Presidential Powers by liuhongmei


									Hail to the Chief
     Characteristics of U.S.
• 100% male        • 69% politicians
• 100% Caucasian   • 62% lawyers
• 97% Protestant   • >50% from the top 3%
• 82% of British     wealth and social class
  ancestry         • 0.5% born into
• 77% college        poverty
  educated         • 69% elected from
                     large states
                   Fortunate Son
          Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival
Some folks are born            Some folks are born
   made to wave the flag,         silver spoon in hand,
Ooh, they’re red, white        Lord, don’t they help
   and blue.                      themselves, oh.
And when the band              But when the taxman
   plays, “Hail to the            comes to the door,
   Chief,”                     Lord, the house looks
Ooh, they point the               like a rummage sale,
   cannon at you, lord,           yes,
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I    It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
   ain’t no senator’s             ain’t no millionaire’s
                Fortunate Son
       Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival

                            It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
Some folks inherit star
                               ain’t no military son,
 spangled eyes,
Ooh, they send you
                            It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
 down to war, lord,
                               ain’t no fortunate
And when you ask them,         one, one.
 “How much should we
                            It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
Ooh, they only answer
                               ain’t no fortunate
 more! more! more! yo,
                               son, son.
                            It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I
        Constitutional Qualifications
• Must be at
  least 35 years

• Must have lived
  in the United
  States for 14

• Must be a
  natural born
               Presidential Benefits
• $400,000 tax-free
• $50,000/year
  expense account
• $100,000/year
  travel expenses
• The White House
• Secret Service
• Camp David             Christmas at the White House, 2004
  country estate
• Air Force One
Presidential Roles
                    Head of State
                                           Queen Elizabeth and President Reagan, 1983

President Kennedy speaks at Berlin Wall,
              Chief Executive

President Clinton with Janet Reno,   President Bush holds cabinet meeting
the first female Attorney General,             in October, 2005
           February, 1993

President Johnson decorates a soldier
      in Vietnam, October, 1966

                                        President Bush aboard U.S.S.
                                             Lincoln, May, 2003
                Chief Legislator
                                         President Clinton delivers the State
                                             of the Union Address, 1997

President Roosevelt signs into law the
      Social Security Act, 1935
Political Party Leader

President Reagan & Vice-President Bush accepting their party’s
                    nomination in 1980
                 Crisis Manager

                                  President Bush at Ground Zero after 9-11

Vice-President Johnson sworn in
     aboard Air Force One
   after President Kennedy’s
       assassination, 1963
                   Moral Persuader

President Lincoln during the Civil   President Roosevelt and the “Bully
            War, 1862                          Pulpit,” 1910
 Formal Powers of the President

• Constitutional or enumerated powers
  of the presidency

• Found primarily in Article II of the
                 Formal Powers:

• Commander in Chief of the Army &
• Commander in Chief of the state militias
  (now the National Guard)
• Commission all officers
            Formal Powers:
              Chief Executive
• “Faithfully execute” the laws
• Require the opinion of heads of
  executive departments
• Grant pardons for federal offenses
  except for cases of impeachment
• Nominate judges of the Supreme
  Court and all other officers of the
  U.S. with consent of the Senate
• Fill vacancies that may happen
  during recess of the Senate
            Formal Powers:
              Foreign Affairs

– Appoint ambassadors, ministers
  and consuls
– Make treaties subject to Senate
– Receive ambassadors
                 Formal Powers:
                   Chief Legislator

• Give State of the Union address to
• Recommend “measures” to the
• Upon “extraordinary occasions”
  convene both houses of Congress
      Formal Powers:
     Chief Legislator (cont.)
• Presidential Veto
  – Veto Message within 10 days of
    passing the House of origin
  – Pocket Veto - President does not sign
    within 10 days
  – Congress can override with 2/3
    majority from both Houses
• Veto Politics
  – Congressional override is difficult
    (only 4%)
      Informal Powers
• Those powers not explicitly written in
  the Constitution
• Similar to “necessary and proper”
  powers of Congress
• In the modern era (since 1933), the
  President’s informal powers may be
  significantly more powerful than his
  formal powers
         Executive Orders
• Orders issued by the
  President that carry the
  force of law
• Clinton’s “Don’t ask don’t
  tell” gays in the military
• FDR’s internment of
  Japanese Americans
• GWB trying suspected
  terrorists in military
  tribunals                  Notice for Japanese “relocation,” 1942
     Executive Agreements
• International agreements, usually related to trade,
  made by a president that has the force of a treaty;
  does NOT need Senate approval
• Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana in 1803
• GWB announced cuts in
  the nuclear arsenal, but
  not in a treaty; usually
  trade agreements between
     US and other nations
       Executive Privilege
• Claim by a president that he has the right to
  decide that the national interest will be better
  served if certain information is withheld from the
  public, including the Courts and Congress
• United States v. Nixon
  (1973) – presidents do
  NOT have unqualified
  executive privilege (Nixon
  Watergate tapes)
Questions for Discussion
•   Why are informal powers more
    important than formal powers,
    particularly to modern presidents?
•   Identify several advantages and
    disadvantages of the use of the
    president’s informal powers.
•   Has the use and perhaps abuse of the
    informal powers created an “Imperial
    Presidency?” Defend your answer.
Presidential Quotations
        President Harry S.
                                  "I sit here all day
                                  trying to persuade
                                  people to do the
                                  things they ought
                                  to have the sense
                                  to do without my
                                  persuading them.
                                  That's all the
Truman, 33rd President, 1945-53
                                  powers of the
      President John F.
“No easy
problem ever
comes to the
President of the
United States. If
they are easy to
                    President Kennedy’s nationally televised
solve,              address during the Cuban Missile Crisis,
somebody else                    October, 1962

has solved
President Lyndon B.
                          “The presidency
                          has made every
                          man who occupied
                          it, no matter how
                          small, bigger than
                          he was; and no
                          matter how big,
                          not big enough for
                          its demands.”
  President Johnson,
36th President, 1963-69
    President Richard M.
"Under the
doctrine of the
separation of
powers, the
manner in which
the president
exercises his      In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal,
                    President Nixon departs the White House
assigned                 after his resignation, Aug., 1974
executive powers
    President George W.
“To those of you
who received
honors, awards,
and distinctions, I
say 'Well done.'
And to the C
students, I say
'You, too, can be
president of the
                            President Bush, 43rd President,
United States.'”                     2001-present
President George W. Bush,
t George W. Bush,

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