiana State Epidemiological Workgroup Report for the
 Strategic Prevention Framework – State Incentive Grant




                              Prepared by
              Louisiana State Epidemiological Workgroup




                            April 5, 2006
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                    April 5, 2006



Contributors
This report was compiled and written by the following members of the State Epidemiological
Workgroup as well as support staff listed below.
Mr. Chris Andrieu Louisiana Supreme Court            Ms. Beth McLain DHH, Office for Addictive
Dr. Gary Asmus University of Louisiana, Lafayette,   Disorders Administration
Center for Child Development                         Ms. Kay Watson DHH, Office for Addictive
Dr. Gary Balsamo DHH, Office of Public Health,       Disorders, Administration
Infectious Disease Epidemiologist                    Mr. Robert Mehrtens Louisiana Commission on
Mr. Jody Biscoe Northwestern State University,       Law Enforcement
Louisiana Addiction Technology Transfer Center       Dr. Steve Nelson Louisiana State University Health
Mr. Bill Blanchard DHH, Office for Addictive         Science Center School of Medicine
Disorders Prevention Services                        Ms. Karen Paterson Division of Administration,
Mr. Frank Broussard Department of Social             Office of Electronic Services
Services, OCS                                        Captain Jerry Patrick Louisiana State Police
Mr. George Cazenavette Drug Enforcement              Technical Support
Administration                                       Ms. Monique Preau Department of Education, Title
Ms. Cathy Childers Attorney General’s Office         IV
Dr. Yu-wen Chiu Louisiana State University Health    Ms. Felecia Johnson Department of Education, Title
Sciences Center School of Public Health              IV
Ms. Karen Faulk Department of Social Services,       Mr. Henry Richardson Drug Enforcement
OCS                                                  Administration
Dr. Murelle Harrison Southern University             Ms. Patrice Rose DHH, Office of Public Health,
Department of Psychology                             Chronic Disease
Dr. James Heimdal Louisiana Tech University          Dr. Helmut Schneider Louisiana State University,
Dept. of Health & Exercise Sciences                  ISDS Research Group for Highway Safety
Dr. Barbara Hunter Department of Social Services,    Mr. Robert Starszak DHH, Office of Public
ITT                                                  Health, Vital Statistics
Dr. Tai Istre Louisiana State University School of   Dr. Katherine Theall Louisiana State University
Social Work, OSSRD                                   School of Public Health, Epidemiology
Ms. Gloria Jones Office of Motor Vehicles            Mr. Louis Thompson Office of Alcohol and
Mr. Jacques Kado DHH, Office for Addictive           Tobacco Control
Disorders - I/T Technical Support Specialist         Dr. Catrice Tolbert Southern University
Dr. M.Mahmud Khan Tulane University School of        Department of Psychology
Public Health & Tropical Medicine                    Mr. Neal Underwood Division of Administration,
Mr. Ronald Kinchen Office of Alcohol and             Office of Electronic Services
Tobacco Control                                      Ms. Nancy Wright Department of Social Services,
Ms. Shirley Kirkconnell DHH, Office of Public        OFS, Program Policy
Health, Injury Research & Prevention
Dr. Randall Lemoine DHH, Office of Mental            Support Staff
Health                                               Ms. Dortha Cummins SWCAPT
Mr. Dan Magri Department of Transportation and       Ms. Jan DeVillier Governor’s Office, Executive
Development                                          Director
Dr. Nancy Mathews Louisiana State University         Ms. Dawn Diez Governor’s Office, Project Director
Campus Community Coalition for Change                SPF SIG
Ms. Joan McGee Division of Administration, Office    Mr. Sanford Hawkins DHH, Office for Addictive
of Electronic Services                               Disorders, Prevention Services
Lt. Jim McGuane Louisiana State Police Technical     Ms. Linda McIntyre DHH, Office for Addictive
Support                                              Disorders, Prevention Systems Committee Liaison
                                                     SPF SIG




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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                         April 5, 2006



Table of Contents
1.   Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1
2.   Impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.................................................................................. 3
  2.1. Population Redistribution ............................................................................................... 3
     2.1.1.    Parish Level Population Estimates.......................................................................... 4
     2.1.2.    Demographics ......................................................................................................... 8
  2.2. Substance Abuse Prevention Following a Disaster ........................................................ 9
3. Substance Abuse Related Mortality Impacts ........................................................................ 11
  3.1. All Causes of Death ...................................................................................................... 11
  3.2. Causes of Death from Substance Abuse ....................................................................... 11
4. Burden of Alcohol Use ......................................................................................................... 20
  4.1. State and Parish Long-Term Health Consequences ...................................................... 20
  4.2. State and Parish Alcohol Consumption Patterns .......................................................... 24
  4.3. State and Parish Immediate Health Consequences ....................................................... 33
  4.3. College Alcohol Use ..................................................................................................... 59
     4.3.1.    Louisiana State University Undergraduates’ Alcohol Use ................................... 60
5. Burden of Tobacco Use ........................................................................................................ 68
  5.1. State and Parish Long-Term Health Consequences ...................................................... 68
  5.2. State and Parish Consumption Patterns ........................................................................ 83
  5.3. State and Parish Immediate Health Consequences ....................................................... 92
  5.4. College Tobacco Use .................................................................................................... 93
     5.4.1.    Louisiana State University Undergraduates’ Cigarette Use ................................. 93
6. Burden of Other Drug Use .................................................................................................... 97
  6.1. State and Parish Health & Social Consequences .......................................................... 97
  6.2. State and Parish Consumption Patterns ...................................................................... 108
  6.3. State, Region, Parish Consumption Patterns by Demographics ................................. 124
  6.4. College Other Drug Use.............................................................................................. 126
     6.4.1.    Louisiana State University Undergraduates’ Drug Use ...................................... 126
7. Data Gaps and Implications ................................................................................................ 128
8. Problems of Greatest Impact and Hot Spots ....................................................................... 130
9. Definitions.......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.Error! Bookmark not defined.
10. SEW Policy Statement ........................................................................................................ 141
11. References ........................................................................................................................... 143




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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                  April 5, 2006



1. Introduction
The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) State Epidemiological
Workgroup (SEW) is a group of epidemiologists and other professionals tasked with identifying
and evaluating existing substance abuse related data sources and identifying needs for additional
substance abuse related data sources. Membership is open to representatives from departments,
agencies, universities, and other entities responsible for collecting, housing, analyzing, and
reporting data related to the consumption and consequences of substance abuse, including
underage drinking.

The primary purpose of the SEW is to support the efforts of the Strategic Prevention Framework
State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) known as “The Governor’s Initiative to Build a Healthy
Louisiana”. The SEW’s role is that of an advisory committee to the Prevention Systems
Committee (PSC) and Drug Policy Board (DPB). The Drug Policy Board was established by
legislation in 1990. The Drug Policy Board is “organizationally positioned and structurally
empowered to elicit, motivate, and coordinate the best efforts and ideas of all organizations,
agencies, entities, and individuals who volunteer or can be conscripted to make a contribution
toward the goal of eradicating drug and alcohol abuse and its poisonous fruit”. (Acts 1990, No.
1029, §2, effective July 26, 1990.) In April 2005, the DPB approved the SEW and the PSC as
formal advisory groups. Louisiana is one of twenty states that was awarded this grant. This
process incorporates the SPF model that is endorsed and utilized by the Substance Abuse and
Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
(CSAP).

The SEW provides advice on issues related to the use of data in planning and evaluating
substance abuse prevention activities. The grant is intended to fund the development of a total
systems approach at state and community levels using data driven decisions and planning in
developing an outcomes based method of funding prevention activities. The SEW report serves
as a tool for substance abuse prevention planners at state and community levels.

Data included are related to risk and protective factors for consumption and consequences of
substance abuse, including underage drinking, in the state of Louisiana. The goal of the
workgroup is to identify and/or establish data that are capable of reflecting consumption and
consequences of substance abuse, and risk or protective factors at state and community level.
Data that are related to the entire life span (birth to death) are targeted. The SEW will attempt to
close the gaps that exist in treatment and prevention data sources in Louisiana.

SEW members have introduced data sources from their respective disciplines that might be
applied to the chosen data set. Several ad hoc committees and groups have been appointed to
address specific needs:

              Law Enforcement Compliance Group
              Health Data Group
              University and Survey Group


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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                 April 5, 2006

             Data Systems Group
             Geographic Information Systems Group
             Prevention Program Data Resources Group
             Attendance, Discipline, and Truancy School Data Group
             Population Trends/Shifts
             Impacts of Disasters
             Substance Related Mortality
             Substance Related Crime
             Data Gaps Committee
             Data Definitions and Terms Committee
             SEW Policies Committee

   SEW accomplishments to date:

      In April 2005, the SPF SIG SEW recommended and the Drug Policy Board adopted the
       following:

       Through agreements both informal and formal, policies and procedures among its
       members and substance abuse-related Louisiana agencies and entities represented by the
       board, established a substance abuse prevention planning infrastructure to:

                    harvest all archival census, crime, education, enforcement, health, and
                     social service, etc. data related to substance abuse that is presently
                     collected,
                    summarize available archival data from 1995 to the present using common
                     attributes (e.g., gender, race, age range, parish, etc,),
                    house data within a system that allows agency staff and gives public
                     access to data via the internet to use for planning,
                    provide analytical tools that cross tabulate the data sets for up to ten years
                     and report it using graphic images (e.g., bar, GIS, pie, and trend line)
                    publish the link to the data system on an accessible website

      In August 2005, the SEW completed a review of consumption and consequences of
       substance abuse data. The data evaluated were from the following sources:

                    State Epidemiological Data System set (SEDS)
                    NIDA six state study – Bach Harrison 35
                    Selected data from the Communities That Care/Caring Communities
                     Youth Survey (CCYS)

      In January 2006, the following data sources were evaluated for inclusion into the SEW
       report to the Policy and Planning Committee:

                    SEDS
                    Bach Harrison 35
                    CCYS



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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                 April 5, 2006

                      College Alcohol Study, Louisiana State University results
                      Mortality data from the Office of Public Health
                      Motor Vehicle Crash and Fatality Data (FARS)
                      Department of Education Population Shift Data

On August 28 and 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina catastrophically affected the southeastern region
of Louisiana. Katrina’s impact, as well as the impact of Hurricane Rita on September 24 in the
southwest region of Louisiana severely limited the continued activity of the SEW. Many SEW
members were associated with state agencies located in the affected areas. The major
universities in the affected areas were impacted, limiting the assistance that could be provided to
the workgroup. By necessity, all agencies of State government were forced to address the
important issues brought about by the two storms and their after effects. These two events have
required the SEW members to re-examine existing data collection and future data collection
methods. At present, there is no consumption and consequence data available on the displaced
population; however, we have been able to collect census data on the school population. The full
impact of these two storms is yet to be determined.

2. Impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
The State of Louisiana has suffered unprecedented consequences from two hurricanes in 2005.
On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall in southeastern Louisiana resulting in
widespread damage and causing the levee system to fail. Most of the New Orleans population
evacuated prior to landfall, but the failure of the levee system resulted in the evacuation
becoming a long-term displacement. On September 24, 2005, Hurricane Rita made landfall in
southwest Louisiana. The storm caused severe damage in the southwest part of the state and
caused the New Orleans levees to fail once again. The two storms caused in excess of $75 billion
in damage and more than 1,400 deaths. The parish of Orleans was essentially depopulated
following Katrina and the population has not yet returned to pre-Katrina levels and perhaps,
never will.

   2.1. Population Redistribution
This section of the report will provide data and analysis of current estimates of the Louisiana
population. It is critical to the SEW and the SPF-SIG to have population estimates in order to
complete the planning process. Without the hurricanes, previous data could be used directly to
establish estimates and trends of consequence and burden. With the hurricanes and the resultant
Diasporas, data from across the state must be carefully considered and re-evaluated for
applicability.

Population estimates are typically based on decennial U.S. Census information gathered and
analyzed by the United States Census Bureau. Annual estimates are created based on decennial
census, births to US women, deaths of US residents, net international migration and net
movement of US armed forces. None of this information can be used for the unprecedented
movement of people due to the hurricanes. After careful consideration of various data sources,
the Louisiana Department of Education’s (LDE) enrollment data was selected for use in
determining ongoing dynamics of population redistribution within the state of Louisiana. LDE
has been ranked number 1 three of the last four years in accountability. This is due, in part, to



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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                  April 5, 2006

their excellent system for tracking enrollment in Louisiana’s public schools. LDE is gathering
monthly enrollment from all school districts.

Previous years’ enrollment and population estimates are used to determine a standard ratio of
public school students to total parish population. This ratio is then applied to the new enrollment
data provided by LDE to generate new population estimates. The following maps are illustrative
of the population redistribution.

            2.1.1.      Parish Level Population Estimates
The first map shows the initial Diaspora caused by hurricanes Rita and Katrina (change in
population from 2004 to October 2005). Initially, the areas directly affected by the storms were
almost completely de-populated. New Orleans was evacuated twice – once for each of the
storms. The schools have been closed and residents were not even allowed into the city for
weeks after the storms.

Figure 1 Pre to Post-Katrina Population Diaspora




  Data – LA Department of Education, Department of Health and Hospitals Bureau of Primary Care and
                                  Rural Health, US Census Bureau
Following the evacuations caused by the storms and the flooding, there has been some
movement towards repopulating the affected areas. The second map (Population shift from
October to December 2005) shows that most of the affected parishes have re-gained some
population and the areas to which people had evacuated lost population. Since these maps are


SPF-SIG                                                                                      Page 4
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                  April 5, 2006

based on school enrollments, we can have a fair amount of confidence that we are seeing real
population movement. Parents do not readily enroll or un-enroll their children in school unless
they have truly moved or plan on moving.

Figure 2 Population Shift October to December 2005




  Data – LA Department of Education, Department of Health and Hospitals Bureau of Primary Care and
                                  Rural Health, US Census Bureau

While there was significant movement of people back to the affected areas, this does not
represent a complete re-population. As the final map shows, all of the hurricane ravaged areas
are still lacking significant numbers from their pre-storm populations.




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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                   April 5, 2006

Figure 3 Population Redistribution as of December 2005




  Data – LA Department of Education, Department of Health and Hospitals Bureau of Primary Care and
                                  Rural Health, US Census Bureau

Overall, population estimates indicate that there are nearly 500,000 fewer people residing in the
state than there were prior to the hurricanes.

Table 2-1 Parish Level Population Estimates
                                                                                     U.S. Census
      PARISH           January 06     December 05        November 05   October 05   Estimate July 04
Acadia Parish              60,146          60,738             60,738       61,804              59,168
Allen Parish               26,072          26,108             26,126       26,209              25,407
Ascension Parish           97,463          97,775             97,839      100,432              87,164
Assumption Parish          23,475          23,766             23,819       24,703              23,234
Avoyelles Parish           42,655          43,554             43,815       45,419              41,981
Beauregard Parish          34,137          34,405             34,394       34,951              34,094
Bienville Parish           15,396          15,389             15,339       15,673              15,361
Bossier Parish            107,238         108,543            108,598      109,742             104,080
Caddo Parish              254,125         253,593            254,662      258,179             251,506
Calcasieu Parish          182,352         183,679            183,047      184,961             184,961
Caldwell Parish            10,787          10,810             10,816       11,156              10,837
Cameron Parish              7,851           7,798              7,568        1,936                9,681




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Louisiana SEW Report                                                            April 5, 2006


                                                                              U.S. Census
       PARISH          January 06   December 05   November 05   October 05   Estimate July 04
Catahoula Parish           11,143        11,119        11,174       11,480              10,627
Claiborne Parish           16,067        16,085        16,055       16,214              16,471
Concordia Parish           21,322        21,491        21,701       22,213              19,724
DeSoto Parish              26,358        26,494        26,515       26,956              26,231
East Baton Rouge          448,500       453,946       457,489      458,333             412,633
Parish
East Carroll Parish        8,736          8,849         8,871       9,017               8,954
East Feliciana            22,279         22,416        22,571      23,329              20,950
Parish
Evangeline Parish         35,758         36,294        36,323      36,766              35,451
Franklin Parish           19,553         19,637        19,727      20,176              20,812
Grant Parish              18,921         18,983        19,004      19,702              19,139
Iberia Parish             75,738         76,532        76,871      78,010              74,449
Iberville Parish          34,859         35,158        35,229      36,188              32,497
Jackson Parish            15,033         15,033        15,093      15,168              15,278
Jefferson Parish         363,309        354,337       328,223     258,128             453,590
Jefferson Davis           31,488         31,753        32,012      32,865              31,235
Parish
Lafayette Parish         200,933        203,457       204,229     207,863             195,707
Lafourche Parish          92,061         92,622        93,251      95,214              92,157
LaSalle Parish            14,316         14,410        14,316      14,718              14,161
Lincoln Parish            43,600         43,993        44,253      44,844              42,382
Livingston Parish        112,520        112,924       113,188     115,691             105,653
Madison Parish            13,144         13,259        13,225      13,299              12,996
Morehouse Parish          30,466         30,496        30,484      30,443              30,551
Natchitoches Parish       39,346         39,251        39,307      39,922              38,741
Orleans Parish           156,140        138,681       138,681     138,681             462,269
Ouachita Parish          149,081        150,404       150,648     152,746             148,355
Plaquemines Parish        17,309         15,984        14,671       5,794              28,969
Pointe Coupee             22,852         23,189        23,511      24,852              22,537
Parish
Rapides Parish           136,217        137,179       137,499     140,435             128,013
Red River Parish           9,981         10,085        10,065      10,382               9,606
Richland Parish           20,696         20,816        20,906      21,223              20,485
Sabine Parish             24,315         24,443        24,460      24,577              23,616
St. Bernard Parish         6,899         13,111        13,111      13,111              65,554
St. Charles Parish        51,830         52,137        52,205      52,492              50,073
St. Helena Parish         11,609          8,539         8,508      10,978              10,309
St. James Parish          21,747         21,981        21,975      22,317              21,146
St. John the Baptist      49,286         49,983        51,065      54,668              45,581
Parish
St. Landry Parish         92,921         94,186        94,186      95,644              89,635
St. Martin Parish         51,647         51,706        51,747      53,055              50,453
St. Mary Parish           53,366         53,667        53,770      55,069              52,189
St. Tammany Parish       205,461        202,536       198,668     180,513             213,553
Tangipahoa Parish        109,423        110,359       110,547     111,982             105,158
Tensas Parish              6,496          6,745         6,869       7,753               6,176



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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                  April 5, 2006


                                                                                     U.S. Census
      PARISH         January 06 December 05 November 05 October 05                 Estimate July 04
Terrebonne Parish        107,501         108,796         109,000       108,740               106,523
Union Parish              22,042          22,250          22,229        21,807                22,894
Vermilion Parish          54,325          54,720          54,816        40,153                54,751
Vernon Parish             49,119          49,550          49,719        50,632                49,545
Washington Parish         42,449          42,341          41,901        41,701                44,161
Webster Parish            40,510          40,869          41,432        42,001                41,254
West Baton Rouge          24,004          24,397          24,574        25,746                21,880
Parish
West Carroll Parish       11,921          12,048          12,089        12,568                11,963
West Feliciana            15,397          15,652          15,890        16,431                15,108
Parish
Winn Parish               16,219          16,277          16,306        16,765                16,151
STATE TOTAL            4,137,915       4,137,331      4,116,925     4,054,522              4,515,770
  Data – LA Department of Education, Department of Health and Hospitals Bureau of Primary Care and
                                  Rural Health, US Census Bureau

           2.1.2.      Demographics
In addition to estimating the total population effects within Louisiana parishes, it is also
important to assess the demographics of the displaced population. Based on studies performed by
the Center for Child Development of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette following the
storms, there are several observations that can be made. Detailed data on evacuees was obtained
from four school districts: Ascension, Caddo, East Baton Rouge, and Lafayette Parish school
systems.

The demographics of the students that were displaced by the hurricanes are consistent with the
demographics of the source parishes of Jefferson, Orleans, St. Bernard, Plaquemines, and
Cameron. The following table shows the ethnic group demographics for the four Katrina-
affected parishes.

                Students in Orleans, Jefferson, St. Bernard, and Plaquemines School
                                       Districts (2004-05 SY)
                   Race             Number of Students               Percentage
            Black                                     91,106                      70%
            White                                     29,326                      22%
            Hispanic                                   5,879                        4%
            Asian                                      4,027                        3%
            Native American                              583                        0%
            Total                                    130,921
           October 1, 2004 Louisiana Department of Education Student Information System

The enrollment data for all four of the parishes more closely matches the existing ethnic
demographic than it does the source. For example, in Lafayette Parish school system the evacuee
students were about 45% black and 41% white.




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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                   April 5, 2006

                        Race              Evacuees Pre-Katrina Students
                        Black               45.66%                41.17%
                        White               40.78%                55.50%
                        (blank)              7.53%                     N/A
                        Hispanic             2.81%                 1.68%
                        Asian                2.84%                 1.36%
                        Native American      0.08%                 0.29%
           October 1, 2004 Louisiana Department of Education Student Information System

This same pattern was observed in the other school systems that were investigated, although
there appears to be a distance effect. That is, the further from the affected parishes, the more
likely that the evacuee demographics will be similar to the source parishes. While data is limited,
the information from the Caddo School system provides some insight. The pre-Katrina
demographics of the public school system indicated that there were 35% white students and 63%
black students. The evacuee students in Caddo were 78% black and 18% white which is more
closely aligned with the evacuated parish demographics and, in particular, is even closer to the
Orleans parish demographics.

The data supports the observation that many of the highest poverty and ethnic groups were
evacuated to areas further from the affected areas. It appears that those that could evacuate
themselves headed toward family and friends closer to New Orleans, while those that were
evacuated after the storms were sent out further.

This information seems to indicate that where data related to the SEW is being considered the
most important information regarding the re-distribution of population will be two-fold. First, the
closer to the epicenter of the affected areas, the more similar the evacuee population is to the pre-
Katrina population demographically. This may imply that where consequence and consumption
data are related to ethnic, gender, socio-economic or other demographic information, rates may
simply be scaled to account for the new population levels. This assumption is independent of the
effects of the disaster on substance abuse, which the following section addresses.

The second factor is the continuing movement of the affected population. While there was a
large initial displacement of residents, there have been significant numbers returning to the area.
The current (ca. January 2006) population in the affected areas is still significantly less than the
pre-Katrina population. In order to insure that the proper resources are available in the proper
areas at the proper time, ongoing population estimates will be required. The dynamics of the
Louisiana population will require that the State be flexible and agile in responding to the
changing needs and location of their citizens.

   2.2. Substance Abuse Prevention Following a Disaster
In the wake of a disaster, concerns about substance use and abuse may seem minor in relation to
the immediate devastation and the task of rebuilding. However, it is during times of extreme
stress such as those following a disaster that substance use and abuse tends to increase. Focused
disaster management activities are critical in dealing with disasters.




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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                April 5, 2006

Disaster management activities can be viewed in three phases: preparedness, response, and
recovery. Phase 1 encompasses all pre-disaster activities that lessen its effects and lay the
groundwork for response and recovery. Phase 2 includes the first 3 weeks immediately
following the disaster. Emergency assistance is provided during this phase. Phase 3, the
Recovery Phase, runs from 2 weeks to several years after the disaster. This phase begins after
basic needs are met and focus shifts to returning things to normal.

As part of the Recovery Phase, substance abuse prevention professionals must understand that
survivors and disaster relief workers experience several different emotional phases following a
disaster. The Alert Phase occurs when people actually realize that they can potentially be
affected by a disaster. During the disaster impact and immediately following, people can
experience the Heroic Phase and exert intense effort toward survival. Next, the Honeymoon
Phase may last 1 week to 6 months immediately after a disaster. This phase involves a strong
sense of companionship among the survivors and a renewed sense of community. During the
period of 2 months to 2 years following a disaster the Disillusionment Phase can take over.
Survivors can have feelings of anger, loss, and resentment. Hopelessness and depression can
also surface. It is during this phase that the risk of substance abuse increases. Finally, the
survivor accepts their role in recovery and takes on the responsibility to fulfill the role. This
phase is called the Reconstruction Phase and can last several years.

The statistics that are available and the reports from professionals working in the field indicate
that the extreme stress tied to disasters can lead to: misuse of alcohol and other drugs; increase
in problems associated with substance abuse; breakdown of normal controls that prevent
substance abuse and its related problems; increased difficulties for people in recovery; and
increased initiation by children and youth or abuse the elderly. Substance abuse prevention
professionals must remember “that all services that address mental health issues are potentially
substance abuse prevention services, since they address the environmental factors that can give
rise to increased alcohol and drug use and other maladaptive behaviors.” (Center for Substance
Abuse Prevention [CSAP], 1997).




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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                  April 5, 2006



3. Substance Abuse Related Mortality Impacts
     3.1. All Causes of Death
Several of the leading causes of death in Louisiana are at least partially caused by the abuse of
alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs. Diseases of the heart (1st) are the leading cause of death in
Louisiana, followed by malignant neoplasms (cancer) (2nd) and cerebrovascular disease (3rd), all
of which are associated with smoking. Chronic lower respiratory disease (6th) is also frequently
associated with smoking. Alcohol use is strongly associated with death due to accidents (4th).


   Age Adjusted Mortality Rates* for the Thirteen Leading Causes of
           Death in Louisiana and the United States 2002

                                                                                   Louisiana                      United States
Rank**                             Cause of Death                                     Age-           Rank**        Age-Adjusted
                                                                                    Adjusted                        Death Rate
                                                                                     Death
                                                                                      Rate
   -        All Causes                                                               996.5               -               847.3
   1        Diseases of the Heart (I00-I09, I11, I13, I20-51)                        268.3               1               241.7
   2        Malignant Neoplasms (C00-C97)                                             222                2               193.2
   3        Cerebrovascular Disease (I60-I69)                                         62.5               3                56.4
   4        Accidents (V01-X59, Y85-Y86)                                              47.6               5                 37
   5        Diabetes Mellitus (E10-E14)                                               42.1               6                25.4
   6        Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (J40-J47)                               40.9               4                43.3
   7        Alzheimer's Disease (G30)                                                 27.8               8                20.4
   8        Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome, and Nephrosis                              23.6               9                14.2
            (N00-N07, N17-N19, N25-N27)
    9       Influenza and Pneumonia (J10-J18)                                           23.4             7               22.8
   10       Septicemia (A40-A41)                                                        19.7            10               11.7
   11       Homicide (X85-Y09, Y87.1)                                                   13.4            14                6.1
   12       Suicide (X60-X84, Y87.0)                                                    11.3            11               10.9
   13       Chronic Liver Disease (K70, K73-K74)                                         8.4            12                9.4
*Age-Adjusted Rate per 100,000, 2000 U.S. standard population
**Causes of death are ranked based on crude death rates
International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) code definitions for each indicator are provided in parentheses.
Sources: Louisiana State Center for Health Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics (National Vital Statistics Reports -
Deaths: Leading Causes for 2002), United States Census Bureau, http://wonder.cdc.gov/mortICD10J.html



     3.2. Causes of Death from Substance Abuse
The chart below displays the eleven leading causes of substance related death in Louisiana.
Ischemic cerebrovascular disease (1st), other cardiovascular diseases (2nd), lung cancer (3rd), and
lung disease (4th) head the list and are associated with tobacco use. Alcohol consumption is often
associated with homicide (5th), suicide (6th), traffic fatalities (alcohol related traffic fatalities
(7th), cirrhosis (8th), and deaths due to other accidents (alcohol related accidents, 9th). The


SPF-SIG                                                                                                                       Page 11
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                                                       April 5, 2006

relationship of both cigarette related accidents or fires (10th) and illicit drug deaths (11th) to
substance use are apparent.

From 1999 through 2003, cardiovascular disease death rates appear to consistently lie between
3.25 and 3.5 per thousand population. No significant increasing or decreasing trend is apparent.
                                                                      2001 Louisiana Substance Related Mortality Rates vs. U.S.

                                     3.5

                                                                                                                                                                                                LA    US
                                      3
     Rate per 1000 Population




                                     2.5


                                      2


                                     1.5


                                      1


                                     0.5


                                      0




                                                                                                                                                                             s*
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 All data except cardiovascular disease and accident deaths - NVSS (SEDS)
                                                                                                                             A




 *Accident mortality data represents 1999-2004 rather than 2001




When leading causes of death by age group are observed, the importance of substance related
mortality is apparent. From ages 15 until 24, the leading causes of death are unintentional injury
(includes traffic fatalities), homicide, and suicide. All three are associated with substance use,
particularly alcohol. From 25-34 years of age, unintentional injury and homicide are 1st and 2nd
as the leading causes of mortality. In older age groups, chronic causes of death replace more
proximal acute causes as the leading determinants of mortality. At age 35 and over, at least two
substance related causes of mortality are ranked in the top three causes of death: heart disease
(tobacco related), malignant neoplasms (some cancers are associated with tobacco use), and
cerebrovascular disease (tobacco related) are common chronic causes of mortality.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                                                               Page 12
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                                 April 5, 2006


                                                 Top Ten Leading Causes of Death in Louisiana by Age 2001
                                                                           Age Groups
Rank       <1            1-4           5-9          10-14         15-17         18-21         22-24         25-34         35-44         45-54         55-64          65+            All
                                                                                                                                                                                   Ages
 1     Congenital     Unintention   Unintention    Unintention   Unintention   Unintention   Unintention   Unintention   Unintention   Malignant     Malignant       Heart          Heart
       Anomalies       al Injury     al Injury      al Injury     al Injury     al Injury     al Injury     al Injury     al Injury    Neoplasms     Neoplasms      Disease        Disease
         119              63            39             42            74           150           100           262           358           963          1,710         8,846         11,474

 2      Short                       Malignant      Malignant                                                             Malignant       Heart         Heart       Malignant      Malignant
                      Homicide                                   Homicide      Homicide      Homicide      Homicide
       Gestation                    Neoplasms      Neoplasms                                                             Neoplasms      Disease       Disease      Neoplasms      Neoplasms
                        14                                         24            82            53            162
         117                           14              8                                                                    335           836          1,345         6,360          9,517
 3                    Congenital                                                                                           Heart       Unintention    Diabetes      Cerebro-       Cerebro-
          SIDS                      Homicide       Homicide       Suicide       Suicide       Suicide         HIV
                      Anomalies                                                                                           Disease       al Injury     Mellitus      vascular       vascular
           66                          4              5             15            40            15            84
                         13                                                                                                 323           255           306          2,145          2,638
                                                                                                                                                                    Chronic
 4      Maternal
                      Malignant     Congenital     Congenital    Malignant     Malignant       Heart                                    Cerebro-      Cerebro-       Low.         Unintention
       Pregnancy                                                                                            Suicide         HIV
                      Neoplasms     Anomalies      Anomalies     Neoplasms     Neoplasms      Disease                                   vascular      vascular     Respiratory     al Injury
         Comp.                                                                                                84            151                                     Disease
                          7            3              4             13            22             12                                       172           230                         2,029
          42                                                                                                                                                         1,478
                                                                                                                                                      Chronic                      Chronic
 5     Respirator
                        Heart                        Heart         Heart         Heart       Malignant       Heart                      Diabetes       Low.         Diabetes        Low.
            y                          HIV                                                                                Suicide
                       Disease                      Disease       Disease       Disease      Neoplasms      Disease                     Mellitus     Respiratory    Mellitus      Respiratory
        Distress                        2                                                                                  105                        Disease                      Disease
                          4                            4             6             12           12             76                         130                        1,230
           30                                                                                                                                           191                         1,763
 6                                                  Influenza                                                                                                      Alzheimer'
       Unintention                   Benign                      Congenital    Congenital                  Malignant                                 Unintention                   Diabetes
                       Anemias                           &                                      HIV                      Homicide         HIV                          s
        al Injury                   Neoplasms                    Anomalies     Anomalies                   Neoplasms                                  al Injury                    Mellitus
                          2                        Pneumonia                                     7                         101            109                       Disease
           22                           1                           4             6                           73                                        147                         1,734
                                                         3                                                                                                            943
 7      Placenta                                                                              Chronic
                                                                                                                                                                    Influenza
          Cord         Benign         Heart                       Benign                       Low.         Diabetes      Cerebro-
                                                    Suicide                     Anemias                                                 Suicide       Nephritis          &         Nephritis
       Membrane       Neoplasms      Disease                     Neoplasms                   Respiratory    Mellitus      vascular
                                                       3                           5          Disease                                     89            125        Pneumonia         993
            s             2             1                            3                                         15           70
                                                                                                 5                                                                     819
           18
 8                                                 Meningo-
                                                                  Cerebro-      Benign       Congenital                   Diabetes       Liver         Liver                      Alzheimer's
       Atelectasis       HIV        Meningitis      coccal                                                 Septicemia                                               Nephritis
                                                                  vascular     Neoplasms     Anomalies                    Mellitus      Disease       Disease                      Disease
           16             2            1           Infection                                                  13                                                      757
                                                                     2             3            3                            49            75            77                          957
                                                       2
 9                                                                                                          Influenza                                                              Influenza
       Intrauterine                                                                                                        Liver
                      Four Tied                    Three Tied    Seven Tied     Six Tied      Anemias            &                      Nephritis    Septicemia    Septicemia           &
         Hypoxia                                                                                                          Disease
                         1                             1             1             2             2         Pneumonia                      64            73            579         Pneumonia
            15                                                                                                               39
                                                                                                                12                                                                    941
                                                                                                                                        Chronic
 10    Circulatory
                                                                                                                           Viral         Low.
                                                                                                                                                      Influenza
                                                                                                                                                                   Unintention
        System        Four Tied                    Three Tied    Seven Tied     Six Tied     Eight Tied     Two Tied                                       &                      Septicemia
                                                                                                                          Hepatitis    Respiratory                  al Injury
        Disease          1                             1             1             2             1            11                        Disease      Pneumonia                       758
                                                                                                                            31                                        517
           13                                                                                                                              62             52




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                                         Page 13
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                    April 5, 2006

As stated above, more proximal causes of death, mortality consequences following substance use
or abuse more closely in time, are more evident in younger age groups. Death rates from
homicide are highest in 18-34 year olds. The highest number of homicides occurs in the 21-29
year old group. Suicide rates and rates of death from illicit drugs remain fairly constant from age
18 and up. The highest suicide and illicit drug death rates are seen in the 65 and older group and
the highest number of suicides and illicit drug deaths is seen in the 35-54 year old group.
Nevertheless, the proportion of deaths from these two causes in older age groups is reduced due
to large numbers of deaths from chronic causes.
                                                   Proximal Substance Use Related Mortality Rates 1999-2001

                             0.35


                                                                                                                                            Illicit Drug Use
                              0.3
                                                                                                                                            Suicide

                                                                                                                                            Homicide

                             0.25
  Rate per 1000 Population




                              0.2




                             0.15




                              0.1




                             0.05




                               0
                                    0 thru 11   12 thru 17   18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64   65 and over


Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                        Page 14
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                    April 5, 2006


                                                           Average Annual Proximal Substance Use Related Deaths 1999-2001
                                    600




                                    500                                                                                                                   Illicit Drug Use
                                                                                                                                                          Suicide
  Average Annual Number of Deaths




                                                                                                                                                          Homicide


                                    400




                                    300




                                    200




                                    100




                                     0
                                          0 thru 11   12 thru 17   18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64 65 and over   Total

Data - NVSS (SEDS)
Note: Accidental death data due to falls, fire and drowning are not available by age at the current time.




The following two charts illustrate the importance of death from ischemic cerebrovascular
disease, other cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and lung disease (all associated with tobacco
use) in Louisiana residents.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                       Page 15
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                             April 5, 2006


                                            Average Annual Substance Use Related Chronic Disease Deaths by Age 1999-2001

                                    12000

                                                                                                                                           Cirrhosis
                                                                                                                                           Lung Cancer
                                                                                                                                           Lung Disease
                                    10000
                                                                                                                                           Ischemic-Cerebrovascular
  Average Annual Number of Deaths




                                                                                                                                           Other Cardiovascular*


                                    8000




                                    6000




                                    4000




                                    2000




                                       0
                                            0 thru 11 12 thru 17 18 thru 20 21 thru 29 30 thru 34 35 thru 54 55 thru 64   65 and   Total
                                                                                                                           over
Data - NVSS (SEDS)
*Other Cardiovascular does not include Ischemic CVD or Cerebrovascular Disease deaths

Years of Potential Life Lost
The years of potential life lost (YPLL) calculation emphasizes premature mortality by giving a
larger computational weight to youthful deaths. YPLL before age 65 computes the burden of
mortality from a particular cause responsible for life lost, assuming 65 years as a full life. 19 The
causes of mortality responsible for the greatest burden of potential life lost are illustrated in the
chart below. Unintentional injury, malignant neoplasms, heart disease, homicide, suicide, and
cerebrovascular diseases can all be related to substance use.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                  Page 16
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                              April 5, 2006


                               Louisiana Years Potential Life Lost Before Age 65 by Type of Mortality 2003


        Unintentional Injury


      Malignant Neoplasms


             Heart Disease


                  Homicide


            Perinatal Period


                    Suicide


      Congenital Anomalies


                        HIV


           Cerebrovascular


          Diabetes Mellitus


                  All Others


                               0          10000        20000         30000            40000           50000   60000      70000

                                                                Number of Years Potential Life Lost

Data obtained from CDC:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                Page 17
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                April 5, 2006

YPLL before age 85 computes the burden of mortality from a particular cause responsible for
life lost, assuming 85 years as a full life. The causes of mortality responsible for the greatest
burden of potential life lost are illustrated in the chart below. Malignant neoplasms, heart
disease, unintentional injury, homicide, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory
disease, and suicide can all be related to substance use.
                               Louisiana Years Potential Life Lost Before Age 85 by Type of Mortality 2003


                    Malignant Neoplasms


                             Heart Disease


                      Unintentional Injury


                                    Homicide


                          Cerebrovascular


                         Diabetes Mellitus


                           Perinatal Period


      Chronic Low. Respiratory Disease


                                      Suicide


                                          HIV


                                    All Others


                                                 0   20000   40000    60000    80000    100000   120000    140000   160000    180000

                                                                     Number of Years Potential Life Lost
 Data obtained from CDC:
 http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                      Page 18
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                             April 5, 2006


                                 Top Ten Causes of Non-Fatal Injuries in the United States by Age 2002-2004
                                                                   Age Groups
Rank       <1              1-4             5-9           10-14           15-24           25-34           35-44           45-54           55-64            65+          All Ages
 1                                                                     Unintentional
       Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional                   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional
                                                                        Struck by/
           Fall            Fall            Fall            Fall                            Fall            Fall            Fall            Fall            Fall             Fall
                                                                         Against
         375,016        2,624,494       2,023,255       2,007,409                       2,220,340       2,394,065       2,215,221       1,661,751       5,311,690       23,364,042
                                                                        2,904,703
 2     Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional                                                   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional
                                                                                       Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional
        Struck by/      Struck by/      Struck by/      Struck by/         MV-                                                          Struck by/      Struck by/       Struck by/
                                                                                       Overexertion    Overexertion    Overexertion
         Against         Against         Against         Against        Occupant                                                         Against         Against          Against
                                                                                        2,069,322       1,958,897       1,253,726
         96,915         1,123,217       1,265,079       1,809,515       2,732,539                                                        577,999         599,171        13,342,474
 3                     Unintentional                                                   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional                   Unintentional
       Unintentional                   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional                                                   Unintentional                   Unintentional
                        Other Bite/                                                     Struck by/      Struck by/      Struck by/                         MV-
        Fire/Burn                       Cut/Pierce     Overexertion        Fall                                                        Overexertion                    Overexertion
                          Sting                                                          Against         Against         Against                        Occupant
         35,872                          376,334         839,054        2,529,728                                                        568,821                        9,890,879
                         406,675                                                        2,016,926       1,778,739       1,169,563                        567,125
 4     Unintentional                                                                   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional                   Unintentional
                       Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional                                                                   Unintentional
        Other Bite/                                                                        MV-             MV-             MV-             MV-                             MV-
                       Foreign Body    Pedal Cyclist    Cut/Pierce     Overexertion                                                                    Overexertion
          Sting                                                                         Occupant        Occupant        Occupant        Occupant                        Occupant
                         327,452         333,450         483,113        2,244,439                                                                        492,622
         34,820                                                                         1,851,821       1,539,953       1,047,402        562,925                        9,015,525
 5                                     Unintentional
       Unintentional   Unintentional                   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional
                                        Other Bite/
       Foreign Body     Cut/Pierce                     Pedal Cyclist    Cut/Pierce      Cut/Pierce      Cut/Pierce      Cut/Pierce      Cut/Pierce      Cut/Pierce      Cut/Pierce
                                          Sting
          26,007         259,763                         423,400        1,484,060       1,343,914       1,183,345        843,068         450,265         354,785        6,799,166
                                         281,309
 6     Unintentional                                   Other Assault   Other Assault   Other Assault   Other Assault   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Other Assault
                       Unintentional   Unintentional
           MV-                                           Struck by/      Struck by/      Struck by/     Struck by/        Other         Other Bite/     Other Bite/      Struck by/
                       Overexertion    Overexertion
        Occupant                                           Again           Again           Again          Again          Specified        Sting           Sting            Again
                         218,633         226,837
         24,041                                           348,435        1,349,060        821,156        670,997         384,295         191,683         221,679         3,832,577
 7                                     Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Other Assault   Unintentional                   Unintentional
       Unintentional   Unintentional                                                                                                                   Unintentional
                                           MV-           Unknown/       Other Bite/     Other Bite/       Other         Struck by/        Other                         Other Bite/
        Poisoning       Poisoning                                                                                                                       Poisoning
                                        Occupant        Unspecified        Sting           Sting         Specified        Again         Specified                          Sting
         20,722          188,891                                                                                                                         139,542
                                         225,583          342,162         485,493         436,417        481,615         322,820         148,086                         2,982,617
 8                                                     Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional
       Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional
                                                            MV-          Unknown/          Other        Other Bite/     Other Bite/       Other           Other            Other
        Cut/Pierce      Fire/Burn      Foreign Body
                                                         Occupant       Unspecified      Specified        Sting           Sting         Transport       Transport        Specified
         20,036          178,733         161,284
                                                          323,881         480,987         391,140        411,806         318,665         100,268         139,088         2,141,911
 9     Unintentional   Unintentional                   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional                                                   Unintentional   Unintentional
                                       Unintentional                                                   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional
        Inhalation/     Unknown/                           Other           Other           Other                                                        Unknown/         Unknown/
                                         Dog Bite                                                       Poisoning       Poisoning       Poisoning
        Suffocation    Unspecified                       Transport       Specified       Transport                                                     Unspecified      Unspecified
                                         153,735                                                         322,534         253,775         100,230
          19,737         145,714                          200,625         417,563         300,228                                                        134,572         2,020,666
 10    Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional   Unintentional                   Unintentional   Other Assault   Unintentional   Unintentional
                                                                                                       Unintentional
        Unknown/           MV-            Other         Other Bite/        Other         Unknown/                         Other         Struck by/        Other            Other
                                                                                                       Foreign Body
       Unspecified      Occupant        Transport          Sting         Transport      Unspecified                     Transport         Again         Specified        Transport
                                                                                                         263,707
          18,385         138,371         147,836          193,993         399,212         287,495                        189,180          89,118         98,642          1,837,517




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                                  Page 19
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                 April 5, 2006



4. Burden of Alcohol Use
In the United States, alcohol is consumed more frequently than all other illicit drugs combined
and is the drug most likely associated with injury or death.1 Alcohol use in Louisiana cost the
taxpayers approximately $2.989 billion in 1998. Many of these costs were connected to alcohol
related deaths, such as direct costs for healthcare, medical consequences of alcohol consumption,
ancillary services at motor vehicle crashes, fire deaths, and loss of future earnings from
premature death due to alcohol use.2 As stated previously, homicide, suicide, chronic disease
(cirrhosis), and injuries (motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) and other alcohol related accidents), are
substance use associated causes of death most frequently linked to alcohol use.

   4.1. State and Parish Long-Term Health Consequences

Chronic Liver Disease Mortality
Death from alcohol-related chronic disease does not appear in the leading ten causes of death in
Louisiana, but cirrhosis is eighth in the list of substance use related deaths. Alcohol-related
chronic liver disease (AR-CLD), such as cirrhosis, is the single cause that accounts for the most
deaths due to alcohol-related chronic diseases. St. Bernard Parish is characterized by the highest
rate in the state. Orleans, Jefferson, and Caddo Parishes have the highest number of deaths due
to AR-CLD. Cirrhosis is eighth in the list of Louisiana substance related causes of death. During
the years 1999 to 2001, the rate of cirrhosis deaths in Louisiana was lower than the national rate.
Levels have remained constant in a range from 0.07 to 0.09 deaths per thousand people in
Louisiana from 1999 to 2004.




SPF-SIG                                                                                         20
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                         April 5, 2006


                                                       Chronic Liver Disease (Cirrhosis) Mortality Rate 1999-2004

                                  0.1

                                                                                                                                             LA    US
                              0.09


                              0.08
  Rate per 1000 Population




                              0.07


                              0.06


                              0.05


                              0.04


                              0.03


                              0.02


                              0.01


                                   0
                                                1999                2000            2001             2002*                2003*            2004*
1999-01 Data - NVSS (SEDS)
*2002-04 Data - OPH




                                                         Average Annual Number of Cirrhosis Deaths by Age (1999-2001)

                160



                140



                120



                100

Number
                             80



                             60



                             40



                             20



                             0
                                        0 thru 11      12 thru 17     18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54       55 thru 64   65 and over


Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                  21
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                         April 5, 2006

From 1999 through 2001 in Louisiana, most cirrhosis deaths occurred in the 35-54 year age
group. The second highest number of deaths occurred in the 65 and older group.
                                      Chronic Liver Disease Mortality Rate 2002-2004 by Parish (Top 25)

    St. Bernard Parish
       Webster Parish
   Washington Parish
       Iberville Parish
        Sabine Parish
        Caddo Parish
          Winn Parish
      Avoyelles Parish
       La Salle Parish
       De Soto Parish
        Bossier Parish
 West Feliciana Parish
       Orleans Parish
       Rapides Parish
  Plaquemines Parish
         Grant Parish
   Assumption Parish
    Beauregard Parish
        Vernon Parish
    Evangeline Parish
     Concordia Parish
      Jefferson Parish
       Franklin Parish
    State of Louisiana
     St. James Parish
    Morehouse Parish

                          0           0.02      0.04       0.06      0.08         0.1        0.12     0.14   0.16    0.18

  Data - LA Office of Public Health                               Rate per 1000 Population
  Data - LA Office of Public Health


From 2002 through 2004, St. Bernard Parish exhibited the highest rate of chronic liver disease
mortality in the state. Orleans, Jefferson, and Caddo Parishes had the next highest number of
deaths due to chronic liver disease during the same period.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                 22
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                April 5, 2006


                             Chronic Liver Disease Mortality 2002-04: Parish as Percent of State Total (Top 25)

          Orleans Parish
         Jefferson Parish
           Caddo Parish
   E.Baton Rouge Parish
     St. Tammany Parish
          Rapides Parish
          Bossier Parish
       St.Bernard Parish
         Ouachita Parish
         Lafayette Parish
        Calcasieu Parish
      Tangipahoa Parish
      Terrebonne Parish
      Washington Parish
        St.Landry Parish
         Webster Parish
        Avoyelles Parish
        Lafourche Parish
           Vernon Parish
          Iberville Parish
          St.Mary Parish
        Livingston Parish
         St.Martin Parish
      Beauregard Parish
          St.John Parish

                        0.0%          2.0%         4.0%        6.0%         8.0%         10.0%     12.0%          14.0%    16.0%
                                                                  Percent of Statewide Cases
Data - LA Office of Public Health
Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                       23
Louisiana SEW Report                                                              April 5, 2006




                           Data – LA Office of Public Health (2002-2004)



   4.2. State and Parish Alcohol Consumption

Adult Current Drinking

The percentage of Louisiana residents 21 years of age and older that reported any use of alcohol
within the past 30 days prior to completing CDC’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
(BRFSS) survey was higher than the national average (2001-2003). The highest percentages of
respondents reporting alcohol use were in the 21 to 29 year old group. The lowest percentages
were in the group 65 years of age and older.




SPF-SIG                                                                                      24
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                April 5, 2006


                                                                       2003 Adult Current Drinking by Age Range

                                             70.0

                                                                                                                                2003 LA
  Percentage of Respondents Indicating Use




                                             60.0                                                                               2003 US




                                             50.0




                                             40.0




                                             30.0




                                             20.0




                                             10.0




                                              0.0
                                                    18-20 yrs   21-29 yrs       30-34 yrs      35-54 yrs          55-64-yrs   65+ yrs

Data - BRFSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                       25
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                April 5, 2006


Respondents Classified as Dependent/Abusing Alcohol by Age 22

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provides annual data on drug use in the
United States. The NSDUH is sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration (SAMHSA), an agency of the U.S. Public Health Service and a division of the
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The survey provides yearly national and
state level estimates of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drug, and non-medical prescription drug use.
Other health-related questions also appear from year to year, including questions about mental
health.14

In the 2002 NSDUH, the percentages of 12 to 17 year olds and respondents 26 and older were
right at national levels. The percentage of respondents 17-25 classified as dependent/abusing
alcohol was above national levels. Louisiana was slightly above the national average in the
composite of all age groups.



                                   Percent of Respondents Classified as Dependent/Abusing Alcohol by Age 2002

                          20


                          18
                                                                                                               LA   US

                          16


                          14
 Percent of Respondents




                          12


                          10


                          8


                          6


                          4


                          2


                          0
                               Age 12-17              Age 17-25            Age 26 and Older            Total

 Data - NSDUH (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                       26
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                               April 5, 2006


Adult Driving after Drinking

The percentages of adults reporting driving after drinking in the year prior to completion of the
BRFSS (1999 and 2002) was above the national average in all age groups in the 1999 survey. In
the 2002 survey, the percentages of adults reporting driving after drinking was well above the
national average only in 18 to 29 years of age. The percentages were only slightly above
national levels in the 30 to 54 year age group and were below the national average in respondents
55 years of age and older.
                                                                                    2002 Adult Driving after Drinking by Age Range
                                                              12.0
                                                                                                                                                 2002 LA
   Percent Indicating Driving after Drinking (in past year)




                                                                                                                                                 2002 US
                                                              10.0




                                                               8.0




                                                               6.0




                                                               4.0




                                                               2.0




                                                               0.0
                                                                     18-20 yrs   21-29 yrs       30-34 yrs       35-54 yrs           55-64-yrs   65+ yrs


Data - BRFSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                      27
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                April 5, 2006


Adult Heavy Alcohol Use

In the BRFSS, heavy alcohol use was defined as having an average of two or more drinks per
day for men or one or more drinks per day for women during the month preceding the
interview.11, 12 In 2001 and 2002, the percentages of respondents indicating heavy usage was
below the national average, except in the 2001 30-34 year old group. In 2003, the percentage of
respondents indicating heavy alcohol use was above the national average in 30-54 year olds, and
very near national levels in 21-29 year olds and 55-64 year olds. In 2003, 18-20 and 65 and
older respondents indicated heavy alcohol use at percentages below the national average.
                                                         2003 Adult Heavy Alcohol Use by Age Range

                                 10.0

                                                                                                                 2003 LA
                                  9.0
                                                                                                                 2003 US

                                  8.0
  Percent Indicating Heavy Use




                                  7.0


                                  6.0


                                  5.0


                                  4.0


                                  3.0


                                  2.0


                                  1.0


                                  0.0
                                        18-20 yrs   21-29 yrs       30-34 yrs      35-54 yrs         55-64-yrs   65+ yrs

Data - BRFSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                       28
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                  April 5, 2006



Binge Drinking

Binge drinking is defined by the BRFSS as having five or more drinks on one occasion during
the month preceding completion of the survey.11 The percentages of respondents indicating
binge drinking behavior was fairly close to the national average (2001-2003). Binge drinking in
the 65 year and older age group was above the national average while the three year mean of
2001 through 2003 percentages was slightly lower than the national average in the 18 to 20 year
group.
                                                                             2003 Adult Binge Drinking by Age Range

                                                   60.0

                                                                                                                                   2003 LA
  Percent Indicating Binge Drinking in Past Year




                                                                                                                                   2003 US
                                                   50.0




                                                   40.0




                                                   30.0




                                                   20.0




                                                   10.0




                                                    0.0
                                                          18-20 yrs   21-29 yrs       30-34 yrs      35-54 yrs        55-64-yrs   65+ yrs


Data - BRFSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                         29
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                   April 5, 2006


Youth 30-day Alcohol Use by Grade

The Louisiana Caring Communities Youth Survey (CCYS) is a survey of 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th
grade students designed to identify adolescent substance use, antisocial behavior, and the risk
and protective factors that relate to these behaviors. The survey was conducted in the spring of
2001, the fall of 2002, and the fall of 2004. Thirty day use is a measure of the percentage of
students who used the substance at least once in the 30 days prior to taking the survey and is
considered a sensitive indication of the level of current use of the substance.13

No national comparisons are available for 6th graders. In 8th and 10th graders, the percentage of
respondents indicating recent use was above the national average for all three years. In 12th
graders, the percentages were higher than the national average in 2001, but in 2002 and 2003
were nearly identical to national averages.

                                                         2004 Youth 30 Day Alcohol Use

                                     60.0

                                                                                                2004 LA
                                                                                                2004 US
                                     50.0
   Percent of Youth Indicating Use




                                     40.0




                                     30.0




                                     20.0




                                     10.0




                                      0.0
                                            6th Grade   8th Grade            10th Grade   12th Grade
LA Data - CCYS
US Data - Monitoring the Future




In the 2002 NSDUH, the percentages of 12 to 17 year olds and respondents 26 and older
dependent /abusing alcohol were equivalent to national levels. The percentage of respondents
17-25 classified as dependent/abusing alcohol was above national levels. Louisiana was slightly
above the national average in the composite of all age groups.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                          30
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                April 5, 2006



                          Table 4-1: 30 Day Youth Alcohol Use (2004 CCYS)
       District                         0 Occasions 1 or more         Youth Percent Use
                                                       occasions      Within Last 30 days
       Zachary Community                         173             152               46.77%
       St. Charles Parish                        888             667               42.89%
       Cameron Parish                            204             151               42.54%
       Avoyelles Parish                          704             498               41.43%
       Terrebonne Parish                       1222              780               38.96%
       Caldwell Parish                            81              48               37.21%
       Allen Parish                              519             287               35.61%
       Acadia Parish                           1057              578               35.35%
       Plaquemines Parish                        672             353               34.44%
       Jefferson Davis Parish                    800             418               34.32%
       Beauregard Parish                         746             383               33.92%
       Grant Parish                              448             227               33.63%
       Ascension Parish                        2370             1191               33.45%
       Iberville Parish                          519             260               33.38%
       St. Martin Parish                       1001              496               33.13%
       Evangeline Parish                         741             363               32.88%
       Sabine Parish                             651             307               32.05%
       West Carroll Parish                       139              65               31.86%
       Assumption Parish                         659             308               31.85%
       Iberia Parish                           2015              934               31.67%
       St. Landry Parish                       1837              838               31.33%
       Calcasieu Parish                        4640             2097               31.13%
       Lafayette Parish                        3361             1502               30.89%
       City of Bogalusa                          235             105               30.88%
       Lafourche Parish                        1629              690               29.75%
       Catahoula Parish                          182              77               29.73%
       Livingston Parish                       3561             1475               29.29%
       Louisiana Statewide                    70041            28838               29.16%
       Webster Parish                            941             379               28.71%
       East Baton Rouge Parish                 6486             2607               28.67%
       Bienville Parish                          374             148               28.35%
       Franklin Parish                           456             180               28.30%
       Winn Parish                               401             155               27.88%
       Union Parish                              421             159               27.41%
       Claiborne Parish                          369             137               27.08%
       Ouachita Parish                         2660              978               26.88%
       Tangipahoa Parish                       2777             1021               26.88%
       Natchitoches Parish                       755             274               26.63%
       Caddo Parish                            1121              403               26.44%
       St. James Parish                          408             146               26.35%
       Washington Parish                         637             227               26.27%
       Morehouse Parish                          614             216               26.02%
       St. Mary Parish                         1496              522               25.87%
       Bossier Parish                          2176              757               25.81%



SPF-SIG                                                                                       31
Louisiana SEW Report                                                        April 5, 2006

       District                  0 Occasions   1 or more      Youth Percent Use
                                               occasions      Within Last 30 days
       West Baton Rouge Parish           487            166                25.42%
       Jefferson Parish                 5339           1757                24.76%
       Red River Parish                  146             48                24.74%
       West Feliciana Parish             433            140                24.43%
       Concordia Parish                  515            165                24.26%
       East Carroll Parish               242             76                23.90%
       LaSalle Parish                    440            136                23.61%
       Rapides Parish                   1917            586                23.41%
       Vernon Parish                     975            296                23.29%
       City of Baker                     335            101                23.17%
       Richland Parish                   578            170                22.73%
       Orleans Parish                    647            190                22.70%
       Jackson Parish                    359             97                21.27%
       Lincoln Parish                    752            187                19.91%
       St. Bernard Parish                629            129                17.02%
       DeSoto Parish                     499            100                16.69%
       City of Monroe                    933            180                16.17%
       St. Helena Parish                 223             36                13.90%
       Tensas Parish                     140             18                11.39%
       Pointe Coupee Parish              137             11                 7.43%
       Madison Parish                     71              3                 4.05%




SPF-SIG                                                                               32
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                 April 5, 2006



                           Youth Percent Alcohol Use Within Last 30 days

                           0%   5%   10%   15%   20%   25%    30%     35%    40%     45%     50%

  Zachary Community                                                                          46.8%
    St. Charles Parish                                                                42.9%
     Cameron Parish                                                                  42.5%
     Avoyelles Parish                                                              41.4%
   Terrebonne Parish                                                           39.0%
       Caldwell Parish                                                       37.2%
           Allen Parish                                                   35.6%
         Acadia Parish                                                    35.4%
  Plaquemines Parish                                                     34.4%
       Jefferson Davis                                                  34.3%
   Beauregard Parish                                                    33.9%
          Grant Parish                                                 33.6%
    Ascension Parish                                                   33.4%
        Iberville Parish                                              33.4%
     St. Martin Parish                                                33.1%
    Evangeline Parish                                                32.9%
         Sabine Parish                                              32.0%
  West Carroll Parish                                               31.9%     Statewide: 29.16%
   Assumption Parish                                                31.9%
          Iberia Parish                                             31.7%
     St. Landry Parish                                             31.3%
     Calcasieu Parish                                              31.1%
      Lafayette Parish                                            30.9%
     City of Bogalusa                                             30.9%
     Lafourche Parish                                            29.8%
  Data - 2004 CCYS


   4.3. State and Parish Immediate Health Consequences
Alcohol is involved in approximately half of all homicides, suicides, and fatal traffic crashes in
the United States.3 The three leading causes of alcohol-related death in Louisiana are homicide,
suicide, and alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In Louisiana, the death rates from homicide and
motor vehicle traffic related accidents exceed the national rates.4

From 1999 through 2001, Louisiana’s homicide rate remained nearly double the national rate.
The Orleans Parish homicide rate is more than double that of any other parish in Louisiana.
Caddo, St. John the Baptist, and East Baton Rouge Parishes all experience rates of homicide
above the state average (parish statistics, 2002–2004).

From 1999 through 2001, death rates for suicide in Louisiana rested either right at, or slightly
above the national rates. Evangeline and Avoyelles Parishes exhibit high rates of suicide. The
highest percentage of suicides in Louisiana occurs in Jefferson, East Baton Rouge, and Orleans
Parishes, three of the states most densely populated parishes (parish statistics, 2002–2004).




SPF-SIG                                                                                          33
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                      April 5, 2006

In the United States, the fourth and sixth leading causes of injury deaths are accidental falls and
drowning (CDC, 2002). In Louisiana from 1999 through 2004, Accidental Falls, Accidental
drowning and death due to fire/smoke/burns were among the leading causes of accidental deaths
other than MV accidents. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),
these three causes of accidental death are often associated with alcohol consumption.5

Homicide

                                              Homicide Mortality Rate 1999-2004


                             0.14

                                                                                                  LA
                             0.12                                                                 US
  Rate Per 1000 Population




                              0.1



                             0.08



                             0.06



                             0.04



                             0.02



                               0
                                    1999   2000        2001        2002*      2003*   2004*
 1999-01 Data - NVSS (SEDS)
 *2002-04 Data - OPH

The highest number of homicides occurs in the 21-29 year old group and the 35-54 year old
group.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                34
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                      April 5, 2006


                                                             Louisiana Homicide Mortality Rate by Age (1999-2001)

                             0.35




                              0.3




                             0.25
  Rate per 1000 Population




                              0.2




                             0.15




                              0.1




                             0.05




                               0
                                    0 thru 11   12 thru 17      18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64   65 and over   Total


Data - NVSS (SEDS)

Death rates from homicide are highest in 18-34 year olds.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                35
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                 April 5, 2006


                                      Homicides: Parish as a Percent of Statewide Total 2002-04 (Top 15)


               ORLEANS                                                                                                  40.5%

            JEFFERSON                                      10.1%

 EAST BATON ROUGE                                      9.4%

                  CADDO                             7.6%

             CALCASIEU                 2.4%

              OUACHITA                1.9%

                RAPIDES               1.9%

           TANGIPAHOA                 1.8%

                BOSSIER              1.6%

             LAFAYETTE               1.4%

          TERREBONNE                 1.3%

          ST. TAMMANY                1.3%

                ST. JOHN         1.1%

             ST. LANDRY          1.1%

             ASCENSION           0.8%

                          0.0%               5.0%    10.0%         15.0%     20.0%       25.0%      30.0%   35.0%   40.0%       45.0%

 Data - LA Office of Public Health                                         Percent of Total Cases


The highest percentages (number) of homicides occur in Orleans, Jefferson, East Baton Rouge,
and Caddo Parishes. The number of homicides in Orleans Parish is more than double that of any
other parish.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                             36
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                        April 5, 2006


                                                     Homicide Rate 2002-04 (Top 15)


               ORLEANS                                                                                      0.52

                  CADDO                                       0.18

                ST. JOHN                               0.15

 EAST BATON ROUGE                                    0.14

            JEFFERSON                                0.13

       State of Louisiana                            0.13

               IBERVILLE                      0.11

           TANGIPAHOA                        0.11

                BOSSIER                    0.09

                RAPIDES                0.09

               WEBSTER               0.08

                LINCOLN              0.08

              OUACHITA               0.08

             CALCASIEU               0.08

          TERREBONNE                0.07

                             0         0.1                     0.2             0.3              0.4   0.5            0.6

Data - LA Office of Public Health                                    Rate per 1000 Population


Caddo, St. John the Baptist, and East Baton Rouge Parishes all experience rates of homicide
above the state average (parish statistics, 2002–2004).




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                37
Louisiana SEW Report                                                   April 5, 2006




                       Data – LA Office of Public Health (2002-2004)




SPF-SIG                                                                          38
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                           April 5, 2006


Suicide

                                                  Suicide Mortality Rate 1999-2004


                             0.14
                                                                                              LA     US

                             0.12
  Rate Per 1000 Population




                              0.1



                             0.08



                             0.06



                             0.04



                             0.02



                               0
                                    1999   2000            2001        2002*         2003*   2004*

1999-01 Data - NVSS (SEDS)
*2002-04 Data - OPH




From 1999 through 2001, death rates for suicide in Louisiana were equivalent to or slightly
above the national rates. In looking at suicides in Louisiana by age groups, the highest number of
suicides is seen in the 35-54 year old group (averaging over 180 suicides a year), while the
highest suicide rates are seen in the 65 and older group (16 for every 100,000 individuals in this
age range).




SPF-SIG                                                                                                   39
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                     April 5, 2006


                                                                Average Annual Suicide Deaths by Age (1999-2001)

                            200


                            180


                            160


                            140


                            120
 Number




                            100


                            80


                            60


                            40


                            20


                             0
                                      0 thru 11    12 thru 17       18 thru 20        21 thru 29      30 thru 34     35 thru 54        55 thru 64      65 and over


Data - NVSS (SEDS)




                                                                Louisiana Suicide Mortality Rate by Age (1999-2001)
                             0.2


                            0.18


                            0.16
 Rate per 1000 Population




                            0.14


                            0.12


                             0.1


                            0.08


                            0.06


                            0.04


                            0.02


                                  0
                                      0 thru 11   12 thru 17     18 thru 20      21 thru 29    30 thru 34    35 thru 54   55 thru 64     65 and over       Total


Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                              40
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                    April 5, 2006


                                    Suicide: Parish as a Percent of State Total 2002-04 (Top 15)


            JEFFERSON                                                                                                        11.4%

 EAST BATON ROUGE                                                                                        8.3%

               ORLEANS                                                                                8.2%

          ST. TAMMANY                                                                5.9%

                  CADDO                                                       5.2%

             CALCASIEU                                                 4.3%

             LAFAYETTE                                            4.0%

            LIVINGSTON                                   3.1%

            ST. LANDRY                              2.8%

                RAPIDES                             2.8%

              OUACHITA                            2.5%

                BOSSIER                           2.5%

          TERREBONNE                        2.1%

           TANGIPAHOA                      2.0%

          ST. BERNARD                      2.0%

                          0.0%           2.0%                   4.0%             6.0%             8.0%          10.0%          12.0%

Data - LA Office of Public Health                                  Percent of Statewide Total Cases
Data - LA Office of Public Health
The highest percentage of suicides in Louisiana occurred in Jefferson, East Baton Rouge, and
Orleans Parishes, three of the state’s most densely populated parishes (OPH statistics, 2002–
2004).




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                              41
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                       April 5, 2006


                                           Suicide Rate 2002-04 (Top 15)


     EVANGELINE                                                                                                 0.236

       AVOYELLES                                                                             0.183

       ST. LANDRY                                                                    0.154

         WEBSTER                                                                     0.153

      LIVINGSTON                                                                   0.150

    ST. BERNARD                                                                0.147

            ACADIA                                                             0.146

   PLAQUEMINES                                                               0.142

    ST. TAMMANY                                                             0.140

    WASHINGTON                                                             0.136

      JEFFERSON                                                    0.124

          BOSSIER                                              0.120

     MOREHOUSE                                                 0.120

       ASCENSION                                             0.114

       CALCASIEU                                            0.114

 State of Louisiana                                        0.110

                       0            0.05             0.1                      0.15                   0.2           0.25

Data - LA Office of Public Health                    Rate per 1000 Population
Data - LA Office of Public Health
Evangeline and Avoyelles Parishes exhibited high rates of suicide. (OPH statistics, 2002-2004)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                 42
Louisiana SEW Report                                                   April 5, 2006




                       Data – LA Office of Public Health (2002-2004)




SPF-SIG                                                                          43
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                     April 5, 2006


Accidental Death

In the United States, the fourth and sixth leading causes of injury deaths are accidental falls and
drowning (CDC, 2002). In Louisiana from 1999 through 2004, the three leading causes of
accidental deaths other than those caused by motor vehicle crashes were accidental falls,
accidental drowning, and death due to fire, smoke, or burns. According to the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), these three causes of accidental death are often
associated with alcohol consumption.5


                                                       Accidental Death Mortality Rate by Cause 1999-2004


                             0.05



                                                                                                                LA 1999-2004


                             0.04
  Rate per 1000 Population




                             0.03




                             0.02




                             0.01




                               0
                                    Accidental Falls                Accidental Drownings     Accidental Fire, Smoke and Burns

Data Provided by OPH




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                            44
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                      April 5, 2006


Alcohol-Related Traffic Fatalities

Alcohol-related traffic fatalities are the 7th leading cause of death related to substance use in
Louisiana and one of the three leading causes of alcohol-related death. Almost half of all fatal
motor vehicle crashes in Louisiana somehow involve alcohol. The percentage of fatal motor
vehicle crashes in Louisiana during the years 1999 through 2003 was higher than the percentage
nationwide. In Louisiana, the death rates from alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes also exceed
the national rate.

                            Percent of Fatal Car Crashes Involving Alcohol 1999-2003

           60


                                                                                          LA   US

           50




           40
 Percent




           30




           20




           10




           0
                     1999              2000           2001            2002             2003

Data - NVSS (SEDS)


In 2003, the largest number of fatal alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes were reported from
Jefferson Parish (n=25). East Baton Rouge (n=21), Orleans (n=20), Caddo (n=18), and Lafayette
(n=16) Parishes also reported large numbers of these types of fatal crashes.




SPF-SIG                                                                                             45
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                  April 5, 2006


Motor vehicle Crash Injuries Involving Alcohol

In 2003, Orleans Parish experienced the largest number of injuries from alcohol-related motor
vehicle crashes, with 651. Caddo and East Baton Rouge Parishes were next, each with over 300
alcohol-related crash injuries. Calcasieu, Lafayette, Jefferson, and St. Tammany Parishes
reported between 200 and 300 such injuries in the same period.
                                 Louisiana 2003 Alcohol Related Injury Crashes

                                                   Number of Alcohol Related Injury Crashes
                     0   100                 200             300             400              500   600          700

          Orleans                                                                                          651

           Caddo                                                       330

 East Baton Rouge                                                     317

        Calcasieu                                               292

        Lafayette                                          276

        Jefferson                                         265

     St Tammany                                     227

         Rapides                       151

         Ouachita                      151

      Terrebonne                     135

        Lafourche               123

        St Landry              112

          Bossier         96

        Livingston        94

      Tangipahoa         92


                                     Data - LA Highway Safety Commission




SPF-SIG                                                                                                            46
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                              April 5, 2006


                              Louisiana 2003 Alcohol Related Car Crash Injuries Rate

                                                 Injuries per 100,000 Licensed Drivers
                     0   50         100       150          200            250         300   350   400         450

         Cameron                                                                                        417

 West Baton Rouge                                                                 280

          Orleans                                                                 279

       Evangeline                                                               268

         St James                                                       235

        Calcasieu                                                       234

   Jefferson Davis                                                      234

      Natchitoches                                                      233

          St John                                                       231

    Pointe Coupee                                                  223

         Claiborne                                                 223

           Caddo                                                  217

         St Martin                                                217

        Lafourche                                                213

         Lafayette                                               210


                                   Data - LA Highway Safety Commission




SPF-SIG                                                                                                         47
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                April 5, 2006

The following map depicts the rates of alcohol related injuries by parish throughout the state. As
is apparent, several parishes experience rates over 10% greater than the state rate.




                           Data – LA Highway Safety Commission (2003)




SPF-SIG                                                                                        48
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                     April 5, 2006



                           Number of Fatal Alcohol-Related Motor vehicle Crashes



         Jefferson                                                                                  25

  East Baton Rouge                                                                            21

          Orleans                                                                        20

            Caddo                                                                  18

         Lafayette                                                            16

         St Landry                                                  13

         Ouachita                                                   13

      St Tammany                                               12

         Calcasieu                                             12

         St Martin                                        11

       Terrebonne                                    10

       Tangipahoa                               9

      Natchitoches                              9

        Lafourche                               9

        Ascension                               9

          Webster                           8

       Washington                           8

          Rapides                           8

    Jefferson Davis                         8

           Bossier                          8

           St John                      7

           Iberville                6

           Acadia                   6

         Vermilion              5

             Union              5

                       0    5                       10                   15             20         25            30

                                Data - LA Highway Safety Commission




SPF-SIG                                                                                                            49
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                April 5, 2006

The rate of alcohol-related traffic fatalities in 2003 was highest in Tensas Parish (fatalities per
one hundred thousand licensed drivers).

                                 Louisiana 2003 Alcohol Related Fatalities


            Tensas                                                                                        57

       Natchitoches                                                                       40

    Jefferson Davis                                                                   39

           St Martin                                                                 38

          Cameron                                                               35

           Madison                                                             34

              Union                                                        33

          Claiborne                                                        33

           Richland                                                       32

            Iberville                                                     32

            Franklin                                                  31

           Webster                                                   30

        Assumption                                                   30

        Washngton                                                29

  West Baton Rouge                                              28

     Pointe Coupee                                              28

         Cataholua                                              28

           Jackson                                          27

            St John                                        26

        Morehouse                                          26

         Concordia                                    24

          St Landry                                  23

        East Carroll                                 23

      East Feliciana                             22

            Lasalle                             21

                        0   10             20                    30                   40       50              60
                                            Fatalities per 100,000 Licensed Drivers


                                   Data - LA Highway Safety Commission



SPF-SIG                                                                                                             50
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                              April 5, 2006



                                                                                         Alcohol-related Fatality Rate by Age
                                                                                             Louisiana Statewide 2005

                                                      35

                                                                                    31

                                                      30
  Number of Fatalities per 100,000 Licensed Drivers




                                                      25


                                                                                               20
                                                      20                    19



                                                      15                                                14


                                                                                                                 10
                                                      10



                                                      5                                                                    4
                                                                    3
                                                                                                                                  2
                                                            0                                                                             0       0        0
                                                      0
                                                           00-14   15-17   18-20   21-24      25-34    35-44    45-54    55-64   65-74   75-84   85-94   95&up
                                                                                                         Age Range


                                                                                   Data - LA Highway Safety Commission




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                          51
          Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                   April 5, 2006


                                                       Alcohol-related Fatalities by Age
                                                          Louisiana Statewide 2005


                120



                                                            99
                100




                  80                                                 78
Number of Fatalities
                                                70


                 60                                                            56




                 40
                                        30


                 20
                                                                                           14

                                                                                                 4
                                2
                        0                                                                                0       0       0
                  0
                       00-14   15-17   18-20   21-24       25-34    35-44    45-54     55-64    65-74   75-84   85-94   95&up
                                                                      Age Range


                                               Data - LA Highway Safety Commission

          The map shows that 34 Louisiana parishes report rates of fatal alcohol-related auto crashes more
          than 10% higher than the state rate (crashes per 100,000 licensed drivers).




          SPF-SIG                                                                                                               52
Louisiana SEW Report                                                April 5, 2006




                       Data - LA Highway Safety Commission (2003)




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Louisiana SEW Report                                                                       April 5, 2006


Violent Crime

Both alcohol use and illicit drug use are related to violent crime. Alcohol is the drug most
frequently associated with violence and is also associated with domestic violence, assault, and
homicide. Alcohol is a key factor in up to 68 percent of manslaughters, 62 percent of assaults, 54
percent of murders/attempted murders, and 48 percent of robberies. Crack cocaine use is also a
significant contributor to violence. Crack use exerts a negative impact on many inner-city
neighborhoods.6

                                        Reported Violent Crime Rate 2000-02

                            10


                            9                                                        LA   US


                            8


                            7
 Rate Per 1000 Population




                            6


                            5


                            4


                            3


                            2


                            1


                            0
                                 2000                  2001                   2002
Data - UCR (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                              54
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                     April 5, 2006


                                                    Louisiana Reported Substance Related Crime Rates by Type 2003

                                    45


                                    40


                                    35


                                    30
         Rate per 1000 Population




                                    25


                                    20


                                    15


                                    10


                                    5


                                    0
                                             Property Crime            Total Violent Crime (Including Simple     Violent Crime (Excluding Simple Assault)
                                                                                      Assault)

Data: LA Commission on Law Enforcement



                                                   Louisiana Number of Reported Substance Related Crimes by Type 2003


                                    200000


                                    180000


                                    160000


                                    140000
 Number of Reported Crimes




                                    120000


                                    100000


                                    80000


                                    60000


                                    40000


                                    20000


                                         0
                                                Property Crime           Total Violent Crime (Including Simple   Violent Crime (Excluding Simple Assault)
                                                                                        Assault)

Data: LA Commission on Law Enforcement




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                     55
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                               April 5, 2006

From 2000 through 2002, reports of violent crime in Louisiana exceeded the national average.
Most violent crimes were reported in Orleans, East Baton Rouge, Jefferson, and Caddo Parishes.
The highest rates of reported violent crimes were in St. James, Jefferson Davis, and Orleans
Parishes. Sixteen other Louisiana parishes report rates higher than the state average.



                                           Violent Crime Rates by Parish 2000-02 (Top 25)

           ST. JAMES                                                                                                     16.71
   JEFFERSON DAVIS                                                                                  10.97
            ORLEANS                                                                              10.44
        TANGIPAHOA                                                                      9.15
            ST. MARY                                                                 8.66
               CADDO                                                              8.31
           IBERVILLE                                                              8.25
             RAPIDES                                                           8.08
  EAST BATON ROUGE                                                            7.94
          ST. LANDRY                                                       7.54
      NATCHITOCHES                                                        7.51
       TERREBONNE                                                         7.43
             MADISON                                                      7.33
        ST. CHARLES                                                      7.20
       WASHINGTON                                                   6.96
             DE SOTO                                                6.90
           OUACHITA                                                6.79
         JEFFERSON                                                6.62
            LA SALLE                                              6.54
      State of Louisiana                                         6.35
          CALCASIEU                                              6.34
             BOSSIER                                           6.08
 WEST BATON ROUGE                                         5.88
     EAST FELICIANA                                    5.49
             LINCOLN                                4.93

                           0       2          4            6                 8              10           12   14    16           18
                                                                        Rate per 1000 Population
 Data - LA Commission on Law Enforcement




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                           56
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                        April 5, 2006


                                             Violent Crime: Parish as Percent of State Totals 2000-02 (Top 25)
              ORLEANS                                                                                                                        17.6%
  EAST BATON ROUGE                                                                                        11.5%
            JEFFERSON                                                                                 10.6%
                 CADDO                                                           7.4%
               LA SALLE                                         4.4%
            CALCASIEU                                       4.1%
               RAPIDES                                    3.6%
             OUACHITA                                    3.5%
          TANGIPAHOA                                    3.3%
         TERREBONNE                                2.7%
            ST. LANDRY                           2.3%
               BOSSIER                          2.1%
          ST. TAMMANY                           2.1%
              ST. MARY                      1.6%
           LIVINGSTON                     1.4%
             ST. JAMES                   1.3%
          ST. CHARLES                    1.2%
    JEFFERSON DAVIS                      1.2%
            ASCENSION                    1.2%
         WASHINGTON                   1.1%
       NATCHITOCHES                   1.0%
              IBERVILLE               1.0%
                  IBERIA             0.9%
            LAFAYETTE                0.9%
               LINCOLN               0.7%

                        0.0%              2.0%          4.0%            6.0%      8.0%        10.0%      12.0%         14.0%        16.0%   18.0%    20.0%

Data - LA Commission on Law Enforcement
                                                                               Percent of Total Statewide Cases


                                                         Total Violent Crime Rate by Parish 2003 (Top 25)
                                                                           (Including Simple Assault)

            St. James Parish
      Jefferson Davis Parish
                Caddo Parish
              Rapides Parish
          Terrebonne Parish
               Tensas Parish
               Bossier Parish
         Natchitoches Parish
           Morehouse Parish
              St. Mary Parish
              Orleans Parish
              Iberville Parish
              De Soto Parish
             Lafayette Parish
          Tangipahoa Parish
           State of Louisiana
             Cameron Parish
             Jefferson Parish
   West Baton Rouge Parish
            St. Landry Parish
               Sabine Parish
            Concordia Parish
                 Iberia Parish
               Lincoln Parish
           St. Charles Parish
            Livingston Parish

                                 0                 5               10             15             20               25           30           35        40
                                                                                       Rate per 1000 Population
Data: LA Commission on Law Enforcement




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                    57
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                            April 5, 2006


                                                      Violent Crime Rates by Parish 2003 (Top 25)
                                                                  (Excluding Simple Assault)

     Jefferson Davis Parish
           St. James Parish
        Natchitoches Parish
             Rapides Parish
             Orleans Parish
              Caddo Parish
             Tensas Parish
  East Baton Rouge Parish
         Tangipahoa Parish
            Lafayette Parish
             Iberville Parish
            St. Mary Parish
         Terrebonne Parish
           Jefferson Parish
             De Soto Parish
          State of Louisiana
         Assumption Parish
             Bossier Parish
              Sabine Parish
         East Carroll Parish
          St. Charles Parish
  West Baton Rouge Parish
         Washington Parish
      Pointe Coupee Parish
            Cameron Parish
           Livingston Parish

                                0                 2           4                 6               8               10             12          14
                                                                            Rate per 1000 Population
Data: LA Commission on Law Enforcement




                                         Total Violent Crime: Parish as a Percent of State Totals 2003 (Top 25)
                                                                  (Including Simple Assaults)
 East Baton Rouge Parish
            Orleans Parish
          Jefferson Parish
             Caddo Parish
          Lafayette Parish
           Rapides Parish
        Terrebonne Parish
      St. Tammany Parish
            Bossier Parish
         Calcasieu Parish
        Tangipahoa Parish
         St. Landry Parish
         Livingston Parish
           St. Mary Parish
              Iberia Parish
          Ouachita Parish
      Natchitoches Parish
    Jefferson Davis Parish
         Lafourche Parish
            Iberville Parish
        Morehouse Parish
        St. Charles Parish
        St. Bernard Parish
         St. James Parish
            Lincoln Parish

                         0.00%            2.00%       4.00%       6.00%       8.00%       10.00%       12.00%        14.00%   16.00%   18.00%
                                                                       Percent of Total Statewide Cases
Data: LA Commission on Law Enforcement




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                     58
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                   April 5, 2006


                                         Violent Crime: Parish as a Percent of Statewide Totals 2003 (Top 25)
                                                               (Excluding Simple Assaults)

           Orleans Parish
 East Baton Rouge Parish
          Jefferson Parish
             Caddo Parish
          Lafayette Parish
           Rapides Parish
       Tangipahoa Parish
         Calcasieu Parish
       Terrebonne Parish
      St. Tammany Parish
            Bossier Parish
         Livingston Parish
          Ouachita Parish
      Natchitoches Parish
   Jefferson Davis Parish
           St. Mary Parish
         St. Landry Parish
              Iberia Parish
        St. Charles Parish
         Lafourche Parish
         St. James Parish
           Iberville Parish
       Washington Parish
            Lincoln Parish
        St. Bernard Parish

                        0.00%            2.00%      4.00%      6.00%       8.00%      10.00%       12.00%   14.00%   16.00%   18.00%

Data: LA Commission on Law Enforcement
                                                                    Percent of Total Statewide Cases




      4.3. College Alcohol Use
Defining the College Alcohol Problem

The Harvard School of Public Health, based on its annual College Alcohol Study, reported that
the 2003 mean binge drinking rate was 44.4% (14.2%; range 13.2% to 83.1%) for
undergraduates enrolled at institutions of higher education. Research from various studies has
identified a range of serious “first-hand” consequences of excessive drinking by college students:
deaths from vehicle crashes, accidents, overdoses, suicides, and homicides; battery and sexual
assaults; physical injuries and psychological impairments; criminal offenses and legal records;
academic failures and career problems; credit card debt and poor credit ratings, etc. The greater
community is also subjected to “second-hand” social and economic consequences resulting from
individuals’ excessive drinking: physical harm, property damage, devaluation of neighborhoods,
community and university degradation, excessive involvement of emergency and public safety
personnel, and increased legal costs – all unduly draining available community services and
resources.

The Harvard School of Public Health also has reported: “Binge drinking rates vary among
institutions and student subgroups. African American and Asian, female, and older students have
lower rates of binge drinking than do White, male, and younger students. An increased presence
of students from groups in which alcohol is less heavily consumed tends to moderate the level of
binge drinking in high–binge drinking demographic subgroups. The higher the percentage of
minority, female, and older (aged ≥ 22 years) students in a school, the lower the binge drinking


SPF-SIG                                                                                                                            59
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                  April 5, 2006

rates for total students and high-risk subgroups. In addition, students who did not binge drink in
high school are less likely to start binge drinking at colleges with larger enrollments of minority
and older students, and students who were high school binge drinkers were less likely to
continue drinking this way”.
 (Source: Wechsler and Kuo, “Watering Down Drinks: The Moderating Effect of College
Demographics on Alcohol Use of High-Risk Groups,” American Journal of Public Health, Nov
2003, 93.11.)

Based on those findings and others, epidemiologists should expect to find varying statistics for
alcohol use/consequences by undergraduate students enrolled at different colleges within
Louisiana and throughout the nation. Not only do student populations vary, but so do the
cultural environments of the communities and regions in which they attend college. Further,
surveys base their findings on differing definitions of “binge drinking” and other behaviors.

             4.3.1.    Louisiana State University Undergraduates’ Alcohol Use
Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College is the state’s flagship
institution of higher education with total student enrollment at approximately 30,000 students.
Since 1993, Louisiana State University regularly has administered the College Alcohol Study
administered by the Harvard School of Public Health as part of a grant requirement. As the only
institution of higher education in the state that consistently has been able to assess undergraduate
student substance use and consequences, the following charts provide data from a representative
and random sample of undergraduate students enrolled at Louisiana State University in Baton
Rouge. Response rates have ranged between 45% to 56%. The data presented is typical of
results that might be found for undergraduate students enrolled in a primarily White,
metropolitan, four-year institution of higher education. The Harvard School of Public Health has
noted that the community’s cultural environment strongly influences students’ alcohol
consumption rates, likely to vary both within the Louisiana and throughout the South. The
presentation by Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge serves as one institutional example in
Louisiana and should not be assumed to mirror any other institution.
                                           Binge Drinking Rate




                                                                           59%

                                         51%

          46%                                                                            51%
                                                                 48%
                          43%




      1997            1999             2000                  2001        2002             2003




SPF-SIG                                                                                            60
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                      April 5, 2006

 Source: 1997-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health


The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health defines “binge
drinking” for men as having five or more drinks in a row at least once in the prior two weeks,
and for women as having four or more in a row. Though the combined binge drinking
percentages for all students varied between 43% to 51% from 1997 to 2003 at Louisiana State
University, none of the differences in the binge rate between survey years were statistically
significant at the .05 level. The lowest overall rate occurred in 1999, the year after the campus
experienced negative national attention about a fraternity student’s alcohol overdose.
                                       Binge Rate by Gender
                         Females                 Males               Overall Binge Rate

     70%

                                                                              64%
     60%                                                                  59%               60%
                                               55%             56%
     50%           53%                     51%                          55%               51%
                                 50%                      48%
               46%
                             43%         46%
     40%                                                 42%                          42%
             38%           36%
     30%

     20%

     10%

      0%
               1997         1999          2000            2001            2002            2003
 Source: 1997-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health defines “binge
drinking” for men as having five or more drinks in a row at least once in the prior two weeks,
and for women as having four or more in a row. Results indicate that the binge drinking rate for
men has ranged between 50% to 64% overall and for women between 36% to 55% overall, a
gender difference of 9% to 18% depending on the year. The differences are explained in the next
two graphs.




SPF-SIG                                                                                             61
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                          April 5, 2006


                                Binge Drinking by Students 21 and Over, by Gender


               Males 21-25 who binge drink                            Females 21-25 who binge drink

    70%
                                             60%               63%                  61%
                          60%
                                                                                                 57%
    60%
                                                    49%                                    50%
    50%                                                                                                 45%
            43%                                                       42%
                                 39%

    40%
                   29%
    30%


    20%


    10%


     0%
            1997          1999               2000              2001                 2002         2003


 Source: 1997-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health defines “binge
drinking” for men as having five or more drinks in a row at least once in the prior two weeks,
and for women as having four or more in a row. Results indicate that the binge rate for male
students age 21+ has been fairly stable over time (hovering around 60% annually, except for
43% in 1997). For females age 21+, there was 30% increase from 1997 to 2000, when the
variation between surveys stabilized somewhat (5% to 8% difference).




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                 62
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                        April 5, 2006


                                  Binge Drinking of Underage Students by Gender


                   Males 17-20 who binge drink                  Females 17-20 who binge drink

    70%     67%                                                                   66%          65%

                                                                                         58%
    60%
                                             49%
                   48%                                        48%
    50%
                           41%                       43%
                                                                      41%                             40%
    40%                           34%


    30%


    20%


    10%


     0%
            1997           1999               2000             2001               2002         2003


 Source: 1997-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health defines “binge
drinking” for men as having five or more drinks in a row at least once in the prior two weeks,
and for women as having four or more in a row. Results for students under age 21 indicate that
there was only a 6-7% difference between males and females for 1999, 2000, and 2001 (ranging
between 41% to 49% for males, 34% to 43% for females). For 2002 and 2003, underage male
binge drinking increased greatly to ~66%, where it was in 1997 prior to the infamous fraternity
student death. There is more variation for the underage female population (ranging from 34% to
58%, depending on the year), though females consistently binge drink less than males do,
regardless of age.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                               63
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                     April 5, 2006



                                 Frequent Bingers by Gender with Trend Line


          Male Frequent Bingers         Female Frequent Bingers               Linear (Male Frequent Bingers)
  40%
                                                                                               36%
                                                                                34%                  R2 = 0.9128
  35%                                                                                    33%
                                                              30%
  30%

              24%                                                                                      23%
  25%                                                               23%
                                          22% 22%
        20%
                       19% 19%
  20%


  15%


  10%


  5%


  0%
          1997           1999                2000               2001              2002            2003

 Source: 1997-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health defines
“frequent binge drinking” for men as having five or more drinks in a row at least once in the
prior two weeks, and for women as having four or more in a row. “Frequent binge drinkers”
drank in this manner three or more times in two weeks. Results indicate that, between 1997 and
2003, frequent binge drinking has increased steadily and significantly for undergraduate males.
With the exception of 2002, there has been little variation in frequent binge drinking rates
(~23%) for female undergraduate students.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                            64
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       April 5, 2006


                                                                                                                                     Binge Drinking by Place of Residence


    100%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            95.2%
        90%

        80%
                                                     80.0%
        70%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       63.0%
                                                                                                                          66.7%                                                                                             66.7%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           52.9%                                                                                                                  63.6% 54.3%
        60%                                                                                                                                      52.9%
                                                                          45.6%
        50%

        40%                                                                                              41.5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     39.3%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36%
        30%
                                    28.6%
        20%                                                                                                                                                                                          21.6%

        10%

        0%
                                                1999                                                                 2000                                                                                          2001                                                               2002                                                                      2003


                                                                                       Residential Life                                                                                                                     Greek Houses                                                                                        Off-Campus

 Source: 1997-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health defines
“frequent binge drinking” for men as having five or more drinks in a row at least once in the
prior two weeks, and for women as having four or more in a row. This chart only demonstrates
where binge drinkers reside, not where they consume alcohol. Results indicate that more binge
drinkers reside in Greek houses (64%-95%, depending on the year), followed by students
residing in off-campus houses or apartments (46% to 63%, depending on the year). The fewest
binge drinkers reside in on-campus residence halls (22% to 42%, depending on the year) where
many more freshmen choose to live and more environmental controls are in place.

                                                                                                                                                                 Change From 1997 to 2003


                                                                                                                                                                                              1997                                                           2003
  60%

  50%

  40%

  30%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               erdose




  20%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                nted Sexual Advan
                                                                   ions Last 30 Days

                                                                 ions Past 30 Days




  10%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Treatm ent for Ov
                           nking in College




  0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ter Re gretted




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     lism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                nned Se x
                                     te



                                 nking




                                                                  en Drinking




                                                                                                                                                                                   hool




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Dis rupted
                                                                                                                                                                                                          re/What Did




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              tected Sex




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Got Hurt or Injured




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         pe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              with Police
                                                                                                  5+ Harm s



                                                                                                                                  st 30 Days




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Been Insulted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Got into Argument




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Got into Argument



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ndalized
                                                                                                                                                Missed a Class
                                                                                                                                      st Year
                                                                                                            ng




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Wa s As saulted



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                nken S...
                  Binge Drinking Ra




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Victim of Date Ra
                                                                                        Drove After Dri nki




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Committed Vanda
                                                                                                                                                                 Fell Behind in Sc
             Fre quent Binge Dri




                                                                                                                    Cig arette Use La




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Had Property Va
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Engaged in Unpla
                                              10+ Dri nki ng Occas




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Had to Babysit Dru

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Had Study/Sleep
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Engaged in Unpro
                                                                                                                 Cig arette Use La




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ex perienced Unwa
                                               Usually Binge Wh
                                              3+ Drunken Occas
        Took Up Bin ge Dri




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Got into Troubl e
                                                                                                                                                                                          Did Something La

                                                                                                                                                                                          Forgot Where We




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Requi red Medical




 Source: 1997-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               65
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                    April 5, 2006

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health questions
survey respondents about the negative consequences resulting from their alcohol consumption.
This chart reveals that negative consequences over time have remained in the same relative
position, though some minimal declines (red lines below blue lines) have been noted over the
course of those years. The highest-range negative consequences experienced by 40% to 50% of
respondents are: drove after drinking, engaged in binge drinking, usually binged when drinking,
have had to “babysit” other drunken students, have had studying or sleep disturbed. Mid-range
negative consequences experienced by 20% to 40% of respondents are: frequent binge drinking,
10+ drinking occasions in the last 30 days, was drunk 3+ times in the past month, experienced 5
or more problems (excluding hangover), missed a class, fell behind in school, did something
later regretted, forget where I was or what I did, engaged in unplanned sex, have been insulted,
and got into an argument. Lowest-range negative consequences experienced by 1%-20% are:
took up binge drinking in college, engaged in unprotected sex, committed vandalism, got into
trouble with police, got hurt or injured, required medical treatment, was assaulted, had property
vandalized, experienced an unwanted sexual advance, and was a victim of date rape.

                                            5+ Harm s




                                                                      27.5%


           22.1%
                                                           21.2%
                                        19.5%                                       18.0%
                         18.1%




        1997          1999           2000               2001       2002          2003

 Source: 1997-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health questions
survey respondents about the negative consequences resulting from their alcohol consumption.
This chart illustrates what percentage of respondents experienced five or more negative
consequences resulting from their drinking. Results for this category hover around 20% of
undergraduate respondents, with the exception of 2002 which was about 8% higher. [Note: The
2002 study revealed higher rates for nearly every negative consequence on the survey, compared
with other years.]

Outcomes
    The following alcohol-related negative consequences to LSU undergraduate students
      declined 3-8% from 1997-2001 (College Alcohol Study):
         o driving after drinking (49.9-41.9%)


SPF-SIG                                                                                           66
Louisiana SEW Report                                                          April 5, 2006

          o   getting behind in school work (28.4-25.5%)
          o   forgetting what one did while drinking (29.4-25.7%)
          o   getting hurt or injured (11.7-8.4%)
          o   damaging others’ property (12 – 8.2%)
          o   getting in trouble with police ( 7.9-4.8%)
          o   having studying or sleep interrupted by others (46-43.6%)

    Additional declines (3-8%) in alcohol-related consequences to LSU undergraduate
     students occurred between 1997-2003 (College Alcohol Study):
      had studying/sleep interrupted (46-41.6%)
      missing classes (33-27.8%)
      getting behind in schoolwork (28.4-24%)
      doing something later regretted (33.8-27.9%)
      using marijuana (18.3-14.6%) and cigarettes (32.7-24.9%) in last 30 days
      experiencing five or more of above problems (22.1-18.0%)

    What behaviors have not shown improvements?
       o binge drinking
       o frequent binge drinking among males
       o insulting others
       o arguments
       o fights and assaults
       o unplanned/unprotected sex under the influence
       o babysitting other intoxicated students




SPF-SIG                                                                                 67
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                               April 5, 2006




5. Burden of Tobacco Use
     5.1. State and Parish Long-Term Health Consequences

Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

Death from cardiovascular disease is included in the category described as the leading cause of
mortality in Louisiana (diseases of the heart) and is the leading cause of substance related
mortality in the state. The use of tobacco is the number one preventable cause of cardiovascular
disease.9 The highest rates of cardiovascular disease mortality were found in Franklin, Jackson,
Webster, Madison, and Catahoula Parishes during the years 2001-2003. Nineteen (19) other
parishes were characterized by rates above the state average.

                                    Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Rate 2001-03 by Parish (Top 25)

       Franklin Parish                                                                                                                   6.59
      Jackson Parish                                                                                                           5.99
      Webster Parish                                                                                                    5.53
      Madison Parish                                                                                                   5.48
    Catahoula Parish                                                                                                5.33
         Winn Parish                                                                                         5.08
      Bienville Parish                                                                                     4.99
      Richland Parish                                                                                    4.90
     Claiborne Parish                                                                                    4.89
  West Carroll Parish                                                                                   4.83
       Tensas Parish                                                                                   4.79
     Avoyelles Parish                                                                                4.73
      La Salle Parish                                                                                4.72
   Washington Parish                                                                               4.61
      Caldwell Parish                                                                             4.56
   Morehouse Parish                                                                              4.52
      De Soto Parish                                                                           4.40
        Sabine Parish                                                                   4.14
         Union Parish                                                                   4.12
     Red River Parish                                                                  4.07
  Natchitoches Parish                                                                 4.04
      Rapides Parish                                                                  4.03
Pointe Coupee Parish                                                                 4.00
   East Carroll Parish                                                               3.99
 East Feliciana Parish                                                              3.94
    State of Louisiana                                                   3.30

                         0            1             2              3               4                     5                     6                7
                                                                Rate per 1000 Population
Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                         68
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                             April 5, 2006


Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) is a cooperative effort between the National Center
for Health Statistics (NCHS) and vital registration systems operated in the various jurisdictions
legally responsible for the registration of vital events--births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and
fetal deaths.16 In statistics provided by NVSS from the years 1999 through 2001, Louisiana’s
rates of ischemic cerebrovascular disease were slightly lower than composite rates for the U.S.
The category, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, includes heart attack and stroke.

Death from cerebrovascular disease alone is the third leading cause of mortality in Louisiana and
is included in the category ischemic cerebrovascular disease, along with heart attacks. Smoking
significantly elevates the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease.15 Death from ischemic
cerebrovascular disease is also primarily a problem in Louisiana residents 65 and over, although
a significant amount of death from cardiovascular disease also occurs in those aged 55-64.
                                   Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality Rate 1999-2004

                              3


                                                                                                  LA   US

                             2.5
  Rate Per 1000 Population




                              2




                             1.5




                              1




                             0.5




                              0
                                   1999                       2000                        2001

 Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                     69
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                      April 5, 2006


                                                  Average Annual Ischemic-Cerebrovascular Disease Deaths by Age (1999-2001)
                     9000


                     8000


                     7000


                     6000


                     5000
 Number




                     4000


                     3000


                     2000


                     1000


                                 0
                                      0 thru 11       12 thru 17       18 thru 20        21 thru 29     30 thru 34     35 thru 54        55 thru 64       65 and over


Data - NVSS (SEDS)



                                                 Louisiana Ischemic-Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality Rates by Age (1999-2001)


                                18


                                16


                                14
     Rate per 1000 Population




                                12


                                10


                                8


                                6


                                4


                                2


                                0
                                     0 thru 11      12 thru 17     18 thru 20       21 thru 29   30 thru 34    35 thru 54   55 thru 64      65 and over        Total

Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                                 70
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                             April 5, 2006


Lung Disease

Besides cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, cigarette smoking is also strongly associated
with chronic lung disease.18 Death from lung diseases other than cancer is the fourth leading
cause of substance related mortality in Louisiana. Chronic lower respiratory disease, a type of
lung disease other than cancer, is the sixth leading cause of death in the state. According to
statistics provided by NVSS from 1999 through 2001, rates of lung disease mortality in
Louisiana were below national rates. Winn, Bienville, Grant, Franklin, and Union Parishes
experienced the highest rates of lung disease mortality in the state. (OPH statistics, 2002-2004)
The highest percentages of lung disease deaths in Louisiana occurred in Jefferson, Orleans,
Caddo, East Baton Rouge, St. Tammany, and Ouachita Parishes. (OPH Statistics, 2002-2004)
                                             Lung Disease Mortality Rate 1999-2004
                             0.5


                            0.45
                                                                                                LA   US

                             0.4


                            0.35
 Rate Per 1000 Population




                             0.3


                            0.25


                             0.2


                            0.15


                             0.1


                            0.05


                              0
                                   1999   2000          2001         2002*           2003*   2004*

1999-01 Data - NVSS (SEDS)
*2002-04 Data - OPH




SPF-SIG                                                                                                    71
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                            April 5, 2006

Winn, Bienville, Grant, Franklin, and Union Parishes experienced the highest rates of lung
disease mortality in the state. (OPH statistics, 2002-2004)

                                          Lung Disease Mortality Rate 2002-04 by Parish (Top 25)
         Winn Parish                                                                                                                  0.71
      Bienville Parish                                                                                                         0.67
         Grant Parish                                                                                                       0.65
       Franklin Parish                                                                                               0.62
         Union Parish                                                                                         0.58
       Iberville Parish                                                                                   0.56
        Caddo Parish                                                                                   0.54
      Webster Parish                                                                                  0.54
       Bossier Parish                                                                              0.52
   East Carroll Parish                                                                            0.52
  Natchitoches Parish                                                                             0.52
      Rapides Parish                                                                            0.50
   Washington Parish                                                                           0.50
      Ouachita Parish                                                                          0.50
    Concordia Parish                                                                         0.49
     Avoyelles Parish                                                                        0.49
        Sabine Parish                                                                       0.48
      Richland Parish                                                                     0.47
      St. Mary Parish                                                                  0.45
      La Salle Parish                                                                 0.45
 East Feliciana Parish                                                               0.44
   St. Bernard Parish                                                                0.44
          Allen Parish                                                            0.42
      Madison Parish                                                            0.41
  West Carroll Parish                                                        0.39
    State of Louisiana                                                     0.37

                          0         0.1          0.2         0.3             0.4              0.5             0.6               0.7          0.8
                                                                   Rate per 1000 Population
Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                      72
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                 April 5, 2006

The highest percentages of lung disease deaths in Louisiana occurred in Jefferson, Orleans,
Caddo, East Baton Rouge, St. Tammany, and Ouachita Parishes. (OPH Statistics, 2002-2004)


                                     Lung Disease Mortality Rate: Parish as Percent of State Total (Top 25)
         Jefferson Parish                                                                                                10.1%
          Orleans Parish                                                                                          9.5%
           Caddo Parish                                                                                    8.2%
 East Baton Rouge Parish                                                                        7.1%
     St. Tammany Parish                                                   4.4%
         Ouachita Parish                                                  4.4%
          Rapides Parish                                           3.8%
        Calcasieu Parish                                       3.4%
           Bossier Parish                                    3.2%
         Lafayette Parish                                   3.1%
        Livingston Parish                            2.3%
       Terrebonne Parish                            2.2%
      Tangipahoa Parish                           2.0%
        St. Landry Parish                       1.8%
       St. Bernard Parish                      1.7%
            Iberia Parish                    1.5%
        Lafourche Parish                    1.5%
          St. Mary Parish                   1.4%
          Webster Parish                   1.3%
      Washington Parish                    1.3%
         Avoyelles Parish                 1.2%
        Ascension Parish                  1.2%
     Natchitoches Parish                 1.2%
          Iberville Parish              1.1%
           Vernon Parish               1.0%
           Acadia Parish               1.0%

                        0.0%                 2.0%                4.0%               6.0%                8.0%      10.0%          12.0%
                                                                        Percentage of Statewide Cases
 Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                          73
Louisiana SEW Report                                                              April 5, 2006

The following map displays the relative rate ratios of lung disease death in Louisiana parishes.
The parishes experiencing the highest rates from 2002-2004 were in rural areas in north and
central Louisiana. Bienville, Franklin, Grant, Union, and Winn Parishes were the Louisiana
parishes with the highest rates of lung disease death.




                                 Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                      74
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                          April 5, 2006


Lung Cancer Mortality

Lung cancer deaths are the third most common cause of substance related death in Louisiana.
There is direct and incontrovertible evidence for a dose related causal association between lung
cancer and smoking. Evidence exists that exposure to second-hand smoke also is a significant
risk factor for lung cancer. In statistics from 1999 through 2001 provided by NVSS, Louisiana’s
mortality rates for lung cancer deaths have exceeded the national rates.



                                          Lung Cancer Mortality Rate 1999-2004
                             0.8

                                                                                              LA   US
                             0.7



                             0.6
  Rate per 1000 Population




                             0.5



                             0.4



                             0.3



                             0.2



                             0.1



                              0
                                   1999            2000              2001        2002-2004*
1999-01 Data - NVSS (SEDS)
*2002-04 Data - OPH




SPF-SIG                                                                                                 75
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                       April 5, 2006


                             Average Annual Number of Lung Cancer Deaths by Age (1999-2001)

          2000


          1800


          1600


          1400


          1200
 Number




          1000


          800


          600


          400


          200


            0
                 0 thru 11   12 thru 17   18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64   65 and over


Data - NVSS (SEDS)

Mortality from lung cancer usually occurs in later years, the heaviest burden in those persons
aged 65 and above. Significant numbers of death from lung cancer also occur in the 35-54 and
55-64 year age groups.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                  76
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                      April 5, 2006


                                                   Louisiana Lung Cancer Mortality Rate by Age Group (1999-2001)

                             4



                            3.5



                             3
 Rate per 1000 Population




                            2.5



                             2



                            1.5



                             1



                            0.5



                             0
                                  0 thru 11   12 thru 17   18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64   65 and over    Total


Data - NVSS (SEDS)

As would be expected, the highest mortality rate for lung cancer also occurs in the upper ages,
the highest in the 65 and over group. Rates begin to rise significantly after age 35.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                             77
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                April 5, 2006


Cardiovascular Disease Mortality (excluding heart attack and stroke)

Cardiovascular diseases other than heart attack and stroke are the second leading substance
related causes of death in Louisiana. During the years 1999-2001, Louisiana’s rates of non-heart
attack, non-stroke related cardiovascular disease appeared to remain stable, no upward or
downward trend was noted, but the state rate remained well above the national rate.


                                    Cardiovascular Disease Deaths Mortality Rate 1999-2001
                                          (Excluding Ischemic and Cerebrovascular Disease)
                              1

                                                                                                    LA   US
                             0.9


                             0.8


                             0.7
  Rate Per 1000 Population




                             0.6


                             0.5


                             0.4


                             0.3


                             0.2


                             0.1


                              0
                                   1999                          2000                        2001

Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                       78
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                 April 5, 2006

Death from cardiovascular disease other than ischemic and cerebrovascular disease (heart attack
and stroke) is a problem primarily in Louisiana residents age 65 and over, although a significant
amount of death from cardiovascular disease also occurs in those aged 55-64.

                                                Louisiana Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Rates by Age (1999-2001)
                                                 (Excluding Ischemic Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease)

                             7



                             6



                             5
  Rate per 1000 Population




                             4



                             3



                             2



                             1



                             0
                                 0 thru 11   12 thru 17   18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64   65 and over   Total


Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                          79
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                       April 5, 2006


                             Average Annual Cardiovascular Disease Deaths by Age (1999-2001)
                                    (excluding Ischemic and Cerebrovascular Disease)
          3500



          3000



          2500



          2000
 Number




          1500



          1000



          500



            0
                 0 thru 11   12 thru 17   18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64    65 and over


Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                   80
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                       April 5, 2006


All Cardiovascular Disease
                                    Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Rate 2001-03 by Parish (Top 25)

       Franklin Parish                                                                                                                6.59
      Jackson Parish                                                                                                           5.99
      Webster Parish                                                                                                    5.53
      Madison Parish                                                                                                   5.48
    Catahoula Parish                                                                                                5.33
         Winn Parish                                                                                         5.08
      Bienville Parish                                                                                     4.99
      Richland Parish                                                                                    4.90
     Claiborne Parish                                                                                    4.89
  West Carroll Parish                                                                                   4.83
       Tensas Parish                                                                                   4.79
     Avoyelles Parish                                                                                4.73
      La Salle Parish                                                                                4.72
   Washington Parish                                                                               4.61
      Caldwell Parish                                                                             4.56
   Morehouse Parish                                                                              4.52
      De Soto Parish                                                                           4.40
        Sabine Parish                                                                   4.14
         Union Parish                                                                   4.12
     Red River Parish                                                                  4.07
  Natchitoches Parish                                                                 4.04
      Rapides Parish                                                                  4.03
Pointe Coupee Parish                                                                 4.00
   East Carroll Parish                                                               3.99
 East Feliciana Parish                                                              3.94
    State of Louisiana                                                   3.30

                         0            1             2              3               4                     5                     6             7
                                                                Rate per 1000 Population
Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                               81
Louisiana SEW Report                                       April 5, 2006




                       Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                              82
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                       April 5, 2006



                 5.2. State and Parish Consumption Patterns

Adult Current Cigarette Use

Respondents were classified as current smokers if they had smoked >100 cigarettes during their
lifetimes and reported smoking every day or some days during the 12 months preceding the
survey. The percentage of Orleans Parish respondents (30.1%) that indicated current use, was
the highest percentage of any U.S. county.11,12

The percentage of Louisiana respondents indicating current use was above the national average
in all age groups for 2001 through 2003, with the exception of 2001 18-20 year olds and 2002
55-64 year olds. The mean percentage for current use for the three years was above 15% in all
age groups except the 65 year and older group.

                                                                 2003 Adult Current Cigarette Use by Age Range

                                           40.0


                                                                                                                        2003 LA
                                           35.0
   Percent of Respondents Indicating Use




                                                                                                                        2003 US


                                           30.0



                                           25.0



                                           20.0



                                           15.0



                                           10.0



                                            5.0



                                            0.0
                                                  18-20 yrs   21-29 yrs      30-34 yrs      35-54 yrs       55-64-yrs   65+ yrs


Data - BRFSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                              83
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                  April 5, 2006


Adult Daily Cigarette Use

The percentages of Louisiana residents 18 years of age and older that indicated daily use of
cigarettes were similar to the national average (2001-2003). The highest percentages of
respondents reporting cigarette use were in the 21 to 29 year old group, although very high
percentages were reported in the 18-20, 30-34, and 35-54 year old groups. The lowest
percentages were in the group 65 years of age and older.

                                                              2003 Adult Daily Cigarette Use by Age Range
                                           30.0

                                                                                                                  2003 LA

                                                                                                                  2003 US
   Percent of Respondents Indicating Use




                                           25.0




                                           20.0




                                           15.0




                                           10.0




                                            5.0




                                            0.0
                                                  18-20 yrs   21-29 yrs    30-34 yrs    35-54 yrs     55-64-yrs   65+ yrs

Data - BRFSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                         84
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                             April 5, 2006


                                   Youth Percent Cigarette Use Within Last 30 days

                     0.00%        5.00%            10.00%       15.00%          20.00%                25.00%         30.00%

   Zachary Community                                                                                                28.35%

       Cameron Parish                                                                                   24.75%

          Union Parish                                                                              23.50%

       Caldwell Parish                                                                         22.69%

      Avoyelles Parish                                                                       22.05%

    Terrebonne Parish                                                                        21.87%

           Allen Parish                                                                    21.53%

      Catahoula Parish                                                                     21.46%

        Franklin Parish                                                                   21.03%

          Grant Parish                                                                    20.93%

    Beauregard Parish                                                                 20.62%

         Sabine Parish                                                             19.77%

 Jefferson Davis Parish                                                            19.69%

       Webster Parish                                                            19.19%

   West Carroll Parish                                                           19.00%

 2004 CCYS

                               Table 5-1: Youth Tobacco Use Within the last 30 days
         District                     Not at all     1 or more occasions      Percent Use Within Last 30 days
         Zachary Community                  235                          93                                      28.35%
         Cameron Parish                     307                      101                                         24.75%
         Union Parish                       459                      141                                         23.50%
         Caldwell Parish                     92                          27                                      22.69%
         Avoyelles Parish                   944                      267                                         22.05%
         Terrebonne Parish                1,590                      445                                         21.87%
         Allen Parish                       656                      180                                         21.53%
         Catahoula Parish                   194                          53                                      21.46%
         Franklin Parish                    507                      135                                         21.03%
         Grant Parish                       544                      144                                         20.93%
         Beauregard Parish                  920                      239                                         20.62%
         Sabine Parish                      771                      190                                         19.77%
         Jefferson Davis Parish             999                      245                                         19.69%
         Webster Parish                   1,095                      260                                         19.19%
         West Carroll Parish                162                          38                                      19.00%
         Iberia Parish                    2,375                      542                                         18.58%
         Bienville Parish                   427                          97                                      18.51%
         Iberville Parish                   657                      149                                         18.49%
         Lafourche Parish                 1,925                      431                                         18.29%
         St. Charles Parish               1,294                      288                                         18.20%



SPF-SIG                                                                                                                       85
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                       April 5, 2006

      District                  Not at all   1 or more occasions   Percent Use Within Last 30 days
      Natchitoches Parish             854                   188                            18.04%
      Calcasieu Parish              5,526                  1,199                           17.83%
      LaSalle Parish                  473                   102                            17.74%
      Red River Parish                183                    39                            17.57%
      St. Martin Parish             1,240                   255                            17.06%
      Ouachita Parish               3,006                   617                            17.03%
      Plaquemines Parish              863                   177                            17.02%
      Richland Parish                 616                   126                            16.98%
      Assumption Parish               827                   168                            16.88%
      Ascension Parish              3,019                   590                            16.35%
      St. Landry Parish             2,323                   453                            16.32%
      Livingston Parish             4,258                   827                            16.26%
      Louisiana Statewide         83,463                  16,042                           16.12%
      Washington Parish               730                   140                            16.09%
      Lafayette Parish              4,114                   778                            15.90%
      Evangeline Parish               929                   175                            15.85%
      City of Bogalusa                284                    53                            15.73%
      Acadia Parish                 1,378                   255                            15.62%
      St. Mary Parish               1,704                   311                            15.43%
      Vernon Parish                 1,086                   198                            15.42%
      Tangipahoa Parish             3,312                   590                            15.12%
      West Feliciana Parish           491                    86                            14.90%
      St. James Parish                486                    85                            14.89%
      Bossier Parish                2,495                   433                            14.79%
      Concordia Parish                583                   101                            14.77%
      Morehouse Parish                702                   120                            14.60%
      East Baton Rouge Parish       7,748                  1,322                           14.58%
      West Baton Rouge Parish         574                    96                            14.33%
      Jackson Parish                  409                    65                            13.71%
      Claiborne Parish                441                    70                            13.70%
      City of Baker                   362                    57                            13.60%
      Tensas Parish                   132                    20                            13.16%
      Rapides Parish                2,140                   320                            13.01%
      Jefferson Parish              6,086                   907                            12.97%
      Caddo Parish                  1,332                   192                            12.60%
      Winn Parish                     503                    72                            12.52%
      Lincoln Parish                  828                   116                            12.29%
      DeSoto Parish                   510                    67                            11.61%
      St. Bernard Parish              709                    91                            11.38%
      East Carroll Parish             306                    31                             9.20%
      Orleans Parish                  777                    70                             8.26%




SPF-SIG                                                                                              86
                      Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                                                      April 5, 2006

                                   District                                              Not at all               1 or more occasions                             Percent Use Within Last 30 days
                                   City of Monroe                                                  1,047                                                81                                                          7.18%
                                   St. Helena Parish                                                 242                                                14                                                          5.47%
                                   Pointe Coupee Parish                                              154                                                   5                                                        3.14%
                                                  Parish
                                   MadisonHempstead
                                    Little River Hempstead
                                    Little River Hempstead
                                     Little River Hempstead
                                    Little River Hempstead
                                    Little River Hempstead
                                     Little River                Nevada
                                                                 Nevada
                                                                 Nevada
                                                                                                        76                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                      Sunflower
                                                                                                                                                      Sunflower
                                                                                                                                                      Sunflower
                                                                                                                                                      Sunflower
                                                                                                                                                      Sunflower
                                                                                                                                                      Sunflower                                                     0.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lowndes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lowndes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lowndes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lowndes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lowndes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lowndes
                                                                 Nevada
                                                                 Nevada
                                                                 Nevada                                                                                           Leflore
                                                                                                                                                                   Leflore
                                                                                                                                                                  Leflore
                                                                                                                    Drew
                                                                                                                    Drew
                                                                                                                    Drew
                                                                                                                    Drew
                                                                                                                    Drew
                                                                                                                    Drew                                          Leflore
                                                                                                                                                                  Leflore
                                                                                                                                                                   Leflore         Montgomery
                                                                                                                                                                                   Montgomery
                                                                                                                                                                                    Montgomery
                                                                                                                                                                                   Montgomery
                                                                                                                                                                                   Montgomery
                                                                                                                                                                                    Montgomery      Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oktibbeha                                 Tuscaloosa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tuscaloosa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tuscaloosa
            Red River
            Red River
            Red River
            Red River
            Red River
            Red River                                                           Ouachita Calhoun
                                                                                OuachitaCalhoun
                                                                                Ouachita
                                                                                OuachitaCalhoun
                                                                                OuachitaCalhoun
                                                                                OuachitaCalhoun                                                                              Carroll
                                                                                                                                                                             Carroll
                                                                                                                                                                             Carroll
                                                                                                                                                                             Carroll
                                                                                                                                                                             Carroll
                                                                                                                                                                             Carroll                                                          Tuscaloosa
                                                                                         Calhoun                                                                                                                                Pickens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pickens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pickens
                                                                                                                                                                                            Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                            Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                            Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                            Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                            Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                            Choctaw                             Pickens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pickens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pickens
                                  Bowie
                                  Bowie
                                  Bowie                                                               Bradley
                                                                                                      Bradley
                                                                                                      Bradley
                                                                                                      Bradley
                                  Bowie
                                  Bowie
                                  Bowie
                                                                                                                                      ChicotWashington
                                                                                                                                      ChicotWashington
                                                                                                                                      ChicotWashington
                                                                                                                                      ChicotWashington
                                                                                                                                      ChicotWashington
                                                                                                                                      ChicotWashington                                                             Noxubee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Noxubee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Noxubee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Noxubee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Noxubee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Noxubee
                                                   Miller
                                                   Miller
                                                   Miller
                                                   Miller
                                                   Miller
                                                   Miller                                                                                                                                             Winston
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Winston
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Winston
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Winston
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Winston
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Winston
                                                          Lafayette Columbia
                                                           Lafayette Columbia
                                                          Lafayette Columbia           Humphreys
                                                                                       Humphreys
                                                                                       Humphreys Holmes           Ashley
                                                                                                                  Ashley
                                                                                                                  Ashley                                                  Holmes
                                                                                                                                                                          Holmes
                                                                                                                                                                          Holmes      Attala
                                                                                                                                                                                      Attala
                                                                                                                                                                                      Attala
                Titus
                Titus
                Titus
                Titus
                Titus
                Titus
                        Morris
                        Morris
                        Morris
                        Morris
                        Morris
                        Morris
                                                                          Ashley
                                                                          Ashley
                                                                          Ashley                 Holmes
                                             Relative Columbia of 30 day Youth Cigarette Use Holmes Attala
                                                 Lafayette Columbia
                                                  Lafayette
                                                 Lafayette Columbia
                                                            Rate Union
                                                                    Union
                                                                    Union
                                                                    Union
                                                                    Union
                                                                    Union              Humphreys
                                                                                       Humphreys
                                                                                       Humphreys        Attala
                                                                                                 2004Attala
                                                                                                         CCYS                                                                                                                       Greene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greene
                                   Cass
                                   Cass
                                   Cass
                                   Cass                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Hale
                 Camp
                 Camp
                 Camp                                                                                                                              Sharkey
                                                                                                                                                   Sharkey
                                                                                                                                                   Sharkey
                                                                                                                                                   Sharkey
                                                                                                                                                   Sharkey
                                                                                                                                                   Sharkey                                            Neshoba
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Neshoba
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Neshoba      Kemper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Kemper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Kemper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Kemper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Kemper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Kemper
                 Camp                                                                                                                                                                        Leake
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leake
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leake     Neshoba
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Neshoba
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Neshoba                   Sumter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sumter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sumter
                                                                                                                                                                  Yazoo
                                                                                                                                                                  Yazoo
                                                                                                                                                                  Yazoo                     Leake
                                                                                                                                                                                             Leake
                                                                                                                                                                                            Leake                               Sumter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sumter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sumter
                                                                                                                        West CarrollCarroll
                                                                                                                         West East Carroll
                                                                                                                        West Carroll
                                                                                                                        West Carroll
                                                                                                                              East
                                                                                                                              East Carroll                        Yazoo
                                                                                                                                                                  Yazoo
                                                                                                                                                                  Yazoo
                                                                           Claiborne
                                                                           Claiborne
                                                                           Claiborne
                                                                           Claiborne           Union
                                                                                               Union
                                                                                               Union
                                                                                               Union
                                                                                               Union
                                                                                               Union              Morehouse East Carroll
                                                                                                                  Morehouse East Carroll
                                                                                                                  Morehouse East Carroll
                                                                                                                  Morehouse
                                                                                                                  Morehouse
                                                                                                                  Morehouse         Issaquena
                                                                                                                                      Issaquena
                                                                                                                                     Issaquena
                                                                                                                                     Issaquena
                                                                                                                                      Issaquena
                                                                                                                                    Issaquena                           Madison
                                                                                                                                                                        Madison
                                                                                                                                                                        Madison
                                  Marion
                                  Marion
                                  Marion
                                  Marion
                                  Marion
                                  Marion                                                                                                                                Madison
                                                                                                                                                                        Madison
                                                                                                                                                                        Madison
                Upshur
                Upshur
                Upshur                                       Webster
                                                              Webster
                                                             Webster
                                                             Webster
                                                             Webster
                                                              Webster
                Upshur
                Upshur
                Upshur
                                  Harrison
                                  Harrison
                                  Harrison
                                                 Caddo Bossier
                                                 Caddo Bossier
                                                 Caddo Bossier
                                                 Caddo Bossier
                                                 Caddo Bossier
                                                 Caddo Bossier
                                                                                       Lincoln
                                                                                       Lincoln
                                                                                        Lincoln
                                                                                        Lincoln
                                                                                       Lincoln
                                                                                       Lincoln
                                                                                                       Ouachita
                                                                                                       Ouachita
                                                                                                       Ouachita
                                                                                                                                                                       Ranges for Relative Rate Ratio
                                                                                                                                                                               Scott
                                                                                                                                                                               Scott
                                                                                                                                                                               Scott
                                                                                                                                                                               Scott
                                                                                                                                                                               Scott
                                                                                                                                                                               Scott Newton Lauderdale
                                                                                                                                                                                     Newton Lauderdale
                                                                                                                                                                                     Newton
                                                                                                                                                                                     Newton
                                                                                                                                                                                     Newton
                                                                                                                                                                                     Newton
                                                                                                                                                                                            Lauderdale
                                                                                                                                                                                             Lauderdale
                                                                                                                                                                                            Lauderdale
                                                                                                                                                                                             Lauderdale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marengo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marengo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marengo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marengo
                                  Harrison
                                  Harrison
                                  Harrison                                                             Ouachita
                                                                                                       Ouachita
                                                                                                       Ouachita
                      Gregg
                      Gregg
                      Gregg
                      Gregg
                      Gregg
                      Gregg                                                                                         Richland
                                                                                                                    Richland
                                                                                                                    Richland
                                                                                                                    Richland
                                                                                                                    Richland
                                                                                                                    Richland           Madison
                                                                                                                                       Madison
                                                                                                                                       Madison
                                                                                                                                       Madison      Warren
                                                                                                                                                    Warren
                                                                                                                                                    Warren
                                                                                                                                                    Warren        Hinds
                                                                                                                                                                  Hinds
                                                                                                                                                                  Hinds
                                                                                                                                                                  Hinds
                                                                                                                                                                  Hinds
                                                                                                                                                                  Hinds
                                                                                                                                                                             Rankin
                                                                                                                                                                             Rankin
                                                                                                                                                                             Rankin
                                                                                                                                                                             Rankin
                                                                                                                                                                             Rankin
                                                                                                                                                                             Rankin                  Means
     Smith
     Smith
     Smith
     Smith
     Smith
     Smith                                                              Bienville
                                                                        Bienville
                                                                        Bienville
                                                                        Bienville
                                                                        Bienville
                                                                        Bienville         Jackson
                                                                                           Jackson
                                                                                          Jackson
                                                                                          Jackson
                                                                                           Jackson
                                                                                          Jackson
                                                                                                                         Franklin
                                                                                                                         Franklin
                                                                                                                         Franklin
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.71
                                                                                                                                                                                         1.28 toJasper
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (12)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Clarke     Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choctaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choctaw
                                    Panola
                                    Panola
                                    Panola                                                                               Franklin                                                         Smith
                                                                                                                                                                                          Smith
                                                                                                                                                                                          Smith
                                                                                                                                                                                          Smith
                                                                                                                                                                                          Smith
                                                                                                                                                                                          Smith
                                    Panola
                                    Panola
                                    Panola                                                               Caldwell
                                                                                                         Caldwell
                                                                                                         Caldwell
                         Rusk
                         Rusk
                         Rusk
                         Rusk                           De SotoRed River
                                                        De SotoRed River
                                                        De SotoRed River
                                                        De SotoRed River
                                                        De SotoRed River
                                                        De SotoRed River
                                                                                                         Caldwell
                                                                                                                                       Tensas Claiborne
                                                                                                                                       Tensas Claiborne
                                                                                                                                       Tensas Claiborne
                                                                                                                                       Tensas Claiborne
                                                                                                                                       Tensas
                                                                                                                                       Tensas                               Simpson
                                                                                                                                                                            Simpson
                                                                                                                                                                            Simpson
                                                                                                                                                                                         1.07 to 1.28              (12)
                                                                                                                                                                            Simpson
                                                                                                                                                                            Simpson
                                                                                                                                                                            Simpson
                                                                                                                                                                 Copiah
                                                                                                                                                                 Copiah
                                                                                                                                                                Copiah
                                                                                         Winn
                                                                                         Winn
                                                                                         Winn
                                                                                         Winn
                                                                                         Winn
                                                                                         Winn
                                                                                                                                                                 Copiah
                                                                                                                                                                Copiah
                                                                                                                                                                 Copiah                  0.95 to 1.07              (12)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wayne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wayne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wayne                   Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Clarke
                                                                                                                                                                                         0.79 Jones 0.95
                                                                                                                                                                                       Covington toJones           (12)
                                                                                                                                              Jefferson
                                                                                                                                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                              Jefferson
                                                                                                                                              Jefferson
                                                                                                                                              Jefferson
                                                                                                                                               Jefferson                                            Jones
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Jones
                                                                                                                                                                                       Covington Jones
                                                                                                                                                                                       Covington Jones
       Cherokee
       Cherokee
       Cherokee
       Cherokee
       Cherokee
       Cherokee                           Shelby
                                          Shelby
                                          Shelby
                                          Shelby
                                          Shelby
                                          Shelby                       Natchitoches
                                                                       Natchitoches
                                                                       Natchitoches
                                                                       Natchitoches
                                                                       Natchitoches
                                                                       Natchitoches                                                                                           JeffersonCovington
                                                                                                                                                                                       Covington
                                                                                                                                                                                       Covington
                                                                                                                                                                               Jefferson Davis
                                                                                                                                                                              Jefferson Davis
                                                                                                                                                                              Jefferson Davis
                                                                                                                                                                              Jefferson Davis
                                                                                                                                                                               Jefferson Davis
                                                                                                                                                                                         Davis
                                                                                             Grant
                                                                                             Grant
                                                                                             Grant
                                                                                             Grant
                                                                                             Grant
                                                                                             Grant
                                                                                                         La Salle Catahoula
                                                                                                        La Salle Catahoula
                                                                                                        La Salle Catahoula
                                                                                                        La Salle Catahoula
                                                                                                        La Salle Catahoula
                                                                                                         La Salle Catahoula
                                                                                                                                                                        Lawrence
                                                                                                                                                                        Lawrence
                                                                                                                                                                         Lawrence
                                                                                                                                                               Lincoln Lawrence
                                                                                                                                                               Lincoln Lawrence
                                                                                                                                                                Lincoln Lawrence
                                                                                                                                                               Lincoln
                                                                                                                                                                Lincoln
                                                                                                                                                               Lincoln                   0       to 0.79           (12)         Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Washington
                                                                                                                                  Adams
                                                                                                                                   Adams
                                                                                                                                   Adams            Franklin
                                                                                                                                                    Franklin
                                                                                                                                                    Franklin
                                                                                                                                                    Franklin
                                                                                                                                                    Franklin
                                                                                                                                                    Franklin
                        Nacogdoches
                        Nacogdoches
                        Nacogdoches
                        Nacogdoches
                        Nacogdoches
                        Nacogdoches                         Sabine
                                                            Sabine
                                                            Sabine                                                                 Adams
                                                                                                                                  Adams
                                                                                                                                   Adams
                                                            Sabine
                                                            Sabine
                                                            Sabine
                                                                                                                           Concordia
                                                                                                                           Concordia
                                                                                                                           Concordia                                                                                   Greene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Greene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Greene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Greene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Greene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Greene
                                                                                                                           Concordia
                                                                                                                           Concordia
                                                                                                                           Concordia                                                           LamarForrest Perry
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Perry
                                                                                                                                                                                               LamarForrest Perry
                                                                                                                                                                                                Lamar
                                    San AugustineSabine
                                     San AugustineSabine
                                    San AugustineSabine
                                    San AugustineSabine
                                     San AugustineSabine
                                    San AugustineSabine                                                                                                                            Marion
                                                                                                                                                                                   Marion
                                                                                                                                                                                  Marion
                                                                                                                                                                                   Marion
                                                                                                                                                                                  Marion
                                                                                                                                                                                   Marion      LamarForrest Perry
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Forrest Perry
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Forrest Perry
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Forrest
                                                                                                                                                                     Pike
                                                                                                                                                                     Pike
                                                                                                                                                                     Pike    Walthall
                                                                                                                                                                             Walthall
                                                                                                                                                                             Walthall
                                                                                                                                                                             Walthall
                                                                                                                                                                             Walthall
                                                                                                                                                                             Walthall
                             Angelina
                             Angelina
                             Angelina                                                                                                  Wilkinson
                                                                                                                                       Wilkinson
                                                                                                                                       Wilkinson       Amite
                                                                                                                                                       Amite
                                                                                                                                                       Amite
                                                                                                                                                       Amite
                                                                                                                                                       Amite
                                                                                                                                                       Amite         Pike
                                                                                                                                                                     Pike
                                                                                                                                                                     Pike
   Houston
   Houston
   Houston
   Houston                   Angelina
                             Angelina
                             Angelina                                                        Rapides
                                                                                             Rapides
                                                                                             Rapides
                                                                                             Rapides                                   Wilkinson
                                                                                                                                       Wilkinson
                                                                                                                                       Wilkinson
                                                                       Vernon
                                                                       Vernon
                                                                       Vernon
                                                                       Vernon
                                                                       Vernon
                                                                       Vernon                                 Avoyelles
                                                                                                              Avoyelles
                                                                                                              Avoyelles
                                                                                                              Avoyelles
                                                                                                              Avoyelles
                                                                                                              Avoyelles
            Trinity
            Trinity
            Trinity                                                                                                                                                                                                    George
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       George
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       George
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       George
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       George
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       George                    Baldwin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Baldwin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Baldwin
            Trinity                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Baldwin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Baldwin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Baldwin
                                                                                                                                                                      Washington
                                                                                                                                                                      Washington
                                                                                                                                                                       Washington                          Stone
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Stone
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Stone                    Mobile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mobile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mobile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mobile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mobile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mobile
                                                                                                                                                     St.              Washington
                                                                                                                                                                      Washington
                                                                                                                                                                       Washington                          Stone
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Stone
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Stone
                                                                                                                               West Feliciana Feliciana Helena
                                                                                                                               West Feliciana Feliciana Helena
                                                                                                                               West Feliciana Feliciana Helena
                                                                                                                                         East
                                                                                                                                         East
                                                                                                                                          East
                                                                                                                                         East
                                                                                                                                         East
                                                                                                                               West Feliciana Feliciana
                                                                                                                                          East
                                                                                                                               West Feliciana Feliciana
                                                                                                                               West Feliciana Feliciana
                                                                                                                                                     St.
                                                                                                                                                     St.
                                                                                                                                                     St.                          Pearl River
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pearl River
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pearl River
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pearl River
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pearl River
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pearl River
                      Polk
                      Polk
                      Polk                                                                                                        Coupee
                                                                                                                           Pointe Coupee
                                                                                                                           Pointe Coupee
                                                                                                                           Pointe Coupee
                                                                                                                           Pointe Coupee
                                                                                                                           Pointe Coupee
                                                                                                                           Pointe
                      Polk
                      Polk
                      Polk          Tyler
                                    Tyler
                                    Tyler
                                    Tyler                                                      Evangeline
                                                                                               Evangeline
                                                                                               Evangeline
                                                                                               Evangeline                                                    Tangipahoa
                                                                                                                                                              Tangipahoa
                                                                                                                                                             Tangipahoa                                                  Jackson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Jackson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Jackson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Jackson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Jackson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Jackson
                                                                                                                                                             Tangipahoa
                                                                                                                                                              Tangipahoa
                                                                                                                                                             Tangipahoa
                                               Jasper Newton
                                                Jasper Newton
                                               Jasper Newton
                                                Jasper Newton Beauregard
                                               Jasper Newton Beauregard
                                               Jasper Newton Beauregard              Allen
                                                                                     Allen
                                                                                     Allen
                                                                                     Allen
                                                                                     Allen
                                                                                     Allen
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Harrison
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Harrison
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Harrison
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Harrison
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Harrison
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Harrison
                                                              Beauregard
                                                              Beauregard
                                                              Beauregard                                   St. Landry
                                                                                                           St. Landry
                                                                                                           St. Landry
                                                                                                           St.                             East Baton Rouge
                                                                                                                                           East Baton Rouge
        San Jacinto
        San Jacinto
        San Jacinto
        San Jacinto
        San Jacinto
        San Jacinto                                                                                                                         East Baton
                                                                                                                                           East Baton Rouge
                                                                                                                                            East Baton
                                                                                                                                     West Baton Baton Rouge
                                                                                                                                     West East RougeRouge
                                                                                                                                     West Baton RougeRouge                      St. Tammany Hancock
                                                                                                                                                                                St. Tammany Hancock
                                                                                                                                                                                St. Tammany Hancock
                                                                                                                                                                                St. Tammany Hancock
                                                                                                                                                                                St. Tammany Hancock
                                                                                                                                                                                St. Tammany Hancock
                                                                                                                                     West Baton Rouge Livingston
                                                                                                                                                         Livingston
                                                                                                                                                        Livingston
                                                                                                                                                        Livingston
                                                                                                                                                         Livingston
                                                                                                                                                        Livingston

Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery                         Hardin
                                   Hardin
                                   Hardin                                                            Acadia
                                                                                                     Acadia
                                                                                                     Acadia
                                                                                                     Acadia                St. Martin Iberville
                                                                                                                           St. Martin Iberville
                                                                                                                           St. Martin Iberville
                                                                                                                           St. Martin Iberville
                                                                                                                           St. Martin Iberville
                                                                                                                           St. Martin Iberville      Ascension
                                                                                                                                                     Ascension
                                                                                                                                                     Ascension
Montgomery
Montgomery
Montgomery                         Hardin
                                   Hardin
                                   Hardin                                       Jefferson Davis
                                                                                 Jefferson Davis
                                                                                Jefferson Davis
                                                                                Jefferson Davis
                                                                                 Jefferson Davis
                                                                                Jefferson Davis                                                      Ascension
                                                                                                                                                     Ascension
                                                                                                                                                     Ascension
                                                                 Calcasieu
                                                                 Calcasieu
                                                                 Calcasieu                                   Lafayette
                                                                                                            Lafayette
                                                                                                            Lafayette
                                                                                                            Lafayette
                                                                                                            Lafayette
                                                                                                             Lafayette                                      St. John The Baptist
                                                                                                                                                             St. John The Baptist
                                                                                                                                                            St. John The Baptist
                                                                 Calcasieu
                                                                 Calcasieu
                                                                 Calcasieu                                                                                  St. John The Baptist
                                                                                                                                                             St. John The Baptist
                                                                                                                                                            St. John The Baptist      Orleans
                                                                                                                                                                                      Orleans
                                                                                                                                                                                      Orleans
                                                                                                                                                                                      Orleans
                                                                                                                                                                                      Orleans
                                                                                                                                                                                      Orleans
                       Liberty
                        Liberty
                       Liberty
                       Liberty                                                                                                                         St. James
                                                                                                                                                       St. James
                                                                                                                                                       St. James
                                                                                                                                                       St. James St. Charles
                                                                                                                                                       St. James St. Charles
                                                                                                                                                       St. James St. Charles
                                                   Orange
                                                   Orange
                                                   Orange                                                                                                           St. Charles
                                                                                                                                                                    St. Charles
                                                                                                                                                                    St. Charles             St. Bernard
                                                                                                                                                                                            St. Bernard
                                                                                                                                                                                             St. Bernard
                                                                                                                                                                                            St. Bernard
                                                   Orange
                                                   Orange
                                                   Orange
                                                                                                                           Iberia
                                                                                                                            Iberia
                                                                                                                          Iberia
                                                                                                                           Iberia
                                                                                                                            Iberia
                                                                                                                          Iberia                 Assumption
                                                                                                                                                 Assumption
                                                                                                                                                 Assumption
                                                                                                                                                 Assumption
                                                                                                                                                 Assumption
                                                                                                                                                 Assumption
                                           Jefferson
                                           Jefferson
                                            Jefferson                                                Vermilion
                                                                                                     Vermilion
                                                                                                     Vermilion
                                                                                                     Vermilion
                                                                                                     Vermilion
                                                                                                     Vermilion
                                           Jefferson
                                            Jefferson
                                           Jefferson                  Cameron
                                                                      Cameron
                                                                      Cameron
                                                                      Cameron
                                                                      Cameron
                                                                      Cameron                                                                                                  Jefferson
                                                                                                                                                                                Jefferson
                                                                                                                                                                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                                                                Jefferson
                                                                                                                                                                               Jefferson
                                                                                                                                                                               Jefferson
  Harris
  Harris
  Harris
  Harris
  Harris
  Harris                                                                                                                              St. Mary
                                                                                                                                      St. Mary
                                                                                                                                      St. Mary
                                                                                                                                      St. Mary
                                                                                                                                      St. Mary
                                                                                                                                      St. Mary
                         Chambers
                         Chambers
                         Chambers
                         Chambers
                         Chambers
                         Chambers
                                                                                                                                                                 Lafourche
                                                                                                                                                                  Lafourche
                                                                                                                                                                 Lafourche
                                                                                                                                                                  Lafourche
                                                                                                                                                                 Lafourche
                                                                                                                                                                 Lafourche              Plaquemines
                                                                                                                                                                                        Plaquemines
                                                                                                                                                                                        Plaquemines
                                                                                                                                                                                        Plaquemines
                                                                                                                                                                                        Plaquemines
                                                                                                                                                                                        Plaquemines
                                                                                                                                                      Terrebonne
                                                                                                                                                      Terrebonne
                                                                                                                                                      Terrebonne
                                                                                                                                                      Terrebonne

               Galveston
               Galveston
               Galveston
               Galveston
               Galveston
               Galveston
 Brazoria
 Brazoria
 Brazoria
 Brazoria
 Brazoria
 Brazoria




                      SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                                                                         87
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                            April 5, 2006


Youth 30-day Cigarette Use by Grade

Thirty day use is a measure of the percentage of students who used the substance at least once in
the 30 days prior to taking the survey and is considered a sensitive indication of the level of
current use of the substance.13

No national comparisons are available for 6th graders. A higher percentage of Louisiana 8th and
10th graders reported cigarette use than the national average in 2004. Percentages for Louisiana
12th graders, however, were slightly less than the national average and percentages of cigarette
use consistently increased in all age groups from 6th to 12th grade.



                                                        2004 Youth 30 Day Cigarette Use by Grade
                                     30.0

                                                                                                          2004 LA
                                                                                                          2004 US
                                     25.0
   Percent of Youth Indicating Use




                                     20.0




                                     15.0




                                     10.0




                                      5.0




                                      0.0
                                            6th Grade        8th Grade             10th Grade      12th Grade

LA Data - CCYS
US Data - Monitoring the Future




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                   88
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                      April 5, 2006



                                   Youth 30-Day Cigarette Use (CCYS): Comparison Data from Monitoring the Future Survey



                            35.0
                                                                                                                               2001 LA
                                                                                                                               2002 LA
                            30.0                                                                                               2004 LA
                                                                                                                               2001 US
                                                                                                                               2002 US
 Percentage Reporting Use




                            25.0
                                                                                                                               2004 US



                            20.0



                            15.0



                            10.0



                             5.0



                             0.0
                                       6th Grade             8th Grade             10th Grade             12th Grade
                                                                         Grade




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                  89
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                             April 5, 2006


Adult Current Cigarette Use

The percentages of Louisiana residents 18 years of age and older that have smoked over 100
cigarettes in their lifetime and reported smoking some days in the twelve months prior to the
survey, CDC’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, were similar to the
national average (2001-2003). The highest percentages of respondents reporting cigarette use
were in the 21 to 29 year old group, although very high percentages were reported in the 18-20,
30-34, and 35-54 year old groups. The lowest percentages were in the group 65 years of age and
older.

                                                                 Adult Current Cigarette Use by Age Range (BRFSS)


                                          40.0
                                                                                                                                       2001 LA
                                                                                                                                       2002 LA
                                          35.0
                                                                                                                                       2003 LA
  Percent of Respondents Indicating Use




                                                                                                                                       2001 US
                                          30.0                                                                                         2002 US
                                                                                                                                       2003 US

                                          25.0



                                          20.0



                                          15.0



                                          10.0



                                           5.0



                                           0.0
                                                 18-20 yrs   21-29 yrs       30-34 yrs      35-54 yrs      55-64-yrs   65+ yrs
                                                                                    Age Range

Respondents were classified as daily smokers if they reported smoking every day during the 12
months preceding the survey. The percentage of Orleans Parish respondents (30.1%) that
indicated current use was the highest percentage of any U.S. county.11,12

The percentage of Louisiana respondents indicating daily use was above the national average in
all age groups for 2001 through 2003, with the exception of 2001 18-20 year olds and 2002 55-
64 year olds. The mean percentages for current use for the three years were above 15% in all age
groups except the 65 year and older group.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                     90
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                   April 5, 2006


                                                                  Adult Daily Cigarette Use by Age Range (BRFSS)

                                          30.0
                                                                                                                                             2001 LA
                                                                                                                                             2002 LA
                                                                                                                                             2003 LA
                                          25.0                                                                                               2001 US
                                                                                                                                             2002 US
                                                                                                                                             2003 US
  Percent of Respondents Indicating Use




                                          20.0




                                          15.0




                                          10.0




                                           5.0




                                           0.0
                                                 18-20 yrs   21-29 yrs       30-34 yrs               35-54 yrs   55-64-yrs   65+ yrs
                                                                                         Age Range




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                           91
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                            April 5, 2006



                             5.3. State and Parish Immediate Health Consequences

In the United States, the fourth and sixth leading causes of injury deaths are accidental falls and
drowning (CDC, 2002). In Louisiana from 1999 through 2004, the three leading causes of
accidental deaths other than those caused by motor vehicle crashes were accidental falls,
accidental drownings, and death due to fire, smoke, or burns. According to the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), these three causes of accidental death are often
associated with alcohol consumption.5
                                                       Accidental Death Mortality Rate by Cause 1999-2004


                             0.05



                                                                                                                LA 1999-2004


                             0.04
  Rate per 1000 Population




                             0.03




                             0.02




                             0.01




                               0
                                    Accidental Falls                Accidental Drownings     Accidental Fire, Smoke and Burns

Data Provided by OPH




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                   92
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                    April 5, 2006


                                       Unintentional Injury Mortality Data 1999-03 by Cause


               MV Traffic
               Poisoning
             Unspecified
                      Fall
              Suffocation
                Fire/burn
                Drowning
         Other Transport
                 Firearm
 Other Spec., classifiable
    Natural/ Environment
   Other Land Transport
     Struck by or Against
       Pedestrian, Other
       Other Spec., NEC
               Machinery
      Pedal cyclist, Other
               Cut/pierce
            Overexertion

                             0     5         10       15        20         25           30    35   40     45     50
                                                                     Percent of Total




    5.4. College Tobacco Use
                5.4.1.           Louisiana State University Undergraduates’ Cigarette Use
(Note: This data is specific to Louisiana State University undergraduate students. Please do not
refer to this as LSU campus cigarette use as the term “campus” describes a circumscribed area of
land with university buildings, not the student population of which 80% live off-campus.)

Since 1993, Louisiana State University has regularly conducted the College Alcohol Study
administered by the Harvard School of Public Health as part of a grant requirement. As the only
institution of higher education in the state that consistently has been able to assess undergraduate
student substance use and consequences, the following charts provide data from a representative
and random sample of undergraduate students enrolled at Louisiana State University in Baton
Rouge. Response rates have ranged between 45% to 56%. The data presented is typical of
results that might be found for undergraduate students enrolled in a primarily White,
metropolitan, four-year institution of higher education. The Harvard School of Public Health has
noted that the community’s cultural environment strongly influences students’ alcohol
consumption rates, likely to vary both within the state of Louisiana and throughout the South.
The presentation by Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge serves as one institutional
example in Louisiana and should not be assumed to mirror any other institution.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                           93
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                     April 5, 2006


                                          Cigarette Use Over Time


                                        past 30 days          within past year
  45%


                                        42%                                        42%
  40%


                     37%                                                                         37%
  35%                                                         36%
                                                                           34%
                                32%
  30%         30%
                                                       28%
  25%                                                                                    25%


  20%



  15%



  10%



   5%



   0%
              1999               2000                  2001                 2002          2003

 Source: 1999-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

                                Cigarette Use Over Time – LSU

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health questions
survey respondents about how often, if ever, they have used a variety of drugs, including
cigarettes. This chart indicates students’ use of cigarettes in the past 30 days and in the past year
over time. Results indicate that the overall cigarette use rate in the past 30 days has ranged
between 25% to 34% and the overall cigarette use rate in the past year has ranged between 36%
to 42%. Rates of use in the past year and in the past 30 days are at some of the highest levels in
2002, a year in which rates for nearly all other survey questions pertaining to students’ alcohol
use and behavior were higher.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                94
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                      April 5, 2006


                       Cigarette Use in Past Year Over Time, by Gender – LSU
                         Cigarette Use in Past Year Over Time, by Gender
                                   Cigarette use past year, women
                                   Cigarette use past year, men
  50%
                                                                  49%
                                  47%
  45%
                                                                                    44%
  40%
                                                   40%
                 39%        38%
  35%
                                                                        35%
           34%

  30%                                        31%                              31%


  25%


  20%


  15%


  10%


   5%


   0%
           1999             2000              2001                2002        2003

 Source: 1999-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health questions
survey respondents about how often, if ever, they have used a variety of drugs, including
cigarettes. Even when divided by gender, cigarette use in the past year for both males and
females is similar to total students’ use in the past year. Results indicate that the past year use of
cigarettes rates for males range between 35% to 47%. For females, past year cigarette use rates
range between 31% to 49%. The yearly cigarette use rate by gender was highest for females in
2002 (49%) while it was lowest for males in that same year (35%). In all other years, males had
higher use rates in the past year than females.




SPF-SIG                                                                                             95
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                 April 5, 2006


                  Cigarette Use in Past 30 Days Over Time, by Gender

                               Cigarette use past 30 days, women
  50%
                               Cigarette use past 30 days, men

  45%


  40%                                                   41%

  35%
                               37%

                34%
  30%
                                               30%                        30%

          27%            27%
  25%                                                         27%
                                         25%

  20%                                                                  20%


  15%


  10%


  5%


  0%
           1999           2000            2001           2002          2003

 Source: 1999-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

                  Cigarette Use in Past 30 Days Over Time, by Gender – LSU
The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health questions
survey respondents about how often, if ever, they have used a variety of drugs, including
cigarettes. Cigarette use rates in the past 30 days for both males and females are lower than past
year rates. Results indicate that the past 30 days use of cigarettes rates for males range between
27% to 37%. For females, past 30 days cigarette use rates range between 20% to 41%. The rate
of cigarette use in the past 30 days by gender was highest for females in 2002 (41%) while it was
lowest for males in that same year (27%). In all other years, males had higher use rates in the
past 30 days than females.




SPF-SIG                                                                                         96
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                    April 5, 2006


6. Burden of Other Drug Use
                    6.1. State and Parish Health & Social Consequences
Drug related mortality (Illicit Drug Deaths)

From 1999 through 2001, the rates of death in Louisiana from the use of illicit drugs were higher
than the national rates. The age group experiencing the most deaths from illicit drugs was in the
35-54 year old group. (NVSS) The Office of Public Health State Center for Health Statistics
reports that from 1999 through 2004, the highest percentage of deaths related to drug use
occurred in Orleans Parish. The rate in Orleans Parish was four times the rate in Jefferson
Parish, the parish with the second highest percentage of drug deaths. The highest drug related
mortality rates in Louisiana were reported in Orleans and St. Bernard Parishes.

                                                       Louisiana Illicit Drug Use Mortality Rate by Age (1999-2001)

                              0.05


                             0.045


                              0.04


                             0.035
  Rate per 1000 Population




                              0.03


                             0.025


                              0.02


                             0.015


                              0.01


                             0.005


                                0
                                     0 thru 11   12 thru 17   18 thru 20   21 thru 29   30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64   65 and over   Total


Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                              97
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                      April 5, 2006

From 1999 through 2001 in Louisiana, the rates of death from the use of illicit drugs were higher
than national rates. (NVSS) The composite rate from 1999-2004 (OPH statistics) is just over
0.02 deaths per 1000 population (2 deaths per 100,000).

                                           Illicit Drug Use Death Mortality Rate 1999-2004

                            0.025



                                                                                                                LA   US

                             0.02
 Rate per 1000 Population




                            0.015




                             0.01




                            0.005




                               0
                                    1999            2000                     2001            1999-2004*

1999-01 Data - NVSS (SEDS)
*1999-2004 Data - OPH




SPF-SIG                                                                                                              98
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                 April 5, 2006




                     Drug Related Mortality: Parish as Percent of State Total 1999-2004 (Top 15)


       Orleans

      Jefferson

    St.Bernard

  St. Tammany

        Caddo

   Tangipahoa

 E.Baton Rouge

     Livingston

      Lafayette

         Iberia

     St.Landry

   Washington

      Ouachita

       Rapides

  Natchitoches

              0.0%   5.0%      10.0%     15.0%     20.0%       25.0%      30.0%      35.0%   40.0%   45.0%   50.0%
                                                  Percent of Statewide Total Cases


                                        Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                          99
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                               April 5, 2006




                                 Drug Related Mortality Rate by Parish 1999-2004 (Top 15)


           Orleans

        St.Bernard

       Tangipahoa

       Washington

     Natchitoches

             Iberia

 State of Louisiana

            Acadia

           Lincoln

     St. Tammany

         Jefferson

        Livingston

        St.Charles

         St.Landry

            Caddo

         Lafourche


                      0   0.01    0.02      0.03      0.04       0.05       0.06    0.07    0.08   0.09    0.1
                                                       Rate per 1000 Population


                                          Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                     100
Louisiana SEW Report                                                              April 5, 2006

The map below illustrates the relative rates of drug deaths in the state. Again, Orleans and St.
Bernard Parishes experienced the highest rates.




                                 Data - LA Office of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                     101
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                       April 5, 2006


                                  Average Annual Illicit Drug Use Deaths by Age (1999-2001)

           40



           35



           30



           25
  Number




           20



           15



           10



           5



           0
                0 thru 11   12 thru 17   18 thru 20   21 thru 29    30 thru 34   35 thru 54   55 thru 64    65 and over


Data - NVSS (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                   102
Louisiana SEW Report                                                            April 5, 2006


Property Crime
Property crimes are often committed to obtain money for the purchase of illicit drugs. Drug-
related property crimes include burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft. Approximately 30%
of burglaries can be attributed to drug use.7 From 2000 through 2002, the rate of reported
property crimes in Louisiana exceeded the national rate with most property crimes being
reported in East Baton Rouge, Orleans, Jefferson, and Caddo Parishes. The highest rates were
seen in East Baton Rouge, Caddo, Orleans, and Rapides Parishes. Nine other parishes also
reported rates higher than the state average.




SPF-SIG                                                                                  103
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                       April 5, 2006



                                        Reported Property Crime Rate 2000-02


                            70

                                                                                      LA    US

                            60
 Rate Per 1000 Population




                            50



                            40



                            30



                            20



                            10



                            0
                                 2000                   2001                   2002
Data - UCR (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                             104
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                       April 5, 2006

Most property crimes were reported in East Baton Rouge, Orleans, Jefferson, and Caddo
Parishes.
                           Property Crimes: Parish as Percent of Statewide Totals 2000-02 (Top 25)
  EAST BATON ROUGE
            ORLEANS
          JEFFERSON
              CADDO
          CALCASIEU
            LA SALLE
             RAPIDES
           OUACHITA
        ST. TAMMANY
        TERREBONNE
         TANGIPAHOA
             BOSSIER
          ST. LANDRY
          ASCENSION
            ST. MARY
          LAFAYETTE
          LIVINGSTON
               IBERIA
        WASHINGTON
             ACADIA
             LINCOLN
       NATCHITOCHES
         ST. CHARLES
 ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST
  WEST BATON ROUGE

                    0.0%       2.0%      4.0%       6.0%          8.0%        10.0%       12.0%   14.0%   16.0%   18.0%
                                                           Percent of Total Statewide Cases

                                        Data – LA Commission on Law Enforcement




SPF-SIG                                                                                                             105
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                          April 5, 2006

The highest rates were seen in East Baton Rouge, Caddo, Orleans, and Rapides Parishes. Nine
other parishes reported rates higher than the state
average.
                                   Property Crime Rate by Parish 2000-02 (Top 25)
  EAST BATON ROUGE
              CADDO
           ORLEANS
            RAPIDES
 WEST BATON ROUGE
         CALCASIEU
        JEFFERSON
       TERREBONNE
           ST. MARY
           LA SALLE
       TANGIPAHOA
          OUACHITA
            BOSSIER
     State of Louisiana
     NATCHITOCHES
            LINCOLN
       WASHINGTON
         ST. LANDRY
   JEFFERSON DAVIS
         ASCENSION
          ST. JAMES
       ST. CHARLES
       ST. TAMMANY
             ACADIA
            DE SOTO

                          0   10        20          30             40               50   60   70       80
                                                         Rate per 1000 Population

                                    Data – LA Commission on Law Enforcement




SPF-SIG                                                                                                106
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                 April 5, 2006


                                           Property Crime Rate by Parish 2003 (Top 25)
   East Baton Rouge Parish
               Caddo Parish
              Orleans Parish
              Rapides Parish
          Terrebonne Parish
         Natchitoches Parish
  West Baton Rouge Parish
             Jefferson Parish
              Bossier Parish
             Lafayette Parish
      Jefferson Davis Parish
            Calcasieu Parish
           State of Louisiana
          Tangipahoa Parish
              St. Mary Parish
               Lincoln Parish
          Washington Parish
            St. James Parish
              De Soto Parish
           St. Charles Parish
               Tensas Parish
            Concordia Parish
        St. Tammany Parish
            Lafourche Parish
            St. Landry Parish
       Pointe Coupee Parish

                                0   10          20         30             40               50   60   70       80
Data: Louisiana Commission on Law                               Rate per 1000 Population
            Enforcement




                                         Data-Louisiana Commission on Law Enforcement




SPF-SIG                                                                                                       107
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                 April 5, 2006


                                         Property Crime: Parish as a Percent of State Totals 2003 (Top 25)

  East Baton Rouge Parish
             Orleans Parish
           Jefferson Parish
              Caddo Parish
           Lafayette Parish
          Calcasieu Parish
            Rapides Parish
       St. Tammany Parish
         Terrebonne Parish
             Bossier Parish
         Tangipahoa Parish
           Ouachita Parish
          Lafourche Parish
          St. Landry Parish
          Livingston Parish
            St. Mary Parish
       Natchitoches Parish
               Iberia Parish
        Washington Parish
         St. Bernard Parish
             Lincoln Parish
         St. Charles Parish
              Acadia Parish
     Jefferson Davis Parish
          Ascension Parish

                         0.00%           2.00%     4.00%      6.00%     8.00%       10.00%       12.00%   14.00%   16.00%   18.00%
                                                                  Percent of Total Statewide Cases
Data: LA Commission on Law Enforcement


                                                 Data-Louisiana Commission on Law Enforcement



      6.2. State and Parish Consumption Patterns
Drug Dependence/Abuse

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) assesses the dependence on or abuse of
a substance within 12 months prior to completion of the survey. Questions are used to classify
persons as dependent or abusing specific substances, such as alcohol, prescriptions drugs, and/or
illicit drugs based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994). The
questions on dependence inquire about health, emotional problems, attempts to reduce use,
tolerance, withdrawal, participating in activities related to substance use, or using the substance
in large quantities for long periods of time. The questions on abuse include questions concerning
problems at work, home, and school; problems with family or friends; physical danger; and legal
problems associated with substance use. Dependence is considered to be more severe than
abuse.14




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                        108
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                               April 5, 2006

The greatest percentage of Louisiana respondents determined to be dependent or abusing illicit
drugs were within the 17-25 year old age group. The second highest percentage of dependence
or abuse was within the 12-17 year old group. However, the percentages reported in both these
groups were lower than national percentages. Dependence or abuse percentages in the age 26
and older group were the lowest in comparison, but exceeded the national average. (2002
NSDUH)

                                   Percent of Respondents Classified as Drug Dependent/Abusing by Age 2002

                          9


                          8                                                                                   LA   US


                          7
 Percent of Respondents




                          6


                          5


                          4


                          3


                          2


                          1


                          0
                              Age 12-17              Age 17-25            Age 26 and Older            Total

 Data - NSDUH (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                     109
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                      April 5, 2006


Admissions

Rates of admissions to public substance abuse treatment facilities and programs from 2003 to
2005 are illustrated in the chart below. During this period, approximately seven persons per one
hundred thousand population per year were admitted to programs across the state. The number
of admissions in East Baton Rouge Parish nearly doubled the admissions from any other parish.
Orleans Parish also exhibited a high percentage of admissions. The highest rates of treatment
admissions were reported from St. Mary, Rapides, Terrebonne, and East Baton Rouge Parishes.

Approximately 2/3 of treatment admissions were male. African Americans make up 32.5% of
Louisiana’s population, but treatment admissions comprised a slightly higher proportion of
African Americans than that of the general population.8 Most of the admissions, however, were
white. Most persons admitted were between 25 and 44 years of age, but a high number of
admissions were also reported from the 18 to 24 year age group. An extremely high percentage
of the admissions were unemployed.

The most common primary substances reported by treatment admissions were alcohol (1st),
cocaine (2nd), and marijuana (3rd). If secondary substances were reported, the most common
were alcohol (1st), marijuana (2nd), and cocaine (3rd).

                                        Treatment Admissions for Louisiana (OAD)

                             8



                             7



                             6
  Rate per 1000 Population




                             5



                             4



                             3



                             2



                             1



                             0
                                 2003                       2004                   2005
                                                            Year




SPF-SIG                                                                                            110
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                    April 5, 2006


                           Treatment Admissions 2003-05: Parish as Percent of State Total (Top 25)

  East Baton Rouge
             Orleans
            Rapides
              Caddo
       St. Tammany
           Ouachita
           Lafayette
         Terrebonne
           Calcasieu
           Lafourche
            St. Mary
        Tangipahoa
           Livingston
           Jefferson
             Bossier
         Ascensions
           St. Landry
            Avoylles
               Iberia
              Acadia
       Natchitoches
        Washington
          St. Bernard
             Lincoln
 St. John the Baptist

                    0.0%     2.0%        4.0%         6.0%         8.0%          10.0%   12.0%       14.0%     16.0%
                                                      Percent of Statewide Total Cases

                                           Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders




SPF-SIG                                                                                                          111
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                  April 5, 2006


                               Treatment Admission Rates 2002-04 (Top 25)

           St. Mary
           Rapides
       Terrebonne
 East Baton Rouge
             Grant
     Pointe Coupee
        Morehouse
          Lafourche
           Avoylles
         Catahoula
      Natchitoches
          Ouachita
            Sabine
           LaSalle
           Franklin
    Jefferson Davis
       Washington
          Madison
              Allen
            Lincoln
          Richland
           Iberville
         Livingston
       Tangipahoa
  State of Louisiana
          Calcasieu

                       0   2     4           6              8               10   12   14       16
                                                 Rate per 1000 Population

                                 Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders




SPF-SIG                                                                                        112
Louisiana SEW Report                                             April 5, 2006




                       Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders




SPF-SIG                                                                   113
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                   April 5, 2006


                                                   Number of Treatment Admissions by Race (2003-05)

                         25000




                         20000
  Number of Admissions




                         15000

                                                                                                                               2003
                                                                                                                               2004
                                                                                                                               2005
                         10000




                         5000




                            0
                                 American Indian   Asian          Black/African          Pacific Islander   White   Other
                                                                    American
                                                                                  Race

                                                           Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders

African Americans make up 32.5% of Louisiana’s population, but treatment admission
comprised a slightly higher proportion of African Americans than that of the general population.8
Most persons admitted, however, were white.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                         114
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                       April 5, 2006

.
                                                Number of Treatment Admissions by Age (2003-05)

                           10000


                           9000                                                                           2003

                                                                                                          2004
                           8000                                                                           2005


                           7000
    Number of Admissions




                           6000


                           5000


                           4000


                           3000


                           2000


                           1000


                              0
                                   Ten-17   18-24        25-34         35-44         45-54        55-64   65+
                                                                     Age Group

                                                     Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders

Most persons admitted for treatment were between 25 and 44 years of age, but a high number of
admissions were also reported from the 18 to 24 year age group.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                             115
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                                                    April 5, 2006


                                                           Number of Treatment Admissions by Employment Status (2003-05)

                         25000




                         20000
  Number of Admissions




                         15000
                                                                                                                                                                2003
                                                                                                                                                                2004
                                                                                                                                                                2005
                         10000




                         5000




                            0
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                                                                                 Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders

An extremely high percentage of persons admitted were unemployed.




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                                          116
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                      April 5, 2006


                                          Number of Treatment Admissions by Primary Substance (2003-05)

                         12000



                         10000
  Number of Admissions




                         8000


                                                                                                                   2003
                         6000                                                                                      2004
                                                                                                                   2005


                         4000



                         2000



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                                                                  Primary Substance


                                                    Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders

The most common primary substances reported by treatment admissions were alcohol (1st),
cocaine (2nd), and marijuana (3rd).




SPF-SIG                                                                                                             117
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                April 5, 2006


                                            Number of Admissions by Secondary Substance (2003-05)

                         12000



                         10000
  Number of Admissions




                         8000


                                                                                                             2003
                         6000                                                                                2004
                                                                                                             2005


                         4000



                         2000



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                                                                    Substance

                                                    Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders

If any secondary substances were reported, the most common were alcohol (1st), marijuana (2nd),
and cocaine (3rd).




SPF-SIG                                                                                                       118
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                        April 5, 2006


                                          Number of Admissions Identifying Substance as Either Primary or Secondary (2003-05)

                         18000


                         16000


                         14000
  Number of Admissions




                         12000


                         10000                                                                                                        2003
                                                                                                                                      2004
                         8000                                                                                                         2005


                         6000


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                         2000


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                                                                            Substance Category

                                                                Data – LA Office of Addictive Disorders



Marijuana Use

The greatest percent of Louisiana respondents reporting current use of marijuana was within the
18-25 year old age group. The second highest percentage of current use was within the 12-17
year old group. The percentage reported in the 12-17 year group was below national
percentages. The percentage in the 18-25 year group was above the national level. Current use
percentage in the age 26 and older group was the lowest in comparison and was lower than the
national average. Overall use of marijuana in all age groups was very near but slightly above the
national level. (2002 NSDUH)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                119
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                              April 5, 2006



                                                2002 Current Marijuana Use by Age Group
                            25.0

                                                                                             2002 LA

                                                                                             2002 US

                            20.0
   Percent Indicating Use




                            15.0




                            10.0




                             5.0




                             0.0
                                   12 thru 17          18 thru 25           26 and over   Total


Data - NSDUH (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                    120
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                              April 5, 2006

The same pattern of use by age was seen with other illicit drugs besides marijuana. The highest
percentage of use was in the 18-25 year group. Louisiana’s percentages were higher than the
national average in all categories.
                                               2002 Other Illicit Drug Use by Age Group

                           20.0

                                                                                             2002 LA
                           18.0
                                                                                             2002 US

                           16.0
  Percent Indicating Use




                           14.0


                           12.0


                           10.0


                            8.0


                            6.0


                            4.0


                            2.0


                            0.0
                                  12 thru 17       18 thru 25             26 and over     Total


Data - NSDUH (SEDS)




SPF-SIG                                                                                                    121
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                      April 5, 2006


Youth 30-day Marijuana Use by Grade

Thirty day use is a measure of the percentage of students who used the substance at least once in
the 30 days prior to taking the survey (CCYS) and is considered a sensitive indication of the
level of current use of the substance.12

No national comparisons are available for 6th graders. Of the comparisons available, percentages
of students that reported use of marijuana were lower in Louisiana than the national averages for
8th, 10th and 12th graders. Thirty day marijuana use consistently increased in Louisiana students
from 6th to 12th grade.


                                                         2004 Youth 30 Day Marijuana Use
                                      25.0

                                                                                                  2004 LA
                                                                                                  2004 US

                                      20.0
    Percent of Youth Indicating Use




                                      15.0




                                      10.0




                                       5.0




                                       0.0
                                             6th Grade    8th Grade             10th Grade   12th Grade

LA Data - CCYS
US Data - Monitoring the Future




SPF-SIG                                                                                                            122
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                                  April 5, 2006

No national comparisons are available for 6th graders and no national comparisons exist for 12th
graders in 2001. Of the comparisons available, percentages of students that reported use of
marijuana were lower in Louisiana than the national average for 10th and 12th graders, and were
lower for Louisiana students in 8th graders in 2002 and 2004. In 2001, the Louisiana percentages
were higher than national levels for 8th graders. Thirty day marijuana use consistently increased
in Louisiana students from 6th to 12th grade.
                                    Youth 30 Day Marijuana Use (CCYS): Comparison Data from Monitoring the Future Survey

                             25.0
                                                                                                                           2001 LA
                                                                                                                           2002 LA
                                                                                                                           2004 LA
                             20.0                                                                                          2001 US
                                                                                                                           2002 US
                                                                                                                           2004 US
  Percentage Reporting Use




                             15.0




                             10.0




                              5.0




                              0.0
                                      6th Grade              8th Grade             10th Grade            12th Grade
                                                                         Grade




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                         123
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                April 5, 2006



   6.3. State, Region, Parish Consumption Patterns by
       Demographics
                          Table 6-1: Youth 30 day Marijuana Use (2004 CCYS)
   District                             0 Occasions      1 or more          Percent Use Within
                                                         occasions          Last 30 days
   Caldwell Parish                                 104                   24             18.75%
   Zachary Community                               266                   51             16.09%
   St. Charles Parish                             1302                  246             15.89%
   Terrebonne Parish                              1690                  273             13.91%
   City of Bogalusa                                296                   45             13.20%
   Franklin Parish                                 534                   81             13.17%
   East Baton Rouge Parish                        7816                 1166             12.98%
   Iberville Parish                                664                   98             12.86%
   Plaquemines Parish                              888                  131             12.86%
   Lafourche Parish                               1994                  285             12.51%
   East Carroll Parish                             267                   37             12.17%
   St. Martin Parish                              1302                  176             11.91%
   Lafayette Parish                               4164                  561             11.87%
   Union Parish                                    500                   65             11.50%
   Beauregard Parish                               984                  127             11.43%
   Grant Parish                                    583                   75             11.40%
   Bienville Parish                                458                   58             11.24%
   Avoyelles Parish                               1050                  128             10.87%
   Allen Parish                                    709                   86             10.82%
   Calcasieu Parish                               5935                  718             10.79%
   Orleans Parish                                  737                   88             10.67%
   Jackson Parish                                  397                   47             10.59%
   Ascension Parish                               3142                  371             10.56%
   Iberia Parish                                  2597                  301             10.39%
   Louisiana Statewide                           87271                 9917             10.20%
   Claiborne Parish                                450                   51             10.18%
   Morehouse Parish                                736                   83             10.13%
   Jefferson Parish                               6283                  704             10.08%
   Livingston Parish                              4427                  496             10.08%
   City of Baker                                   388                   43              9.98%
   Natchitoches Parish                             910                   99              9.81%
   Jefferson Davis Parish                         1071                  115              9.70%
   Webster Parish                                 1168                  124              9.60%
   St. Landry Parish                              2348                  249              9.59%
   Caddo Parish                                   1370                  145              9.57%
   Concordia Parish                                616                   65              9.54%
   Tangipahoa Parish                              3387                  348              9.32%
   St. Mary Parish                                1830                  181              9.00%
   Catahoula Parish                                234                   23              8.95%
   Ouachita Parish                                3259                  320              8.94%
   Tensas Parish                                   144                   14              8.86%



SPF-SIG                                                                                          124
Louisiana SEW Report                                                   April 5, 2006

   District                  0 Occasions    1 or more         Percent Use Within
                                            occasions         Last 30 days
   St. James Parish                   492                47                8.72%
   Sabine Parish                      860                82                8.70%
   Washington Parish                  774                73                8.62%
   West Baton Rouge Parish            583                54                8.48%
   Bossier Parish                    2650               241                8.34%
   Red River Parish                   177                16                8.29%
   Richland Parish                    674                60                8.17%
   Cameron Parish                     305                27                8.13%
   Vernon Parish                     1161               102                8.08%
   Evangeline Parish                  975                84                7.93%
   Acadia Parish                     1455               121                7.68%
   Lincoln Parish                     856                71                7.66%
   LaSalle Parish                     534                43                7.45%
   Rapides Parish                    2292               178                7.21%
   City of Monroe                    1001                76                7.06%
   West Carroll Parish                189                14                6.90%
   St. Bernard Parish                 694                50                6.72%
   Winn Parish                        507                36                6.63%
   West Feliciana Parish              532                34                6.01%
   Assumption Parish                  901                57                5.95%
   DeSoto Parish                      546                34                5.86%
   St. Helena Parish                  241                15                5.86%
   Pointe Coupee Parish               140                 1                0.71%
   Madison Parish                      72                 0                0.00%




SPF-SIG                                                                            125
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                April 5, 2006




   6.4. College Other Drug Use
      Tobacco use among U.S. college students in 1999: past year prevalence
      was 45.7%.
      Tobacco use among U.S. college students in 1999: 30-day prevalence was
      32.9%; males 37.9%; females 29.7%.
      Marijuana use among U.S. college students in 2001: 30-day prevalence
      was 17%.
      Marijuana use among U.S. college students in 2001: past year prevalence
      was 30%.
      Ecstasy use among U.S. college students in 1999: past year prevalence
      was 4.7%.
      Opiod use among U.S. college students in 2001: past year prevalence was
      7%.

           6.4.1.     Louisiana State University Undergraduates’ Drug Use
This data is specific to Louisiana State University undergraduate students. Please do not refer to
this as LSU campus drug use as the term “campus” describes a circumscribed area of land with
university buildings, not the student population of which 80% live off-campus.

Since 1993, Louisiana State University has regularly conducted the College Alcohol Study
administered by the Harvard School of Public Health as a grant requirement. The only


SPF-SIG                                                                                       126
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                                         April 5, 2006

institution of higher education in the state that has consistently been able to assess undergraduate
student substance use and consequences, the following charts provide data from a random and
representative sample of undergraduate students enrolled at Louisiana State University in Baton
Rouge. Response rates have ranged between 45% to 56%. The data presented is typical of
results that might be found for undergraduate students enrolled in a primarily White,
metropolitan, four-year institution of higher education. The Harvard School of Public Health has
noted that the community’s cultural environment strongly influences students’ alcohol
consumption rates, likely to vary both within the state of Louisiana and throughout the South.
The presentation by Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge serves as one institutional
example in Louisiana and should not be assumed to mirror any other institution.

Over the five-year period reported, the survey designers requested information about usage of the
following drugs in addition to marijuana and cigarettes: (a) crack cocaine, (b) other forms of
cocaine, (c) barbiturates (prescription-type sleeping pills like Seconal, Nembutal, downs or
Yellow jackets), (d) amphetamines (methamphetamines, crystal meth, speed, uppers, ups), (e)
tranquilizers (prescription-type drugs like Valium, Librium, Xanax, Ativan, Klonopin), (f)
heroin, (g) other opiate-type prescription drugs (codeine, morphine, Demerol, Percodan,
Percocet, Vicodin, Darvon, Darvocet), (h) LSD, (i) other psychedelics or hallucinogens like
mushrooms, mescaline, or PCP, and (j) Ecstasy.
                                                  Drug Use Over Time

                       crack cocaine             other cocaine             barbiturates               amphetamines
  16%

  15%                  heroin                    other opiates             tranquilizers

  14%
                                                                                       14.3%
  13%
                                                             11.9%
  12%                                  11.6%
                                                                                    11.3%
  11%
                                                           10.0%                              10.5%
  10%
                                                                 9.7%                                            8.9%
   9%

   8%                8.2%
                                 7.6%
                     7.4%
   7%
                                          6.5%                                             6.3%                      6.7%
   6%       6.2%
                                                                                                                  5.8%
             4.9%                 4.9%                                                                         5.8%
   5%
                                                                                                                     4.6%
   4%                                                               4.2%                  4.5%
             4.3%
                                                                 3.6%
   3%
                                       2.8%
   2%
                                                                 1.1%                  0.7%
   1%                                                                                                           0.4%
                0.2%               0.3%
            0.3%                                                                           0.6%                  0.3%
   0%
                                          0.0%                      0.0%
              1999




                                   2000




                                                             2001




                                                                                       2002




                                                                                                              2003




 Source: 1999-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health




SPF-SIG                                                                                                                     127
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                       April 5, 2006


                                      Drug Use Over Time – LSU

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health questions
survey respondents about how often, if ever, they have used a variety of drugs, including
marijuana (or hashish). This chart indicates students’ use of marijuana in the past 30 days and in
the past year over time. Results indicate that the overall marijuana use rate in the past 30 days
has ranged between 14% to 19% and the overall marijuana use rate in the past year has ranged
between 21% to 31%. Rates of use in the past year and in the past 30 days are their highest
levels in 2002, a year in which rates for nearly all other survey questions pertaining to students’
alcohol use and behavior were higher.

                            Psychedelic Drug Use Over Time - LSU


                                      Psychedelic Drugs Over Time



                                LSD         Ecstasy          other psychedelics


                                                     11.6%


                                                                   9.9%



                         8.0%



      6.2%
                           6.0%                 5.7%

                                                 5.6%                   5.3%
                                                                                         4.8%
                                                                    4.6%

                                                                                         3.1%
              2.5%

                                                                                         1.9%


        not on survey      not on survey
         99




                           00




                                                01




                                                                   02




                                                                                    03
       19




                         20




                                              20




                                                                 20




                                                                                  20




 Source: 1999-2003 LSU Results, College Alcohol Study conducted by Harvard School of Public Health

The College Alcohol Study administered by the Harvard School of Public Health questions
survey respondents about how often, if ever, they have used a variety of drugs, including
Ecstasy, LSD, and other psychedelics. Of the psychedelic drugs, Ecstasy is used most by LSU
undergraduates with ranges between 5% to 12%.

7. Data Gaps and Implications
       Over the past year the State Epidemiologic Workgroup (SEW) has investigated several
sources of consumption and consequence data from different agencies and organizations
throughout the state and nation. This examination has resulted in discussions about the validity,


SPF-SIG                                                                                             128
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                April 5, 2006

precision, and plausibility of each of the data sets. Several SEW members have also scrutinized
data sources from their own organizations and/or agencies and identified problems with
accuracy, timeliness, sample number, etc. The end result of this scrutiny is that the SEW has
identified a multitude of data gaps, or complete absences of data that in the opinion of the SEW,
are worthy of working to develop in the future.

This encouragement and advocacy of new and/or improved data source development will be one
of the primary roles of the SEW in the coming years. The consensus of the group is that the
membership will continue to seek new sources individually and together as a group, and to work
within the members’ respective agencies/organizations to accomplish the goals initially stated in
the SPF SIG.

Examples of data sources and related challenges that are planned to be addressed are:

      State/parish drug-related emergency room reporting
           o No statewide system of emergency room reporting exists in Louisiana, although
               some hospitals report “complaint” information. No emergency room discharge or
               diagnostic reporting is required.
           o Emergency departments are often reluctant to release data due to proprietary
               concerns.
           o Reporting of emergency department diagnoses
                    Reporting of multiple diagnoses or subgroup diagnoses is also desirable.
           o Reporting of alcohol poisoning
      State/parish drug/alcohol related arrests (including those involving drugs and/or alcohol
       but without obvious possession of such substances).
           o Improvement of crime related data indicating possession or presence of alcohol
               and other non-controlled substances
           o Reporting of drug and alcohol related homicide data
           o Consistent collection of arrest data across all jurisdictions
           o Timely collection of arrest data in all jurisdictions
      State/parish drug related suicides (adults)
           o Data on alcohol and drug related suicides
           o Coroner reporting of substance related suicides
           o Toxicological analysis of all suicide victims
      Improvement of or creation of data sources dealing with alcohol or drug associated traffic
       accidents or other accidents
           o Uniform consistent drug and alcohol testing of all victims
           o More detailed reporting of non-traffic accidents (falls, industrial accidents,
               recreational accidents)
      State/campus college populations consumption/consequence data collection
      Age 18 and older consumption/consequence data
      Data reported in consistent age cohorts or individuals years across most indicators
           o Calculation of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and/or years of potential life
               lost (YPLL) for mortality and morbidity data
      Parish level tobacco sales
           o Include data pertaining to citations given for sales to minors



SPF-SIG                                                                                       129
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                 April 5, 2006

       Parish level alcohol and tobacco sales
            o Include data pertaining to citations given for sales to minors
       Improved substance related data collection on risk questionnaires (HIV/AIDS, STDs,
        hepatitis C)
       Non-mortality accident data (injury data)
       Child Welfare Populations:
            o Limited and inconsistent methods of identifying and recording substance
                use/abuse in relation to validated complaints of child maltreatment.
            o No data fields available in data system for capturing information learned about
                substance abuse in families following a validated complaint of maltreatment when
                there is continued agency involvement with the family.
            o No data fields available for recording alcohol or other substance abuse by youth
                who are served in the foster care system.

The SEW will certainly not be restricted to consideration of the above data sources and data
improvements. The SEW feels that the role of advocating adoption of new data sources and
improvements to existing sources will be ever-changing as community needs and assets change
through time.

It is intuitive that creation and improvement of these types of data sources involve cooperation of
many different entities and require varying degrees of effort, some quite taxing to often scarce
resources. The SEW intends to illustrate the importance of these data to the determination of the
burden of substance abuse in Louisiana and to the proper allocation of assets. Some
improvements will require cooperation of both government and private institutions and some will
require allocation of funds through legislation. The primary stumbling blocks include lack of
funding, manpower, and the will to carry out the task.

8. Problems of Greatest Impact and Hot Spots
Most of the following tables show the levels by parish for some of the most important indicators.
Shaded rows in the tables indicate the parish rate is higher than the state’s.

Table 2 Alcohol Use - Binge
Age Range                                   Percent Reported Binge Drinking
College Age Binge                                                      32%
Adult Binge 25-34                                                      22%
Adult Binge 35-44                                                      20%
Adult Binge 45-54                                                      12%
Adult Binge 55-64                                                       8%
Adult Binge 65+                                                         3%



Table 3 Alcohol Use - Drinking and Driving
Drinking and Driving                       Percent Reporting Driving after
                                           Drinking
18-20 yrs                                                                   9%
21-29 yrs                                                                  10%
30-34 yrs                                                                   5%



SPF-SIG                                                                                        130
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                 April 5, 2006

35-54 yrs                                                                   4%
55-64-yrs                                                                   2%
65+ yrs                                                                     1%



Table 4 Youth Alcohol Use


                            6th Grade
                                                                               10th         12th
                            Percent Use within      6th Grade   8th Grade     Grade        Grade
Parish                      Last 30 days              Binge       Binge       Binge        Binge
Acadia Parish                             16.70%       11.37%      17.00%       32.22%       43.06%
Allen Parish                              14.93%       13.97%      25.20%       28.33%       46.30%
Ascension Parish                            8.53%       5.88%      18.04%       33.79%       42.44%
Assumption Parish                         16.60%       13.68%      12.39%       25.53%       34.88%
Avoyelles Parish                          17.39%       11.00%      20.65%       33.90%       44.15%
Beauregard Parish                         14.63%        9.29%      26.83%       22.07%       28.57%
Bienville Parish                          14.63%       12.30%      17.68%       21.30%       28.18%
Bossier Parish                              8.25%       6.82%      12.72%       22.20%       32.42%
Caddo Parish                                6.76%       6.49%      11.36%       21.66%       28.21%
Calcasieu Parish                            7.88%       4.99%      15.98%       26.21%       33.15%
Caldwell Parish             N/A                     N/A            30.08%   N/A          N/A
Cameron Parish                            13.10%        8.08%      31.53%       31.43%       48.72%
Catahoula Parish                          12.90%        6.38%      13.56%       36.17%       39.58%
Claiborne Parish                          18.25%       10.77%      15.44%       20.33%       27.97%
Concordia Parish                          10.61%        8.71%      11.97%       25.88%       60.00%
DeSoto Parish                             12.81%        7.98%      15.26%        0.00%        0.00%
East Baton Rouge Parish                   11.13%        8.57%      16.67%       19.03%       27.34%
East Carroll Parish                       14.89%       13.89%      15.15%       14.67%       21.74%
Evangeline Parish                         14.07%       12.62%      18.21%       26.79%       41.07%
Franklin Parish                           12.81%       10.68%      15.90%       25.60%       39.64%
Grant Parish                                7.30%       5.32%      17.89%       28.57%       39.23%
Iberia Parish                             11.70%        8.03%      19.93%       27.00%       34.08%
Iberville Parish                          11.27%        7.31%      26.75%       30.57%       27.04%
Jackson Parish                              5.60%       3.76%      15.97%       13.95%       21.28%
Jefferson Parish                          10.64%        8.04%      14.13%       20.07%       26.37%
Jefferson Davis Parish                      9.36%       5.90%      14.97%       33.33%       33.76%
Lafayette Parish                            9.79%       8.76%      15.40%       32.36%       40.33%
Lafourche Parish                            9.01%       7.26%      22.42%       37.00%       43.23%
LaSalle Parish                              5.88%       4.65%      11.54%       33.63%       25.33%
Lincoln Parish                              4.37%       6.64%      11.19%       11.80%       31.13%
Livingston Parish                           8.30%       6.42%      14.97%       24.79%       34.94%
Madison Parish                              4.29%       4.00%   N/A         N/A          N/A
Morehouse Parish                          11.03%        8.37%      17.16%       18.13%       20.96%
Natchitoches Parish                         8.68%       6.96%      19.72%       21.03%       32.16%
Orleans Parish                              8.70%       7.77%      12.25%       15.57%       22.86%
Ouachita Parish                             8.12%       5.97%      15.21%       21.03%       28.31%
Plaquemines Parish                        11.93%        4.96%      22.13%       28.86%       38.86%
Pointe Coupee Parish                        7.48%       8.44%   N/A         N/A          N/A



SPF-SIG                                                                                        131
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                      April 5, 2006




                          6th Grade
                                                                                   10th          12th
                          Percent Use within        6th Grade      8th Grade      Grade         Grade
Parish                    Last 30 days                Binge          Binge        Binge         Binge
Rapides Parish                            7.83%         4.94%         12.49%        26.33%        28.76%
Red River Parish                          8.57%         8.64%         16.44%    N/A               33.33%
Richland Parish                         11.83%          8.70%         10.82%        26.79%        32.29%
Sabine Parish                             7.76%        10.00%         21.18%        30.38%        33.02%
St. Bernard Parish                        9.21%         7.36%         15.16%      100.00%     N/A
St. Charles Parish                     100.00%        100.00%         14.87%        32.63%        37.67%
St. Helena Parish                         5.33%         5.26%          7.27%        14.58%         7.69%
St. James Parish                        12.35%          5.41%         12.64%        31.29%        30.91%
St. Landry Parish                       14.54%         10.37%         14.53%        24.25%        30.18%
St. Martin Parish                       11.19%          9.81%         17.55%        28.05%        49.01%
St. Mary Parish                           7.50%         9.03%         11.24%        20.19%        30.95%
Tangipahoa Parish                         9.11%         6.55%         10.80%        20.19%        32.58%
Tensas Parish                             8.33%        11.76%          9.52%         6.45%         7.89%
Terrebonne Parish                       66.67%         66.67%         20.49%        27.02%        34.39%
Union Parish                            12.43%         11.70%         15.22%        28.70%        32.43%
Vernon Parish                             7.99%         4.68%         18.23%        22.69%        25.49%
Washington Parish                         8.02%         7.45%         13.54%        17.70%        33.99%
Webster Parish                            9.95%         9.18%         15.40%        25.66%        28.11%
West Baton Rouge                        10.58%          7.58%         19.50%        16.67%        50.00%
West Carroll Parish                     17.78%         13.33%         10.00%        34.43%        18.18%
West Feliciana                            8.15%         7.65%         15.24%        17.89%        30.56%
Winn Parish                               9.04%         5.92%         13.82%        17.14%        29.23%
City of Monroe                            6.36%         5.68%          9.46%        13.83%        20.29%
City of Bogalusa                          5.26%         1.82%         14.73%        23.47%        30.77%
City of Baker                           11.48%          5.31%         14.05%        12.22%        19.23%
Zachary Community         N/A                       N/A            N/A              34.51%        34.34%
State                                      0.100         0.077          0.250         0.247         0.330

Table 5 Alcohol Consequences
Rates are per 1000
population except
where noted           -99 - Too Small to Count
                                       Rate         Rate          Rate 2003 (per       Rate 2003 (per
                      Rate 00-02      2002-04      2002-04       100K lic drivers)    100K lic drivers)
Parish of             Violent                                    Alcohol Related      Alcohol Related
Residence             Crime           Homicide     Suicide       Crash Fatalities      Crash Injuries
Acadia                       3.495      -99.000       0.146                  16.000             200.000
Allen                        3.345      -99.000     -99.000                  15.000             116.000
Ascension                    4.173        0.055       0.114                  17.000             164.000
Assumption                   3.421      -99.000       0.072                  30.000             196.000
Avoyelles                    3.413      -99.000       0.183                   8.000             119.000
Beauregard                   2.495      -99.000       0.059                   0.000              77.000
Bienville                    1.329      -99.000     -99.000                   0.000             202.000
Bossier                      6.084        0.094       0.120                   9.000             103.000


SPF-SIG                                                                                              132
Louisiana SEW Report                                                               April 5, 2006


Rates are per 1000
population except
where noted          -99 - Too Small to Count
                                     Rate        Rate       Rate 2003 (per       Rate 2003 (per
                     Rate 00-02     2002-04     2002-04    100K lic drivers)    100K lic drivers)
Parish of            Violent                               Alcohol Related      Alcohol Related
Residence            Crime          Homicide    Suicide    Crash Fatalities      Crash Injuries
Caddo                       8.313       0.182      0.102               12.000             217.000
Calcasieu                   6.341       0.078      0.114               10.000             234.000
Caldwell                    2.174     -99.000      0.031                0.000             124.000
Cameron                     3.042     -99.000      0.034               35.000             417.000
Catahoula                   2.797     -99.000    -99.000               28.000             197.000
Claiborne                   2.617     -99.000    -99.000               33.000             223.000
Concordia                   4.614     -99.000    -99.000               24.000             195.000
DeSoto                      6.896     -99.000    -99.000               12.000             117.000
E.Baton Rouge               7.943       0.137      0.100                8.000             125.000
E.Carroll                   3.390     -99.000    -99.000               23.000             164.000
E.Feliciana                 5.490     -99.000    -99.000               22.000              30.000
Evangeline                  1.564     -99.000      0.236               10.000             268.000
Franklin                    3.447     -99.000    -99.000               31.000              31.000
Grant                       3.986     -99.000    -99.000               16.000             159.000
Iberia                      3.506     -99.000      0.090                9.000             160.000
Iberville                   8.246       0.112      0.071               32.000             169.000
Jackson                     2.780     -99.000    -99.000               27.000             100.000
Jeff. Davis               10.965      -99.000    -99.000               39.000             234.000
Jefferson                   6.618       0.134      0.124                8.000              88.000
Lafayette                   6.543       0.045      0.101               12.000             210.000
Lafourshe                   2.798     -99.000      0.098               16.000             213.000
LaSalle                     1.475     -99.000    -99.000               21.000             105.000
Lincoln                     4.929       0.079    -99.000               12.000             198.000
Livingston                  4.117     -99.000      0.150                8.000             143.000
Madison                     7.334     -99.000    -99.000               34.000             170.000
Morehouse                   4.848     -99.000      0.120               26.000             142.000
Natchitoches                7.508       0.060    -99.000               40.000             233.000
Orleans                   10.436        0.520      0.086                9.000             279.000
Ouachita                    6.786       0.079      0.083               14.000             165.000
Plaquemines                 2.376     -99.000      0.142               17.000             115.000
Pt. Coupee                  4.105     -99.000      0.089               28.000             223.000
Rapides                     8.078       0.089      0.107               10.000             183.000
Red River                   3.792     -99.000    -99.000               18.000             198.000
Richland                    1.294     -99.000    -99.000               32.000             205.000
Sabine                      4.138     -99.000    -99.000               13.000             145.000
St. Tammany                 3.061       0.037      0.140                8.000             158.000
St.Bernard                  1.965     -99.000      0.147                9.000             111.000
St.Charles                  7.199     -99.000      0.101                6.000             167.000
St.Helena                   3.920     -99.000    -99.000                0.000             152.000
St.James                  16.712      -99.000    -99.000                7.000             235.000
St.John                     2.243       0.148    -99.000               26.000             231.000
St.Landry                   7.535       0.071      0.154               23.000             201.000


SPF-SIG                                                                                      133
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                 April 5, 2006


Rates are per 1000
population except
where noted           -99 - Too Small to Count
                                      Rate        Rate        Rate 2003 (per       Rate 2003 (per
                      Rate 00-02     2002-04     2002-04     100K lic drivers)    100K lic drivers)
Parish of             Violent                                Alcohol Related      Alcohol Related
Residence             Crime          Homicide    Suicide     Crash Fatalities      Crash Injuries
St.Martin                    2.845     -99.000      0.113                38.000             217.000
St.Mary                      8.662     -99.000    -99.000                14.000             144.000
Tangipahoa                   9.149       0.106      0.093                14.000             141.000
Tensas                       4.411     -99.000    -99.000                57.000              86.000
Terrebonne                   7.427       0.072      0.097                14.000             189.000
Union                        3.051     -99.000    -99.000                33.000             178.000
Vermilion                    2.713     -99.000      0.110                14.000             171.000
Vernon                       3.814       0.040      0.093                14.000              97.000
W.Baton Rouge                5.884     -99.000    -99.000                28.000             280.000
W.Carroll                    2.542     -99.000    -99.000                 0.000              75.000
W.Feliciana                  2.332       0.022    -99.000                16.000              32.000
Washington                   6.957     -99.000      0.136                29.000             162.000
Webster                      3.118       0.081      0.153                30.000             178.000
Winn                         2.440     -99.000    -99.000                11.000             175.000
STATE                        6.349       0.133      0.110                13.000             166.000



Table 6 Youth Drug Use
                          Percent Marijuana Use Within Last 30       Percent Inhalant Use in previous 30
District                  days                                       days
Acadia Parish                                             7.68%                                     6.05%
Allen Parish                                             10.82%                                    10.79%
Ascension Parish                                         10.56%                                     8.31%
Assumption Parish                                         5.95%                                     5.59%
Avoyelles Parish                                         10.87%                                     9.65%
Beauregard Parish                                        11.43%                                     8.65%
Bienville Parish                                         11.24%                                     7.95%
Bossier Parish                                            8.34%                                     7.67%
Caddo Parish                                              9.57%                                     6.18%
Calcasieu Parish                                         10.79%                                     8.10%
Caldwell Parish                                          18.75%                                    25.20%
Cameron Parish                                            8.13%                                     8.12%
Catahoula Parish                                          8.95%                                     9.38%
City of Baker                                             9.98%                                     8.96%
City of Bogalusa                                         13.20%                                     7.64%
City of Monroe                                            7.06%                                     8.79%
Claiborne Parish                                         10.18%                                     8.74%
Concordia Parish                                          9.54%                                     9.59%
DeSoto Parish                                             5.86%                                     5.64%
East Baton Rouge
Parish                                                      12.98%                                    8.50%
East Carroll Parish                                         12.17%                                    7.30%



SPF-SIG                                                                                        134
Louisiana SEW Report                                                               April 5, 2006


                         Percent Marijuana Use Within Last 30     Percent Inhalant Use in previous 30
District                 days                                     days
Evangeline Parish                                        7.93%                                  10.73%
Franklin Parish                                         13.17%                                   7.51%
Grant Parish                                            11.40%                                   7.58%
Iberia Parish                                           10.39%                                   5.98%
Iberville Parish                                        12.86%                                   8.05%
Jackson Parish                                          10.59%                                   9.66%
Jefferson Davis Parish                                   9.70%                                   8.32%
Jefferson Parish                                        10.08%                                   7.38%
Lafayette Parish                                        11.87%                                   7.48%
Lafourche Parish                                        12.51%                                   0.00%
LaSalle Parish                                           7.45%                                   5.53%
Lincoln Parish                                           7.66%                                   8.17%
Livingston Parish                                       10.08%                                   7.84%
Madison Parish                                           0.00%                                   6.88%
Morehouse Parish                                        10.13%                                   8.46%
Natchitoches Parish                                      9.81%                                   4.90%
Orleans Parish                                          10.67%                                   7.00%
Ouachita Parish                                          8.94%                                   7.65%
Plaquemines Parish                                      12.86%                                   6.84%
Pointe Coupee Parish                                     0.71%                                   6.65%
Rapides Parish                                           7.21%                                  10.95%
Red River Parish                                         8.29%                                   7.40%
Richland Parish                                          8.17%                                   5.12%
Sabine Parish                                            8.70%                                   8.91%
St. Bernard Parish                                       6.72%                                   6.98%
St. Charles Parish                                      15.89%                                   8.20%
St. Helena Parish                                        5.86%                                   6.95%
St. James Parish                                         8.72%                                   6.94%
St. Landry Parish                                        9.59%                                   5.06%
St. Martin Parish                                       11.91%                                  10.46%
St. Mary Parish                                          9.00%                                   8.45%
Tangipahoa Parish                                        9.32%                                   8.25%
Tensas Parish                                            8.86%                                   7.31%
Terrebonne Parish                                       13.91%                                   5.94%
Union Parish                                            11.50%                                   8.90%
Vernon Parish                                            8.08%                                   6.37%
Washington Parish                                        8.62%                                   5.85%
Webster Parish                                           9.60%                                   5.94%
West Baton Rouge                                         8.48%                                   7.45%
West Carroll Parish                                      6.90%                                   4.97%
West Feliciana                                           6.01%                                   7.57%
Winn Parish                                              6.63%                                   6.10%
Zachary Community                                       16.09%                                   7.60%
Louisiana Statewide                                       0.102                                   0.078




SPF-SIG                                                                                     135
Louisiana SEW Report                                                           April 5, 2006

Table 7 Drug Consequence

Rates are per 1000 population
except where noted              -99 - Too Small to Count
                                  Rate 1999-04     Rate 00-02             Rate 00-02
Parish of Residence               Drug Deaths      Property Crime         Violent Crime
Acadia                                     0.020                 29.495                 3.495
Allen                                    -99.000                 15.910                 3.345
Ascension                                -99.000                 34.237                 4.173
Assumption                               -99.000                 14.557                 3.421
Avoyelles                                -99.000                 19.978                 3.413
Beauregard                               -99.000                 18.589                 2.495
Bienville                                -99.000                  7.225                 1.329
Bossier                                    0.010                 45.404                 6.084
Caddo                                      0.015                 63.262                 8.313
Calcasieu                                  0.005                 53.343                 6.341
Caldwell                                   0.000                 10.838                 2.174
Cameron                                    0.000                 20.381                 3.042
Catahoula                                  0.000                 15.398                 2.797
Claiborne                                  0.000                 14.522                 2.617
Concordia                                  0.000                 22.473                 4.614
DeSoto                                   -99.000                 29.146                 6.896
E.Baton Rouge                              0.005                 75.779                 7.943
E.Carroll                                -99.000                 15.401                 3.390
E.Feliciana                              -99.000                 11.106                 5.490
Evangeline                                 0.000                 14.640                 1.564
Franklin                                   0.000                 16.304                 3.447
Grant                                      0.000                 19.434                 3.986
Iberia                                     0.023                 24.706                 3.506
Iberville                                -99.000                 28.702                 8.246
Jackson                                  -99.000                 15.071                 2.780
Jeff. Davis                              -99.000                 36.843                10.965
Jefferson                                  0.018                 51.945                 6.618
Lafayette                                  0.009                 27.207                 6.543
Lafourshe                                  0.011                  7.635                 2.798
LaSalle                                  -99.000                 48.319                 1.475
Lincoln                                    0.020                 40.851                 4.929
Livingston                                 0.017                 25.055                 4.117
Madison                                    0.000                 27.997                 7.334
Morehouse                                -99.000                 26.464                 4.848
Natchitoches                               0.030                 41.359                 7.508
Orleans                                    0.086                 61.060                10.436
Ouachita                                   0.009                 48.039                 6.786
Plaquemines                              -99.000                 14.933                 2.376
Pt. Coupee                               -99.000                 16.200                 4.105
Rapides                                    0.009                 56.659                 8.078
Red River                                  0.000                 19.344                 3.792
Richland                                 -99.000                 15.022                 1.294



SPF-SIG                                                                                   136
Louisiana SEW Report                                                            April 5, 2006



Rates are per 1000 population
except where noted              -99 - Too Small to Count
                                   Rate 1999-04     Rate 00-02             Rate 00-02
Parish of Residence                Drug Deaths      Property Crime         Violent Crime
Sabine                                    -99.000                 14.304                 4.138
St. Tammany                                 0.019                 31.009                 3.061
St.Bernard                                  0.083                 13.606                 1.965
St.Charles                                  0.017                 32.648                 7.199
St.Helena                                   0.000                 16.891                 3.920
St.James                                    0.000                 33.235                16.712
St.John                                   -99.000                 28.012                 2.243
St.Landry                                   0.017                 37.767                 7.535
St.Martin                                 -99.000                 14.462                 2.845
St.Mary                                     0.000                 48.645                 8.662
Tangipahoa                                  0.034                 48.203                 9.149
Tensas                                      0.000                 14.514                 4.411
Terrebonne                                  0.009                 51.585                 7.427
Union                                     -99.000                 23.329                 3.051
Vermilion                                 -99.000                 16.509                 2.713
Vernon                                    -99.000                 20.256                 3.814
W.Baton Rouge                             -99.000                 53.621                 5.884
W.Carroll                                 -99.000                 17.714                 2.542
W.Feliciana                                 0.000                 13.750                 2.332
Washington                                  0.030                 39.981                 6.957
Webster                                   -99.000                 16.607                 3.118
Winn                                      -99.000                 12.380                 2.440
STATE                                       0.021                 44.179                 6.349


Table 8 Youth Tobacco use
                                CCYS


 District                       Percent Use Within Last 30 days
 Acadia Parish                                               15.62%
 Allen Parish                                                21.53%
 Ascension Parish                                            16.35%
 Assumption Parish                                           16.88%
 Avoyelles Parish                                            22.05%
 Beauregard Parish                                           20.62%
 Bienville Parish                                            18.51%
 Bossier Parish                                              14.79%
 Caddo Parish                                                12.60%
 Calcasieu Parish                                            17.83%
 Caldwell Parish                                             22.69%
 Cameron Parish                                              24.75%
 Catahoula Parish                                            21.46%
 City of Baker                                               13.60%



SPF-SIG                                                                                    137
Louisiana SEW Report                                            April 5, 2006


                          CCYS


District                  Percent Use Within Last 30 days
City of Bogalusa                                       15.73%
City of Monroe                                          7.18%
Claiborne Parish                                       13.70%
Concordia Parish                                       14.77%
DeSoto Parish                                          11.61%
East Baton Rouge Parish                                14.58%
East Carroll Parish                                     9.20%
Evangeline Parish                                      15.85%
Franklin Parish                                        21.03%
Grant Parish                                           20.93%
Iberia Parish                                          18.58%
Iberville Parish                                       18.49%
Jackson Parish                                         13.71%
Jefferson Davis Parish                                 19.69%
Jefferson Parish                                       12.97%
Lafayette Parish                                       15.90%
Lafourche Parish                                       18.29%
LaSalle Parish                                         17.74%
Lincoln Parish                                         12.29%
Livingston Parish                                      16.26%
Madison Parish                                          0.00%
Morehouse Parish                                       14.60%
Natchitoches Parish                                    18.04%
Orleans Parish                                          8.26%
Ouachita Parish                                        17.03%
Plaquemines Parish                                     17.02%
Pointe Coupee Parish                                    3.14%
Rapides Parish                                         13.01%
Red River Parish                                       17.57%
Richland Parish                                        16.98%
Sabine Parish                                          19.77%
St. Bernard Parish                                     11.38%
St. Charles Parish                                     18.20%
St. Helena Parish                                       5.47%
St. James Parish                                       14.89%
St. Landry Parish                                      16.32%
St. Martin Parish                                      17.06%
St. Mary Parish                                        15.43%
Tangipahoa Parish                                      15.12%
Tensas Parish                                          13.16%
Terrebonne Parish                                      21.87%
Union Parish                                           23.50%
Vernon Parish                                          15.42%
Washington Parish                                      16.09%
Webster Parish                                         19.19%
West Baton Rouge                                       14.33%



SPF-SIG                                                                  138
Louisiana SEW Report                                                             April 5, 2006


                                CCYS


District                        Percent Use Within Last 30 days
West Carroll Parish                                          19.00%
West Feliciana                                               14.90%
Winn Parish                                                  12.52%
Zachary Community                                            28.35%
Louisiana Statewide                                            0.161

Table 9 Tobacco Consequences

Rates are per 1000 population
except where noted
                                Rate 2001-03                  Rate 2002-04
Parish of Residence             Cardiovascular Disease        Lung Cancer
Acadia                                              3.674                0.783
Allen                                               3.309                0.540
Ascension                                           2.514                0.454
Assumption                                          3.571                0.660
Avoyelles                                           4.730                0.773
Beauregard                                          3.722                0.624
Bienville                                           4.994                0.846
Bossier                                             2.579                0.560
Caddo                                               3.708                0.691
Calcasieu                                           3.491                0.690
Caldwell                                            4.556                0.934
Cameron                                             2.556                0.755
Catahoula                                           5.327                0.905
Claiborne                                           4.892                0.865
Concordia                                           3.176                0.622
DeSoto                                              4.399                0.744
E.Baton Rouge                                       2.876                0.480
E.Carroll                                           3.986                0.776
E.Feliciana                                         3.941                0.713
Evangeline                                          3.746                0.679
Franklin                                            6.585                0.719
Grant                                               3.727                0.758
Iberia                                              3.449                0.752
Iberville                                           3.873                0.539
Jackson                                             5.986                0.916
Jeff. Davis                                         3.724                0.824
Jefferson                                           3.169                0.684
Lafayette                                           2.336                0.532
Lafourshe                                           2.963                0.543
LaSalle                                             4.723                0.916
Lincoln                                             2.428                0.451
Livingston                                          2.353                0.535
Madison                                             5.482                0.460


SPF-SIG                                                                                   139
Louisiana SEW Report                                                           April 5, 2006



Rates are per 1000 population
except where noted
                                Rate 2001-03                Rate 2002-04
Parish of Residence             Cardiovascular Disease      Lung Cancer
Morehouse                                           4.518              0.785
Natchitoches                                        4.039              0.481
Orleans                                             3.312              0.631
Ouachita                                            3.109              0.548
Plaquemines                                         2.789              0.641
Pt. Coupee                                          4.002              0.651
Rapides                                             4.032              0.759
Red River                                           4.070              0.695
Richland                                            4.903              1.084
Sabine                                              4.138              0.822
St. Tammany                                         2.467              0.583
St.Bernard                                          3.576              0.834
St.Charles                                          2.421              0.552
St.Helena                                           3.303              0.773
St.James                                            3.217              0.472
St.John                                             2.446              0.534
St.Landry                                           3.830              0.760
St.Martin                                           3.163              0.660
St.Mary                                             3.253              0.592
Tangipahoa                                          3.517              0.630
Tensas                                              4.790              0.847
Terrebonne                                          2.766              0.594
Union                                               4.122              0.685
Vermilion                                           3.919              0.631
Vernon                                              2.214              0.456
W.Baton Rouge                                       2.536              0.551
W.Carroll                                           4.828              1.019
W.Feliciana                                         2.481              0.484
Washington                                          4.608              0.924
Webster                                             5.534              0.935
Winn                                                5.075              0.836
STATE                                               3.304              0.636




SPF-SIG                                                                                 140
                Louisiana SEW Report
                            NEVADA
                            NEVADA
                            NEVADA
                            NEVADA
                            NEVADA
                            NEVADA
                                                                                         SUNFLOW ER
                                                                                         SUNFLOW ER
                                                                                         SUNFLOW
                                                                                         SUNFLOW ER                                                  April 5, 2006
                                                                DREW
                                                                DREW
                                                                DREW
                                                                DREW
                                                                DREW
                                                                DREW                            LEFLORE
                                                                                                LEFLORE
                                                                                                LEFLORE
                                                                                                LEFLORE
                                                                                                LEFLORE
                                                                                                LEFLORE    MONTGOMERY
                                                                                                            MONTGOMERY
                                                                                                            MONTGOMERY
                                                                                                           MONTGOMERY
                                                                                                            MONTGOMERY
                                                                                                            MONTGOMERY                                        TUSCALOOSA
                                                                                                                                                              TUSCALOOSA
                                                                                                                                                              TUSCALOOSA
                                           OUACHITA
                                           OUACHITA
                                           OUACHITA
                                           OUACHITA
                                           OUACHITA
                                           OUACHITA
                                                 CALHOUN
                                                 CALHOUN
                                                CALHOUN                                                CARROLL
                                                                                                       CARROLL
                                                                                                        CARROLL                                               TUSCALOOSA
                                                                                                                                                              TUSCALOOSA
                                                                                                                                                              TUSCALOOSA
                                                 CALHOUN
                                                CALHOUN
                                                 CALHOUN                                                CARROLL
                                                                                                       CARROLL
                                                                                                       CARROLL
                                                                                                                  CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                  CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                   CHOCTAW                          PICKENS
                                                                                                                                                    PICKENS
                                                                                                                                                    PICKENS
                                                                                                                                                    PICKENS
                                                        BRADLEY
                                                       BRADLEY
                                                        BRADLEY
                                                        BRADLEY
                                                       BRADLEY
                                                        BRADLEY                                                   CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                  CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                   CHOCTAW
              BOW IE
              BOW IE
              BOW IE
              BOW IE
              BOW IE
              BOW IE
                                                                                W ASHINGTON
                                                                                W
                                                                                W ASHINGTON
                                                                            CHICOTASHINGTON
                                                                            CHICOT
                                                                            CHICOT                                                                                     BIBB
                                                                                                                                                                       BIBB
                                                                                                                                                                       BIBB
                                                                                                                                                                       BIBB
                                                                                                                                                                       BIBB
                                                                                                                                                                       BIBB
                                                                                W
                                                                                W ASHINGTON
                                                                                W ASHINGTON
                                                                            CHICOTASHINGTON
                                                                            CHICOT
                                                                            CHICOT                                                        NOXUBEE
                                                                                                                                          NOXUBEE
                                                                                                                                          NOXUBEE
                                                                                                                                          NOXUBEE
                                                                                                                                          NOXUBEE
                                                                                                                                          NOXUBEE
                        MILLER
                        MILLER
                        MILLER
                        MILLER
                        MILLER
                        MILLER                                                                                                 W INSTON
                                                                                                                               W INSTON
                                                                                                                               W INSTON
                                                                                                                               W INSTON
                                                                                                                               W INSTON
                                                                                                                               W INSTON
                            LAFAYETTE
                            LAFAYETTE
                            LAFAYETTE
                                    COLUMBIA
                                    COLUMBIA
                                   COLUMBIA
                            LAFAYETTE
                            LAFAYETTE
                            LAFAYETTE                             ASHLEY
                                                                  ASHLEY
                                                                  ASHLEY
                                                                  ASHLEY
                                                                  ASHLEY
                                                                  ASHLEY                 HUMPHREYS HOLMES ATTALA
                                                                                                    HOLMES ATTALA
                                                                                         HUMPHREYS HOLMES ATTALA
                                                                                          HUMPHREYS HOLMES ATTALA
                                                                                         HUMPHREYS HOLMES ATTALA
                                                                                                    HOLMES ATTALA
                                   COLUMBIA
                                    COLUMBIA
                                    COLUMBIA        UNION
                                                    UNION
                                                    UNION
                                                    UNION
                                                                             Number of Indicators above the State Average
                                                                                                                  GREENE
                                                                                                                   GREENE
                                                                                                                  GREENE
                                                                                                                  GREENE
                                                                                                                   GREENE
                                                                                                                  GREENE
               CASS
               CASS
               CASS
               CASS                                                                                                                                            HALE
                                                                                                                                                               HALE
                                                                                                                                                               HALE
                                                                                                                                                               HALE
                                                                                                                                                               HALE
                                                                                                                                                               HALE
                                                                                      SHARKEY
                                                                                      SHARKEY
                                                                                      SHARKEY
                                                                                      SHARKEY
                                                                                      SHARKEY
                                                                                      SHARKEY                                      KEMPER
                                                                                                                                   KEMPER
                                                                                                                                   KEMPER
                                                                                                                                   KEMPER
                                                                                                                                   KEMPER
                                                                                                                                   KEMPER
                                                                                                                     LEAKE NESHOBA
                                                                                                                     LEAKE NESHOBA
                                                                                                                     LEAKE NESHOBA
                                                                                                                     LEAKE NESHOBA
                                                                                                                     LEAKE NESHOBA
                                                                                                                     LEAKE NESHOBA                  SUMTER
                                                                                                                                                    SUMTER
                                                                                                                                                    SUMTER
                                                                                                                                                    SUMTER            PERRY
                                                                                                                                                                      PERRY
                                                                                                                                                                      PERRY
                                                                                                                                                                      PERRY
                                                                                                                                                                      PERRY
                                                                                                                                                                      PERRY
                                       CLAIBORNE
                                        CLAIBORNE
                                        CLAIBORNE
                                       CLAIBORNE       UNION
                                                       UNION
                                                       UNION
                                                       UNION
                                                       UNION
                                                       UNION
                                                                     W ESTEAST CARROLL
                                                                     W ESTEAST CARROLL
                                                                     W
                                                                     W ESTEAST CARROLL
                                                                 MOREHOUSE
                                                                 MOREHOUSE
                                                                 MOREHOUSE
                                                                 MOREHOUSE
                                                                 MOREHOUSE
                                                                 MOREHOUSE
                                                                          CARROLL
                                                                           CARROLL
                                                                           CARROLL
                                                                          EAST CARROLL
                                                                          CARROLL
                                                                           CARROLL
                                                                           CARROLL
                                                                          EAST CARROLL
                                                                          EAST CARROLL
                                                                                ISSAQUENA
                                                                                ISSAQUENA
                                                                                 ISSAQUENA
                                                                                ISSAQUENA
                                                                                ISSAQUENA
                                                                                 ISSAQUENA
                                                                                                  YAZOO
                                                                                                  YAZOO
                                                                                                  YAZOO
                                                                                                  YAZOO
                                                                                                  YAZOO
                                                                                                  YAZOO
                                                                                                       MADISON
                                                                                                      MADISON
                                                                                                      MADISON
                                                                                                                     Number Above State Average
              MARION
              MARION
              MARION
              MARION
              MARION
              MARION                                                                                  MADISON
                                                                                                      MADISON
                                                                                                       MADISON                                                          DALLAS
                                                                                                                                                                        DALLAS
                                                                                                                                                                        DALLAS
                                 W EBSTER
                                 W EBSTER
                                 W EBSTER
                                 W EBSTER
                                 W EBSTER
                                 W EBSTER                                                                           Indicator Count (Number of Parishes)                DALLAS
                                                                                                                                                                        DALLAS
                                                                                                                                                                        DALLAS
                             BOSSIER
                             BOSSIER
                        CADDOBOSSIER
                             BOSSIER
                        CADDOBOSSIER
                        CADDOBOSSIER
                        CADDO
                        CADDO
                        CADDO
                                                LINCOLN
                                                LINCOLN
                                                LINCOLN
                                                LINCOLN
                                                LINCOLN
                                                LINCOLN                                                              SCOTT
                                                                                                                     SCOTT
                                                                                                                     SCOTT
                                                                                                                     SCOTT
                                                                                                                     SCOTT
                                                                                                                     SCOTT     NEW TONLAUDERDALE
                                                                                                                               NEW TONLAUDERDALE
                                                                                                                               NEW TONLAUDERDALE
                                                                                                                               NEW TONLAUDERDALE
                                                                                                                               NEW TONLAUDERDALE
                                                                                                                               NEW TONLAUDERDALE
            HARRISON
            HARRISON
            HARRISON
            HARRISON
            HARRISON
            HARRISON                                      OUACHITA
                                                           OUACHITA
                                                           OUACHITA                                                                                       MARENGO
                                                                                                                                                          MARENGO
                                                                                                                                                          MARENGO
                                                                                                                                                          MARENGO
                                                          OUACHITA
                                                           OUACHITA
                                                           OUACHITA
                                                                   RICHLAND MADISON W ARREN
                                                                   RICHLAND MADISON W ARREN
                                                                    RICHLAND MADISON W ARREN
                                                                   RICHLAND MADISON W ARREN
                                                                   RICHLAND MADISON W ARREN
                                                                    RICHLAND MADISON W ARREN      HINDS
                                                                                                  HINDS
                                                                                                  HINDS    RANKIN
                                                                                                           RANKIN
                                                                                                           RANKIN
                                                                                                           RANKIN
                                                                                                           RANKIN
                                                                                                           RANKIN
                                                                                                                                           1 (2)
                                                                                                  HINDS
                                                                                                  HINDS
                                                                                                  HINDS                                                               W ILCOX
                                      BIENVILLE
                                      BIENVILLE
                                      BIENVILLE
                                      BIENVILLE JACKSON
                                      BIENVILLE JACKSON
                                      BIENVILLE    JACKSON                                                                                 2 (9)                      W ILCOX
                                                                                                                                                                      W ILCOX
                                                                                                                                                                      W ILCOX
                                                                                                                                                                      W ILCOX
                                                                                                                                                                      W ILCOX
                                                                                                                                          CLARKE CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                                          CLARKE CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                                          CLARKE CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                                          CLARKE CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                                          CLARKE CHOCTAW
                                                                                                                                          CLARKE CHOCTAW
               PANOLA
               PANOLA
               PANOLA
               PANOLA
               PANOLA
               PANOLA
                                                                     FRANKLIN
                                                                     FRANKLIN
                                                                    FRANKLIN
                                                                     FRANKLIN
                                                                    FRANKLIN
                                                                     FRANKLIN
                                                            CALDW ELL
                                                            CALDW ELL
                                                            CALDW ELL                                                  SMITH
                                                                                                                       SMITH
                                                                                                                       SMITH
                                                                                                                       SMITH
                                                                                                                       SMITH
                                                                                                                       SMITH
                                                                                                                                JASPER
                                                                                                                                JASPER
                                                                                                                                JASPER
                                                                                                                                JASPER
                                                                                                                                JASPER
                                                                                                                                JASPER     3 (15)
      RUSK                                                  CALDW ELL
                                                            CALDW ELL
                                                            CALDW ELL                CLAIBORNE
                                                                                     CLAIBORNE
                                                                                     CLAIBORNE
      RUSK
      RUSK
      RUSK                 DE SOTO RIVER
                           DE SOTO RIVER
                           DE SOTO RIVER                                             CLAIBORNE
                                                                                     CLAIBORNE
                                                                                     CLAIBORNE
                                 RED
                                 RED
                                 RED
                           DE SOTO RIVER
                           DE SOTO RIVER
                           DE SOTO RIVER
                                 RED
                                 RED
                                 RED                                            TENSAS
                                                                                TENSAS
                                                                                TENSAS
                                                                                TENSAS
                                                                                TENSAS
                                                                                TENSAS
                                                                                                  COPIAH
                                                                                                           SIMPSON
                                                                                                           SIMPSON
                                                                                                           SIMPSON
                                                                                                           SIMPSON
                                                                                                           SIMPSON
                                                                                                           SIMPSON                         4 (12)
                                                                                                  COPIAH
                                                                                                  COPIAH
                                                                                                  COPIAH
                                                  W INN
                                                  W INN
                                                  W INN
                                                  W INN
                                                  W INN
                                                  W INN
                                                                                                                                           5 (14)
                                                                                                                                           W AYNE
                                                                                                                                           W AYNE
                                                                                                                                          W AYNE
                                                                                                                                           W AYNE
                                                                                                                                           W AYNE
                                                                                                                                          W AYNE            CLARKE
                                                                                                                                                            CLARKE
                                                                                                                                                             CLARKE
                                                                                                                                                            CLARKE
                                                                                                                                                             CLARKE
                                                                                                                                                            CLARKE    MONROE
                                                                                                                                                                      MONROE
                                                                                                                                                                      MONROE
                                                                                                                                                                      MONROE
                                                                                                                                                                      MONROE
                                                                                                                                                                      MONROE
                                                                                   JEFFERSON
                                                                                   JEFFERSON
                                                                                   JEFFERSON
                                                                                   JEFFERSON
                                                                                   JEFFERSON
                                                                                   JEFFERSON                                JONES
                                                                                                                            JONES
                                                                                                                            JONES                                         CONECUH
                                                                                                                                                                           CONECUH
                                                                                                                                                                          CONECUH
                                                                                                                                                                           CONECUH
                                                                                                                                                                          CONECUH
                                                                                                                                                                          CONECUH
                                                                                                                 COVINGTON JONES
                                                                                                                  COVINGTON JONES
                                                                                                                 COVINGTON JONES
                  SHELBY
                  SHELBY
                  SHELBY
                  SHELBY
                  SHELBY
                  SHELBY             NATCHITOCHES
                                     NATCHITOCHES
                                     NATCHITOCHES
                                     NATCHITOCHES
                                     NATCHITOCHES
                                     NATCHITOCHES                                                                COVINGTON
                                                                                                                 COVINGTON
                                                                                                                  COVINGTON
                                                                                                          JEFFERSON DAVIS
                                                                                                           JEFFERSON DAVIS
                                                                                                           JEFFERSON DAVIS
                                                                                                           JEFFERSON DAVIS
                                                                                                          JEFFERSON DAVIS
                                                                                                           JEFFERSON DAVIS                 6 (6)
                                                          LA SALLE
                                                          LA SALLE
                                                          LA SALLE                                    LAW RENCE
                                                                                                       LAW RENCE
                                                                                                       LAW RENCE
                                                                                                      LAW                                            ASHINGTON
                                                                                                                                                   W ASHINGTON
                                                                                                                                                   W ASHINGTON
                                                                                                                                                   W ASHINGTON
                                                    GRANT LA SALLECATAHOULA
                                                    GRANT LA SALLE
                                                    GRANT LA SALLE
                                                    GRANT
                                                    GRANT
                                                    GRANT
                                                                  CATAHOULA
                                                                  CATAHOULA
                                                                  CATAHOULA
                                                                            ADAMS
                                                                            ADAMS
                                                                            ADAMS      FRANKLIN
                                                                                       FRANKLIN
                                                                                       FRANKLIN
                                                                                       FRANKLIN
                                                                                       FRANKLIN
                                                                                                LINCOLN
                                                                                                LINCOLN
                                                                                                LINCOLN
                                                                                                LINCOLN
                                                                                                LINCOLN
                                                                                                LINCOLN                                            W ASHINGTON
                                                                                                                                           7 (4)W ASHINGTON
                                                                                                                                                   W

    NACOGDOCHES
    NACOGDOCHES
    NACOGDOCHES
    NACOGDOCHES
    NACOGDOCHES
    NACOGDOCHES                SABINE
                               SABINE
                               SABINE                                       ADAMS
                                                                            ADAMS
                                                                            ADAMS
                               SABINE
                               SABINE
                               SABINE
                                                                      CONCORDIA
                                                                      CONCORDIA
                                                                      CONCORDIA
                                                                      CONCORDIA
                                                                                                                                                (2)
                                                                                                                                           8GREENE
                                                                                                                                             GREENE
                                                                                                                                             GREENE
                                                                                                                                             GREENE
                                                                                                                                             GREENE
                                                                                                                                            GREENE
                                                                                                                                                                           ESCAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                                           ESCAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                                           ESCAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                                           ESCAMBIA
            SAN AUGUSTINE
            SAN AUGUSTINE
            SAN AUGUSTINE
            SAN AUGUSTINE
            SAN AUGUSTINE
                       SABINE
                       SABINE
                       SABINE
            SAN AUGUSTINE
                       SABINE
                       SABINE
                       SABINE                                                                                  MARION LAMAR
                                                                                                               MARION LAMAR
                                                                                                              MARION LAMAR
                                                                                                                         FORRESTPERRY
                                                                                                                         FORRESTPERRY
                                                                                                               MARION LAMAR
                                                                                                               MARION LAMAR
                                                                                                              MARION LAMAR
                                                                                                                         FORRESTPERRY
                                                                                                                         FORRESTPERRY
                                                                                                                         FORREST
                                                                                                                         FORREST
                                                                                                                                PERRY
                                                                                                                                PERRY
                                                                                          AMITE
                                                                                          AMITE
                                                                                          AMITE     PIKE W ALTHALL
                                                                                                    PIKE W ALTHALL
                                                                                                    PIKE W ALTHALL
                                                                                                    PIKE W ALTHALL
                                                                                                    PIKE W ALTHALL
                                                                                                    PIKE W ALTHALL
       ANGELINA
       ANGELINA
       ANGELINA
       ANGELINA
       ANGELINA
       ANGELINA                                     RAPIDES
                                                    RAPIDES
                                                    RAPIDES                 W ILKINSON
                                                                            W ILKINSON
                                                                            W ILKINSON
                                                                            W ILKINSON
                                                                            W ILKINSON
                                                                            W ILKINSON    AMITE
                                                    RAPIDES
                                                    RAPIDES
                                                    RAPIDES
                                        VERNON
                                        VERNON
                                        VERNON
                                        VERNON                 AVOYELLES
                                                               AVOYELLES
                                                               AVOYELLES
                                                               AVOYELLES
                                                               AVOYELLES
                                                               AVOYELLES                                                             GEORGE
                                                                                                                                     GEORGE
                                                                                                                                     GEORGE
                                                                                                                                     GEORGE
                                                                                                                                     GEORGE
                                                                                                                                     GEORGE                     BALDW IN
                                                                                                                                                                BALDW IN
                                                                                                                                                                BALDW
                                                                                                                                                                BALDW IN
                                                                                                     W ASHINGTON
                                                                                                     W ASHINGTON
                                                                                                     W ASHINGTON             STONE            MOBILE
                                                                                                                                              MOBILE
                                                                                                                                              MOBILE
                                                                                                                                              MOBILE
                                                                                                                                              MOBILE
                                                                                                                                              MOBILE                    ESCAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                                         ESCAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                                        ESCAMBIA
                                                                                                     W ASHINGTON
                                                                                                     W ASHINGTON
                                                                                                     W ASHINGTON             STONE
                                                                                                                            STONE
                                                                                                                             STONE                                      ESCAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                                         ESCAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                                        ESCAMBIA
                                                                    W EST FELICIANA
                                                                   W EST FELICIANA
                                                                   W EST FELICIANA    ST. HELENA
                                                                                      ST. HELENA
                                                                                      ST. HELENA
                                                                                  FELICIANA
                                                                            EAST FELICIANA
                                                                             EAST FELICIANA
                                                                                      ST. HELENA
                                                                                      ST. HELENA
                                                                                      ST. HELENA
                                                                            EAST FELICIANA
                                                                            EAST FELICIANA
                                                                                  FELICIANA                     PEARL RIVER
                                                                                                                PEARL RIVER
                                                                                                                PEARL RIVER
                                                                                                                      RIVER
                                                                   W EST FELICIANA
                                                                   W EST FELICIANA
                                                                    W EST FELICIANA                             PEARL
                                                                                                                PEARL RIVER
                                                                                                                PEARL RIVER
   POLK
   POLK
   POLK                                                                 COUPEE
                                                                POINTE COUPEE
                                                                 POINTE COUPEE
                                                                POINTE COUPEE
                                                                POINTE COUPEE
                                                                POINTE COUPEE
                                                                 POINTE
   POLK
   POLK
   POLK        TYLER
               TYLER
               TYLER
               TYLER
               TYLER
               TYLER                            EVANGELINE
                                                EVANGELINE
                                                EVANGELINE
                                                EVANGELINE
                                                EVANGELINE
                                                EVANGELINE                                    TANGIPAHOA
                                                                                             TANGIPAHOA
                                                                                              TANGIPAHOA                              JACKSON
                                                                                                                                     JACKSON
                                                                                                                                      JACKSON
                                                                                                                                      JACKSON
                                                                                                                                      JACKSON
                                                                                                                                     JACKSON
                                                                                              TANGIPAHOA
                                                                                              TANGIPAHOA
                                                                                             TANGIPAHOA
                     JASPER TON
                          NEW TON
                          NEW
                          NEW
                     JASPER TON
                          NEW
                          NEW
                          NEW TON
                     JASPER TON
                     JASPER TON
                     JASPER                                                                                                 HARRISON
                                                                                                                            HARRISON
                                                                                                                            HARRISON
                                                                                                                            HARRISON
                                                                                                                            HARRISON
                                                                                                                            HARRISON
                     JASPER    BEAUREGARD ALLEN
                               BEAUREGARD ALLEN
                               BEAUREGARD ALLEN
                               BEAUREGARD ALLEN
                               BEAUREGARD ALLEN
                               BEAUREGARD ALLEN       ST. LANDRY
                                                      ST. LANDRY
                                                      ST. LANDRY
                                                      ST. LANDRY
                                                      ST. LANDRY
                                                      ST. LANDRY                       ROUGE
                                                                                BATON ROUGE
                                                                           EAST BATON ROUGE
                                                                          EAST BATON ROUGE
                                                                          EAST BATON ROUGE                         HANCOCK
                                                                    W EST EAST BATON
                                                                           EAST ROUGE
                                                                    W EST EAST BATON ROUGE
                                                                           BATON
                                                                    W EST BATON ROUGE
                                                                    W EST BATON ROUGE
                                                                    W EST BATON ROUGE
                                                                    W EST BATON ROUGE
                                                                           BATON ROUGE                   ST. TAMMANY
                                                                                                         ST. TAMMANY
                                                                                                                   HANCOCK
                                                                                                         ST. TAMMANYHANCOCK
                                                                                                                   HANCOCK
                                                                                                         ST. TAMMANY
                                                                                                         ST. TAMMANY
                                                                                                         ST. TAMMANY
                                                                                       LIVINGSTON
                                                                                       LIVINGSTON
                                                                                       LIVINGSTON
                                                                                       LIVINGSTON
                                                                                       LIVINGSTON
                                                                                       LIVINGSTON

                                                                               IBERVILLE ASCENSION
                                                                               IBERVILLE ASCENSION
                                                                              IBERVILLE ASCENSION
                                                                       ST. MARTIN
                                                                       ST. MARTIN
                                                                      ST. MARTIN
                                                                              IBERVILLE ASCENSION
                                                                               IBERVILLE ASCENSION
                                                                               IBERVILLE ASCENSION
                                                                       ST. MARTIN
                                                                       ST. MARTIN
                                                                      ST. MARTIN
              HARDIN
              HARDIN
              HARDIN
              HARDIN                      JEFFERSON DAVISACADIA
                                         JEFFERSON DAVISACADIA
                                         JEFFERSON DAVISACADIA
                                          JEFFERSON DAVISACADIA
                                          JEFFERSON DAVIS
                                          JEFFERSON DAVIS
                                                         ACADIA
                                                         ACADIA
                                  CALCASIEU
                                  CALCASIEU
                                  CALCASIEU                  LAFAYETTE
                                                             LAFAYETTE
                                                             LAFAYETTE
                                                             LAFAYETTE
                                                             LAFAYETTE
                                                             LAFAYETTE
                                  CALCASIEU
                                  CALCASIEU
                                  CALCASIEU                                                  ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST
                                                                                             ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST
                                                                                             ST. JOHN THE BAPTISTORLEANS
                                                                                             ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST
                                                                                             ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST
                                                                                             ST. JOHN THE BAPTISTORLEANS
                                                                                                                 ORLEANS
                                                                                                                 ORLEANS
    LIBERTY
    LIBERTY
    LIBERTY
    LIBERTY
    LIBERTY
    LIBERTY                                                                                                      ORLEANS
                                                                                                                 ORLEANS
                                                                                           ST. JAMES
                                                                                           ST. JAMES
                                                                                           ST. JAMES
                                                                                           ST. JAMESST. CHARLES
                                                                                           ST. JAMES CHARLES
                                                                                           ST. JAMESST. CHARLES
                                                                                                    ST. CHARLES
                                                                                                    ST. CHARLES
                                                                                                    ST.
                                                                                                    ST. CHARLES      ST. BERNARD
                                                                                                                     ST. BERNARD
                                                                                                                     ST. BERNARD
                         ORANGE
                         ORANGE
                         ORANGE
                         ORANGE                                                                                      ST. BERNARD
                                                                                                                     ST. BERNARD
                                                                                                                     ST. BERNARD
                                                                     IBERIA
                                                                      IBERIA
                                                                     IBERIA
                                                                     IBERIA
                                                                      IBERIA
                                                                     IBERIA          ASSUMPTION
                                                                                     ASSUMPTION
                                                                                     ASSUMPTION
                  JEFFERSON
                  JEFFERSON
                  JEFFERSON                             VERMILION
                                                         VERMILION
                                                        VERMILION
                                                        VERMILION
                  JEFFERSON
                  JEFFERSON
                  JEFFERSON          CAMERON
                                     CAMERON
                                     CAMERON                                                               JEFFERSON
                                                                                                           JEFFERSON
                                                                                                            JEFFERSON
                                                                                                           JEFFERSON
                                                                                                           JEFFERSON
                                                                                                            JEFFERSON
                                     CAMERON
                                     CAMERON
                                     CAMERON                                 ST. MARY
                                                                             ST. MARY
                                                                             ST. MARY
                                                                             ST. MARY
                                                                             ST. MARY
                                                                             ST. MARY
     CHAMBERS
     CHAMBERS
     CHAMBERS
     CHAMBERS
     CHAMBERS
     CHAMBERS
                                                                                                LAFOURCHE
                                                                                                 LAFOURCHE
                                                                                                LAFOURCHE
                                                                                                 LAFOURCHE
                                                                                                LAFOURCHE
                                                                                                LAFOURCHE           PLAQUEMINES
                                                                                                                    PLAQUEMINES
                                                                                                                    PLAQUEMINES
                                                                                                                    PLAQUEMINES
                                                                                                                    PLAQUEMINES
                                                                                                                    PLAQUEMINES
                                                                                         TERREBONNE
                                                                                         TERREBONNE
                                                                                         TERREBONNE
                                                                                         TERREBONNE
                                                                                         TERREBONNE
                                                                                         TERREBONNE

GALVESTON
GALVESTON
GALVESTON
GALVESTON
GALVESTON
GALVESTON




                9. SEW Policy Statement
                         Governing Policy of the Louisiana State Epidemiological Workgroup
                                             Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant
                                            “The Governor’s Initiative to Build A Healthy Louisiana”
                                                  Unanimously Adopted on February 24, 2005
                                           Amended and Unanimously Adopted on December 15, 2005

                The following is an outline of membership, roles and responsibilities and procedures that are
                recommended to govern the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant
                State Epidemiological Workgroup (SEW).

                Membership

                       (1.) The SEW membership is open to representatives from departments, agencies,
                            universities and other entities with responsibility for collecting, housing, analyzing and
                            reporting data related to drug abuse, including underage drinking, and its consequences.
                       (2.) The number of active, voting members shall not exceed forty.
                       (3.) Membership will be determined by the SPF SIG SEW grant requirements and
                            recommendations of the SPF SIG staff.


                SPF-SIG                                                                                                                                            141
Louisiana SEW Report                                                                April 5, 2006



Members Roles and Responsibilities

   (4.) The SEW role is an advisory committee of the SPF SIG Grant advising the Prevention
        Systems Committee and Drug Policy Board. It shall advise on issues related to the use
        of data planning and evaluating drug abuse prevention activities.
   (5.) Members are responsible to attend all scheduled monthly meeting of the SEW or
        provide a substitute (proxy). The substitute shall have voting privileges.
   (6.) After more than two absences per year the committee will either dismiss or replace the
        member who has been absent.
   (7.) Members, at times, may volunteer or be assigned to subgroups of the SEW to complete
        time-limited tasks. Participation in these subgroups is essential to the work of SEW.
        Members may be required to complete these tasks via phone and email correspondence.
   (8.) The Chairperson of the SEW shall be the Epidemiological Workgroup Director.
   (9.) The Chairperson is responsible for creating the agenda, facilitating the meetings and
        communicating with the SPF SIG staff.
   (10.)Following the sixth meeting of the SEW a process will be recommended to appoint
        members of the SEW to rotate into the role of the SEW Chairperson.

Procedures

   Agenda

   (11.)All agenda items shall be generated from recommendations of the SEW membership
        and the SPF SIG staff.
   (12.)The agenda shall be published at least seven workdays before the next scheduled SEW
        meeting.

   Minutes

   (13.) Minutes will be taken of all SEW meetings. The minutes will be published to all
        members of the SEW via email within two weeks of the meeting.

   Quorum

   (14.) A quorum will be established as 2/3 of the voting members being present.

   Voting

   (15.)One vote shall be counted representing the membership from each office within the
        same department, agency, university or entity.
   (16.) All recommendations requiring a vote of the SEW will be submitted at least seven
        workdays prior to the next scheduled meeting of the SEW by the SPF SIG staff to the
        Chair of the SEW to be added to the agenda.




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   (17.) In the event that a recommendation requires a vote before the next SEW meeting, the
        vote on the recommendation will be completed electronically. It will be submitted by
        email to the membership at least five workdays before the vote is to be completed.
   (18.) A proxy may make votes, by email or phone.
   (19.)The determination of a recommendation passing will be based on the following
        guidelines:
           a. Governance of the Committee – a simple majority of those present at the SEW
              meeting for which the recommendation is scheduled for a vote.
           b. Drug Policy Board and Prevention Systems Committee Recommendations – 2/3
              of the voting members of the SEW.
           c. Recommendations to Remove a Member – a simple majority of all SEW voting
              members.
   (20.) Within five workdays following passage of a recommendation to the Drug Policy
        Board, the Chairperson shall communication the disposition of the recommendation to
        the Drug Policy Board chair.

Unanimously Adopted December 15, 2005

SEW Chair recommended that formal voting requirements established in the first three months
of the SEW’s existence be replaced by less formal reliance on majority votes of members present
for the immediate future and that the SEW revisit the decision making process originally
considered at a meeting within the next three months. Including that votes may be made by
proxy and emergency votes required of the SEW membership before scheduled meetings can be
made by email or phone.

10. References
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and
Alcoholism. (2001, January 1). Alcoholism: Getting the Facts (NIH Publication No. 96–
4153)[Brochure]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

2. The National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) in their
10th Report to Congress on Alcohol and Health (June 2000)

3. CDC. (2006) Measures of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol–Related Health Effects from
Excessive Consumption. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/factsheets/general_information.htm

4.OPH (2004) 2004 Louisiana Health Report Card.
http://www.oph.dhh.state.la.us/recordsstatistics/statistics/page359e.html?page=557

5. CDC. (2006)Alcohol and Public Health. General Alcohol Information.
http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/factsheets/general_information.htm

6. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information. (1995). Making the Link:
Violence, Alcohol & Other Drugs. www.health.org:80/govpubs/ml002/index.htm




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7. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2006). SEDS.
Indicator List. All Drug Indicators. http://www.epidcc.samhsa.gov/default.asp

8. U.S. Census Bureau. (2000 census). State and County Quick Facts.
http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/22000.html

9. American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. (2006) Know the facts, get the
stats. http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1136904664099KnowFctSht2006.pdf

10. Naimi T, Brewer B, Mokdad A, Serdula M, Denny C, Marks J. (2003) Binge drinking among
U.S. adults. JAMA;289:70–5.

11. CDC. (2005) MMWR. Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors Among States and Selected
Local Areas --- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2003. 54(SS08);1-
116

12. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse
Prevention. The State and Territorial Guide to Substance Abuse Prevention in Declared
Disasters. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 97-3123; Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse
Prevention, 1997.




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